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Book I

Night Warrior Handbook
A Guide to Individual Training for Night Combat in the Infantry Company

Third Edition

January 2005

Night Warrior Handbook

Night Warrior Handbook:
A Guide to Individual Training for Night Combat in the Infantry Company

The cover illustration and Night Warrior logo is the constellation Orion, the Greek hunter-warrior of the night sky.

Night Warrior Handbook Third Edition Published 31 January 2005 First Edition Second Edition Third Edition 2nd Battalion, 5th Marines 2nd Battalion, 5th Marines IOC Updates Camp Pendleton, CA 1 April 1999 Camp Hansen, Okinawa 1 June 2000 Quantico, VA 31 January 2005

Night Warrior Handbook

Table of Contents
Introduction Purpose and Scope How to use this Manual Night Attack on Hill 163 A Concept for Night Operations Night Warrior Individual Training Standards Section 1.1 Section 1.2 Section 1.3 Section 1.4 Chapter 2 Night Warrior Basic Night Warrior Leader Night Warrior Weapons Additional Night Warrior Standards 1-1 1-9 1-15 1-17 i ii iii vii

Chapter 1

Night Equipment Training for Individuals Section 2.1 Section 2.2 Section 2.3 Section 2.4 Section 2.5 Section 2.6 Section 2.7 Section 2.8 Section 2.9 Night Vision Goggles Night Vision Scopes Weapons Laser Pointers Hand-held Laser Pointers Laser Designators IR Signals IR Ammunition Combat ID Accessories 2-1 2-19 2-24 2-34 2-47 2-54 2-62 2-63 2-68

Chapter 3

Unaided Night Skills Training for Individuals Section 3.1 Section 3.2 Unaided Night Weapons Skills Unaided Night Field Skills 3-1 3-2

Chapter 4

Night Warrior Training Plans Section 4.1 Section 4.2 Section 4.3 Quarterly Training Plan Night Warrior Field Training Plans ISMT Field Training Plans 4-1 4-4 4-7

Chapter 5

Night Vision Equipment Section 5.1 Section 5.2 Section 5.3 Section 5.4 Night Vision Equipment Distribution Lists Batteries Standard Armory Procedures Acquiring Equipment 5-1 5-8 5-9
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Night Warrior Handbook Contributing Editors:
Camp Pendleton Capt Fidel Arroyo Lt Stefan Barr Capt Andrew "Kingpin" Butler Marine Gunner Dwight Frazer Capt Douglas "KD" Lang Capt Garret Means SSgt Clifford Meyer Lt Aaron Puttroff Lt Patrick Rapicault Lt John Maloney Capt Tye Wallace Major B.B. McBreen

Camp Lejeune Major J.M. Barrett Major D. Greenwood Major C.N. Black Infantry Officer’s Course Capt C.C. Readinger Capt J.L Dyal Capt S.R. Barr GySgt W.E. Heller

If you have any ideas on how to improve this publication, please contact: Major B. B. McBreen brendan.mcbreen@usmc.mil (703) 784-5531

Night Warrior Handbook

January 2005

Purpose and Scope
Purpose The Night Warrior Handbook is Book I of a two-book series: Book I: Night Warrior Handbook is a training guide designed to help an infantry company train in the individual skills needed to conduct a night attack. Book I includes individual training standards (ITS), equipment training handouts, training plans, and night equipment guidelines. Book II: Night Combat in Infantry Units is a training guide designed to help an infantry company train in the collective skills needed to conduct a night attack. Book II includes collective training standards (CTS), battle drills for company, platoon, squad, and weapons sections, notes on integrating supporting units into night operations, and a collection of night marking SOPs. The Night Warrior Handbook is a training reference for infantry leaders. It is not prescriptive. Sections on training and individual training standards can be used by leaders in any order and for any purpose required. Most of the training standards and techniques, although presented in the context of an infantry company night attack, can be used for all types of operations. Scope The Night Warrior Handbook supports Marine infantry company night operations. No combat support, combat service support, or aviation-specific operations are covered. Although most material is relevant to any force conducting night operations, no attempt has been made to cover drivers, communicators, medical personnel, mechanics or any of the other hundreds of skilled Marines who need training to operate at night.

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How to use this Manual
Organization Chapter 1 contains individual training standards (ITSs) for night fighting skills, organized to cover basic, leader, and weapons section tasks. A fourth section contains optional tasks that leaders can select for specific equipment or missions. Chapter 2 contains training materials on night equipment. For each piece of equipment, there is a data sheet – a training handout intended to be xeroxed by NCOs for instructional use – and a section on tactics, techniques and procedures. Chapter 3 contains tactics, techniques and procedures for unaided night fighting skills. Chapter 4 includes sample field training plans. Each plan references the standards in Chapter 1 and the guidance in Chapters 2 and 3. Chapter 5 contains recommended equipment SOPs.

Recommended Quick Start Instructions 1. Assign all equipment to individual Marines. Use NAVMC 10520 cards for each piece of equipment. See Chapter 5. 2. Qualify all Marines on the Night Warrior Basic Qualification. See Chapter 1 for ITSs, Chapter 2 for equipment training guidelines, Chapter 3 for unaided techniques training guidelines, and Chapter 4 for a sample field-training plan. 3. Qualify selected leaders on the Night Warrior Leader Qualification. See Chapter 1 for ITSs, Chapter 2 for equipment training guidelines, Chapter 3 for unaided techniques training guidelines, and Chapter 4 for a sample field-training plan. 4. Qualify specific Marines on selected Night Warrior Weapons tasks and any additional tasks. See Chapter 1, Sections 1.3 and 1.4 for ITSs, and Chapter 4 for a sample field-training plan. 5. Move on to collective training when the individual training phase is complete. See Book II: Night Combat in Infantry Units. 6. Throughout the training process, educate unit leaders on combat at night.

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Night Attack on Hill 163
by Major Brendan B. McBreen In the cool darkness, the radio squawked. “Roger Four-One. This is Kingpin. I’ve got you with three dots and a dash. I’ve also got ThreeZero on the deck with seven dots. Stand by to snake your target.” Sergeant Martin heard the whopwhop of the lead Cobra, callsign “Kingpin,” off behind his left shoulder, but he didn’t turn to look. “Kingpin. Four-One. Snaking NOW.” At his feet, there was a slight rustle as each of his six teams adjusted its machinegun on the dancing IR spot 900 meters away. “Four-One, this is Kingpin. I see your snake seven hundred meters northeast of your firefly.” In the next instant, the night was torn apart by far more noise, tracers, and detonations than Martin had expected. In a head shaking instant, Martin realized what he was watching. Large green thumping tracers arced up toward the Cobras “New Target! New Target!” he yelled to his gunners. “Fire on my spot!” But the machinegunners did not need the spot. The origin of the enemy tracers was clearly visible with or without goggles. The gunners shifted west and opened up, adding to the crescendo. An hour ago, Martin had squatted with each gun and ran the Support-by-Fire drill. Friendlies were at 312 degrees, obliging him by marking their position with a blinking Phoenix beacon inside an M-203 tube. Now Martin was glad he had been meticulous. “Watch your left limit!” “Three-Zero this is Four-One! I have an enemy machinegun, with at least four men, firing at the Cobras. Location is three-hundred meters southwest of objective eleven!” “Roger Four-One…” “Break, Break! Four-One, this is Six.” The company commander was in the draw with 3rd Platoon. “Cease fire on that target. Plan still stands. Open fire on Objective oneone with tracers, NOW! Three-Zero. Move NOW!” “Four-One. Roger, over.” “Three-Zero. Roger, moving now.” Martin flipped up his goggles, knelt down, and barked at his gunners. “Targets one and two on the objective, with tracers…” “I see them moving!” an A-gunner shouted. “Hurry up!” Off in the darkness, nothing was visible. Martin flipped down his goggles and immediately caught the seven-dot blink of 3rd Platoon’s Phoenix. That would be the right flank. The left flank, he knew, was marked with an IR chemlite, but he couldn’t see it. His machinegunners opened up, this time with tracers, on their original targets. Enemy small arms fire now cracked back at them. Third Platoon was moving out there, urgently, but quietly, and completely blacked out. The enemy had not yet seen them. Martin saw an IR light beam from 3rd Platoon arc left to right and then rest steadily on some unseen target. “Too strong for a PEQ-2,” he thought, “must be a hand-held.” He watched a dozen thin PEQ-2 weapons beams converge on the brighter beam. “Crack!…BOOM!” The sound of a rocket and its near-immediate impact was followed by the sudden roar of automatic weapons. Third Platoon was going in! The Cobras came back, well to the north this time, guided by Bunny, the company FAC. “Kingpin, this is Bunny. I’m on the deck with the lead element. Do you see my rope?” Bunny was making circles in the sky with a hand-held laser pointer. “Bunny. Kingpin. I see you and I see your helmets. Two groups. One with you and one further north.” The one-inch square of glint tape on each Marine’s helmet was visible inside the cockpit. Both 1st and 3rd Platoons were now inside the enemy position. “Roger, Kingpin. Our thermals picked up and then lost two vehicles moving east, probably on the road toward checkpoint Five-EightTango. We have no friendlies that far east, over. “Roger, Bunny. On the way.” The company had overrun Objective 11 with lots of short-range, wellaimed fire but no grenades, no mortars, and no illumination. The Marines quickly established new positions, consolidated units, and redistributed ammunition. On the commander’s guidance, Two-Three laid out an IR “T” to mark an LZ on the southern slope, signaled the Medevac birds with a chemlite buzzsaw, and then carried casualties to the birds. The attack had taken

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nineteen hours to prepare, but only thirty-five minutes to execute. Nine hundred meters away, while his gunners and the mortarmen broke down their equipment, Sgt Martin gazed north toward Hill 163 and smiled. “That’s the reason we train so hard,” he thought. To the unaided eye, and especially any remaining enemy observers, the hill was still blacked out. During the entire action, from the reconnaissance, infiltration, support-by-fire, and assault, to the consolidation and pursuit by fire, to the treatment and evacuation of casualties by air, every task had been done in complete darkness. If the Marine Corps went to war tomorrow, what night fighting capabilities would our infantry battalions possess? What night fighting issues would arise? • • • • Could the battalion acquire and issue the 4000 ‘AA’ batteries it needs that first night? Would the ship have 22,000 rounds of belted 5.56 and 7.62 without tracers? Would the battalion have glint tape? Infrared (IR) chemlites? An SOP for their use? Could the Cobras differentiate between a FAC lasing a target, a platoon commander lasing a route, a machinegunner lasing a sector, and the log train lasing a landing zone? Would the squad leaders and section leaders know how to boresight PEQ-2 weapons pointers to their M-203s, M249s, and M-240G weapons? Would the point man know that his PVS-14 compass is over 10 degrees off? Would the artillery FO know how to plan and adjust IR illumination rounds?

4000 ‘AA’ batteries. NO war stocks of ammunition have been adjusted to meet night fighting requirements. NO battalion has a “Light discipline in the IR spectrum SOP” that the Cobras pilots know. NO Marine can boresight the PEQ-2 to the M-203, the M-249 or the M-240G because no mounts have been procured and no boresight procedures have been published. If the Marine Corps went to war tomorrow, the discovery learning on night combat would be quick, dirty and dangerous – and wholly unnecessary. How does the Marine Corps plan to fight at night? We have spent a lot of money in this area. What capabilities have we gained? The newest generation of equipment is fielded, but few training resources are available, and few leaders know the equipment and how it might modify their procedures. No up-to-date manuals exist. No urgency is attached to night training. We own the equipment, but we certainly do NOT own the night. Night Fighting Issues The Good. Infantry units in the Marine Corps have the best equipment available. This equipment has the potential to significantly improve our night fighting capabilities. An infantry rifle company now rates over seventy PVS-7 and seventy PVS-14 night vision goggles (NVGs), almost one for every Marine in the company. Forty magnifiers are available for the NVGs. Over seventy PEQ-2 weapons laser pointers are mounted to the company’s M-16s and M203s. Twenty-seven PVS-4 night vision scopes, currently being refitted with new imaging tubes, are available for mounting to M-203s or other weapons. Commercially available equipment, firefly and Phoenix beacons, IR filters, IR chemlites, and glint tape, can be purchased by units or acquired through the supply system.

MARCORSYSCOM is doing a great job of acquiring equipment and answering questions from the FMF. New equipment, the PEQ-2 weapons laser pointer, the PEQ-4 hand-held laser pointer, the PVS-17 weapons scope, and the PAQ-13 Thermal Weapons Sight (TWS), is being fielded in the coming year. But equipment does not equal capability. Training equals capability. Only those units that train and experiment with this new equipment discover the Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTPs) that will work in combat. Only those units that train and experiment can develop and adjust their Night Fighting Standing Operating Procedures (SOPs). The Bad. Infantry units in the Marine Corps need critical training support: There is no Night Fighting manual, no new individual training standards, and no updated collective training standards. There are no training support materials, handouts, templates, posters or pocket guides. There are no Night Fighting courses, no New Equipment Training Teams, and no easy-to-read technical manuals for any of this new equipment. Infantry units have no budget for consumable night equipment. Units cannot afford to buy ‘AA’ batteries, IR beacons, glint tape or chemlites. Marines often buy their own batteries. Marine Corps ranges are notoriously difficult when it comes to supporting night firing. Waivers are needed. Illumination is required. Maneuver is not allowed. The range regulations are out of date in that they rarely take night vision devices into account and unnecessarily constrain even low-power lasers. Range personnel are unfamiliar with new capabilities and hesitate to approve lasers, infrared (IR) markers, and NVGs as the primary safety equipment on a live-fire range. Although the mission of the infantry

• •

The answer, of course, to all these questions, is NO. NO battalion has

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is to “…close with and destroy the enemy by fire and maneuver,” no night fire and maneuver has occurred on any range in Okinawa in at least four years! The Ugly. Who is the Marine Corps proponent for Night Fighting? How are Training, Requirements, and Procurement being guided? Who prioritizes fielding plans? What Marines and what Marine units rate what equipment? Who is listening when an infantry company says it needs nine hand-held laser pointers? Marine leaders at all levels should know the answers to these questions. Why is the PVS-17 scope replacing the PVS-4? Goggles are far more versatile than scopes. Why is an expensive Thermal Weapons Sight needed instead of an inexpensive PEQ-2 mount for M-249 and M240G weapons? Marines want a pointer mount AND a scope and the ability to choose either based on the mission. Is the TWS able to see the signal of a laser pointer? Why is this important? The entire Marine Corps operates on a daytime work schedule. During night training, the chowhall is not open, the motor pool cannot repair a vehicle, ammunition cannot be drawn, and the armory may not be accessible. These issues can be coordinated, but infantry companies are not autonomous enough to train at night without command support. Night Fighting References and Resources Resources do exist to help leaders learn about and plan night training. The U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command’s website, http://wwwtradoc.army.mil/ Publications.htm, contains most of the Army’s field manuals. Each manual in the infantry series has a section on night operations:

FM 7-30 The Infantry Brigade, 3 Oct 95 FM 7-20 The Infantry Battalion, 6 Apr 92 FM 7-10 The Infantry Rifle Company, 14 Dec 90 FM 7-8 The Infantry Platoon and Squad, 22 Apr 92

• •

The 7-8 and 7-10 contain the most detailed information. Other manuals are also helpful: • • • FM 8-50 Prevention and Medical Management of Laser Injuries, 8 Aug 90 FM 22-9 Soldier Performance in Continuous Operations, 12 Dec 91 FM 90-22 Multi-service Night and Adverse Weather Combat Operations, 31 Jan 91

Unfortunately, FM 90-22 is hopelessly out of date. The Center for Army Lessons Learned website, http://call.army.mil/, contains two documents that all Marine Corps infantry company commanders should read: “Ranger Company Night Live-Fire Raid in the IR Spectrum,” and “Own the Night! Small Unit Night Fighter Manual.” The MAWTS-1 web page, http://www.tecom.usmc.mil/mawts1 contains software programs for planning night operations. http://www.2ndbn5thmar.com, the 2nd Battalion, 5th Marines’ webpage, contains manuals and guidelines on Night Fighting, known collectively as the Night Warrior Program. Book I: Night Warrior Handbook is a manual of individual skills training. Sample TTPs include: • A fire team leader with an M203 / PEQ-2 and PVS-14, has no need for a scope.

Weapons equipped with PEQ-2s do NOT need tracer ammunition. PEQ-2 boresight is not dependent on battlesight zero. Lefties should shoot PEQ2 right handed. Cobras CAN pick up the ‘rope’ made by a PEQ-2. PEQ-2s can be hand-held. All NVGs need helmet mounts. To read a map with NVGs, lay the map down and keep your head steady at about ten inches. Each infantry platoon needs an IR beacon to mark LZs, support-by-fire positions, or maneuver elements. Each infantry platoon needs a hand-held laser pointer for directing fire. A leader can identify targets for organic and non-organic (TOW, HMG, AT) fires, define fields of fire, define control measures and routes, and mark targets for CAS. The heavy beam is distinctive on an IR-cluttered battlefield. Handheld laser pointers are NOT “Just for FACs.”

Additionally, this manual includes Night Warrior Individual Training Standards, Field Training Plans, including a plan for using the Indoor Simulated Marksmanship Trainer (ISMT) for night training, and Recommended Equipment Distribution Lists. Book II: Night Combat in Infantry Units is a manual for collective skills training. It includes Night Battle Drills and SOPs for infantry units: • • • • Tracer SOP. Illumination SOP. Night Landing Zone SOP. SOP Codes for programmable Phoenix Beacons. Company Night Attack SOP: Infiltration, Linkup, Guides, and Support-by-Fire procedures. SOP for Marking, Treating and Evacuating casualties under IR conditions.

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Light Discipline in the IR Spectrum SOP. When an enemy has NVGs, IR light is MORE visible than white or red light.

Collect unit night experiences in to update doctrinal manuals. •

for all training products. Base

Requirements Division • Re-write the infantry night fighting requirements that drive acquisition. All infantry Marines need goggles. All weapons need pointers. Scopes, thermal or not, are additional equipment. Infantry platoons need a programmable IR signal device. Infantry platoons need a handheld laser pointer. Squads need radios during night operations.

Other products are designed for leaders. Leaders should understand human factors at night, the physiology of the eye under night conditions, infrared light, the science of lasers, laser safety, and night operations planning considerations. The battalion webpage contains lists of references, resources, and terminology, including joint laser terminology. It also includes an annotated bibliography of over thirty books and articles on night fighting. Two write-ups on night fighting in the Falklands, Take That Hill! by N.J. Vaux, and “The Last 300 Yards” in The Mechanized Battlefield: A Tactical Analysis by D.A. Collett, are recommended for unit leaders looking for modern examples of fighting at night. What is to be Done? The Marine Corps has the very best modern equipment, tremendous Marines and well-trained leaders. What will it take for the Marine Corps to significantly improve its infantry night fighting capability? The answer is training. Training, supported by an infrastructure that encourages and values night operations. An infantry proponent needs to tie the following efforts together to deconflict differences and prioritize resources. Concepts Division • Write “A Concept for Fighting at Night” to guide requirements, acquisition, and training.

Rewrite Range Regulations to encourage night training, reflect new equipment capabilities, and support new night training standards.

Infantry Regiments • Examine schedules for chow halls, motor pools, and all other infrastructure that inhibit night training. Assign one battalion the single training task: “Conduct a Night Attack.” Make that battalion the regiment’s lead agency in developing night TTP. Petition the division to increase the infantry battalion budget to cover night fighting expendables, especially batteries, and night equipment purchases.

System Command • • • Provide New Equipment Training Teams for operators when new equipment is fielded. Provide readable technical manuals aimed at the primary audience, the NCO. Standardize all new equipment on commercially available ‘AA’ batteries.

Conclusion Training & Education • Update Individual Training Standards for Infantry, to include a new chapter of standards for night combat. Update night fighting collective task standards. Direct SOI and TBS to teach night individual training standards to privates and lieutenants. Direct SOI to establish a “Night Warrior Leader Course” to teach NCOs and officers collective standards, SOPs, and TTPs for night combat. Produce a series of laminated night training materials for small unit leaders: posters, pocket guides, training graphics, boresight targets and templates. Establish a web page for Night Combat that serves as a source The Marine Corps should field the best-trained, most capable night fighting infantry in the world. The easy part, acquiring the equipment, is well in hand. What remains to be done is the experimentation, the doctrinal modifications, and the challenging and difficult training that will produce competent and capable battalions of Night Warriors.

Major McBreen is currently the operations officer for 2nd Battalion, 5th Marines.

Doctrine Division • Produce a new manual: Night Operations for Infantry Units •

This article was originally published in the August 2000 Marine Corps Gazette.

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A Concept for Night Operations
The Marine Corps needs a Concept for Night Operations, a document that addresses the following points: Background Marine expeditionary MAGTFs need the capability to fight at night against sophisticated opponents. In the past sixty years, the Marine Corps has learned much about how to fight at night. The lessons learned from these actions are contained in our warfighting manuals. Technology, while improving many of our night fighting capabilities, does not erase these lessons. Future night fighting capabilities need to be developed by combining combat experience, new technology, and experimentation during training. Purpose and Scope The purpose of a night operations concept is to define the desired night fighting capabilities of the Marine Corps and set the incremental goals necessary to reach these capabilities. The scope of the concept is the entire Marine Corps. Although only our operating forces engage the enemy, our training, education, procurement, and other supporting activities exist to support and field these operating forces. Anticipated Threats The Marine Corps, an expeditionary force in readiness, must plan for threats around the globe, in all types and levels of conflict. Given the availability of night fighting technology, all threats must be assumed to have night vision capability. In the future, we can expect threat forces to acquire comparable equipment, develop night fighting capabilities, and develop counter measures to mitigate U.S. night fighting technology. Night Fighting Capability The Marine Corps has tremendous night fighting potential. This potential is the sum of our technology, support, logistic backing, skilled leadership and high quality Marines. A lack of training focus however, makes our current night fighting capability far less than our potential suggests. We cannot mistake potential capability for actual capability. Night Fighting Scenarios Every standard Marine Corps operation will be executed at night. Future combat scenarios need to be fully defined as completely executable at night. These scenarios will then guide night fighting development. Future Operational Capabilities Our warfighting doctrine demands that we capitalize on our strengths and exploit enemy vulnerabilities. Future operations will use darkness and the Marine Corps’ expertise in night operations to overwhelm the enemy’s ability to respond and decisively defeat his forces.

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Goals. The Marine Corps will have the capability to fight twenty-four hours a day.

• •

Darkness will NOT reduce our ability to fight. The MAGTF will operate all units and all platforms twenty-four hours a day. All communications, all logistics, all movement, and all combat techniques will be optimized for night operations. The MAGTF will operate completely within the IR spectrum. All signals, all optics, and all weapons will have IR capability. Leaders, pilots, gunners, communicators, equipment operators, and all ground combat forces need IR vision. The MAGTF will operate on a common night vision wavelength band. All night vision will see the same picture. Thermal vision will augment, not replace, night vision goggles. Our standard offensive capability will be the night attack. The primacy of night operations is defined by our ability to attack at night. Supporting arms, assault support, CAS, and other units will optimize their night techniques to support the GCE during the night attack. The MAGTF will operate with a common night target identification system. This applies at the MAGTF level, where helicopters communicate target information with ground forces. This applies at the squad level, where all Marines communicate to identify the same target. All weapons need laser pointers to mark targets. The Marine Corps will be the most well trained night fighting force in the world.

Constraints. We must realize that the biggest constraint on night operations is NOT technology, but the limitations of the individual Marine. Leaders must be educated on the physiological limits of their Marines. The secondary night constraints imposed by technology, training, and maintenance need to be clearly identified and well understood by battlefield leaders. Infrastructure. Some ranges and training facilities will be updated to better suit night training. Doctrine. Our warfighting doctrine encourages night fighting as a technique that attacks enemy weakness. A series of night fighting manuals needs to be developed and annually updated to reflect lessons learned and share the impacts of rapidly changing night vision technology. Organization. Current MAGTF organization supports these night fighting goals. Training and Education. Training, not equipment, is the key component to night fighting capability. Manuals, training standards, schools, ranges, and facilities need to be significantly enhanced in order to support this night fighting concept. CAX needs to be changed. The T&R manuals need to be changed. MEU(SOC) standards need to be changed. Large exercises, which drive unit preparation training, need to focus on night fighting. Technology Research and Development Research, development and acquisition of night equipment will support our warfighting doctrine and night fighting concept. Recommendations The GCE advocate should serve as a lightning rod for MAGTF night fighting development. A five-year night fighting plan should be implemented. An annual night fighting conference should present results of combat experience, experimentation, technical and tactical developments, and new doctrinal and training products. Each and every Marine should be challenged to contribute to the improvement of our night fighting capability.

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Chapter 1 Night Warrior Individual Training Standards Section 1.1 Qualification Standards for Night Warrior Basic
The following Individual Training Standards (ITS) define the Night Warrior Basic (NWB) Qualification. These are the minimum skills needed by all hands before unit-level training can begin. All infantry Marines, including Corpsmen, are expected to be NWB qualified. Existing ITSs from MCO 3501.34 Infantry T&R Manual are referenced. 1. Operate PVS-7D 2. Operate PVS-14 3. Operate PEQ-2A 4. Operate PVS-17 5. Operate PAS-13 6. Operate VLI 7. Operate RCO 8. Engage targets at night with weapon and PEQ-2A 9. Engage targets at night with weapon and PVS-17 10. Engage targets at night with weapon and PAS-13 11. Engage targets at night with weapon and VLI 12. Engage targets at night with weapon and RCO 13. Camouflage self and equipment 14. Silence weapon and equipment 15. Operate silently at night

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16. Execute an individual night infiltration

1. TASK: Operate PVS-7D CONDITIONS: In the dark. With a PVS-7D or 7B. STANDARD: The Marine must execute the following tasks: a. Remove old batteries. Insert new batteries. b. Remove lens cover. Attach sacrificial window. c. Don and adjust headmount OR Attach helmet mount to helmet. Attach PVS-7 to mount. d. Turn PVS-7 on. e. Execute the four-step focus process: focus main lens, focus each eyepiece diopter, adjust interpupilary distance, adjust eye relief. f. Identify detailed object at 20m.

g. Turn IR illuminator on and off. h. State the meaning of the red dot indicator in the left eye. i. j. State the meaning of the red dot indicator in the right eye. Flip PVS-7 to ‘up’ position on helmet mount OR Remove PVS-7 from head mount.

NOTE: There are slight differences between newer PVS-7D and older PVS-7B. REFERENCES: a. TM 09500A-10/1 Operator’s Manual AN/PVS-7B b. TM 11-5855-262-10-2 Night Vision Goggles c. MCO 3501.34 Infantry T&R Manual ITSs: 0311-1-301 Perform operator maintenance on an AN/PVS-7 night vision goggles 0311-1-302 Operate AN/PVS-7 night vision goggles These tasks are also listed for: 0331, 0341, 0351, 0352, and 0369.

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2. TASK: Operate PVS-14 CONDITIONS: In the dark. With a PVS-14. STANDARD: The Marine must execute the following tasks: a. Remove old batteries. Insert new batteries. b. Remove lens cover. Attach sacrificial window. c. Attach PVS-14 to Head mount OR Helmet mount OR Weapons mount. d. Turn PVS-14 on. e. Execute three-step focus process: Adjust eye-relief, focus objective lens, focus eyepiece diopter. Identify detailed object at 20m. f. Turn IR illuminator on and off.

g. Adjust variable gain. h. Attach compass. State bearing to designated landmark. i. j. State the meaning of the flashing red dot indicator. State the meaning of the constant red dot indicator.

k. Flip PVS-14 ‘up’ on helmet mount OR remove PVS-14 from headmount OR remove from weapon. REFERENCES: a. TM 10271A-10/1 Technical Manual for AN/PVS-14, Monocular NVD b. TM 11-5855-262-10-2 Night Vision Goggles

3. TASK: Operate PEQ-2A CONDITIONS: In the dark. Without NVGs. With an M-16, M-203, or M-249 capable of mounting a PEQ-2A. With a PEQ-2A that is already boresighted to the weapon, but NOT mounted. STANDARD: The Marine must execute the following tasks within (2) minutes: a. Remove old batteries. Insert new batteries. b. Mount the PEQ-2A to the weapon. Set PEQ-2A settings as directed by the evaluator. c. Activate the PEQ-2A beam on a designated target. De-activate the PEQ-2A beam.

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NOTE: Boresighting PEQ-2A is a leader task. See Section 1.2 Night Warrior Leader. REFERENCE: TM 10470A–12&P/1A Target Pointer Illuminator / Aiming Light AN/PEQ-2A

4. TASK: Operate PVS-17 CONDITIONS: In the dark. Without NVGs. With an M-16, M-203, or M-249 capable of mounting PVS17. With a PVS-17 already boresighted to the weapon, but NOT mounted to the weapon. STANDARD: The Marine must execute the following tasks: a. Remove old batteries. Insert new batteries. b. Mount the PVS-17 to the weapon. c. Turn PVS-17 on. Make adjustments directed by evaluator. Identify a designated target 200m away. NOTE: Boresighting PVS-17 is a leader task. See Section 1.2 Night Warrior Leader. REFERENCE: TM 10796–12&P Operator’s and Maintenance Manual for AN/PVS-17, 19 March 2002

5. TASK: Operate PAS-13 CONDITIONS: In the dark. Without NVGs. With an M-16, M-203, or M-249 capable of mounting PAS13. With a PAS-13 already boresighted to the weapon, but NOT mounted to the weapon. STANDARD: The Marine must execute the following tasks: a. Remove old batteries. Insert new batteries. b. Mount the PAS-13 to the weapon. c. Turn PAS-13 on. Make adjustments as directed by the evaluator. d. Identify a designated target 200m away. NOTE: Boresighting PAS-13 is a leader task. See Section 1.2 Night Warrior Leader. REFERENCE: TM 11-5855-309-12&P Operator’s and Unit Maintenance Manual, AN/PAS-13

6. TASK: Operate VLI CONDITIONS: In the dark. Without NVGs. With an M-16, M-203, or M-249 capable of mounting VLI. With a VLI NOT mounted to the weapon.

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STANDARD: The Marine must execute the following tasks: a. Remove old batteries. Insert new batteries. b. Mount the VLI to the weapon. c. Turn VLI on. Identify a designated target 50m away. REFERENCE: Operator’s Manual, Visible Light Illuminator

7. TASK: Operate RCO CONDITIONS: In the dark. Without NVGs. With an M-16, M-203, or M-249 capable of mounting an RCO. With an RCO already boresighted to the weapon, but NOT mounted to the weapon. STANDARD: The Marine must execute the following tasks: a. Mount the ACOG to the weapon. b. Turn ACOG on. Identify a designated target 200m away. NOTE: Boresighting RCO is a leader task. See Section 1.2 Night Warrior Leader. REFERENCE: Operator’s Manual, Rifle Combat Optic

8. TASK: Engage targets at night with weapon and PEQ-2A CONDITIONS: In the dark. With a PEQ-2A mounted and boresighted to an M-16, M-203, or M-249. With PVS-14 or PVS-7. The weapon is loaded with 20 rounds. The Marine is wearing a helmet, flak and deuce gear. With multiple targets at unknown distances between 50m to 250m. STANDARD: The Marine must hit designated targets with 15 of 20 rounds (75%). NOTE: Boresighting PEQ-2A is a leader task. See Section 1.2 Night Warrior Leader. REFERENCES: a. TM 10470A–12&P/1A Target Pointer Illuminator / Aiming Light AN/PEQ-2A b. MCO 3501.34 Infantry T&R Manual ITSs: 0311-1-031 Engage targets with an M16A2 service rifle using an AN/PEQ-2A Target Pointer Illuminator / Aiming Light This ITS sets a standard of 8 hits for 12 rounds (66%). This task is also listed for 0369.

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9. TASK: Engage targets at night with weapon and PVS-17 CONDITIONS: In the dark. With a PVS-17 mounted and boresighted to an M-16, M-203, or M-249. The weapon is loaded with 20 rounds. The Marine is wearing a helmet, flak and deuce gear. With multiple targets at unknown distances between 50m to 250m. STANDARD: The Marine must hit designated targets with 15 of 20 rounds (75%). NOTE: Boresighting PVS-17 is a leader task. See Section 1.2 Night Warrior Leader. REFERENCE: TM 10796–12&P Operator’s and Maintenance Manual for AN/PVS-17, 19 March 2002

10. TASK: Engage targets at night with weapon and PAS-13 CONDITIONS: In the dark. With a PAS-13 mounted and boresighted to an M-16, M-203, or M-249. The weapon is loaded with 20 rounds. The Marine is wearing a helmet, flak and deuce gear. With multiple targets at unknown distances between 50m to 250m. STANDARD: The Marine must hit designated targets with 15 of 20 rounds (75%). NOTE: Boresighting PAS-13 is a leader task. See Section 1.2 Night Warrior Leader. REFERENCE: TM 11-5855-309-12&P Operator’s and Unit Maintenance Manual, AN/PAS-13

11. TASK: Engage targets at night with weapon and VLI CONDITIONS: In the dark. With a VLI mounted to an M-16, M-203, or M-249. The weapon is loaded with 20 rounds. The Marine is wearing a helmet, flak and deuce gear. With multiple targets at unknown distances inside 50m. STANDARD: The Marine must hit designated targets with 15 of 20 rounds (75%). REFERENCE: Operator’s Manual, Visible Light Illuminator

12. TASK: Engage targets at night with weapon and RCO CONDITIONS: In low light. With an RCO mounted and boresighted to an M-16, M-203, or M-249. The weapon is loaded with 20 rounds. The Marine is wearing a helmet, flak and deuce gear. With multiple targets at unknown distances between 50m to 250m. STANDARD: The Marine must hit designated targets with 15 of 20 rounds (75%). NOTES:

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a. Boresighting RCO is a leader task. See Section 1.2 Night Warrior Leader. b. This task can be evaluated in the dark using a PVS-14 mounted in-line with the RCO. REFERENCE: Operator’s Manual, Rifle Combat Optic

13. TASK: Camouflage self and equipment CONDITIONS: Wearing combat equipment without pack. Carrying weapon. In daylight. With the following equipment available: cammie paint, local vegetation, burlap, or old utilities. STANDARD: The Marine must camouflage himself meet the following standards: a. No skin showing. b. Helmet outline broken up. c. Vegetation used as natural camouflage. d. Marine difficult to observe against the background at 100m.

14. TASK: Silence weapon and equipment CONDITIONS: With combat equipment, pack and weapon. In daylight. With cloth tape. STANDARD: The Marine must silence his equipment so that he can remove pack, jump up and down, and hit the deck without being heard by a listener at 20m.

15. TASK: Operate silently at night CONDITIONS: Wearing helmet, flak, deuce gear, pack and weapon. In the dark. Without NVGs. STANDARD: The Marine must execute the following tasks without being heard by a listener 40m away: a. Walk 50m b. Establish a poncho shade. Using poncho to mask the light, check map or gear with flashlight. c. Remove canteen and drink. Replace canteen. d. Establish sleeping position. Set out sleeping bag, isopor mat, and bivvy sack. Remove boots and blouse. Climb into sleeping bag. e. Change socks and skivvy shirt. Dress.

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f.

Roll up sleeping position. Pack gear and move out.

g. With weapon: LOAD. h. With weapon: MAKE READY. i. With weapon: Turn safety in order to FIRE. Click of safety should NOT be heard.

16. TASK: Execute an individual night infiltration CONDITIONS: In the dark. With helmet, flak, deuce gear and weapon. No pack. With PVS-17 or PVS-7. STANDARD: The Marine must infiltrate 1000m without being detected by an enemy OP. NOTE: A time limit is set to fit local conditions. Marines move as individuals, not units. Helmets and flaks are worn because this task supports the night attack. REFERENCE: MCO 3501.34 Infantry T&R Manual ITSs: 0311-1-334 React to a ground flare 0311-1-335 React to an overhead flare 0311-1-336 High crawl 0311-1-337 Low crawl 0311-1-338 Perform creeping 0311-1-339 Perform night walk Most of these tasks are also listed for: 0331, 0341, 0351, 0352, and 0369.

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Section 1.2 Qualification Standards for Night Warrior Leader
The following Individual Training Standards (ITS) define the Night Warrior Leader (NWL) Qualification. The NWL qualification sets the minimum ITSs required for leaders. The Night Warrior Basic Qualification is a prerequisite. All infantry leaders are expected to be NWL qualified. 1. Boresight optics and lasers to weapons 2. Navigate at night with PVS-14 (or PVS-7) 3. Read a map at night with PVS-14 (or PVS-7) 4. Operate IR Signals 5. Mark a target at night with a Hand-held Laser Pointer 6. Control fire with a Hand-held Laser Pointer 7. Plan an infiltration 8. Operate PLGR at night

1. TASK: Boresight optics and lasers to weapons CONDITIONS: In the dark. With four or more Marines armed with the M-16, M-203 or M-249. With NVGs on each Marine. With an LBS. With a PVS-17, PAS-13, RCO, and PEQ-2A. STANDARD: The Marine must supervise four separate boresight procedures – one for each optic and laser. The four procedures assigned by the evaluator must address each of the three weapons at least once.
Boresight: PVS-17 PAS-13 RCO PEQ-2A M-16 M-203 X M-249 X X X

NOTES: a. The LBS will dry-fire boresight any optic or laser to almost any weapon. b. If possible, live-fire boresighting should be used to confirm LBS boresight.

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c. Live-fire boresighting may be used to evaluate this task. REFERENCES: a. Operator’s Manual, Laser Borelight System b. MCO 3501.34 Infantry T&R Manual ITSs: 0311-1-030 Zero an AN/PEQ-2A Target Pointer Illuminator / Aiming Light to an M16A2 This task is also listed for: 0369.

2. Navigate at night with PVS-14 (or PVS-7) CONDITIONS: In the dark. With PVS-14 (or PVS-7). With the following equipment: map, compass, protractor, flashlight, poncho, pencil, and notebook. Given 6-digit grids of specified points. Without GPS. STANDARD: The Marine must navigate to 4 of 5 specified points within an established time period. a. For simple ded reckoning: (5) legs of 200-400m each in close terrain. b. For true route navigation: (5) legs of 2000-2500m each. NOTE: Time standards are set locally by the evaluator. REFERENCES: a. FM 21-26 Map Reading and Land Navigation b. MCO 3501.34 Infantry T&R Manual ITSs: 0311-1-362 Determine a grid azimuth using a protractor 0311-1-363 Convert a magnetic azimuth to a grid azimuth 0311-1-364 Convert a grid azimuth to a magnetic azimuth 0311-1-368 Orient a map by terrain 0311-1-371 Pre-set a lensatic compass and follow an azimuth during darkness 0311-1-380 Select a route utilizing a topographic map Most of these tasks are also listed for: 0331, 0341, 0351, 0352, and 0369.

3. TASK: Read a map at night with PVS-14 (or PVS-7) CONDITIONS: In the dark. With PVS-14 (or PVS-7). With the following equipment: map, compass, protractor, flashlight, poncho, pencil, and notebook. STANDARD: The Marine must execute the following tasks to the indicated standard:

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a. Determine the 6-digit coordinate of a specified point. Error: +-100m (horiz & vert) See 0311-1-361 Determine the grid coordinates of a point on a map b. Find a specified point given a 6-digit coordinate. Error: +-100m (horiz & vert) c. Identify (6) natural features on the map d. Identify (6) man-made feature on the map e. Measure straight-line distance. Error: +-200m (min dist 4000m) See 0311-1-366 Measure distance on a map f. Measure curved line distance. Error: +-200m (min dist 4000m) See 0311-1-366 Measure distance on a map g. Perform modified 1-point resection. Error: +-100m (horiz & vert) See 0311-1-373 Locate an unknown position by modified resection h. Perform resection. Error: +-100m (horiz & vert) See 0311-1-374 Locate an unknown position by resection i. j. Perform modified 1-point intersection. Error: +-100m (horiz & vert) Perform intersection. Error: +-100m (horiz & vert) See 0311-1-372 Locate an unknown point by intersection k. Determine elevation of a point l. Determine grid zone designator and full 11-character grid description of a point

m. Orient a map with a compass See 0311-1-365 Orient a map with a compass NOTE: This task is best evaluated as a map test in the field. Due to challenges in map reading with NVGs, a second man should be assigned to each Marine being evaluated to read and take notes. REFERENCES: a. FM 21-26 Map Reading and Land Navigation b. MCO 3501.34 Infantry T&R Manual. Most of the ITSs referenced above are also listed for: 0331, 0341, 0251, 0352, and 0369.

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4. TASK: Operate IR Signals CONDITIONS: In the dark. With the following equipment: PVS-14 (or PVS-7), programmable IR Beacon, standard IR Beacon, M-203, (5) IR chemlites, 550 cord, and (5) nails. STANDARD: The Marine must execute the following signal procedures to the indicated standard: a. Program a programmable IR beacon with a given code. b. Operate a standard IR beacon. c. With an M-203 tube, make an IR beacon directional. d. Attach IR beacon to helmet. Attach IR chemlite to helmet. Note: Unit SOP locations should be used. e. With an IR chemlite and 550 cord, construct and execute a "Buzzsaw" signal. f. With (5) IR chemlites, 550 cord and nails, layout and stake a wind "T" for an LZ.

NOTE: Additional standards can be added by commanders to support unit SOPs.

5. TASK: Mark a target at night with a Hand-held Laser Pointer. CONDITIONS: At night, on a range with targets of at least 200m. Marine is equipped with a hand-held laser pointer and PVS-14 (or PVS-7). STANDARD: Using a hand-held laser pointer, the Marine will: a. "Rope" his location with the IR beam. b. "Snake" a target at least 200m away with the IR beam. c. "Steady" the IR beam on the target. d. "Shift" the IR beam to a new target. e. State the meaning and use of the laser terms "Stop" and "Terminate." NOTES: a. The PEQ-2A can be used in the hand-held mode. b. The same standard laser terms and actions apply to a Marine controlling the organic fires of his unit, a Marine controlling non-organic fires (TOW, HMG, AT) of a supporting unit, or a Marine controlling CAS aircraft.

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6. TASK: Control fire with a Hand-held Laser Pointer CONDITIONS: On the range with targets ranging from 100m to 400m. With a squad of Marines, equipped with weapons, ammunition, PEQ-2A, and PVS-14 (or PVS-7). With a Hand-held laser pointer. STANDARD: Using tracer fire, PEQ-2A, a Hand-held Laser Pointer, and voice ADDRACs, the Marine: a. Establish sectors of fire. b. Concentrate all fire on a single target. Shift all fire to a new target. c. Distribute fire among three specified targets. d. Cease fire of one team. Cease fire of the squad. Using a radio to a support-by-fire unit and a Hand-held Laser Pointer, the Marine will: e. Identify targets. f. Concentrate fire of non-organic weapons on one target. Shift to a second designated target. Cease fire.

7. TASK: Plan an infiltration CONDITIONS: Given an infiltration mission as part of a larger force, to include infiltration lanes, time windows, control measures, and linkup requirements. STANDARD: The Marine must plan an infiltration of at least (2) kilometers. The Marine must issue his unit order on a terrain model. The order must cover at a minimum: a. Orientation. Specifics of terrain. Control Measures. Collecting features, catching features. b. Situation. Night planning considerations: moonrise, moonset, %illum, EENT, BMNT. c. Mission. d. Execution. Scheme of Maneuver. Tasks. e. Coordinating Instructions: Route Plan. Linkup SOP. Contingencies. REFERENCES: a. FMFM 6-7 Scouting and Patrolling for Infantry Units b. MCO 3501.34 Infantry T&R Manual ITS: 0369-1-510 Lead a unit in an infiltration

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8. TASK: Operate PLGR at night CONDITIONS: In the dark. With a PLGR containing the correct crypto fill. With the PLGR not currently set to the proper defaults. With a spare power battery. With a map. STANDARD: The Marine must execute the following tasks: a. In (2) minutes: Remove old power battery. Insert new power battery. b. In (2) minutes: Set PLGR defaults for foot-mobile infantry: SETUP MODE: CONT, SV-TYPE: all-Y, SETUP UNITS: MGRS-New Metric, Elevation: (map specific), ANGL: Deg Mag, SETUP MVAR TYPE: Calc, ELHold: automatic, Time, ERR: +-m, SETUP DATUM: (map specific), Automatic OFF TIMER: 5 min, Serial: Standard, HAVEQUICK: OFF, 1PPS: Off. c. Calculate current ground position. State position using full grid zone designator. NOTES: a. Horizontal Datum and elevation information must be taken from map of current location. b. User interface differs between software versions. c. Other GPS receivers can be used to evaluate this ITS. REFERENCE: MCO 3501.34 Infantry T&R Manual 0311-2-377 Navigate using the Global Positioning System (GPS) 0311-2-378 Navigate using the AN/PSN-11 PLGR These tasks are also listed for: 0331, 0341 (levels 1 and 2), 0351, 0352, and 0369 (level 1 only).

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Section 1.3 Qualification Standards for Night Warrior Weapons
The Night Warrior Weapons (NWW) Qualification is intended for the Weapons Platoon of the Infantry Company. Night Warrior Basic Qualification is a prerequisite. All Weapons Platoon Marines will qualify on those ITSs that apply to their MOS: Tasks 1-2 for 0351, Task 3 for 0341, and Tasks 4-5 for 0331. 1. Boresight optics and lasers to the Mk153 SMAW 2. Engage targets at night with the Mk153 SMAW and attached optics and lasers. 3. Engage targets at night with the M-224 Mortar in hand-held mode and PVS-14 (or PVS-7) 4. Boresight optics and lasers to the M-240G 5. Engage targets at night with the M-240G and attached optics and lasers

1. TASK: Boresight optics and lasers to the Mk153 SMAW CONDITIONS: In the dark. With a Mk153 SMAW. With PVS-14 (or PVS-7). With an LBS. With a PVS-17, RCO, and PEQ-2A. STANDARD: The Marine must boresight the PVS-17, RCO, and PEQ-2A to the Mk153 SMAW. NOTES: a. The LBS will dry-fire boresight any optic to almost any weapon. b. The PAS-13 can also be mounted and boresighted to the Mk153 SMAW. REFERENCE: Operator’s Manual, Laser Borelight System

2. TASK: Engage targets at night with the Mk153 SMAW and attached optics and lasers CONDITIONS: In the dark. With a Mk153 SMAW and any combination of PVS-17, RCO, and PEQ-2A mounted and boresighted. Wearing PVS-14 (or PVS-7). With a target 150m to 250m downrange. STANDARD: The Marine must hit the target without using spotting rounds.

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NOTES: a. This individual task should be evaluated without input from the assistant gunner. b. The PAS-13 can also be mounted and boresighted to the Mk153 SMAW.

3. Engage targets at night with the M-224 Mortar in hand-held mode and PVS-14 (or PVS-7) CONDITIONS: In the dark. With an M-224 60mm mortar and M-7 assault baseplate set up the hand-held mode. Wearing PVS-14 (or PVS-7) and 3X magnifier. With an assistant gunner to watch the range indicator and load the weapon. With (3) HE rounds. With a target 400m to 800m downrange. STANDARD: In (3) minutes, the Marine must hit (1) round within 100m of the target. NOTE: The assistant gunner does NOT wear NVGs to watch the range indicator.

4. TASK: Boresight optics and lasers to the M-240G CONDITIONS: In the dark. With a tripod-mounted M-240G. With PVS-14 (or PVS-7). With an LBS. With a PVS-17, PAS-13, and PEQ-2A. STANDARD: The Marine must boresight the PVS-17, PAS-13, and PEQ-2A to the M-240G. NOTES: a. The LBS will dry-fire boresight any optic or laser to almost any weapon. b. If possible, live-fire boresighting should be used to confirm LBS boresight. c. Live-fire boresighting may be used to evaluate this task. d. The RCO is NOT recommended for mounting to the M-240G.

5. TASK: Engage target at night with the M-240G and attached optics and lasers CONDITIONS: In the dark. With a tripod-mounted M-240G and any combination of PVS-17, PAS-13, and PEQ-2A properly mounted and boresighted to the weapon. With (100) rounds. With (5) targets located 400m to 800m downrange. STANDARD: The Marine must hit each target as it is designated by the evaluator. NOTE: This individual task should be evaluated without input from the assistant gunner.

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Section 1.4 Additional Night Warrior Standards
The following additional Individual Training Standards (ITS) are not part of any qualification. Leaders select those ITSs that apply to specific Marines and specific missions. Night Warrior Basic Qualification is a prerequisite. Existing ITSs from MCO 3501.34 Infantry T&R Manual are referenced.

1. Boresight optics and lasers to the AT-4 2. Engage targets at night with AT-4 and attached optics and lasers 3. Throw grenades at night 4. Setup and detonate the M-18A1 Claymore mine at night 5. Call for and adjust indirect fire at night 6. Control CAS at night with a Hand-held Laser Pointer

1. TASK: Boresight optics and lasers to the AT-4 CONDITIONS: In the dark. With an AT-4. With PVS-14 (or PVS-7). With an LBS. With a PVS-17, RCO, and PEQ-2A. STANDARD: The Marine must boresight the PVS-17, RCO, and PEQ-2A to the AT-4. NOTES: a. The LBS will dry-fire boresight any optic to almost any weapon. b. Boresighting rockets is limited to the range of the rocket. c. This task can be trained using an expended AT-4 rocket. d. The PAS-13 can also be mounted and boresighted to the AT-4, but is NOT recommended for rockets. REFERENCE: Operator’s Manual, Laser Boresight System

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2. TASK: Engage targets at night with AT-4 and attached optics and lasers CONDITIONS: In the dark. With an AT-4 and any combination of PVS-17, RCO, and PEQ-2A mounted and boresighted to the rocket. Wearing PVS-14 (or PVS-7). With a target 150m to 250m downrange. STANDARD: The Marine must hit the target. NOTE: The PAS-13 can be mounted and boresighted to the AT-4, but is NOT recommended for rockets. REFERENCE: MCO 3501.34 Infantry T&R Manual ITSs: 0311-1-181 Engage targets with an M136 light anti-armor weapon 0311-1-182 Perform misfire procedures for an M136 light anti-armor weapon These tasks are also listed for: 0351 and 0369.

3. TASK: Throw grenades at night CONDITION: In the dark. With (3) M-67 fragmentation grenades. With three targets, one each at 20m, 30m, and 40m. With PVS-14 (or PVS-7). STANDARD: The Marine will hit 2 of 3 targets designated within the casualty radius of the grenade. NOTE: This task can be evaluated using practice grenades. REFERENCES: a. FM 3-23-30 Grenades and Pyrotechnic Signals b. MCO 3501.34 Infantry T&R Manual ITSs: 0311-1-256 Throw an M67 fragmentation grenade 0311-1-257 Engage targets with grenades for distance and accuracy 0311-1-258 Execute a grenade assault course of fire These tasks are also listed for: 0351 and 0369 (levels 1 and 2).

4. TASK: Setup and detonate the M-18A1 Claymore mine at night CONDITION: In the dark. With an M-18A1 Claymore mine. Wearing PVS-14 (or PVS-7). On the range with a designated target area and a designated safe area. STANDARD: The Marine must execute the following tasks in (5) minutes: a. Test detonator. b. Set up M-18A1 Claymore mine to cover designated target area.

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c. Move from target area to safe area. d. Detonate the M18A1 Claymore mine NOTE: This task can be trained with a simulated M-18A1 Claymore mine. REFERENCES: a. FM23-23 Antipersonnel Mine M-18A1 Claymore b. MCO 3501.34 Infantry T&R Manual ITSs: 0351-1-262 Emplace an M18A1 Claymore mine 0351-1-263 Recover an M18A1 Claymore mine These tasks are also listed for: 0369 (levels 1 and 2).

5. TASK: Call for and adjust indirect fire at night CONDITIONS: In the dark. With a map, compass, and protractor. With binoculars. With PVS-14 (or PVS-7). With a visible target. STANDARD: The Marine must call for and adjust fire to hit the target within 50m with (3) or fewer adjustments. The initial call for fire must be transmitted within (3) minutes of target identification. Each successive adjustment must be transmitted within (30) seconds after the burst. NOTES: a. This task can be evaluated with any type of indirect fire. b. Depending on the level of night illumination and type of terrain, significant difficulties can be experienced in observing targets, observing rounds, estimating ranges, and adjusting fire. REFERENCES: a. FM 6-30 Observed Fire Procedures b. MCWP 3-16.6 Supporting Arms Observer, Spotter, and Controller c. MCO 3501.34 Infantry T&R Manual ITSs: 0341-1-382 Estimate range 0341-1-389 Call for indirect fire using the polar method 0341-1-390 Call for indirect fire using the shift from a known point method 0341-1-391 Conduct an immediate suppression mission 0341-1-392 Conduct an immediate smoke mission 0341-1-393 Conduct a quick smoke mission 0341-1-394 Conduct a Fire For Effect (FFE) mission 0341-1-395 Conduct an illumination mission

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0341-1-396 Adjust mortar illumination Additional tasks include: 397, 398, 399, 400, 401, 403, and 408.

6. TASK: Control CAS at night with a Hand-held Laser Pointer CONDITIONS: At night, on a range with targets at distances of at least 600m. Equipped with a hand-held laser pointer, PVS-14 (or PVS-7), and either a PRC-113 or PRC-119. With fixed-wing or rotary-wing aircraft in support. With assigned callsigns and frequencies. STANDARD: Using a Hand-held Laser Pointer, the Marine will: a. Determine the most advantageous attack axis for the pilot to be able to see the IR mark. b. Pass a 9-line brief to the aircraft. c. Mark the target with the Hand-held Laser Pointer. d. Clear the aircraft hot onto the target. e. Throughout the procedure, demonstrate the proper actions for the terms “Rope,” “Snake,” “Steady,” “Shift,” “Stop,” and “Terminate.” NOTES: a. This standard can be accomplished with actual aircraft conducting SIMCAS. No ordnance is required. b. This standard requires the Marine to communicate by radio with pilots in actual aircraft. REFERENCES: a. MCWP 3-23.1 Close Air Support b. MAWTS-1 Forward Air Controller (Airborne) Handbook c. MCRP 3-16.8B J-FIRE Multiservice Procedures for Firepower d. Joint Pub 3-09.3 Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for CAS

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Chapter 2 Equipment Training for Individuals

Section 2.1 Night Vision Goggles
PVS-7 PVS-7 Data Sheet PVS-7 Training Handout How to Focus PVS-7 PVS-7 Tactics, Techniques and Procedures PVS-14 PVS-14 Data Sheet PVS-14 Training Handout PVS-14 Tactics, Techniques and Procedures 3X Magnifier 3X Magnifier Data Sheet

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PVS-7

1. Nomenclature:

AN/PVS-7B Night Vision Goggles (NVGs) AN/PVS-7D Night Vision Goggles (NVGs) 7B: 7D: 5855-01-228-0937 5855-01-422-5413

2. NSN:

3. Manual:

TM 11-5855-262-10-02 Operator’s Manual, NVG AN/PVS-7B, 15 Jul 1994 TM 09500A-10/1A, 30 Dec 1997 PVS-7 Night Vision Goggles allow the user to see at night using moonlight or starlight. PVS-7s can be hand held, head-mounted, or helmet-mounted. The goggles have an IR illuminator for illumination or signaling. An indicator lets the user know when the IR light is on. A separate indicator signals low battery. Automatic shutoff occurs on high light, when goggle is detached from the head mount, or flipped up on the helmet mount. Weight: Focus Range: Range: Battery: Battery Life: Magnification: Field of View: Interpupilary Adjustment: 18 oz 20 cm to Infinity 150 m (Starlight) 300 m (Moonlight) (2) AA (1) BA-5567/U 4-6 hours 1X 40° 55 to 71 mm

4. Description:

5. Characteristics:

6. Accessories:

PVS-7s include a helmet mount and a head mount. The 7D include a compass. A 3X Magnifier attachment is available. In complete darkness, such as inside buildings, PVS-7s are ineffective without IR illumination. The compass is 15° off. The IR illuminator illuminates only at a short range. The IR illuminator is visible to an enemy with NVGs. The helmet mount unbalances the helmet and causes neck fatigue. The 7B carrying case has a noisy velcro closure. The IR illuminator works well as a recognition signal during link-ups. Marine Corps Issue. TAMCN: E1152 II BP. $3578.00 ITT Night Vision 7635 Plantation Road, Roanoke, VA 24019 (800) 533-5502, (540) 563-0371, FAX (540) 366-9015 www.ittnv.com

7. Limitations:

8. Usage Notes: 9. Supplier:

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PVS-7 Training Handout
Ref: TM 09500A-10/1A, 30 Dec 1997 1. PVS-7 Night Vision Goggles allow the user to see at night using moonlight or starlight. 2. Major components and their purposes
a. PVS-7D have an (18)-item SL-3 Gear List. See manual pages B-4 through B-8. Goggles & Lens Cap Demist Shields (2) Light Interference Filter (LIF) Sacrificial Window IR Flood Lens Compass Tether Cord Head Mount & (3) Browpads Helmet Mount Carrying Case & Strap Storage Case Operator’s Manual b. Lens Cap protects lens. For high humidity and rain. Degrades visual acuity. To protect eyes from lasers. To protect lens from dust and sand scratches. To adjust IR beacon from spot to flood. To orient at night. Dummy cord for compass or 3X Magnifier Lens. To mount goggles on head. To mount goggles on helmet. To carry goggles. To store goggles and all accessories.

Older PVS-7Bs were not issued with a Helmet Mount, Compass, Tether Cord, or IR Flood Lens. The helmet mount, NSN 5855 01 441 0401, is far easier to use and should be back-ordered for 7Bs. A 3X Magnifier Lens is available as an optional accessory. See manual pages C-2 through C-3.

c.

3. Battery Installation. Either (1) BA-5567/U or (2) AA alkaline. 4. Indicator Lights
a. b. LOW BATTERY IR beacon is ON Red dot in RIGHT eyepiece. Red dot in LEFT eyepiece.

5. Switch
a. b. c. OFF / RESET ON IR Turns goggles OFF. Resets Goggles after automatic shutoff. Turns goggles ON. Turns IR beacon ON. Pull and turn. New goggles have temporary ON.

6. Automatic Shutoff. Goggles shut off automatically in Excessive Light, when the goggles are removed from the Head Mount, or when the goggles are flipped up from the Helmet Mount. To turn goggles back on, turn switch to OFF / RESET, then back to ON position. 7. Goggle Adjustments. PVS-7s have four (4) adjustments:

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a.

Interpupilary Distance. The two eyepieces slide apart to adjust to the user’s interpupilary distance. Adjust the Interpupilary Distance so that each eye views each lens as a perfect circle. Eye Relief. On the head mount and the helmet mount, the distance from the goggles to the user’s eyes needs to be adjusted as close to the eyes as is comfortable. Objective Lens Focus. The main lens rotates to focus on objects closer or farther away. Diopter focus. Each eyepiece adjusts independently to focus each eye on the image inside the goggles. Turn objective lens to focus on an object 20 feet away. Once focused, turn left diopter ring counterclockwise all the way. Close right eye. Turn left diopter ring clockwise until image first becomes clear. Do not turn past this point. Repeat this adjustment for right eyepiece, then re-adjust objective lens focus.

b.

c. d.

8. Maintenance. Clean lens with lens paper. Turn in for maintenance if goggles have shading, edge glow, flashing, flickering, or operate intermittently. Some blemishes or spots are not deadline issues. Goggle resolution can only be adjusted by higher echelon maintenance. 9. Mounts. Always wear the PVS-7 on a mount. NVGs are not opera glasses to be worn around the neck and lifted to the eyes when needed. This requires one hand, making it impossible to shoot. The helmet mount is far superior to the head mount. On operations where helmets are not usually worn, such as boat raids, leaders may direct Marines to wear helmets solely as a platform for the PVS-7. Marines should be able to assemble all mount hardware in the dark.
a. Head Mount. Don Head Mount and adjust straps. Attach goggles to mount. Adjust Eye Relief by sliding mounting bracket toward or away from eyes. Helmet Mount. Strap Helmet Mount onto helmet. Attach goggles to Mount. Adjust goggle height by loosening bracket knob and sliding goggles up and down. Adjust Eye Relief by sliding mounting bracket toward or away from eyes. Goggles can be flipped up when not in use.

b.

10. Pre-Combat Checks
a. b. c. d. e. Install batteries. Remove Lens Cap. Attach Sacrificial Window OR Compass OR 3X Magnifier. Attach IR Flood Lens. Don and Adjust Head Mount OR Helmet Mount. Make the four (4) goggle adjustments.

11. IR Beacon. The IR Beacon is for illuminating near objects in very dark conditions, or for signaling. The IR beacon CAN be detected by an enemy with NVGs. Newer goggles have a momentary ON feature. Turn Beacon ON by pulling switch out and forward. Red dot in left eye indicates IR is ON. Flood Lens attachment allows beacon to adjust from spot to flood.

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Night Warrior Handbook

How to Focus PVS-7
1. Set Up a. Install batteries in PVS-7. Don and adjust Head Mount or Helmet Mount. Attach PVS-7. b. Stand behind 20-foot line. c. Turn lights OFF. Turn PVS-7 ON. Turn IR illuminator ON. 2. Make the (4) PVS-7 goggle adjustments a. Adjust Interpupilary Distance. Slide eyepieces closer or farther apart so that each eye views each lens as a perfect circle. b. Adjust Eye Relief. On the head mount and the helmet mount, adjust PVS-7 as close to the eyes as is comfortable to acquire maximum field of view. Lens caps should cover eyes. c. Adjust Objective Lens. Turn Objective Lens fully counterclockwise. Rotate Objective Lens clockwise until both vertical and horizontal charts are clearly in focus. d. Adjust each Diopter Ring. Turn both Diopter Rings fully counterclockwise. Close right eye. Turn left Diopter Ring clockwise until image first becomes clear. Do not turn past this point. Repeat this for right eyepiece. Re-adjust Objective Lens. 3. Afterwards, when re-focusing for distance, adjust Objective Lens ONLY. Do NOT re-adjust Diopter Rings.

Xerox this page and next page. See bottom of next page for instructions on how to set up a PVS-7 focus lane.

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PVS-7 Adjustment Chart

20/35 @ 20 feet 0.98 cyc/mrad

How to use this chart to establish a PVS-7 focus lane. Xerox this page and previous page. In a room or hallway with no windows, tape this chart to bulkhead. Place a tape line on the deck 20 feet away from this chart. Paste the “How to Focus PVS-7” instructions on the bulkhead next to the tape line.

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PVS-7 TTP
1. Fire the M-16A2 with PVS-7 and PEQ-2A. a. Procedure. Focus PVS-7 to infinity. Establish solid firing position with butt of weapon in shoulder or crook of arm. Do NOT attempt to align head with sights or establish stock weld. Acquire target using PVS-7. Activate PEQ-2A beam. Adjust PEQ-2A spot onto target. Pull trigger. Techniques (1) Tracer rounds are not needed and not recommended, except for unit leaders who need to control fires. (2) Magazine change drills and immediate action drills need to be executed without looking. NVGs cannot be quickly re-focused onto magazine pouches or rifle for these actions. c. Common Errors (1) Using the PEQ-2A in continuous mode. Do NOT ‘search’ the battlefield. Use the PEQ-2A beam only when engaging targets. Unit leaders, using lasers to control fire, need to control their men’s use of individual weapons laser pointers. (2) Mistaking another Marine’s PEQ-2A beam for your own. (3) Not boresighting the PEQ-2A. (4) Attempting to use the sights. The iron sights of the M-16A2 have absolutely NO effect on PEQ-2A accuracy. The weapon’s BZO, or lack of BZO, has NO effect on PEQ-2A accuracy. (5) Firing without PEQ-2A. PVS-7 without a PEQ-2A allows the shooter to acquire targets but the shooter cannot use iron sights and PVS-7 does not improve accuracy. 2. Fire the M-203 with the PVS-7 and PEQ-2A. a. Procedures (1) For 5.56mm, see TTP 1., above. The M-203 PEQ-2A mount is harder to use than the M-16A2 mount. (2) For 40mm grenades, PVS-7 allow the shooter to acquire targets, but the goggles cannot be quickly refocused onto the weapon to use the leaf or quadrant sights. b. c. 3. Techniques Common Errors

b.

Fire the M-249 with PVS-7 and PEQ-2A. a. Procedure. Focus PVS-7 to infinity. Establish solid firing position with butt of weapon in shoulder. Do NOT attempt to align head with sights. Acquire target using PVS-7. Activate PEQ-2A beam. Adjust PEQ2A spot onto target. Pull trigger. Techniques (1) Tracer rounds are not needed and are not recommended for PEQ-2A firing. Conversely, if the M-249 does NOT have a PEQ-2A, tracer rounds are the ONLY way to fire accurately at night.

b.

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(2) Ammunition reload drills, barrel change drills, and immediate action drills need to be executed without looking. NVGs cannot be quickly re-focused onto the weapon for these actions. c. Common Errors (1) Using the PEQ-2A in continuous mode. Do NOT ‘search’ the battlefield. Use the PEQ-2A beam only when engaging targets. Unit leaders, using lasers to direct fire, need to limit their men’s use of individual weapons laser pointers. (2) Mistaking another Marine’s PEQ-2A beam for your own. (3) Not boresighting the PEQ-2A. Until the Marine Corps acquires a PEQ-2A mount for the M-249, field expedient mounts will be difficult to accurately boresight. (4) Attempting to use the sights. The iron sights of the M-249 have absolutely NO effect on PEQ-2A accuracy. The weapon’s BZO, or lack of BZO, or range setting, has NO effect on PEQ-2A accuracy. (5) Firing without PEQ-2A. PVS-7, used without a PEQ-2A, does allow the shooter to acquire targets but shooter cannot use iron sights and PVS-7 does not improve accuracy. 4. Fire the M-240G with PVS-7 and PEQ-2A. a. Procedure. Focus PVS-7 to infinity. Establish solid firing position with butt of weapon in shoulder. Do NOT attempt to align head with sights or establish stock weld. Acquire target using PVS-7. Activate PEQ2A beam. Adjust PEQ-2A spot onto target. Pull trigger. Techniques (1) Tracer rounds are not needed and not recommended for PEQ-2A firing. Conversely, if the M-240G does NOT have a PEQ-2A, tracer rounds are the ONLY way to fire accurately at night. (2) Ammunition reload drills, barrel change drills, and immediate action drills need to be executed without looking. NVGs cannot be quickly re-focused onto the weapon for these actions. c. Common Errors (1) Firing without an assistant gunner. M-240G muzzle flash ‘whites-out’ NVGs, making it hard for the gunner to adjust fire. (2) Using the PEQ-2A in continuous mode. Do NOT ‘search’ the battlefield. Use the PEQ-2A beam only when engaging targets. Unit leaders, using lasers to direct fire, need to control their men’s use of individual weapons laser pointers. (3) Mistaking another Marine’s PEQ-2A beam for your own. (4) Not boresighting the PEQ-2A. Until the Marine Corps acquires a PEQ-2A mount for the M-240G, field expedient mounts will be difficult to accurately boresight. (5) Attempting to use the sights. The iron sights of the M-240G have NO effect on PEQ-2A accuracy. The weapon’s BZO, or lack of BZO, or range setting, has NO effect on PEQ-2A accuracy. (6) Firing without PEQ-2A. PVS-7, used without a PEQ-2A, does allow the shooter to acquire targets but shooter cannot use iron sights and PVS-7 does not improve accuracy.

b.

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5.

Fire the Mk153 SMAW with PVS-7 and PEQ-2A. a. Procedure. Remove optical sight. Mount PEQ-2A, inverted, to sight mount. Focus PVS-7 to infinity. Acquire target using PVS-7. Do NOT attempt to align head with sights. Activate PEQ-2A beam. Adjust PEQ-2A spot onto target. Do NOT fire spotting rounds. Pull trigger. Techniques. Ammunition reload drills and immediate action drills need to be executed without looking. NVGs cannot be quickly re-focused onto the weapon for these actions. 3X magnifier can be used. Common Errors (1) Using the PEQ-2A in continuous mode. Do NOT ‘search’ the battlefield. Use the PEQ-2A beam only when engaging targets. Unit leaders, using lasers to direct fire, need to limit their men’s use of individual weapons laser pointers. (2) Mistaking another Marine’s PEQ-2A beam for your own. (3) Not boresighting the PEQ-2A. Until the Marine Corps acquires a PEQ-2A mount for the Mk153, field expedient mounting will be difficult to accurately boresight. (4) Attempting to use the sight. Sights have NO effect on PEQ-2A accuracy. (5) Firing without PEQ-2A. PVS-7, used without a PEQ-2A, does allow the shooter to acquire targets but shooter cannot use day sight and PVS-7 does not improve accuracy.

b.

c.

6.

Fire the M-224 60mm Mortar in hand-held mode with PVS-7. a. Procedure. Setup mortar with M7 assault baseplate. Acquire target with PVS-7. Keep eye on target. Call out distance estimate to assistant gunner. Align tube with target. Assistant gunner, viewing luminous range scale, calls ‘forward’ or ‘back’ to adjust range and loads weapon. Pull trigger. Techniques Common Errors (1) Task overload. One man cannot shift focus between target and luminous range scale. (2) Range estimation is difficult at night. See TTP 11., below. (3) Distant target. The maximum range for PVS-7 is only 300m. 3X magnifer can be used.

b. c.

7.

Fire the AT-4 using PVS-7 and PEQ-2A. a. Procedure. Mount PEQ-2A to AT-4 using field expedient means. Do NOT attempt to align head with sights. Acquire target using PVS-7. Activate PEQ-2A beam. Adjust PEQ-2A spot onto target. Pull trigger. Techniques (1) Boresighting. AT-4 expedient mounting cannot by boresighted. (2) Illumination. Set up AT-4 in the dark. Remove PVS-7. Normal AT-4 sights can be used if target area is illuminated immediately before firing. c. Common Errors

b.

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(1) Using the PEQ-2A in continuous mode. Do NOT ‘search’ the battlefield. Use the PEQ-2A beam only when engaging targets. Unit leaders, using lasers to direct fire, need to limit their men’s use of individual weapons laser pointers. (2) Mistaking another Marine’s PEQ-2A beam for your own. (3) Attempting to use the sights. Sights have absolutely NO effect on PEQ-2A accuracy. (4) Firing without PEQ-2A. PVS-7, used without a PEQ-2A, does allow the shooter to set up weapon and acquire targets but shooter cannot use sight and PVS-7 does not improve AT-4 accuracy. 8. Fire the M-9 using PVS-7. a. Procedure. Focus PVS-7 on target. Do NOT attempt to align head with sights. Acquire target using PVS-7. Align body so PVS-7 vision parallels weapon direction. Focus ‘over the sights.’ Pull trigger. Techniques Common Errors

b. c. 9.

Read a map with PVS-7. a. Procedure. Lay the map on a flat, stationary surface. Holding head and goggles steady at a fixed distance, focus goggles on map. (20) centimeters is minimum focus range. Use a finger or pencil to maintain position on map when scanning remainder of map or looking at other objects. Techniques. Tape all overlays to map to minimize moving parts. Fold map to minimize searching and folding in the dark. Use a second Marine to read notes or sketches, write notes, or talk on the radio. Common Errors (1) Attempting to read the map ‘off-hand’. Movement of hand and head makes focusing impossible. (2) Task overload. Due to fixed-distance focus and limited field of view, maintain the NVG on one item. Have a second Marine focus on other tasks.

b.

c.

10. Navigate with PVS-7. a. Procedures (1) Ded Reckoning. Hold compass steady against body. Adjust NVGs to read dial. Look up and adjust NVGs to distant steering mark. Walk. (2) Terrain-Association. Adjust NVGs to infinity. While moving, observe terrain, and follow preplanned route. Realize that many terrain features appear different or not at all on NVGs. b. Techniques (1) Maintain focus on distant terrain. Do no attempt to continuously refocus NVGs on ground or vegetation. When stopping to read map, see TTP 8., above. (2) While moving, binoculars can also be used to improve distant night viewing. (3) Realize that sense of hearing, smell, and touch is decreased due to concentration required for NVGs. (4) The Lensatic Compass has luminous markings. Silva-type compasses are difficult to read with NVGs.

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(5) Realize that depth perception is poor when using PVS-7. Experience with PVS-7 increases ability to perceive depth. c. Common Errors (1) Overconfidence. NVGs do not turn night into day. Good route planning is still a necessity. (2) Tunnel vision. NVGs cut view from 188° to 40°. Scan continuously to make up for this limitation. (3) Using the PVS-7 compass. This compass is off by approximately 15° due to metal in the mount. Use this compass for general orientation. Do not use this compass for taking azimuths while ded reckoning. (4) Using the IR illuminator. In the 1982 Falklands War, British patrols could clearly observe Argentinean leaders moving at night with their NVG IR illuminators turned on. 11. Estimate Range using PVS-7. a. b. Procedure. Acquire target with PVS-7. Estimate range to target. Techniques (1) Use a map. Know your position. Look for identifying terrain features on the ground that can be found on the map. Have a second man look at the map to avoid refocusing between the map and the ground. (2) Use a Laser Pointer to mark target for another Marine on PVS-7. Compare range estimates. (3) Realize that depth perception is poor when using PVS-7. Experience with PVS-7 increases ability to perceive depth. c. Common Errors (1) Underestimation. At night, at ranges under 800m, Marines tend to underestimate range. If the terrain between the observer and his target is low ground, Marines tend to underestimate the range. (2) Distant Target. The maximum range for PVS-7 is only 300m. 12. Call for Mortars, Artillery, and NSFS using PVS-7 to observe. a. Procedure. Focus PVS-7 to infinity. Use the bracket technique to get rounds on target. Realize that it is difficult to estimate distance using the PVS-7 at night. HE rounds are clearly visible on PVS-7, sometimes the glowing shrapnel can be observed flying through the air. Techniques (1) Because PVS-7 reduces depth perception, use a map to help spot rounds. Determine distances by comparing surrounding terrain to the target. When a round splashes, try to plot its location on the map. (2) With PVS-7, white phosphorous mortar rounds work well for adjusting because the round is visible burning on the deck. For artillery, the M825 felt wedges look like burning red coals on the deck. (3) During high light level nights, M-22 binoculars can be used to measure mil deviation. Locate the round with PVS-7 and then quickly switch to the M-22 to measure deviation and estimate distance. (4) During low light level nights, M-22 binoculars cannot be used. The ‘Hand Estimation Method’ cannot be used with PVS-7 due to the requirement for rapidly focusing from far to near.

b.

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(5) Realize that depth perception is poor when using PVS-7. Experience with PVS-7 increases ability to perceive depth. (6) A mil scale lens cap for the PVS-7 would allow observers to estimate left and right adjustments. (7) Using coordinated illumination allows the observer to operate in daylight conditions. (8) Marking a target for aircraft is best done using M825 improved smoke. The felt wedges look like burning coals spread on the deck, and are clearly visible for minutes. The smoke screen may obscure the mark for non-IR equipped aircraft. WP has a bright flash, but subsides too quickly. c. Common Errors (1) Not realizing the depth perception limitations of the PVS-7. (2) Not using the map to become familiar with the terrain around the target area. (3) Not using PVS-7. Calling and adjusting at night is difficult to the unaided eye. HE produces a quick flash that is seen momentarily, if at all. WP produces an intense flash, but subsides quickly. 13. Acquire CAS aircraft using PVS-7. a. Procedure. Focus PVS-7 to infinity. Divide up the sky. Using a map for terrain association and the aircraft’s final attack heading, sector off the airspace from which the aircraft will approach. Using all available eyes focused on this airspace, search for the ‘moving star’ with the aid of the PVS-7. Once the aircraft is acquired, padlock it. Do not look away. Techniques. PVS-7 focused at infinity reduces the halo effect caused by the high luminance of the stars. Common Errors (1) Not looking in the right direction. Always use the map to sector off the sky. (2) Tunnel vision. PVS-7s cut field of view from 188° to 40°. Scan continuously to compensate for reduced FOV. (3) Losing sight of the aircraft. Once the aircraft is located, do not look away, or have a member of the TACP team watch the aircraft. This will save having to find the aircraft twice. (4) Task saturation. One man spots and clears the aircraft to deliver ordinance. Assign someone to operate the laser pointer and any other distracting tasks. 14. Call for Close Air Support using PVS-7. See Hand-held Laser Pointer TTP. 15. Execute surveillance with PVS-7 and 3X Magnifier. a. b. Procedure. Attach 3X to PVS-7. Focus on target area. Scan continuously. Techniques. 3X makes goggles heavy. For long periods of surveillance, rest goggles on a flat surface. Narrow field of view requires constant movement to cover sector of observation. Binoculars can augment surveillance even at night. Relieve observers frequently. Common Errors (1) Overconfidence. 3X gives greater magnification, but at a cost of less light and less field of view. The image is darker and some targets are more difficult to identify.

b. c.

c.

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(2) Obscuration. Any type of smoke or fog reduces the PVS-7s ability to see objects. This works to reduce the enemy’s NVG capability as well. 16. Clear a room with PVS-7. a. Procedure. Flip up PVS-7 on Helmet Mount. Turn on white-light weapons-mounted flashlight. Allow eyes to adjust. Clear rooms and buildings using white light. Techniques (1) White light is recommended in MOUT. In buildings and restricted areas, the PVS-7 reduced field of view is a significant hazard. White light increases field of view, permits accurate target identification, and allows building lights to be used. Muzzle flashes, pyro, detonations, or cultural lighting does not blind Marines. Each Marine needs a weapons-mounted white-light flashlight. (2) In large, open buildings such as hangars, use PVS-7 with IR illuminator on, augmented with IR illuminators. A weapons-mounted flashlight with an IR filter is recommended. (3) When moving between buildings, PVS-7 should be used. From outside a building, IR weapons pointers can be used to illuminate inside darkened hallways, and open windows. c. Common Errors. Attempting to clear rooms and buildings using the IR illuminator on PVS-7.

b.

17. React to illumination with PVS-7. a. b. Procedure. Turn head. Close eyes. If goggles shut down, turn switch to OFF, then ON to reset. Techniques. (1) If situation will not allow you to close both eyes, close one eye. Dark adaptation occurs independently in each eye. (2) When firing a weapon, use short bursts to minimize muzzle flash and maintain dark adaptation. c. Common Errors. Looking at illumination through goggles.

18. Signal with PVS-7 IR illuminator. a. Procedure. Turn goggles toward distant unit. Using IR switch, turn IR illuminator on and off to pass required signal. Observe distant unit for proper response. Techniques (1) Linkup procedures. Standard Operating Procedure should define linkup signal: “Moving unit initiates signal with four flashes. Stationary unit responds with two flashes.” (2) POSREP procedures. During SBF drill or other coordination drill, have distant unit signal: “Flash IR twice to confirm location.” (3) Signals should conform to standard usage. Two of anything is YES. Three of anything is DANGER. c. Common Errors. Speed. Slow, deliberate signals are easier to see and recognize.

b.

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PVS-14

1. Nomenclature: 2. NSN: 3. Manual:

AN/PVS-14 Monocular Night Vision Device 5855-01-432-0524 TM 10271A-10/1 TM 11-5855-306-10 Operator’s Manual, Monocular NVD, AN/PVS-14, 30 Dec 1997 The PVS-14 allows the user to see at night using moonlight or starlight. The PVS-14 is a GEN III Image Intensification device similar in performance to PVS-7 NVGs, yet smaller, lighter, and more versatile. PVS-14s can be hand-held, carried in the utility uniform pocket, head-mounted, helmet-mounted, or mounted to a weapon. Weight: Focus Range: Range: Battery: Battery Life: Magnification: Diopter Adjustment Field of View: 14 oz 25 cm to Infinity 150 m (Starlight) 300 m (Moonlight) (2) AA > 12 hours 1X +2 to -6 diopters 40°

4. Description:

5. Characteristics:

6. Accessories: 7. Limitations:

Helmet mount, head mount, 3X Magnifier, and modular weapons mount. In complete darkness, such as inside buildings, PVS-14s are ineffective unless additional IR illumination is present. PVS-14s are intended for unit leaders and gunners. AA batteries are interchangeable with other equipment. Marine Corps Issue. TAMCN: E1154 II BP. $3607.00 ITT Night Vision 7635 Plantation Road, Roanoke, VA 24019 (800) 533-5502, (540) 563-0371, FAX (540) 366-9015 www.ittnv.com

8. Usage Notes:

9. Supplier:

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PVS-14 Training Handout
Ref: TM 10271A-10/1 Operator’s Manual, Monocular NVD, AN/PVS-14, 30 Dec 1997 1. PVS-14 allows the user to see at night under moonlight or starlight. 2. Major components and their purposes.
a. PVS-14 have a (19)-item SL-3 Gear List. See Reference, pages 1-10 through 1-18. Monocular with Lens Cap Demist Shield Light Interference Filter (LIF) Sacrificial Window Compass Tether Cord Head Mount & (3) Browpads Helmet Mount Head / Helmet Mount Adapter Small Arms Mount Carrying Case & Strap Storage Case Operator’s Manual b. Lens cap protects lens. For high humidity and rain. Degrades visual acuity. To protect eyes from lasers. To protect monocular lens from dust and sand scratches. To orient at night. Dummy cord for compass or 3x Magnifier. To mount monocular on head. To mount monocular on helmet To attach monocular to mounts. To mount monocular to weapon. To carry monocular. To store monocular and all accessories

A 3x Magnifier Lens is available as an optional accessory. See Reference.

4. Battery Installation. Either (2) AA Alkaline or (2) AA 1.5V DC Lithium 5. Indicator Lights
a. b. LOW BATTERY IR beacon is ON Blinking red dot in eyepiece means less than 30 minutes of battery life. Steady red dot in eyepiece

6. Switch
a. b. c. OFF / RESET ON IR Turns monocular OFF. Resets monocular after automatic shutoff. Turns monocular ON. Turns IR beacon ON. Pull and turn. A steady red dot appears.

7. Automatic Shutoff. The monocular shuts off automatically in excessive light, when monocular is removed from head mount, or when monocular is flipped up from the helmet mount. To turn monocular back on, turn switch to OFF / RESET, then back to ON. 8. Monocular Adjustment. PVS-14 have four (4) adjustments:
a. Variable Gain. Adjusts the brightness of the image. This reduces eyestrain, especially in changing light.

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b. c.

Objective Lens Focus. Adjusts for sharpest image of viewed object. Diopter Adjustment Ring. Focuses eyepiece for sharpest image of intensifier screen. Rotate diopter adjustment ring for the clearest view of the image. If done in a lighted condition, line up the image through the goggle and the image in your naked eye. Eye Relief. On Helmet and Head mounts, the distance between the user’s eye and the monocular needs to be adjusted as close to the eye as is comfortable.

d.

9. Maintenance. Clean lens with lens paper. Turn in for maintenance if monocular has shading, edge flow, flashing, flickering, or operates intermittently. Some blemishes or spots on screen are not deadline issues. Monocular can only be adjusted by higher echelon maintenance. 10. Mounts
a. Head Mount. Don Head Mount. Adjust straps. Attach Head / Helmet Mount Adapter to Monocular. Attach Monocular to Mount. Adjust Eye Relief by sliding mounting bracket toward or away from eyes. Helmet Mount. Strap Helmet Mount to helmet. Attach Head / Helmet Mount Adapter to Monocular. Attach Monocular to Mount. Slide monocular up and down by loosening bracket knob. Adjust Eye Relief by sliding mounting bracket toward or away from eyes. (1) Monocular can be flipped up when not in use. (2) Monocular can be removed from the helmet by depressing the lever on the right side of the helmet mount and removing the entire bracket. (3) Monocular can be worn on either eye. Loosen the knob on the end of the Mount Adapter and rotate the monocular to the desired eye. Once the monocular is positioned, tighten the knob. c. Small Arms Weapons Mount. Attach to weapon. Mount PVS-14 to mount. Can be used with 3X Magnifier.

b.

11. Pre-Combat Checks
a. b. c. d. Install Batteries. Remove Lens Cap. Install Sacrificial Window OR Compass OR 3X Magnifier. Don and Adjust Head Mount OR Helmet Mount. Make the four (4) monocular adjustments.

12. IR Beacon. IR beacon illuminates near objects in very dark conditions, or for signaling. The IR beacon CAN be detected by an enemy equipped with NVGs. Turn Beacon ON by pulling switch out and forward. A steady red dot appears in the eyepiece to signal the IR is ON.

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PVS-14 TTP
See PVS-7 TTP. Most of the Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for the PVS-7 are the same as for PVS-14. The following TTP are specific to PVS-14. 1. Fire the M-16A2 with PVS-14 mounted. a. Procedure. Mount the PVS-14 to the weapon using the Small Arms Mount. Adjust PVS-14 far enough away from eye to prevent injury from weapon recoil. Op-check PAQ-4C / PEQ-2A beam by observing through PVS-14 monocular. Techniques. Mounting PVS-14 to the M-16A2 is best done in stationary or defensive operations where the Marine is covering a sector from behind his weapon. Common Errors. (1) Using a mounted PVS-14 during offensive actions. It is near impossible to use a mounted PVS-14 while moving with the weapon. (2) Using the IR illuminator in a stationary position. 2. Fire the M40 Sniper Rifle with the Unertl scope and PVS-14. a. Procedure. Mount the Unertl scope to the rifle. Cut a 7-inch piece of riggers tape lengthwise. Wrap it around the focus ring of the PVS-14, making sure you don’t tape the focus ring to the body of the PVS-14. Turn the device on and focus at long range. Slide the focus ring into the ocular lens of the Unertl scope until it fits snugly. Readjust focus to ensure clarity. Techniques. Small turns of the PVS-14 left and right will make focus adjustments. Common Errors. Not adjusting proper eye relief for attaining good sight picture and avoiding scope bite.

b.

c.

b. c.

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3X Magnifier

1. 2. 3. 4.

Nomenclature: NSN: Manual: Description:

3X Magnifier 5855-01-423-0817 NONE The 3x Magnifier is an optional attachment to the PVS-7 and PVS-14. It is a small, lightweight, portable 3X lens that silently attaches to PVS-7 and PVS-14 without any tools. It is extremely helpful in surveillance. Weight: Field of View: Magnification: Carrying Pouch with Alice clip. Narrow field of view. Difficult to focus on near objects. Images appear darker due to less available light. 3X unbalances NVG mounts, causing neck strain. 3x are intended for unit leaders or Marines executing surveillance missions. Marine Corps Issue. 190 g 11.6 degrees 3X

5.

Characteristics:

6. 7.

Accessories: Limitations:

8. 9.

Usage Notes: Supplier:

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Section 2.2 Night Vision Scopes
PVS-4 PVS-4 Data Sheet PVS-4 Training Handout PVS-4 Tactics, Techniques and Procedures PVS-17 PVS-17 Data Sheet PVS-17 Training Handout (TBD) PVS-17 Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TBD) PAS-13 TWS PAS-13 Data Sheet PAS-13 Training Handout (TBD) PAS-13 Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TBD)

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PVS-4

1. 2. 3.

Nomenclature: NSN: Manual:

AN/PVS-4 Night Vision Sight 5855-01-629-5334 TM 11-5855-213-10 Technical Manual, Operator’s Maintenance Manual, Night Vision Sight, AN/PVS-4 1 Feb 1993, Change 1, 15 Jun 1993 The PVS-4 is an image intensifier weapons scope that allows the user to see in the dark under moonlight or starlight. A rubber cup prevents amplified light from illuminating the user. Weight: Focus Range: Range: Battery: Field of View: Magnification: Diopter Adjustment: 3.9 lbs 7 m to Infinity 400 m (Starlight) 600 m (Moonlight) (2) AA BA-5567/U Lithium 15 degrees 3.8X -5 to +4 Diopters

4.

Description:

5.

Characteristics:

6. 7.

Accessories: Limitations:

Mounts and reticle patterns are available for M-16, M-203, M-249, M-60, and M7-2. PVS-4 are difficult to use during movement, and are primarily used for target acquisition. The scope is bulky, makes a weapon extremely top-heavy when mounted, and is easily caught in vegetation. It has a tendency to cause “white-out” to the vision of the firing marine when used with machineguns. The sight does not emit any visible or IR light. Marine Corps recommendation is to mount the PVS-4 on the M-203 of fire team leaders. A 25mm Gen III image intensifier tube is being retrofitted to upgrade current PVS-4s. PVS-4s will be replaced by PVS-17. Marine Corps Issue. PVS-4 are no longer issued.

8.

Usage Notes:

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PVS-4 Training Handout
Ref: TM 11-5855-213-10 1. The PVS-4 Night Vision Sight is an image intensifier weapons scope that allows the user to see in the dark under moonlight or starlight. 2. Major components and their purposes. a. PVS-4 have a (12)-item SL-3 Gear List. See reference, pages B-4 through B-8. Daylight Cover Mounting Knob Mounting Bracket Carrying Case Carrying Bag AA Battery Adapter Operator’s Manual For zeroing and daylight operation. To fix bracket on the weapon system. To install scope on the weapon. To store scope and accessories. To carry scope. To allow the use of AA batteries.

b. Older PVS-4s have two battery ports. 3. Battery Installation. Turn both switches off. Install batteries in adapter housing by observing the polarities marked on the housing. 4. Switches a. ON / OFF Tube Brightness Turns on image intensifier, adjusts brightness of image.

b. ON / OFF Reticle Brightness Turns on the reticle, adjust reticle intensity. 5. Operation a. Turn PVS-4 on. Adjust objective focus ring until distant image in scope is clear. b. Turn reticle on and adjust intensity so that reticle is just visible against the background. Adjust diopter focus ring until reticle pattern is clear. Re-focus objective focus ring. 6. Maintenance. Use lens paper to clean the lens. Use an AP brush with CLP to clean the mounting rail. 7. Pre-Combat Checks a. Before operating PVS-4, conduct inventory and check for cleanliness and serviceability.
b. While operating PVS-4, intensifier should be green and reticle pattern should be sharp.

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PVS-17

1. 2. 3. 4.

Nomenclature: NSN: Manual: Description:

AN/PVS-17 Mini Night Vision Sight 5855-01-459-4340 TBD The PVS-17 is a lightweight, compact high-performance device that will use the OMNI GEN IV image intensifier tube. The system weighs less than two pounds, comes with the MIL-STD-1913 rail grabber interface, and is submersible to 66 feet. The PVS-17 can be mounted to any weapon that use the standard MIL-STD-1913 rail and will replace the PVS-4 in select units. Weight: Range: Battery: Magnification: Field of View: Water resistance: 1.9 lbs TBD (1) AA 4.5X 17-degree vertical 20-degree horizontal Submersible to 66 feet

5.

Characteristics:

6. 7. 8.

Accessories: Limitations: Usage Notes:

TBD TBD The PVS-17 meets and exceeds the operational requirement of the PVS-4. It is designed to provide night fighting capability for individual direct fire weapons. Marine Corps recommended distribution is to fire team leaders. Marine Corps Future Issue. TAMCN: E1160 VIIGP. $4,500.00

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PAS-13

PAS-13 v2 Medium

PAS-13 v3 Heavy

1.

Nomenclature:

AN/PAS-13B Thermal Weapon Sight (TWS) v2 Medium AN/PAS-13B Thermal Weapon Sight (TWS) v3 Heavy 5855-01-464-3152 (v2 Medium) 5855-01-464-3151 (v3 Heavy) TM 10091A/100092A-10/1 Draft TM 10091A/100092A-23&P2 Draft The PAS-13 TWS is an IR imaging device that is passive, lightweight, modular, and battery powered. The difference between the medium and heavy models is the attached telescope. The PAS-13 TWS will mount on the MIL-STD-1913 rail. v2 Medium Weight: v2 Medium Range: v3 Heavy Weight: v3 Heavy Range: Battery: Battery Life: 5 lbs 1100 m (Clear) 300 m (Obscured) 6 lbs 2000 m (Clear) 500 m (Obscured) BA 5874 / U Batteries > 12 hours

2.

NSN:

3.

Manual:

4.

Description:

5.

Characteristics:

6. 7. 8.

Accessories: Limitations: Usage Notes:

Interchangeable lens The laser spots of hand-held and weapons laser pointers cannot be seen by PAS-13 TWS. The PAS-13 TWS significantly enhances the Marine Corps’ day and night fighting capability. The system can see through obscurants that impair systems operating in the visible and near-visible spectrum. The PAS-13 TWS has the ability to acquire targets under most conditions at maximum effective range of the weapon. PAS-13 TWS (v2 Medium) will be mounted to the M-249. PAS-13 TWS (v3 Medium will be mounted to the M-240G, Mk19, and M2HB. Fielding for v2 is planned for FY 02, and v3 for FY 03. Marine Corps Future Issue. TAMCN: E1975 VII GP (v2 Medium) $15,700.00 E1976 VII GP (v3 Heavy) $17,200.00

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Section 2.3 Weapons Laser Pointers
PAQ-4C PAQ-4C Data Sheet PAQ-4C Training Handout How to Prepare for PAQ-4C Boresighting How to Dry-Fire Boresight PAQ-4C to M16-A2 How to Live-Fire Boresight PAQ-4C to M16-A2 PEQ-2A PEQ-2A Data Sheet PEQ-2A Training Handout (TBD) How to Boresight PEQ-2A to M-16A2 (TBD) PEQ-2A Tactics, Techniques and Procedures

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Night Warrior Handbook

PAQ-4C

1. 2. 3.

Nomenclature: NSN: Manual:

AN/PAQ-4C Infrared Aiming Light 5855-01-398-4315 TM 09596C-12&P/1A Technical Manual, Operator’s and Unit Maintenance Manual (Including Repair Parts and Special Tools List), Light, Aiming, Infrared, AN/PAQ-4B, AN/PAQ-4C The PAQ-4C is a lightweight, battery operated, IR laser pointer aiming light that projects a continuous IR beam along the weapon’s line of sight, designating the point of impact for Marines equipped with NVGs. Weight: Size: Wavelength: Laser Class: Power Output: Beam Width: Range: Battery: Battery Life: 164 g / 5.8 oz 14 x 6.5 x 3 cm 830 nm 1 0.7 mW 0.3 mR 600+ m (Depending on NVGs used) (2) AA 100 Hours

4.

Description:

5.

Characteristics:

6. 7. 8.

Accessories: Limitations: Usage Notes:

Carrying bag, boresight filter, remote cable switch. Currently, can only be mounted on M-16A2 and M-203. Other mounts are not yet fielded. Can be used in hand-held mode by leaders issuing fire commands. Can illuminate indoors. PAQ-4C beam can be seen by low-flying RWCAS. Marine Corps Issue. TAMCN: E0955 VIIB. $400.00 Insight Technology, Inc. 3 Technology Drive Londonderry, NH 03053 (603) 626-4800, FAX (603) 626-4888

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Supplier:

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PAQ-4C Training Handout
Ref: TM 09596C-12&P/1A 1. The PAQ-4C is a lightweight, battery operated, IR laser pointer aiming light that projects a continuous IR beam along the weapon’s line of sight, designating the point of impact for Marines equipped with NVGs. 2. Major components and their purposes
a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. Boresight filter / diffuser Mounting rail Socket Cable switch (optional) Cable hanger (optional) Adjusters Optical baffle Retaining strap ON / OFF switch Shroud Thumbscrew assembly Battery cap Minimizes laser bloom during zeroing. Permanently fix to weapon in order to allow PAQ-4C to be attached. Connect cable switch to PAQ-4C here. Provides remote operation of the aiming light. Used to secure cable to weapon. Used to boresight PAQ-4C to the weapon. Reduces off-axis detection of the aiming light. Retains the battery cap. Turns the PAQ-4C on and off. Protects the switch lever from accidental activation. Secures the PAQ-4C to the mounting rail. Seals the battery compartment.

3. Battery Installation. Batteries are inserted with the positive ends (tips) up. 4. Maintenance. Use lens paper to clean the aiming light lens. Use AP brush with CLP to clean the mounting rail. Use damp cloth to clean aiming light unit. 5. Adjusters. The top adjuster moves the strike of the round right or left. A clockwise turn move the round left, a counter-clockwise turn moves it right. The side adjuster moves the strike of the round up or down. A clockwise turn moves the round up, a counter-clockwise turn moves the round down. Once the PAQ-4C is boresighted, do not reset the adjusters. 6. Pre-combat checks
a. b. c. d. e. Install the batteries. Mount the PAQ-4C to the weapon. Don NVGs. Conduct pre-combat checks for NVGs. Activate PAQ-4C IR beam. Point beam at feet and check beam with NVGs.

7. Mounts
a. When the mounting rail is initially attached to the M-16A2, coat the inside with CLP. Once the aiming light has been boresighted, the mounting rail cannot be removed. Rust then accumulates where the mounting rail touches the barrel. Use of CLP when attaching the mounting rail helps alleviate this problem. The PAQ-4C cannot be mounted to the M-16A2 simultaneously with a MILES rifle transmitter. The Marine Corps has purchased PAQ-4C mounts for the M-203. Units should order these mounts for all M203. No boresight procedure has been published.

b. c.

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How to Prepare for PAQ-4C Boresighting
1. Prepare the target. Use a modified Marine Corps 30m BZO target for PAQ-4C boresighting. a. Use the tan side of a cardboard E-silhouette target and stripe it with (3/4) inch black electrical tape so that the target is divided in half horizontally and vertically. b. Center and staple the modified 30m BZO target to the silhouette.

2. Prepare a shot-group transparency. Construct a transparency to use during both live-fire and dry-fire boresighting. This transparency will identify the center of the shot-group, since the shot-group will be offset from the center of the target at 30 meters. a. Place a blank transparency over a modified 30m BZO target. Using a non-erasable black marker, draw one horizontal and one vertical line intersecting at the target’s center point. b. Place a mark (2.5) cm to the right and (3.5) cm above the center point. Draw a (5.5) cm circle around this mark. This circle is the desired location of the shot-group at 30 meters.

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How to Dry-Fire Boresight PAQ-4C to M-16A2
1. Notes. This procedure works best in lighted conditions, outdoors or indoors. The Dry-Fire Boresight procedure requires that the weapon have a good 300m BZO. 2. Required gear a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. Modified 30m BZO target. See How to Prepare for PAQ-4C Boresighting. M-16A2 with PAQ-4C mount PAQ-4C with accessories NVGs Prepared shot-group transparency. See How to Prepare for PAQ-4C Boresighting. Tape or stapler Pack or sandbag 30m range

3. Required personnel. Three: Shooter, Spotter, and Adjuster. All wear NVGs. 4. Dry-fire boresight procedure a. The Spotter sets a modified 30m BZO target 30 meters downrange. b. The Spotter fastens the shot-group transparency to the BZO target such that the zero lines of the transparency line up with the zero lines of the BZO target and the marked shot group circle is low and to the left of the target. Warning. Do not look at the IR beam. c. The Shooter attaches the boresight filter to the PAQ-4C and sets the adjuster knobs to their neutral positions. d. From a supported-prone position, using sandbag or pack, the Shooter aims at the center of the BZO target using the iron sights and then activates the PAQ-4C beam. e. The Spotter observes the impact of the infrared beam, and calls adjustments until the beam impacts on the mark (2.5) cm to the left and (3.5) cm below the center of the BZO target. f. The Adjuster listens to the calls from the Spotter and makes the appropriate adjustments while the Shooter maintains his position. (1) Left / Right adjustments during dry fire are the opposite of live fire: Clockwise turns move the beam right, counter-clockwise turns move the beam left. (2) Up / Down adjustments during dry fire are the opposite of live fire: Clockwise turns move the beam down, counter-clockwise turns move the beam up. g. Repeat this process until the infrared beam impacts in the center of the circle on the prepared shot-group transparency. h. Once boresight adjustments have been made, do not reset the adjusters. Once boresighted, the PAQ-4C can be removed from the M-16A2 and then put back on without losing the boresight. You must re-boresight if you remove the mounting rail.

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How to Live-Fire Boresight PAQ-4C to M-16A2
1. Notes. This procedure generates a 300m boresight. It is recommended that a dry-fire boresight be conducted prior to the live-fire procedure. The shooter will face difficulty acquiring the target due to a phenomenon known as blooming. See PAQ-4C TTP. Using tracer rounds simplifies the live-fire boresight procedure. 2. Required gear
a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. Modified 30m BZO target. See How to Prepare for PAQ-4C Boresighting. M-16A2 with PAQ-4C mount PAQ-4C with accessories NVGs Prepared shot-group transparency. See How to Prepare for PAQ-4C Boresighting. (14) rounds of ammunition Tape or stapler Mechanical pencil Pack or sandbag Flashlight 30m live-fire range

3. Required Personnel. Three: Shooter, Spotter, and Adjuster. All wear NVGs. 4. Live-fire boresight procedure
a. b. c. d. e. The Spotter sets a modified 30m BZO target 30 meters downrange. The Shooter attaches the boresight filter to the PAQ-4C and sets the adjuster knobs to their neutral positions. Do not reset adjuster knobs if dry-fire boresight was previously done. From a supported-prone position, using sandbag or pack, the Shooter activates the PAQ-4C beam, and places it on the center of the BZO target. A flashlight can be used if the target is difficult to see. The Shooter fires a 3-shot group. The Spotter goes down range and lines up the shot-group transparency with center of target, such that the marked shot-group circle is high and to the right of the target. He then calls back adjustments to move the shot group into the marked circle. He writes these adjustments in the upper left-hand corner of the target. The Adjuster makes adjustments to the PAQ-4C while the Shooter maintains his position. The muzzle of the weapon is elevated. (1) Left / Right adjustments: clockwise turns move the shots left, counter-clockwise turns move the shots right. (2) Up / Down adjustments: clockwise turns move the shots up, counter-clockwise turns move the shots down. g. h. i. j. k. l. The Spotter returns to the firing line. Complete steps (c) through (g) two more times or until the shot group is inside the marked shot group circle. The Shooter fires a 5-shot group to confirm accurate boresight. The Shooter takes the 30m BZO target and records the final boresight adjustment numbers and keeps these in the buttstock of the weapon. If a dry-fire boresight was done prior to the live-fire boresight, both adjustments must be combined and recorded as the final boresight. Once boresight adjustments have been made, do not reset the adjusters. Once boresighted, the PAQ-4C can be removed from the M-16A2 and then put back on without losing the boresight. You must re-boresight if you remove the mounting rail.

f.

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PEQ-2A

1. 2. 3.

Nomenclature: NSN: Manual:

AN/PEQ-2 Aiming Light, Target Pointer, Illuminator, Infrared 5855-01-422-5253 TM 10470A-12&P/1 Operator and Unit Maintenance Manual Including Repair Parts and Special Tools List The PEQ-2A is a weapons aiming light, target pointer, and illuminator. It emits separate aiming and illuminating beams, with the capability of centering the aiming beam within the illumination area. It is designed primarily to provide infantry leaders an IR searchlight with an integral aimpoint for accurate night firing. Secondary uses include searching for, and pointing out targets for fire commands. Weight: Wavelength: Laser Class: Power output, aiming beam: Power output, illuminator: Range: Battery: Battery Life: 7.5 oz 830 nm 3b 25 mW 30 mW 1300 m (2) AA > 100 hours

4.

Description:

5. Characteristics:

6. 7. 8.

Accessories: Limitations: Usage Notes:

MIL-STD-1913 rail mount, carrying bag, remote cable switch, and boresight filter. Visible to an enemy with NVGs, especially in smoke, fog, and rain. Illuminator beam can be used as IR flashlight, especially useful in MOUT. Controls allow aiming beam on or off, power high or low. Can be used in hand-held mode. 1300-meter range exceeds maximum ranges of current NVGs. Marine Corps Issue. TAMCN: E1798 VIIG. $1000.00

9.

Supplier:

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PEQ-2A TTP
1. Fire weapons at night with the PEQ-2A a. b. Procedure. Identify target through NVGs. Activate PEQ-2A. Move IR beam on to target. Fire weapon. Techniques. (1) Do not leave beam on continuously. Do not search battlefield for target with IR beam activated. (2) If having trouble distinguishing your own beam, make a “figure eight” to identify beam. (3) Place buttstock of weapon snugly against shoulder. Grip weapon firmly to keep PEQ-2A beam steady. Ignore iron sights, ignore stock weld. Focus NVGs on PEQ-2A beam. (4) Shoot low. Marines have a tendency to shoot high in the dark. (5) Left-handed shooters can shoot right-handed with PEQ-2A because weapon posture is less important. c. Common Errors (1) Too many PEQ-2A beams on continuously. (2) Inability to clearly distinguish target. PEQ-2A does not “light up” target for identification. (3) Trying to achieve stock weld. (4) Adjusting the iron sights. Weapons sights have no impact on PEQ-2A accuracy. d. Note. See Section 2.1 PVS-7 TTP for the following weapons techniques: Fire the M-16A2 with PVS-7 and PEQ-2A Fire the M-203 with the PVS-7 and PEQ-2A Fire the M-249 with PVS-7 and PEQ-2A Fire the M-240G with PVS-7 and PEQ-2A Fire the Mk153 SMAW with PVS-7 and PEQ-2A 2. Overcome PEQ-2A “blooming” phenomenon a. Procedure. Blooming is when a point of light strikes a target at short range and is reflected back to the shooter’s goggles. This makes it difficult to see shapes and lines clearly. Techniques (1) For boresighting, use a modified 30m BZO target. Use the boresight diffuser. See How to Prepare for PEQ-2A Boresighting. (2) For live targets, move PEQ-2A beam around until you can see a clear outline of the target before engaging. Insure that NVGs are focused correctly. See Section 2.1. c. Common Errors

b.

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(1) Impatience. (2) Incorrectly focused NVGs. 3. Use PEQ-2A to control organic fire a. Procedure. Mark the target by placing PEQ-2A beam on it and making a figure eight. This is called a ‘Snake.’ Issue fire command. Marines confirm target: “I see it!” Techniques (1) Fire all tracer rounds to identify target for those Marines without NVGs. (2) Unit leaders can use PEQ-2A in hand-held mode. Use PEQ-2A to point out terrain features, routes, enemy positions, or sectors of fire. (3) When the engagement calls for surprise fire, such as an ambush, each Marine can verify his target before firing by placing a PEQ-2A beam on it. Unit leaders can then deconflict. c. Common Errors (1) Impatience. With the limited field of view of the NVGs, it may take a moment to spot the PEQ-2A beam. Keep the beam active and moving on the objective until your men signal, “I see it!” (2) Too many targets. The difficulties in identifying targets, combined with the difficulties of hitting targets, should convince leaders of squad-sized units to engage one target at a time. (3) Too many PEQ-2A beams. PEQ-2As should only be used when engaging targets. When a unit leader is issuing fire commands, other Marines should keep their PEQ-2As off to minimize confusion. d. Note. Many PEQ-2A techniques are the same for Hand-held Laser Pointers. See Section 2.4.

b.

PEQ-2 pattern generators can be used to differentiate one PEQ-2 beam from another. This is useful for a leader directing and controlling the fires of his unit.

4.

Illuminate inside buildings with PEQ-2A a. Procedure. In dark areas, such as inside building, NVGs need an additional light source, even beyond the IR spot. Use the PEQ-2A beam as a very low power flashlight to illuminate corridors and rooms with IR light.

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b.

Techniques (1) Point the PEQ-2A beam across the street into open windows to illuminate a room. The amount of illumination depends on the reflectivity of the wall surface. (2) Use white light flashlights mounted on weapons. Do not use NVGs. The recommended technique for night fighting inside buildings is to use white light. See Section 2.9.

c.

Common Errors (1) Overconfidence. IR light is better than none, but it is still limited. NVGs restrict field of view. Teams have difficulty moving, illuminating and searching with these limitations. (2) Mixed units. If every man does not have NVGs, PEQ-2A illumination is not the answer. Leave those without NVGs outside the building or switch to white light.

5.

Boresight the PEQ-2A to the Mk153 SMAW a. Procedure. During dusk. With a target at the desired boresight distance. Remove the Mk153 SMAW telescopic sight. Attach the PEQ-2A to the Mk153 SMAW railing inverted and screwed on, ensuring that the PEQ-2A can move somewhat freely to make adjustments. The ammo man dons NVGs and mounts a 3X magnifier. The gunner sights in on the target using the Mk153 iron sights. The ammo man triggers the PEQ2A, observes the beam with his NVGs, and adjusts the beam onto the target. When the PEQ-2A beam is on target, the ammunition man turns the screw to secure it tightly.

b.

Techniques (1) Once the PEQ-2A is boresighted to the Mk153 SMAW, the gunner ignores the iron sights, dons NVGs and a 3X magnifier, and prepares to engage using only the PEQ-2A beam. (2) PVS-14 are better than PVS-7 for SMAW gunners. (3) Spotter rounds should not be used.

c.

Common Errors

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Section 2.4 Hand-held Laser Pointers
PEQ-4 PEQ-4 Data Sheet PEQ-4 Training Handout LPL-30 LPL-30 Data Sheet LPL-30 Training Handout IZ-LID II IZ-LID II Data Sheet IZ-LID II Training Handout GCP GCP Data Sheet GCP Training Handout (TBD) Hand-held Laser Pointer Tactics, Techniques and Procedures

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PEQ-4

1. Nomenclature: AN/PEQ-4 Medium Power Laser Illuminator (MPLI) 2. NSN: 5855-01-460-8365 3. Manual: TM 10580A-12&P/1 Operator’s Manual, Medium Power Laser Illuminator (MPLI), PEQ-4 4. Description: The PEQ-4 is a hand-held, battery operated, IR laser pointer, designed to illuminate and mark targets for night-vision capable aircraft and supporting arms. 5. Characteristics:
Weight: 12 oz Size: 10 in x 3 in x 3 in Wavelength: 850 - 870 nm Beam Divergence: Min: 1 m at 1000 m (1 mrad), Max: 3 degrees Power Output: Low: 100 mW, High: 600-800 mW Laser Class: 4 Range: 2200 m, 10 km for aircraft Battery: (6) AA or (3) DL 123 Lithium

6. Accessories: 24-inch Cable Switch. 7. Limitations: Visible to enemy with NVGs, especially in smoke, fog, and rain. 8. Usage Notes: Marine Infantry Battalions rate (3) PEQ-4, one for each Air Officer and FAC. However, ground unit leaders and FOs have requirements to coordinate supporting fires with tanks, AAVs, TOWs, HMGs, and adjacent units, as well as aircraft. 9. Supplier: Marine Corps Issue. TAMCN: E1799 VIIG. $4000.00 Insight Technology, Inc., 3 Technology Drive, Londonderry, NH 03053 2-35

Night Warrior Handbook

PEQ-4 Training Handout
Ref: TM 10580A-12&P/1 Operator’s Manual, Medium Power Laser Illuminator, PEQ-4 1. PEQ-4 The PEQ-4 is a hand held, battery operated, IR laser pointer, designed to illuminate and mark targets for night-vision capable aircraft and supporting arms. 2. Major components and their purposes PEQ-4 Assembly. The focus knob varies the beam from spot to flood. Rotate counterclockwise for maximum flood for area illumination. Rotate clockwise for minimum spot for target designation. Attenuation Filter reduces laser to eyesafe level. Filter snaps onto the Solid Cover. Solid Cover blocks IR light. Carrying Bag holds all components and attaches to web belt. Spare Battery Box is a replacement item. ON/OFF Switch is a detachable switch for hand-held use. Cable Switch is a detachable 24-inch cable switch for tripod or fixed mount use. Hexkey installs the plug screws. Plug Screws plug the mounting holes. 3. Battery Installation Place both switches on OFF. Remove switches prior to installing batteries. Unscrew the battery cap and install (3) DL 123 or (6) AA batteries. Orient the batteries as indicated by the markings on the case. Install battery box with arrow pointing toward contact button. Do not store the PEQ-4 with batteries installed. 4. Operation Cable Switch. A 24-inch cable switch plugs into the remote jack on the PEQ-4. When the cable switch is installed, it locks in place. To remove the cable switch, pull back on the plug sleeve and pull the plug out. Do NOT pull the cable. 2-36

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Switches. Two mode selector switches select power levels and pulse modes.
• •

(1) Switch 1 Selects OFF, LOW, MEDIUM, or HIGH power. Rotating the switch from OFF puts the laser in standby. (2) Switch 2 Selects OFF, three different pulse rates (2, 5, or 10 Hz) or the Steady On (CW) mode. Switch 2 OFF Operation Off Remarks
Normal storage configuration

Switch 1 OFF

LO, MED, HIGH OFF

OFF

Standby

Green LED blinking. Laser will activate when Switch 2 is rotated and the pushbutton depressed. Green LED blinking. Laser will activate when Switch 1 is rotated and the pushbutton depressed. Pulsing mode is used to discriminate PEQ4 laser from other lasers.

2, 5, 10, CW

Standby

LO, MED, HIGH LO, MED, HIGH

2, 5, 10

Pulsing On

CW

Steady On

Steady On mode is useful when no other lasers are being used.

5. Maintenance No Special tools are required for maintenance. Clean the PEQ-4 with a soft damp cloth, especially after exposure to salt water. Use a soft clean cloth with clean water, alcohol, or window cleaner to clean the aiming and illumination beam windows. 6. Boresighting The PEQ-4 has (2) adjusters for zeroing the laser beam when mounted. The top adjuster moves the beam vertically. A clockwise turn moves the beam down. The side adjuster moves the beam horizontally. A clockwise turn moves the beam right. 7. Safety The PEQ-4 is a class 4 laser. It can burn paper and human skin, and cause massive damage to your eyes. Treat the PEQ-4 as a weapon. Never point it at anything you do not wish to destroy.

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LPL-30

1. Nomenclature: LPL-30 Hand-held Medium Power Laser Pointer 2. NSN: 3. Manual: LPL-30 Operator’s Manual 4. Description: The LPL-30 is a lightweight, hand-held IR laser pointer, visible to Marines with NVGs. It is designed to mark targets for both aircraft and ground units. 5. Characteristics:
Weight: 195g Size: 124mm x 40mm x 20mm Wavelength: 800 - 870 nm Beam divergence: 12 in at 1000 m Power Output: 15 mW Laser Class: 3b Range: 4 km Battery: (2) AA Battery Life: 5 to 10 hours

6. Accessories:
Soft carrying case Beam diffuser / expander & holder Deflector head Training head

7. Limitations: Fixed-wing aircraft at high altitude have difficulty seeing the narrow LPL-30 beam. 8. Usage Notes: Some Marine units were issued LPL-30 as an interim hand-held laser pointer while awaiting fielding of the PEQ-4. 9. Supplier: International Technologies, Ltd. TAMCN: NONE. 2-38

Night Warrior Handbook

LPL-30 Training Handout
Ref: LPL-30 Operator’s Manual 1. LPL-30 The LPL-30 is a lightweight, hand-held IR laser pointer, visible to Marines with NVGs. It is designed to mark targets for both aircraft and ground units. 2. Major components and their purposes Laser Transmitter includes laser head and electronics module. Laser Beam Output Window is laser beam outlet, protected by rubber cover. Battery Compartment accepts (2) AA batteries. Operating Switch is a pushbutton trigger switch. Operating Indicator Lamp indicates that the LPL-30 is operating and that the batteries are correctly inserted. Rubber Sleeve protects LPL-30 from impacts and dirt. Belt Clip to hang LPL-30 from belt. Carrying Strap to carry LPL-30. Carrying Case with carrying handle. 3. Battery Installation Press battery compartment cover grips and pull out cover. Insert (2) AA batteries into battery compartment. Notice the polarity marking on the instrument body. Replace battery compartment cover by pressing the two grips and pushing cover into place. Remove the batteries from the LPL-30 prior to storage. 4. Operation Press laser trigger. Using night vision device, bring laser beam onto target. To turn beam off, release trigger. 5. Maintenance Laser beam output window. Check window for chips or cracks. Clean with damp cloth and dry with lens paper. Exterior. Check for damage. Clean. Rinse with water after exposure to salt-water. 2-39

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Batteries. Check for leaks. Replace faulty batteries. Battery Compartment. Check for corrosion. Clean electrical contacts. Operating Switch. Install batteries. Press and hold switch. Use NVGs to check operation. Carrying Case. Use a damp cloth to clean. 6. Storage Store the LPL-30 in a dark, cool, moisture-free area. Use of an anti-moisture agent such as Silica Gel is recommended. Avoid exposure to heat. 7. Optional Accessories Soft carrying case for storage under field conditions. Beam diffuser / expander diffuses the laser beam to use LPL-30 as an IR illuminator. Beam diffuser holder holds diffuser when not in use. Deflector head (Operations) deflects laser 90 degrees. Deflector head (Training) deflects laser 90 degrees. Contains filter to make LPL-30 eyesafe. Training deflector is identical to operational deflector except for its blue color.

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Night Warrior Handbook

IZ-LID II

1. Nomenclature: IZ-LID II High Energy Infrared Zoom Laser Illuminator 2. NSN: 3. Manual: IZ-LID II Operator’s Manual 4. Description: The IZ-LID II is a high-power, hand-held, laser illuminator / designator visible to Marines with NVGs. It is designed to illuminate and mark targets for aircraft and supporting arms. 5. Characteristics: Weight: 1 lb 11 oz Length: 9.9 in Wavelength: 870 nm Beam Divergence: 1 m at 1000 m (1 mrad), 5 m at 5 km Power Output: Laser output: 1 w Optical lens: 525 mw Laser Class: 3b Range: > 5 km Battery: (3) C Battery Life: 1.5 hrs 6. Accessories: 2000mm F/11 telescope, Tripod mount 7. Limitations: Visible to an enemy with NVGs, especially in smoke, fog, or rain. 8. Usage Notes: Waterproof to 66 feet. 9. Supplier: B.E. Meyers & Co. Inc., http://www.bemeyers.com, (800) 327-5648, (800) DARKNITE, FAX (425) 867-1759

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Night Warrior Handbook

IZ-LID II Training Handout
Ref: IZ-LID II Operator’s Manual 1. IZ-LID II IZ-LID II is a high-power, hand-held, laser illuminator / designator visible to Marines with NVGs. It is designed to illuminate and mark targets for aircraft and supporting arms. 2. Major components and their purposes Aperture Cap prevents inadvertent laser emission. ON / OFF LOW / HIGH Switch turns IZ-LID on. Selects laser pulse rate. Battery Compartment accepts (3) C batteries. Laser LED indicates low, medium, and high power modes. Tethered Male Arming Plug arms laser when plugged into battery compartment. C-mount Lens is the objective lens. Removal of lens increases unit to Class 4 laser. Zoom Control adjusts beam convergence from spot to flood 3. Battery Installation Unscrew battery cap. Insert (3) C cells with the positive button facing forward. Replace battery cap. Do not store batteries inside IZ-LID II. 4. Operation. At night, while wearing NVGs: Flip up Aperture Cap. Insert arming plug at center rear of battery compartment Turn power switch counterclockwise to LOW, HIGH, or HIGH PULSE. Turn Objective Lens counterclockwise for pinpoint beam or clockwise for flood beam. 5. Maintenance The IZLID II is waterproof. Flush with fresh water after exposure to salt water. Dry completely before storage. Clean the lens with dry lens paper or tissue paper.

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Night Warrior Handbook

GCP
1. Nomenclature: Ground Commander’s Pointer (GCP): GCP-1A, GCP-1B, GCP-2, GCP-2A 2. NSN:
GCP-1A 5855-01-420-0849 GCP-1B 5855-01-420-0851 GCP-2 (v1) 5855-01-420-0817 GCP-2 (v2) 5855-01-448-8155 GCP-2A (v1) 5855-01-420-0821 GCP-2A (v2) 5855-01-448-8159

3. Manual: 4. Description: The GCP is a family of hand-held laser pointers and illuminators, visible only to Marines with NVGs. GCP is designed to provide marking and illumination for ground commanders. The beam can be adjusted from spot to flood. 5. Characteristics:
Weight: GCP-1A, GCP-1B Weight: GCP-2, GCP-2A Wavelength: Beam Divergence: Power Output: Power Output: Laser Class: Range: GCP-1A: GCP-1B: GCP-2: GCP-2A: Battery: 128 g / 4.5 oz 143 g / 5 oz 830 nm 0.5 mR to 30 degrees GCP-1A, GCP-2 50mW GCP-1B, GCP-2A 100 mW 3b Spot Beam 8000 m 12,000 m 8000 m 10,000 m (2) AA 2-degree Beam 1500 m 3000 m 1500 m 3000 m 10-degree Beam 800 m 1600 m 800 m 1600 m

6. Accessories: Power switch safety cover, lens cover. 7. Limitations: Visible to enemy with NVGs, especially in smoke, fog and rain. 8. Usage Notes: U.S. Army airborne and Ranger units down to squad level have been issued commercial GCPs for development of night techniques. GCP can mark targets for organic and non-organic ground fires and CAS. GCP can illuminate dark areas, provide ITG for helicopters, and point fields of fire. Can also be weapon-mounted. 9. Supplier: Night Vision Equipment Corporation, Inc., P.O. Box 266, Emmaus, PA 180490266, POC: Gene Adcock, VP, (610) 391-9101, FAX (610) 391-9220, http://www.nvecnight-vision.com, nvec@ptdprolog.net, GCP-1A $1051.00, GCP-1B, $1451.00, GCP-2 $1548.00, GCP-2A $1851.00 2-43

Night Warrior Handbook

Hand-held Laser Pointer TTP
Weapons laser pointers, PAQ-4C and PEQ-2A, either hand-held or mounted to a weapon, can also be used for most of the following TTP. The PAQ-4C can be seen by Cobras. 1. Mark your position at night with a Hand-held Laser Pointer a. Procedure. ‘Rope’ your position by pointing the laser pointer to the sky and moving it in a circular manner like a lasso to form a cone of IR light. Techniques • • • • • • ‘Rope’ can be a distant ITG signal for assault helicopters on extract, medevac, or resupply missions. ‘Rope’ can be a POSREP signal to orient adjacent and supporting units. ‘Rope’ can be a link-up point signal, especially with vehicles on medevac or resupply missions. ‘Rope’ marks friendly observer position for CAS aircraft. An alternate POSREP technique is to mark your position by running the IR beam from a circle at your feet out toward the target and then back to your feet, while communicating with the observer. In an urban area, the ‘rope’ can be made on the side of a building, while communicating your position relative to the building.

b.

c.

Common Errors • • ‘Roping an aircraft. Do NOT point a laser pointer anywhere near an aircraft. Stopping early. Maintain ‘rope’ until the other Marine sees your position.

2.

Mark a target at night with a Hand-held Laser Pointer a. Procedure: ‘Snake’ a target by placing the IR laser beam on the target and moving the beam in a figureeight motion. ‘Steady’ the beam on the target by holding the pointer still. ‘Shift’ the beam from one target to another, keeping the beam turned on. ‘Stop’ the IR beam by shutting the beam off. ‘Stop’ is different from ‘Terminate,’ which is only used to cease illumination by a laser designator. Techniques. Maintain ‘snake’ on the target until observer sees your mark. At that point you should ‘steady’ the mark, and keep it on the target throughout the attack. • • • • For CAS, the pilot will initiate most of the calls. For organic or supporting fires, such as tanks, AAVs, TWO, HMG or snipers, the unit leader requesting fire will make most of the calls. To mark a target in a well-lit urban area, first ‘snake’ a darkened area, have the pilot acquire the mark, and then slowly move the mark to the target. In an urban area, the ‘snake’ can be made on the side of a building, and then moved to the actual target, while communicating with the observer.

b.

c.

Common Errors. • • • • Excessive laser pointer movement. It is easier to see a moving spot than a stationary one. Too much movement, however, confuses the observer. Not using standard IR laser terminology as above. Stopping the beam before the mark has been seen by the attacking unit. Using the same pointer motion for both ‘rope’ and ‘snake.’

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Night Warrior Handbook 3. Control CAS at night with a Hand-Held Laser Pointer a. Procedure. Establish a laser-to-target-line (LTL) and determine the best aircraft attack direction. As the aircraft appear, rope your position until they contact the beam. Using PVS-7, acquire the aircraft and keep it in sight. This is imperative to give them a "cleared hot" call. When the pilot calls "snake," you will snake the target until he sees the mark and calls "contact the mark." The next call is "steady" as they begin their attack run. Keep the laser spot steady on the target throughout the aircraft’s attack. Techniques • • IR pointers work best in low light conditions. Higher light levels, especially cultural lighting, reduce the distance at which aircraft can pick up the IR beam. Round the magnetic heading of the LTL to the nearest five degrees. Give the aircrew a final attack cone (FAC) off one shoulder. Use a standard safety cone of 10 degrees on either side of the LTL to prohibit aircraft approach. The cone should be between 10 and 60 degrees off the LTL to provide good opportunity for the aircrew to "contact the mark." MAWTS-1 recommends a combined laser spot with tracer fire from 7.62 or .50 caliber machineguns. Locate friendly forces by marking positions on the deck while communicating with aircraft. Aircraft with laser pointers can confirm target location by marking target from the air and having observer acknowledge correct target.

b.

• • •

c.

Common Errors • • • • • • • Excessive laser pointer movement. Use slow, deliberate movements. Not using a 10 to 60 degree final attack cone to give the aircrew the best chance to acquire the mark. If the aircraft is attacking from 90 degrees off the LTL, it will not see the laser mark. The aircraft should NEVER attack head-on toward the controller. Failure to use standard Joint CAS terminology. Failure of aircraft to contact the mark. Fixed-wing aircraft using high-altitude tactics may have difficulty acquiring the spot. Using a flood beam. Using a wide-angle beam shortens the range of the laser pointer and decreases the acquisition range of the aircraft, making it more difficult for the aircraft to see the mark. Confusing aircraft. Insure that marks on friendly forces are not confused with marks on target. Allowing an enemy with NVGs to see laser and locate friendly forces.

4.

Control direct fire at night with a Hand-held Laser Pointer a. Procedure. ‘Rope’ your position if necessary to orient distant firing units. ‘Snake’ the target, key terrain, friendly positions, and control measures to orient observers. ‘Snake’ the target to mark. Issue fire command. ‘Steady’ beam on target during attack. ‘Shift’ beam to shift fires to another target. ‘Stop’ beam and pass "cease fire." Techniques • • • • • Distribute fire by marking targets and assigning each target to separate firing units. An engagement area (EA) can be defined by snaking each of the target reference points (TRPs) that define the EA. Concentrate fire by issuing the same fire command to multiple units while marking a single target. Small unit leaders can mount their Hand-held Laser Pointer to the top of their NVGs with tape for hands-free access. Small units can be issued verbal orientation and fire commands to match laser directions. Small unit leaders can move to each weapon for guidance and direction. Supporting units, such as tanks, AAVs, HMG, TOWs, anti-armor, and snipers, require radio communications. Extra care should be taken when orienting by laser and radio, and marking targets by laser and radio. The firing unit may be able to confirm targets by responding with their own laser mark.

b.

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Night Warrior Handbook • In defensive operations, a Hand-held Laser Pointer can be used to check sectors of fire for weapons. Weapons equipped with weapons laser pointers can confirm their sectors, targets, and shift targets.

c.

Common Errors • • • Poor fire distribution (or concentration) from poorly communicated fire commands or misunderstood laser marks. Intermittent radio communication can cause dangerously misunderstood fire commands. Mistaking another laser beam for the leader’s laser beam on an IR-cluttered battlefield. Unit leaders need to insure that individual weapons laser pointers are only used while firing. Not using standard laser terminology.

5.

Execute support-by-fire (SBF) drill at night with a Hand-held Laser Pointer a. Procedure. The commander of the SBF unit needs to kneel and execute the following procedure with each of his weapons crews. Gunners and leaders need NVGs. Using a Hand-held Laser Pointer, ‘Snake’ the objective, key terrain, and control measures to orient each crew. ‘Snake’ friendly positions and planned maneuver lanes. Define the left and right lateral limits. The crew records these azimuths. Define the primary target and the shift target. The crew records these azimuths. Issue fire commands. Techniques • • • • If possible, friendly positions should signal SBF position during the drill to confirm their locations. The leftmost (or rightmost) weapon can fire tracers to define the target and shift target. All weapons equipped with night scopes or laser pointers should fire no tracers. Small unit leaders can mount their Hand-held Laser Pointer to the top of their NVGs with tape for hands-free access. The SBF drill is best done during the day. All targets and limits are laid on the guns when visible. Azimuths are recorded for backup. Even with NVGs and laser pointers, executing the SBF drill in the dark should be avoided.

b.

c.

Common Errors • • Not allowing enough time. Not only is the SBF drill more accurate run during the day, it is also faster during the day. Running the SBF drill in the dark takes a significant amount of time for each weapon. Overconfidence. NVGs and laser pointers do NOT replicate daytime capabilities. A distant SBF unit will have difficulty maintaining situation awareness, difficulty seeing and communicating with the maneuver element, and difficulty controlling the fire of each weapon in the dark.

7.

Direct maneuver with a Hand-held Laser Pointer a. Procedure. ‘Snake’ the objective, key terrain, and control measures, if necessary, to orient your unit. ‘Snake’ the unit’s destination. Point the IR beam at your feet or an offset start point, and then run it along the route that you want the unit to follow. Issue directions as you point out the route. Techniques • • • When marking many different features, use slow IR beam movements and talk through each laser direction. Small unit leaders can mount their Hand-held Laser Pointer to the top of their NVGs with tape for hands-free access. When communicating by radio, use slow IR beam movements and clear explanations. Confirm each mark. The firing unit may be able to confirm targets by responding with their own laser mark.

b.

c.

Common Errors. Overconfidence. Each observer sees your laser marks from a different direction. Some marks are not visible at all. Movement orders may easily be misunderstood.

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Night Warrior Handbook

Section 2.5 Laser Designators
PEQ-1A SOFLAM PEQ-1A Data Sheet PEQ-1A Training Handout PVS-13 PVS-13 Data Sheet PVS-13 Training Handout How to Boresight PVS-13 to PEQ-1A PEQ-1A SOFLAM / PVS-13 Tactics, Techniques and Procedures

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Night Warrior Handbook

PEQ-1A SOFLAM

1. Nomenclature: 2. NSN: 3. Manual: 4. Description:

AN/PEQ-1A Special Operations Forces Laser Marker (SOFLAM) 7H-5860-01-408-7242 SW230-AD-MMO-010 The PEQ-1A SOFLAM is a man portable laser designator used to mark targets for laser-guided ordnance and a laser range finder for determining the distance to a target. Weight: Range: Magnification: Battery: Laser Class: Wavelength: Output: Laser Marker: 12.0 lbs System: 17.8 lbs > 5 km 10X (5) BA 5590/U Lithium (4) BB 590 NiCad 4 1064 nm >80 mJ 00-1054-9042 PVS-13

5. Characteristics:

6. Accessories:

Tripod: Night Vision Scope:

8. Usage Notes: 9. Supplier:

Currently issued only to Marine Corps reconnaissance units. Marine Corps Issue. TAMCN: E1029

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Night Warrior Handbook

PEQ-1A Training Handout
1. The PEQ-1A SOFLAM is a man portable laser designator used to mark targets for laserguided ordnance and a laser range finder for determining the distance to a target. 2. Major components and their purposes
a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. PEQ-1A SOFLAM Tripod 10' Remote Cable 150' Remote Cable Power Cable Cleaning Compound, Lens Tissue Operator's Manual Field Carry Case Shipping Container Battery Bag Vehicular Cable Adapter For remote operation. For remote operation. Connects PEQ-1A SOFLAM to Battery Bag. To clean lens. SW 230-AD-MMO-010. For carrying PEQ-1A in the field. For shipping and storage. Holds five BA 5590 batteries. To power PEQ-1A SOFLAM from a vehicle. Laser designator and range finder unit.

3. Battery Installation. Set up tripod. Attach PEQ-1A SOFLAM to tripod. Insert batteries in Battery Bag. Connect Battery Bag to PEQ-1A SOFLAM using the power cable. 4. Controls
a. b. c. d. e. f. g. OFF/RANGE/MARK/OR switch turns PEQ-1A on. Turn to RANGE for rangefinding or MARK for laser marking. PRF Code Buttons select the Pulse Repetition Frequency. Eyepiece Diopter Ring focuses the eyepiece. RETICLE switch. Pull to illuminate reticle. Turn clockwise to brighten. Push off. FIRE pushbutton. In RANGE mode, fires laser once. In MARK mode, fires laser continuously. FIRST/LAST/TEST switch is used to discriminate between two targets along the same line of sight. TEST position illuminates all indicators in the Eyepiece Display Screen. Eyepiece Display Screen (1) XMT illuminates when laser is transmitting. (2) HOT illuminates when laser is overheating. (3) MLT illuminates when multiple targets have been detected. (4) BAT illuminates when power source is low. (5) The range indicator displays the target range in meters when the FIRE pushbutton is pressed.

5. Rangefinding Operation
a. b. c. d. Remove lens cap and eyeshield plug. Set OFF/RANGE/MARK switch to RANGE/MARK or O/R. Enter the PRF code. Set FIRST/LAST/TEST switch to FIRST.

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Night Warrior Handbook

PVS-13

1. Nomenclature: 2. NSN: 3. Manual:

AN/PVS-13 Laser Marker Night Vision Sight (LMNVS) 7H-5855-01-407-2300 SW215-AW-MMO-01A Operator's and Maintenance Manual for AN/PVS-13, Laser Marker Night Vision Sight (LMNVS) The PVS-13 LMNVS provides night operation capability to the PEQ-1A SOFLAM. The PVS-13 is capable of viewing the beam of laser pointers. Weight: Range: System Magnification: Battery: Bright Light Filter: Day Light Filter: Maximum Altitude: Water Immersion: 4.2 lbs 50 meters to infinity 6X (2) AA 39102755 39102752 45000 ft 3m

4. Description:

5. Characteristics:

6. Accessories:

7. Limitations:

8. Usage Notes: 9. Supplier:

The PVS-13 is issued for use only with the PEQ-1A SOFLAM. Marine Corps Issue. VARO, Inc. Contract No. N00164-94-C-0223.

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Night Warrior Handbook

PVS-13 Training Handout
1. The PVS-13 provides high performance observation, target acquisition and laser energy detection during both day and night operations. The PVS-13 can focus on targets from 50 meters to infinity. The PVS-13 can view laser pointers, but not the PEQ-1A SOFLAM laser mark. 2. Major components and their purposes a. Shipping Case b. High Light Filter c. Day Light Filter d. PVS-13 e. Lens Tissue f. Operator's Manual Storage container. Used for dawn, dusk, full moon or urban lighting. Used during daylight. Night vision scope. To clean lens. SW 215-AW-MMO-101.

3. Battery Installation. Insure that PVS-13 is OFF. Remove battery cap. Insert (2) AA batteries as indicated on battery housing. Close battery cap. 4. Controls a. Eyepiece Focus Ring b. Objective Focus Knob c. Reticle Windage Knob d. ON-OFF Switch e. Reticle Elevation Knob f. Reticle Brightness Knob Focuses eyepiece for sharpest view of reticle. Focuses objective lens for sharpest view of scene. Moves reticle right or left for windage. Turns PVS-13 ON. Moves reticle up or down for elevation. Adjusts the brightness of the reticle pattern.

5. Operation. Place Day Light Filter over lens when operating during the day. Turn ON. Select target. Adjust Objective Focus Knob first. Adjust Eyepiece Focus Ring second.

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How to Boresight PVS-13 to PEQ-1A
1. Boresight. Boresight the PVS-13 to the PEQ-1A during dusk or daylight. After boresighting, DO NOT REMOVE the PVS-13 from the PEQ-1A SOFLAM. a. Insert batteries. b. Loosen the two thumbscrews on the PVS-13 mount. c. Mount the PVS-13 to the weaver type mounting rail on the PEQ-1A SOFLAM. d. Hand tighten the two PVS-13 thumbscrews. e. Turn the PVS-13 ON. f. Focus the PVS-13 using the Eyepiece Focus Ring and Objective Focus Knob. g. Adjust the reticle brightness with the Reticle Brightness Knob. h. Adjust PVS-13 reticle using the Reticle Windage and Reticle Elevation Knobs until the target in the PVS-13 reticle coincides with the target in the PEQ-1A SOFLAM reticle.

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Night Warrior Handbook

PEQ-1A SOFLAM / PVS-13 TTP
1. Remote fire the PEQ-1A in the dark a. Procedure. Set up PEQ-1A SOFLAM. During daylight or dusk Boresight PVS-13 to PEQ-1A SOFLAM. Attach either 10 foot or 150 foot remote operating cable. Select target as if planning to fire: enter PRF code and adjust FIRST / LAST / TEST switch. Move to remote location. Establish comm with aircraft. When needed, fire PEQ-1A with remote switch. Techniques (1) PEQ-1A does NOT need to be level to be boresighted or fired. (2) PEQ-1A does NOT need to be mounted on the tripod. Any solid surface that keeps the PEQ-1A steady, and allows access to the controls will do. c. Common Errors (1) Not locking tripod. Any movement of PEQ-1A will affect aim. (2) Not removing laser cover. (3) Not boresighting.

b.

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Night Warrior Handbook

Section 2.6 IR Signals
IR Signals Phoenix Beacon Data Sheet Phoenix Junior Data Sheet Firefly Data Sheet IR Chemlites Data Sheet IR Signals Tactics, Techniques and Procedures

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Night Warrior Handbook

Phoenix Beacon

1. 2. 3. 4.

Nomenclature: NSN: Manual: Description:

Phoenix Beacon 5855-01-396-8734 NONE The Phoenix Beacon is a pocket-sized, waterproof, programmable IR beacon. It emits a user-programmable code that can be seen with NVGs up to 32k away. Weight : Battery: Battery Life: Memory: Size: Wavelength: Intensity: 2 oz (with battery) (1) 9-volt (1) BA-3090 5 to 320 hours (varies with code length) 20 seconds 1” x 0.75” x 2.5” (with battery) 880 nm 750 mCd

5.

Characteristics:

6. 7.

Accessories: Limitations:

NONE Easily lost. No dummy cord eyelet. Can be seen through clothing. Can be seen by enemy with NVGs. With a coin or dogtag, the user taps a code into the 20-second memory. Beacon can be used to mark static positions, SBF positions, moving units, linkup points, vehicles, LZITG, and CAS-FAC positions. Can be re-programmed in the field. Night Vision Equipment Corporation, Inc. P.O. Box 266 Emmaus, PA 18049-0266 (610) 391-9101, FAX (610) 391-9220 www.nvec-night-vision.com / nvec@ptdprolog.net Phoenix Beacon, Model IR-15, $65.00 Two-channel Phoenix 2.5 (5855-01-451-9877) IR-25, $129.00

8.

Usage Notes:

9.

Supplier:

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Night Warrior Handbook

Phoenix Junior

1. 2. 3. 4.

Nomenclature: NSN: Manual: Description:

Phoenix Junior 5855-01-438-4588 NONE The Phoenix Junior is a pocket-sized, waterproof IR beacon that emits a constant 45 flashes per minute. It was designed to replace the standard DoD Budd-Light flashing IR beacon. Weight : Battery: Battery Life: Diode Life: Flash Rate: Size: Wavelength: Intensity: 2 oz (with battery) (1) 9-volt (1) BA-3090 10 hours 20 hours 45 ppm 1” x 0.75” x 2.5” (with battery) 830 nm 750 mCd

5.

Characteristics:

6. 7.

Accessories: Limitations:

NONE Not programmable. Easily lost. No dummy cord eyelet. Can be seen through clothing. Can be seen by enemy with NVGs. Beacon can be used to mark static positions, SBF positions, moving units, linkup points, vehicles, LZ-ITG, and CAS-FAC positions. Night Vision Equipment Corporation, Inc. P.O. Box 266 Emmaus, PA 18049-0266 POC: Gene Adcock, VP (610) 391-9101, FAX (610) 391-9220 www.nvec-night-vision.com nvec@ptdprolog.net Phoenix Junior, Model IR-14, $20.00

8.

Usage Notes:

9.

Supplier:

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Night Warrior Handbook

Firefly

1. 2. 3. 4.

Nomenclature: NSN: Manual: Description:

Firefly 6240-01-275-8080 NONE The Firefly is a pocket-sized IR beacon that emits a steady IR light that can be viewed with NVGs. Weight : Battery: 2 oz (with battery) (1) 9-volt (1) BA-3090

5.

Characteristics:

6. 7.

Accessories: Limitations:

NONE Not programmable. Easily lost. No dummy cord eyelet. Can be seen through clothing. Can be seen by enemy with NVGs. Does not flash. Beacon can be used to mark static positions, SBF positions, moving units, linkup points, vehicles, LZ-ITG, and CAS-FAC positions. Marine Corps Supply System.

8.

Usage Notes:

9.

Supplier:

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Night Warrior Handbook

IR Chemlites

1. 2. 3. 4.

Nomenclature: NSN: Manual: Description:

IR Chemlite 6260-01-195-9752 NONE Six-inch chemlite glows with IR light for three hours when snapped. Designed for marking equipment, locations and personnel. Visible only to Marines equipped with NVGs.

5. 6. 7. 8.

Characteristics: Accessories: Limitations: Usage Notes: NONE Visible to an enemy equipped with NVGs. Light expires after three hours. Unlimited potential uses. Used for marking LZs, routes, linkup points, and assembly areas. Tiny IR chemlites (1 ½” 9528105) are also useful for marking individuals or map reading. Colored Chemlites are less visible when the enemy is equipped with NVGs: Blue Green Yellow Red White NSN 6260-01-178-5560 NSN 6260-01-074-4229 NSN 6260-01-196-0136 NSN 6260-01-178-5559 NSN 6260-01-218-5146

9.

Supplier:

Marine Corps Supply System. Omniglow Corporation 20-C Pimentel Court, Novato, CA 94949

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Night Warrior Handbook

IR Signals TTP

1.

Provide ITG at LZ a. Procedure. Use radio to brief aircraft grid and ITG. Signal inbound aircraft with one method of distant ITG. Mark LZ with one method of near ITG. Techniques. (1) Each LZ needs one method of distant ITG and one method of near ITG. Although radio is the primary signal, ITG is always emplaced. The no-comm plan is to extract using ITG only. (2) Distant ITG. IR beacon, preferably a programmable Phoenix, is the best distant ITG signal. A beacon can be made directional by placing it inside an M-203 or 60mm mortar fiber. (3) Distant ITG. IR Hand-held Laser Pointer ‘Rope,’ IR chemlite ‘buzzsaw,’ visible chemlite ‘buzzsaw,’ visible light flashlight, or visible pyro are also distant ITG techniques, listed in order of preference.

b.

(4) Near ITG. IR chemlite ‘T’ is the best near ITG. The ‘T’ is the landing point of the first helicopter. Helicopter lands nose into the wind, so that the ‘T’ is readable. Five IR chemlites, placed 7 meters apart make the ‘T.’ (5) Near ITG. Visible light chemlite ‘T,’ is second option. Smoke, which is visible to pilots on NVGs can also be used on clear nights. c. Common Errors (1) White Strobe. Avoid using a white strobe. It looks like muzzle flashes to the aircraft.

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Night Warrior Handbook

(2) Wind ‘T’ with single visible light chemlites. IR chemlites are much more visible than visible light chemlites. If no IR chemlites are available, tape two colored chemlites together at each position. For pilots on NVGs, red chemlites are more visible than green chemlites.

(3) Unsecured chemlites. All chemlites need to be doubly secured to the deck to prevent scattering under rotor wash. Each chemlite should be staked down with a large nail, with a cord holding it to a bush or rock. Carry an ITG kit with chemlites and these additional items.

2.

Mark Pickup Zone a. Procedure. Use a beacon for distant ITG. Use a wind ‘T’ for near ITG. In a large PZ, use an IR chemlite at each staging point to guide Marines. Attach the chemlite to an MRE placard that lists the serials for each wave. Techniques (1) Use two chemlites to mark boundaries of the MACO gate. All Marines pass through the gate on their way to their serial staging point. Control and accountability is all done at the MACO gate. (2) Mark aircraft windows with chemlites. One, two, or three chemlites, placed vertically or horizontally, can mark each aircraft. Crew chiefs should know what serial is expected. c. Common Errors. Poor planning. Night PZs are difficult to execute. A PZ sketch, showing ITG, serial staging points, LZ control freqs, MACO gate, and serial assignments should be developed by both the ACE and GCE.

b.

3.

Mark Linkup Point a. Procedure. Select a linkup point that is near a landmark. Mark the linkup point with the SOP daylight mark and the SOP night mark. Techniques

b.

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(1) A programmable Phoenix Beacon is the best SOP night mark. The beacon can only be seen by Marines wearing NVGs and the code can then be confirmed by the moving unit. (2) IR chemlites can be used for the night linkup point mark. Chemlites are difficult to see from a distance and difficult to see in vegetation. (3) SOP linkup procedures need to be rehearsed. PVS-7 IR illuminators can be used to flash the linkup signals back and forth from the moving unit contact team to the stationary unit observers who are overwatching the linkup point. c. Common Errors (1) Poor choice of linkup point. Do not select a linkup point far from any landmarks. The moving unit should be able to find the linkup point by shooting an offset from a landmark. (2) GPS dependence. GPS does NOT solve all linkup problems. Use the map as the primary reference, and the GPS as the backup. (3) Moving the linkup point. The stationary unit must mark the linkup point briefed. Moving the linkup point because the point is found to be less than ideal confuses the moving unit. (4) Hidden beacon. Place the IR beacon off the deck so it can be seen. The more vegetation, the higher the beacon must be. 4. Mark maneuver element a. Procedure. Mark both flank men of the maneuver element with IR signals. Mark the flank man closest to the SBF position with a programmable Phoenix Beacon tucked under his helmet band. Mark the far flank man with an IR chemlite under his helmet band. Techniques (1) The unit leader can be marked with an IR beacon. Flanks can be marked with additional beacons or IR chemlites. (2) In certain situation, ALL Marines can be marked with IR chemlites under their helmet bands. (3) The SBF position can also be marked with a programmable Phoenix beacon so adjacent units and RWCAS can differentiate between the SBF and the maneuver element. c. Common Errors (1) Overmarking. On an IR-cluttered battlefield, leaders need to minimize IR light to insure that only important positions and units are marked. (2) Early marks. If the enemy has NVGs, all markings must remain off for as long as possible.

b.

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Night Warrior Handbook

Section 2.7 IR Ammunition
IR Flares IR Flares Data Sheet (TBD) IR Flares Training Handout (TBD) IR Flares Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TBD) IR Illumination Mortar Round IR Illumination Mortar Round Data Sheet (TBD) IR Illumination Mortar Round Training Handout (TBD) IR Illumination Mortar Round Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TBD) IR Illumination Artillery Round IR Illumination Artillery Round Data Sheet (TBD) IR Illumination Artillery Round Training Handout (TBD) IR Illumination Artillery Round Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TBD) IR Smoke Grenade IR Smoke Grenade Data Sheet (TBD) IR Smoke Grenade Training Handout (TBD) IR Smoke Grenade Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TBD)

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Section 2.8 Combat ID
Combat ID Glow-Tape Data Sheet Luminous Tape Data Sheet Glint Tape Data Sheet Combat ID Tactics, Techniques and Procedures

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Glo-Tape

1.

Nomenclature:

Type IFF-980 Adhesive Type IFF-67 Sew-On NONE NONE Glo-Tape is a black duct-tape that reflects IR light. Wavelength: Visible Light Signature IR Signature NONE 800 - 1200 nm Black Tape Bright Glow

2. 3. 4. 5.

NSN: Manual: Description: Characteristics:

6. 7. 8.

Accessories: Limitations: Usage Notes:

Glo-Tape is designed for marking vehicles and positions. When illuminated with visible light, it exhibits no reflective characteristics. When illuminated with IR light, the tape appears to glow brightly. The reflection is only seen by those with NVGs. Night Vision Equipment Corporation, Inc. P.O. Box 266 Emmaus, PA 18049-0266 (610) 391-9101, FAX (610) 391-9220 www.nvec-night-vision.com / nvec@ptdprolog.net

9.

Supplier:

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Luminous Tape

1. 2.

Nomenclature: NSN:

Luminous Tape 9390-00-067-6159 9390-00-282-7867 9390-00-926-1363 9390-01-054-1809 9390-01-066-9542 9390-01-071-5630 9390-01-295-8978 9390-01-363-8269 9390-01-363-8270 9390-01-468-9906

Plastic, 4” wide, Phosphorescent RED ORANGE Plastic, 1.5” wide, Fluorescent YELLOW Plastic, 2” wide, Fluorescent, Striped RED ORANGE Plastic, 0.5” wide, Fluorescent

RED Plastic, 1.8” wide, Fluorescent WHITE Plastic, 1.8” wide, Fluorescent Elastic Helmet Band with luminous tags.

3. 4.

Manual: Description:

NONE Luminous tape is designed to reflect white light, making it visible in the dark. Phosphorescent tape absorbs white light and then glows in the dark. Multiple types and sizes of luminous and phosphorescent tape exist in the Marine Corps Supply System. Commercial luminous tape is also available. TBD TBD Unit SOPs should address use of luminous tape for combat ID purposes. Marine Corps Supply System.

5.

Characteristics:

6. 7. 8. 9.

Accessories: Limitations: Usage Notes: Supplier:

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Glint Tape

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Nomenclature: NSN: Manual: Description: Characteristics:

Glint Tape

Glint tape reflects IR light Glint tape does not glow, but reflects any IR light directed at it. Glint tape is available through the Marine Corps Supply System. Commercial glint tape is also available.

6. 7. 8.

Accessories: Limitations: Usage Notes: Unit SOPs should address use of glint tape for combat ID purposes. Aviation units have SOPs for combat ID of ground units. Marine Corps Supply System.

9.

Supplier:

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Combat ID TTP
1. Mark individual Marines a. Procedure. Unit SOP should define individual Marine markings. Each man can be marked in a number of ways, depending on his billet and the unit’s mission. Techniques (1) Cat eyes on helmet band. All Marines should be issued helmet bands, even when cammie nets are worn. Helmet band can hold IR chemlites, IR beacons, as well as natural camouflage. (2) Cat eyes sewn to outside of soft cover. Alternatively, cat eyes can be sewn inside the soft cover so that the luminous tape is only visible when the band if folded back. (3) For a night raid, each element can be marked differently. Each unit symbol consists of two strips of luminous tape, ¾” x 1 ½”. The support element is two horizontal stripes, the assault element is two vertical stripes, the security element is a cross and the command element is a ‘T’. In addition, two nickel-sized dots mark element leaders, usually platoon commanders and platoon sergeants. One nickel-sized dot marks a squad leader. (4) 2” Glint Tape square on top of helmet allows aircraft, especially RWCAS, to see each Marine.

b.

(5) A strip of Glint Tape on left rear shoulder allows aircraft, especially RWCAS, to see each Marine. Additionally, maneuver elements can be seen by SBF units. (6) For helicopter extract, each stick leader can be marked with an IR chemlite. c. Common Errors. Too few marks make coordination difficult. Key leaders, and key positions should be easily identified. Too many marks are confusing and counterproductive.

2.

Mark vehicles and equipment a. Procedure. Mark vehicles with two 3” squares of Glint tape on the front corners of the hood for recognition from the air. Techniques (1) Doors or sides of vehicles can be marked with IR reflective tape for ground identification. (2) DARPA Light, an IR beacon, can be mounted to the antenna mount of a HMMWV for recognition. (3) An IR chemlite attached to the antenna allows vehicles to be seen from a distance.

b.

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Section 2.9 Accessories
Laser Boresight System Laser Boresight System Data Sheet Laser Boresight System Training Handout (TBD) Flashlights Visible Light Illuminator Data Sheet IR Flashlight Filters Flashlight Tactics, Techniques and Procedures IR Barriers (TBD) Ghost Infrared Cloaking Fabric (TBD) Medical Blanket (TBD) Emergency Blanket (TBD) IR Barriers Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TBD)

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Laser Boresight System

1. 2. 3. 4.

Nomenclature: NSN: Manual: Description:

Laser Boresight System (LBS) 5860-01-466-2087 Draft 12&P Manual The LBS enables Marines to quickly and accurately boresight weapons sights such as iron sights, image intensifier night vision sights, laser aiming devices, and thermal weapons sights without having to fire the weapon. Weight Laser Class: Wavelength: Battery: Assembly: System: 2 650 nm (1) AA 9.25 oz 2.5 lbs

5.

Characteristics:

6.

Accessories:

Bore shaft mandrels for 5.56, 7.62 and .50 caliber weapons, carrying bag, and boresight targets. TBD The LBS allows Marines to boresight weapons accessories aboard ship, aboard transport aircraft, and in assembly areas. Units on the battlefield can exchange weapons and sights based on new mission requirements and then rapidly boresight these new accessories. Marine Corps Issue FY01. TAMCN: E0956 VII BP. $215.00

7. 8.

Limitations: Usage Notes:

9.

Supplier:

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Visible Light Illuminator

1. 2. 3. 4.

Nomenclature: NSN: Manual: Description:

VLI-001 Illuminator, Light, Visible 5855-01-448-5464 VLI-001 Technical Manual The VLI is a compact, durable, lightweight, white light weapons flashlight that mounts to the M-16A2 rifle via an integral MIL-STD-1913 rail attachment. It projects a wideangle beam of white light for searching and target acquisition. Weight (Assembly): Battery: 7.19 oz (6) AA (3) DL123A

5.

Characteristics:

6. 7. 8.

Accessories: Limitations: Usage Notes:

Removable flip-up filters: red filter attachment, IR filter attachment. TBD The VLI mounts to the left side of the rifle without interfering with the mounts for the PAQ-4C or PEQ-2A. On / Off switch can be activated while maintaining weapons posture and hand-weld. It can also be used in the hand-held mode. Marine Corps Issue FY01. TAMCN: N6030 II EP. $181.00

9.

Supplier:

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IR Flashlight Filters

1.

Nomenclature:

Model IR-1 is 13/4” diameter for angle-head flashlight Model IR-1A is 1” diameter for Mini-Mag flashlight (14) additional IR filters, for most flashlight models, are available. IR-1: IR-1A3: NONE IR filters allow only IR light through, making a white light flashlight into an IR illuminator. Compared to devices designed to emit only IR light, an IR filter on a flashlight is a weak and inefficient IR light source. 6230-01-395-9186 6230-01-395-9181

2.

NSN:

3. 4.

Manual: Description:

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Characteristics: Accessories: Limitations: Usage Notes: Supplier: Night Vision Equipment Corporation, Inc. P.O. Box 266 Emmaus, PA 18049-0266 POC: Gene Adcock, VP (610) 391-9101, FAX (610) 391-9220 www.nvec-night-vision.com nvec@ptdprolog.net Filter adapters for different models of flashlights. The flashlight’s range and power are significantly reduced with an IR filter.

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Flashlight TTP
1. Clear a room Clear a building a. b. Procedure. Use white-light flashlights mounted on weapons. Techniques (1) Flip-up NVGs and turn on white light upon entering the building. (2) White light provides better visibility, quicker response, and better target ID. White light allows a wider field of vision in the restricted MOUT environment. Human eyes using white light cannot be dazzled by pyro, detonations, muzzle flashes, or cultural lighting like NVG wearers can. (3) Casualties and EPWs can be handled better under white light. (4) Non-combatants can be identified and briefed better under white light. c. Common Errors. Using IR light. Without starlight or moonlight, NVGs work poorly indoors. To use IR light, all Marines must have NVGs. Mixed units, some with NVGs, and some without, are dangerous. IR pointers and illuminators provide good visibility indoors, but NVG wearers can be dazzled by lighting and enemy actions.

2.

Search detainees, bodies, and EPWs a. b. Procedure. Use white-light flashlights mounted on weapons, if possible. Techniques (1) Always conduct a two-man search. For EPWs and bodies, one man holds his rifle at the head while the other searches. White light allows papers and equipment to be quickly identified. Detainees and EPWs are easier to deal with under white light. (2) In open areas, move detainees and EPWs, indoors or behind shelter, if possible. Otherwise, limit light, use red or blue filtered light, or use IR. (3) In ambush kill zones, use minimum white light to search bodies for intelligence. When using multiple search teams, mark bodies as ‘searched’ by crossing arms and legs. c. Common Errors. Using IR light.

3. 4.

Treat a casualty. See TTP 2, above. Fastrope a. b. Procedure. Tie a lighted flashlight to the end of the rope. Throw rope to the deck. Techniques. Crew chief can then observe rope on the deck, estimate angle of rope, length of rope and height of bird, as well as see obstacles on the deck. Common Errors

c. 5.

Designate targets with red-light laser. See also Hand-held Laser Pointer TTP. a. Procedure. Using a red-light laser, commonly used for presentations, communicate by marking targets and terrain.

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b.

Techniques (1) Although enemy can clearly see red-light lasers, units without 100% NVGs can use a laser pointer to orient forces, direct movement, mark targets, and control fires. (2) In civil disturbance and crowd control situations, key leaders can be marked with red-light lasers for snatch teams. Seeing an instigator marked with red light may cause many people in the crowd to shy away, especially if they believe that they are under the threat of precision weapons.

c.

Common Errors

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Chapter 3 Unaided Night Skills Training for Individuals Section 3.1 Unaided Night Weapons Skills TTP
1. Fire weapons at night Procedure. Establish and mark sectors of fire during the day. Mark the direction of principle targets during the day. Without NVGs, fire tracers to adjust effects of fire. Techniques
• • • • •

Use short bursts to minimize muzzle flash and maintain night vision. Keep one eye closed. Fire low. Marines tend to fire high in the dark. Use 1 in 4 tracers. Under illumination, keep one eye shut to maintain night vision. Train to execute magazine change drill and immediate action drill for a stoppage in the dark. Do not allow crew-served weapons to fire at infiltrators and give away their positions.

Common Errors. Weapons not in Condition One. Chambering a round CANNOT be done silently. 2. Throw grenades at night Procedure. Establish and mark sectors of fire during the day. Use rocks to mark the direction of dead ground targets. Use stakes to mark location of blocking trees. Techniques
• • •

Avoid throwing grenades at trees or other obstacles. Grenades can bounce back at you. Use grenades on enemy infiltrators to avoid giving away positions. Unit night attack SOP should address use of grenades in the attack. In the attack, grenades can be more deadly to the attacking force and are usually NOT recommended.

Common Errors
• •

Straightening the pins is dangerous and should be avoided. Staging grenades separately from deuce gear. Train to retrieve grenades from deuce gear. Staged grenades can get muddy and wet during the night, can be hard to find, and cannot be easily retrieved when moving out in the dark.

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Section 3.2 Unaided Night Field Skills TTP
"Darkness is a friend to the skilled infantryman." - B.H. Liddell Hart, 1944 There are hundreds of field skills that infantrymen should know in order to operate at night. Leaders need to train their Marines to operate with or without night vision equipment. Discipline and practice are the keys to success.

See
1. See at night without NVGs Procedure. Acquire night vision. Scan in alternating directions using a box pattern. Focus around objects to detect edges. Learn restrictions on night vision and cues for improving night vision. Techniques
• •

• • •

Acquire night vision. For maximum dark adaptation, expose eyes to 30 to 45 minutes of darkness. Exposure to bright light after this requires 5 to 45 minutes to regain night vision. Always adapt to the dark, even if NVGs are going to be used. When NVGs are then removed, night vision is regained in 2 minutes. If night vision was never acquired, another 30 to 45 minutes is needed. Do not wear the poncho hood. It reduces your field of view. Use binoculars. In moonlight, your eyes can spot a man at 240 meters, or 700 meters with binoculars. Scan continuously. Scan from left to right, then right to left, using a slow, regular, box-shaped scanning movement. Avoid looking at an object directly. Look 10 degrees off-center to see outlines.

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• •

Do not use lights or illumination. If light must be used, red filtered light allows you to retain night vision. Blue light is more difficult for the enemy to see, but does NOT allow you to retain night vision. Avoid losing night vision. Close eyes against lightning, flares, headlights, or other lights. If only one eye can be closed, that eye will maintain night vision because each eye is independent. Know that darkness affects visual acuity and distorts human vision. Darkness modifies outlines, shapes, and colors. Visual sharpness is one-seventh of what it is during the day. Shrubs look like soldiers, fences look like enemy patrols, and a village may look like a forest. Know that darkness affects depth perception. Height and distance are modified. Dark objects appear farther away, light objects appear closer. Experience can increase an observer’s ability to perceive depth. On a clear night, you can recognize land relief up to 400 meters. At ranges less than 800 meters, Marines tend to underestimate range by as much as 25 percent. Know that haze, smoke and fog limit night observation. Overcast clouds limit night observation. High humidity limits night observation.

Common Errors
• •

• • • •

Fatigue. A tired set of eyes cannot see well. A tired observer is not mentally alert. Rotate observation duty, with or without NVGs, every 30 minutes. Sleep deprivation. Sleep is needed for night observation: 5 hours per day minimum, 6 to 8 hours per day for long-term operations. Even 10 minutes of sleep can restore energy. Good physical fitness and stamina allow a Marine to recover quicker. Poor nutrition. Lack of vitamin ‘A’ – normally provided by eggs, cheese and carrots – reduces night vision. U.S. forces, with good nutrition, have the best potential night vision. Smoking or chewing tobacco. Tobacco constricts blood vessels in the eye, reducing night vision by up to 20 percent. Consuming alcohol. Alcohol within 48 hours slows the ability to acquire night vision. Alcohol impairs judgment, distance estimation, and coordination. Fear. Apprehension rises significantly during darkness. Excitable sentries are more likely to shoot at shadows. Depression affects night vision. Nyctophobia is an abnormal fear of night or darkness. Night vision medical problems. Some people have less night vision capability than others. Presbyopia, the decrease in light transmission to the retina, is common in individuals over 40 years old. Night myopia, which affects nearsighted people, is blurred vision at night. Astigmatism is an out-of-focus condition. An ordinary cold, and the narcotic medicine used to treat it, decreases night vision. Loss of night vision due to bright lights or muzzle flashes and failure to close at least one eye.

Avoid being Seen
2. Camouflage self and equipment Procedure. Camouflage COLOR and SHAPE of individual gear using cammie-paint, man-made materials, and natural foliage. Use the buddy system to check for effective camouflage. Techniques

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• •

Camouflage COLOR. Camouflage skin with cammie paint. Use light colors on low soft points and dark colors on bony high points. A day-old beard holds cammie paint well. Camouflage SHAPE. Camouflage the shape of helmets, radios, weapons and other distinctive man-made objects. Camouflage helmet. Cover helmet with a piece of cammie-netting, or knotted strips of camouflage utilities. Add natural camouflage to helmet band. Tape all equipment that reflects light: optics, mirrors, and brass. Tape exposed brass buckles. Tape binocular lens, allowing a slit opening for observation. Carry helmet band, boot bands, and rubber bands for attaching natural camouflage to equipment. Carry extra piece of cammie netting shroud to cover crew-served muzzles and loose equipment. Tape or paint buttstock and camouflage hard guards of M-16A2 and M-203. Wrap boot bands around hand guard of M-16A2 to hold natural camouflage to hand guard. Do not foul charging handle area. Camouflage fighting hole. Holes should show no loose dirt. Use no berm or camouflage berm. Plastic reinforced sandbags reflect light. Cover plastic sandbags with soil or cloth. Run ‘hard routine’ light discipline: no fires, no cigarettes, no lights, and no illumination.

Common Errors
• •

Over-camouflaging M-16A2 and M-203. Do not camouflage sights, buttstock behind charging handle, or trigger / magazine area. Avoid camouflage that interferes with operation of weapon. Spoiled camouflage. Day-old leaves and branches wilt and discolor. Replace natural camouflage daily.

3. Establish poncho shade Procedure. Using two ponchos, or a poncho and poncho liner, spread the ponchos on ground. Climb under, insuring that edges remain flush to deck. Turn on red-lens flashlight and check map, notes, or equipment. Techniques
• •

More than one head can be inserted under poncho for meeting purposes. A second man should watch the outside of the poncho to insure no light escapes.

Common Errors

Overconfidence. There is no safe technique for fires, cigarettes or flashlights. Use a poncho shade only for flashlight checks of maps or equipment, and only when absolutely required. Do NOT attempt to cover fires. Noise. Unpacking, spreading, using, and repacking a poncho creates unwanted noise.

4. Execute an individual infiltration Procedure. Acquire night vision. Camouflage self and equipment. From observation point, select general route based on covered micro terrain and vegetation. Infiltrate slowly, remain in a covered approach as long as possible. When not covered, maintain concealment as long as possible. Techniques

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Patience is silence. Move slowly. Keep still for long periods. The human eye is most effective at detecting movement. Move so slowly that an observer has difficulty seeing any movement. Crawl. Stay as low as possible. Wear gloves and kneepads. Feel forward for any noisy obstructions or vegetation. Keep concealment between you and potential enemy observers. React to illumination. Freeze. If you have time after hearing the ‘pop’ of an illumination flare, back up one step and quickly lay down. Close eyes to retain night vision. Close one eye if vision is needed.

Common Errors. Impatience. 5. Plan an infiltration Procedure. Conduct a map study. Compare covered routes to potential enemy positions. Use a light-level planning calendar to determine moon direction, hours and intensity. Determine legs of route, distances, general or specific azimuths, collecting features, and catching features. Brief Marines.

Techniques
• • •

Do not depend on concealment only. A good covered route both conceals and protects. Select concave slopes to avoid horizons. Avoid ridgelines. Do not silhouette yourself. Be aware of your background from the enemy’s point of view. Be conservative in selecting length of route. Infiltrating a unit at night is slow and tedious.

Common Errors. Overconfidence. Always assume you are being watched. Do not overestimate the distance you are capable of traveling.

Hear
6. Listen at night Procedure. Stop all movement. Stop all noise. Cup both hands around back of ears. Face direction of sounds and scan head from left to right. Close eyes to focus senses on sound. Techniques

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Do not wear the poncho hood. It reduces hearing ability. Do not cover ears with wool cap. Remove helmet. In defensive positions, use nuisance obstacles, such as wired cans with pebbles, to warn of intrusions. Learn normal background sounds. Note absence of crickets and birds. Listen for man-made sounds, especially metal on metal, which are distinctive in the field.

Common Errors
• •

Impatience. Wearing NVGs. The concentration required to use NVGs reduces hearing ability.

Avoid being Heard
7. Silence self and equipment Procedure. Tape all noisy equipment. Tie all noisy straps. Pack equipment in functional manner so you know where everything is and can noiselessly retrieve it at night. Using the buddy system, jump up and down to check for noises. Techniques
• • • • • • • • • • • •

Tape all loose gear to prevent objects from hitting each other and making noise. Black electricians tape or green cloth tape works well. Tape weapons sling hardware. Tie all loose straps to prevent objects from hitting each other and making noise. Wear deuce gear high and tight. Except when resting, belt should always be buckled. Silence dog tags by covering chain with 550 cord. Tape tags together. Avoid wearing the poncho. Rain hitting the poncho makes distinctive noise. Unpacking it, putting it on, and taking it off all make noise. Vegetation catching on the poncho makes noise. Carry canteens either full or empty. Avoid letting canteens make sloshing sounds. Know where your gear is and how to retrieve it silently in the dark. Minimize equipment. Use resealable bags to organize contents of pack by function. Turn off all watch alarms. Turn down radios. Clip headset to helmet. Run radios squelched. Minimize radio use. Click handset twice for ‘yes’ and once for ‘no.’ Insert cardboard into SAW drums to silence plastic drum sounds. Insure belt can freely fire. Remove cardboard if it gets wet. Do not flick weapons safety. Hold it and slowly turn or push switch. Run ‘hard routine’ noise discipline: no voices, no loose equipment.

Common Errors. Removing weapons slings completely. During some activities, like evacuating wounded, fastroping, or crossing a stream, you need a sling. 8. Walk silently at night Procedure. Silence self and equipment. Walk slowly, avoiding all ground cover that makes noise. Use equipment carefully to minimize noise. Rest often.

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Techniques
• •

• • • • •

Practice walking to avoid rocks, twigs, grass, leaves, and vines. Use your feet to feel the ground. Keep weight on back foot as front foot gently finds new spot. Use the ball and toes of your front foot to gently feel and avoid any noisy, dry vegetation, especially leaves and twigs. Walk very slowly. Rest between steps. Tighten socks and boots to make feet more sensitive to objects on the ground. Use other sounds to mask movement. Muffle cough in the crook of your arm. Use background noises to muffle cough or clear throat. Sick Marines should carry cough drops or medicine. Move in the rain. Noise is minimized, ground is soft, and the enemy has difficulty hearing. All scents are washed away. The tradeoff, however, is that your own ability to see, hear, or smell is also reduced.

Common Errors
• •

Fatigue. Tired Marines are noisy at night. Speed. Walking rapidly cannot be done silently unless on a clear, damp trail. Even then, equipment noises usually increase.

Smell
9. Smell the enemy Procedure. Stop. Close eyes to focus senses on smell. Lift nose and smell in all directions. Techniques
• • • •

Teach yourself the smells of the environment. Smell sap from recently cut tree branches. Smell soil from newly turned earth. Both of these smells can be evidence of enemy activity. Cigarettes can be detected 500m away downwind. Smoky fires can be detected farther still. Fish, garlic and other foods being cooked can be smelled several hundred meters away. Avoid smoking cigarettes and cigarette second-hand smoke. It interferes with your ability to smell. Soldiers can be smelled. The enemy smells different. Clothing absorb smoke and food odors. Enemy excrement smells different due to a different diet.

Common Errors
• • •

Ruining your sense of smell prior to mission. Smelling yourself or your own unit. Avoid scented soap, after-shave, and newly laundered cammies. Limit use of soap, shaving cream, toothpaste, and insect repellant. NVGs. The concentration required to use NVGs reduces smelling ability.

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Avoid being Smelled
10. Urinate Procedure. Select loose earth or crevice. Dig hole with heel. Urinate into hole. Cover with earth. Techniques
• • •

Avoid spicy foods that impart distinctive odor to urine. Kneel to shorten distance to ground and minimize noise. Keep urine downhill. Aim at a leaf or bush to make no sound. Vegetation absorbs urine and minimizes smell.

Common Errors
• •

Noise. Loose earth and vegetation absorb noise. Rocks. Urine stains on rocks are visible and emit smell, especially under the sun.

11. Defecate Procedure. Select a low site with good earth and good ground cover. Put tissue paper in blouse pocket. Keep weapon and equipment at arm’s length. Dig a hole. Straddle the hole and squat with trousers pulled forward. Put used tissue paper in the hole. Cover hole with earth. Replace ground cover to camouflage. Wash hands. Techniques
• • •

Excrement is a reflection of diet. U.S. excrement smells different than the enemy’s. Minimize smell by burying all excrement immediately. Use an antidiarrheal to avoid having to defecate. This is NOT recommended by doctors, but can be used in certain missions. Carry excrement in plastic bags out of area of operations. Certain missions may require this to avoid evidence of activity.

Common Errors
• • • •

Noise. Place loose belt buckle in front trouser pocket. Toilet paper blowing away. Toss some soil on each piece of paper as you place it in the hole. Or push toilet paper into excrement until it takes. Poor site selection. Wind blowing across cat holes on high ground can carry smell far downrange. Use low ground. Defecate more than 50 meters from running water. Not establishing a head in stationary positions. In mobile operations, individual catholes are sufficient. In static operations, however, a single head needs to be established to maintain hygiene standards and minimize smell of hundreds of catholes. Not washing hands. Dysentery results from unwashed hands and utensils.

12. Wash Procedure. Dig a small hole with the heel of your boot. Wash, shave and brush teeth such that all water drains into this hole. Cover hole with earth. Replace ground cover to camouflage.

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Techniques
• •

Use an electric razor. Noise of razor and battery requirement must be balanced against smell of soap or cream. Avoid shaving altogether on some missions. Run ‘hard routine’ odor discipline. Minimize use of soap and toothpaste. Do not carry or use after-shave, shaving cream, scented soap, or newly laundered cammies. Minimize insect repellant. The noise from slapping insects must be balanced with the smell of the insect repellant. No cigarettes, no fires.

Common Errors. Not establishing a wash area in stationary positions. In static operations a single wash area needs to be established to maintain hygiene standards and minimize smell. 13. Cook and eat Procedure. When necessary, heat food. Use MRE heaters for MRE. Use small fires for boiling water. Techniques. Heat tabs and MRE heaters smell. MRE Tabasco sauce smells. Fires smell and produce smoke. Limit cooking when in close proximity to the enemy. Common Errors. Food smells. Do not eat at all in ambush positions or on short – less than eight hour – patrols.

Sleep
14. Establish sleeping position Procedure. Step on the ground to find roots or rocks. Roll isopor mat out and lie on it to test ground. Roll sleeping bag or ranger roll. Repack pack. Keep weapon and gear at arm’s length, packed and ready. Techniques

• • •

Remove blouse and roll as pillow. Remove boots. Put boot bands and pocket items in boots. Put cover over boots to keep animals out. Loosen trousers and socks. The weather and enemy determine what is worn while sleeping. Boots are worn while sleeping if the enemy is close. Carry a hammock. In wet terrain, a hammock allows the body to dry overnight. Sleep in dry night shirt, put wet clothes back on in the morning. Marines who snore should be turned on their stomachs. Know where your gear is and how to retrieve it silently in the dark. Minimize equipment. Use resealable bags to organize contents of pack by function.

Common Errors
• •

Not carrying isopor. Except for one-night missions, isopor is worth carrying for effective sleep. Strewing equipment around. Marines should be able to grab their gear with two hands and move out.

15. Build a poncho hooch

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Procedure. Modify poncho with an 18-inch length of 550 cord at each grommet. Tie off neck of poncho with drawstrings. Tie each line to separate vegetation, creating lean-to shelter facing into the wind. Techniques
• • •

Three bungie cords, one carried around poncho, one carried around poncho liner, and one carried around isopor mat, are far better for poncho hooch construction. A second poncho should be carried as a groundsheet in rainy country or if needed for a ranger roll. In defensive positions, where ponchos are visible above fighting holes, hooches should be constructed after dark and taken down before light.

Common Errors. Poor site selection. Avoid drainage areas if rain is expected.

Avoid Sleeping
16. Stand watch at night Procedure. Wear all deuce gear. Carry weapon in Condition One. Stand or walk post. Drink coffee. Techniques. If the tactical situation prevents standing, kneel, don’t sit. If you sleep, you fall and wake up. Common Errors. Not knowing the sleeping position of your relief.

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Chapter 4 Night Warrior Training Plans

Section 4.1 Quarterly Training Plan
The following is an example of a company quarterly training plan focused on night training.
UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS Echo Company 2nd Battalion, 5th Marines Camp Pendleton, California 92055 Canc: 1 Apr 00 15 Dec 99 From: Commanding Officer To: Distribution Subj: ECHO COMPANY QUARTERLY TRAINING PLAN SECOND QUARTER FY 00, JAN-MAR 00 Ref: (a) 2/5 Quarterly Training Plan for Second Quarter FY 00 (b) Echo Company METL, dtd 1 Jan 99 (c) Night Warrior Handbook Encl:(1) METL Task Breakout (2) Quarterly Outline Schedule (3) Quarterly PME Plan 1. Purpose. Define the company quarterly training goal and the plan to meet this goal. 2. Quarterly Training Goal. By 30 Mar 00, the company will be trained on all the individual, individual leader, and squad-level collective tasks that enable the company to Conduct a night attack. 3. Echelon of Training. Individual. (7) squad-level collective tasks will be trained. No platoon- or company-level collective tasks will be trained this quarter. 4. METL Training a. A single task from the company METL, Conduct a night attack, will drive all training. See Ref (b). This training goal supports the battalion QTP, Ref (a). b. Encl (1) shows the METL breakout of the tasks that comprise a night attack.

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c. Encl (2) shows the quarterly outline schedule. (6) company training weeks, totaling (16) training days, are allocated. Each week is assigned a training goal, training NCO, and training area or range. d. (7) of (15) squad collective skills in Encl (1) will be trained this quarter. 5. Other Training a. Encl (2) shows (2) non-supported company training weeks during the battalion maintenance stand-down. In addition to the battalion-sponsored medical, dental and records review, the company will conduct (4) medical training blocks, (4) troop information training blocks, and (1) 2-day ISMT night firing exercise. b. The PME schedule is Encl (3). This plan supports the Bn QTP, Ref (a). 6. Higher Headquarters Training a. One rifle range detail of (37) M-16A2 and (4) M-9 is scheduled for Jan 6-17. b. Bn NBC decon training for (8) Echo Marines will be held from 9-13 Feb. c. Echo is assigned as OpFor for Regimental Exercise SEA HORSE WIND, from 15-30 March. Opportunities for night training during this exercise will be exploited. d. Internal Unit Schools Week is 15-19 Jan. 20 Echo Marines will participate. 7. Tasks a. All Officers / All SNCOs. Read this quarterly training schedule. b. Platoon Commander / Platoon Sergeants. Train squad and section leaders. Insure squad and section leaders are competent trainers before they conduct individual training. Qualify each man in your unit on the NWB individual tasks. Qualify each leader on the NWL individual tasks. See Ref (c). 8. Coordinating Instructions a. Current battalion TEEP is number 05, dtd 22 Nov 99. b. Quarterly Training Plan brief for all NCOs and above is Friday, 18 Dec, at 0800 in the Regimental Instruction Facility.

B.B. McBREEN Distribution: CO XO 1stSgt CoGySgt Platoon Commanders (4) Platoon Sergeants (4) Bn S-3

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METL Task Breakout Collective task standards are defined by either: MCO 3501.3C MCCRE, Company SOP, or Night Combat in Infantry Units (NCIU). 1. Company Task: Conduct a Night Attack Scenario: Infiltrate by squads to attack position. Linkup. Recon Target. Plan and Rehearse. Establish SBF. Attack. Consolidate. Prepare to repel counterattack. Conditions: Footmobile. Prepared defense. Woods, Jungle, Mountains. At night. Nonilluminated. Time for recon and preparation. Without external supporting weapons. a. Platoon Task: (1) Squad Task: (2) Squad Task: (3) Squad Task: (4) Squad Task: b. Platoon Task: (1) MG Sect Task: (2) Squad Task: c. Platoon Task: (1) Squad Task: (2) Squad Task: (3) Squad Task: d. Platoon Task: (1) Squad Task: (2) Squad Task: e. Platoon Task: (1) Squad Task: (2) Squad Task: f. Platoon Task: (1) Squad Task: (2) Squad Task: Conduct a Night Assault Breach a Wire Obstacle (Co SOP) (NCIU) Conduct Fire and Movement Conduct a Night Assault (NCIU) Assault and Clear a Trench (Co SOP) Execute SBF Mission Execute SBF Mission (NCIU) Defend (as SBF security) Execute an Infiltration / Exfiltration Execute an Infiltration / Exfiltration Break Contact Establish ORP Conduct a Link-Up (2H.1.20) (Co SOP) (NCIU) Conduct a Link-Up (2H.1.20) (Co SOP) (NCIU) Establish a Link-Up Point (Co SOP) (NCIU) Conduct Close Target Reconnaissance Conduct reconnaissance patrol Establish Platoon PLD (Co SOP) (NCIU) Consolidate and Reorganize Establish LZ (Co SOP) (NCIU) Consolidate and Reorganize

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2. Individual Tasks. NCOs will select and train those individual tasks which their Marines need to support collective tasks. Platoon Commanders and Platoon Sergeants will select and train those individual leader tasks, especially night navigation, their leaders need to support collective tasks. The following tasks from Ref (c) are the minimum individual tasks required by the company: a. b. Night Warrior Basic. Every man, including Corpsmen. Night Warrior Leader. Every squad leader, section leader, and up.

January 2005

Section 4.2 Night Warrior Field Training Plans
1. Each week of training should be driven by a field training plan. Field training plans define training tasks and assign trainers, OICs, RSOs, supporters, and evaluators. For individual night skills training, the following weekly field training plans are recommended: Night Warrior Basic Training and Qualification Night Warrior Leader Training and Qualification Night Shooting Skills Night Land Navigation Night Infiltration and Linkup 2. Book II, Night Combat for Infantry Units, includes training plans for collective skills training. The following field training plan is included as an example.
UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS Echo Company 2nd Battalion, 5th Marines Camp Pendleton, California 92055 13 Feb 00 From: Execution Officer To: Echo Distribution Subj: FIELD TRAINING PLAN FOR NIGHT WARRIOR TRAINING AND QUALIFICATION, FEB 22-24 Ref: (a) Night Warrior Handbook: Qualification Standards for Night Warrior Basic

Encl: (1) Training Schedule (2) Bravo II Platoon sector sketch

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1. Training Goals a. Individual training. Every man in the company, including corpsmen, will qualify on the (9) NWB ITS of Ref (a). b. Collective training. No collective tasks will be trained. 2. Execution a. Concept of Training. Squad and section leaders are the primary trainers and will train all NWB individual skills. Each day is individual training time. Each night is an evaluation of that day’s assigned skills. Weapons with PEQ-2 will be boresighted on Wednesday night and fired for record on Thursday night. (1) The week prior, a Train-the-Trainer period is scheduled for Friday, 18 Feb. Platoon commanders will insure that squad leaders are competent to train NWB skills. NCOs should be familiar with the techniques included in Ref (b). (2) Day 1. At 0800 on Tuesday, 22 February, the company hikes to the Bravo II training area. Platoon sectors are shown in Encl (2). Individual training tasks assigned are NWB 1,2,3 and 8. At 1800, squads run night practical application training on these skills. Evaluations start at 2100: 1st Plat 2100-2200 2200-2300 2300-0000 0000-0100 NWB 1 NWB 2 NWB 3 NWB 8 2nd Plat NWB 8 NWB 1 NWB 2 NWB 3 3rd Plat NWB 3 NWB 8 NWB 1 NWB 2 Wpns Plat NWB 2 NWB 3 NWB 8 NWB 1

(3) Day 2. Daytime training by squad leaders on NWB tasks 6,7, and 9, as well as boresighting instructions. At 1800 evaluations and boresighting begins. The camouflage, silence and infiltration evaluation, NWB 6,7, and 9, runs for four hours per platoon. Boresighting runs on range 314A. Remedial evaluations on tasks 1,2,3, and 8 are held for Marines who did not qualify the previous night. Assault Sect is attached to 1st, Mortar Sect is attached to 2nd, and Machinegun Sect is attached to 3rd for evals. 1st Plat 1800 2000 2200 0200 Remedial Boresight NWB 6,7,9 NWB 6,7,9 2nd Plat Boresight NWB 6,7,9 NWB 6,7,9 Remedial 3rd Plat NWB 6,7,9 NWB 6,7,9 Boresight Remedial

(4) Day 3. Daytime training by squad leaders on NWB tasks 4 and 5. Remedial training on tasks 1,2,3,6,7,8,9 for those Marines who have not yet passed qualification. At 1600 the entire company will move to Range 314A. At 1800, live-fire evaluations begin. Weapons sections are again attached for evals. 1st Plat 1800 2000 2200 NWB 4,5 Live-fire Remedial Remedial 2nd Plat Remedial NWB 4,5 Live-fire Remedial 3rd Plat Remedial Remedial NWB 4,5 Live-fire

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(5) On Friday, 25 February, the company hikes back. During the afternoon liberty formation, a Night Warrior Basic certificate will be presented to those Marines who met all the NWB qualifications. b. Tasks (1) Lt Means. OIC of training. Conduct brief-backs with each evaluator to insure a solid evaluation plan is prepared. (2) CoGySgt. Plan and supervise all logistics support for the field exercise. Request weapons PFI NLT (6) days prior to the exercise. (3) Platoon Commanders / Platoon Sergeants. Train-the-Trainers. Supervise individual skills training. Run assigned evaluation stations using your Marines. Keep accurate records of Marines who qualify at each station. c. Coordinating Instructions (1) Training schedule is Encl (1). (2) EENT is 1810. Illum is 24%. (3) OIC: Lt Means, RSO: Sgt Scott, OIC R314A: SSgt Mallow, RSO R314A: SSgt DeV. (4) Evaluators: NWB NWB NWB NWB NWB NWB NWB NWB NWB 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: 8: 9: 3rd Plat 1st Plat 2nd Plat 1st Plat 1st Plat 2nd Plat 2nd Plat Wpns Plat Wpns Plat Lt Lawler Lt Rapicault SSgt Anguiano SSgt Mallow SSgt Mallow Lt Puttroff SSgt Anguiano Lt Arroyo Sgt Peterson, 1st Plat Sgt Scott, 3rd Plat Sgt Keith

4. Admin and Logistics a. Ammunition. (40) rounds per M-16, (80) rounds per SAW. b. Chow. (8) MREs per man c. Comm. PRC-119 (8). Spare batteries for radios. (4) AA batteries per man. d. Company corpsmen will participate in training, and will be prepared to treat injuries. The R314A corpsman will not train during live-fire events. 5. Command and Signal. Co Tac will be maintained at each station. Platoons will use ISRs to run each station. Co will maintain comm with Range Control.

G.E. MEANS

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January 2005

Section 4.3 ISMT Field Training Plans
1. The ISMT, Indoor Simulated Marksmanship Trainer, is equipped with a night filter making it an effective tool for night weapons training. Although the M-203 and M-249 are not addressed, the nature of the combat scenarios presented by the ISMT force the squad to execute dozens of training standards in a realistic setting in a short amount of time. 2. Unit leaders should become familiar with ISMT, select a specific task to train to, and construct a training session with a small number of scenarios to focus on that task. Field Training Plans for ISMT can include crew-served weapons if the ISMT supports their use. 3. The following is an example of an ISMT Field Training Plan.
UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS Echo Company 2nd Battalion, 5th Marines Camp Pendleton, California 92055 20 Mar 00 From: Execution Officer To: Echo Distribution Subj: FIELD TRAINING PLAN FOR ISMT PLATOON WEAPONS TRAINING, MAR 28 - 29 Ref: (a) Night Warrior Handbook: Qualification Standards for Night Warrior Basic (b) Night Warrior Handbook: Qualification Standards for Night Warrior Leader

Encl: (1) Trainer Notes on Boresighting and Debriefing 1. Training Goals. Defined by Ref (a) and (b). a. Individual training. Every man will train to the following tasks: NWB 4. Engage targets at night with M-16A2 (or M-203), PVS-7 (or PVS-14), and PAQ-4C (or PEQ-2A) b. Leader Individual training. Each squad leader will train to the following tasks using a PAQ-4C mounted to his M-16A2: NWL 5. Mark a target at night with a Hand-held Laser Pointer NWL 6. Control fire with a Hand-held Laser Pointer c. Collective training. Although each squad will fight as a team, the focus will NOT be put on any squad collective tasks.

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2. Execution a. Concept of Training. Each rifle platoon has a five-hour training block. 1st at 1200 on the 28th, 2nd at 0700 on the 29, and 3rd at 1200 on the 29th. Because the ISMT can only handle one squad at a time, squads rotate on a 45-minute round-robin schedule. Each relay will fire the ISMT, rotate out for a debrief and squad leader training, and then fire a second time. Each relay uses the same ISMT weapons and PAQ-4s, but their own PVS-7 (or PVS-14). An actual M-16A2 is used by the squad leader to point his PAQ-4C at the screen. b. Tasks. A least one trainer is required per platoon. Three trainers, the Platoon Commander, Platoon Sergeant and Platoon Guide, are ideal. (1) OIC of Training. Coordinate with ISMT. Coordinate support required. Brief platoon trainers. Supervise training. Make debrief suggestions to trainers. (2) Trainers. Brief Squad Leaders on standards. Observe ISMT shoot. Make corrections. Participate in debriefs. Note future training requirements. (3) ISMT NCO. Brief all Marines on ISMT execution and safety. Supervise boresight. Provide scores and playback for squad debriefs. c. Coordinating Instructions (1) Training Schedule 1200-1210 1210-1315 1230-1315 1315-1400 1400-1445 1445-1530 1530-1615 1615-1700 Safety Brief - All 1st Platoon Setup - OIC, Trainers, 1st Squad 1st Squad - First (3) Scenarios 2nd Squad - First (3) Scenarios 3rd Squad - First (3) Scenarios 1st Squad - Second (3) Scenarios 2nd Squad - Second (3) Scenarios 3rd Squad - Second (3) Scenarios

Following Day - All 2nd Platoon 0700-1200 Following Day – All 3rd Platoon 1200-1700 (2) ISMT Set One is ideal for night training. It consists of scenarios: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Combat patrol Withdrawal through friendly lines Linear ambush Squad defensive position Suppressive fire and assault on right flank Suppressive fire fails and enemy overrun attack Reverse slope defense

During each 45-minute shoot, two to three scenarios will run. Each scenario is no longer that 5 minutes, which allow 10 minutes for an on-scene debrief. (3) ISMT Set Two contains additional scenarios: (a) Combat patrol on recon ridge (b) Assault by fire on enemy bunker (4) Equipment Needed

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(a) Each Marine: 782 Gear, Helmet, Flak. (b) Platoon Equipment:(12) PAQ-4C (or PEQ-2A) with shrouds and (12) baffles, (12) PVS-7 (or PVS-14) with head mount or helmet mount, (1) M-16A2 rifle with PAQ-4C (or PEQ-2A) mounted for squad leader, AA batteries for all equipment, Duct tape. (c) Trainer Equipment: PVS-7 (or PVS-14), training notes. (d) ISMT facility equipment: Night filters for ISMT, (30) ISMT magazines. 3. Admin and Logistics. No logistic support is required. 4. Command and Signal. No comm equipment is required.

G.E. MEANS

Trainer Notes on Boresighting and Debriefing 1. Boresighting the PAQ-4C to the ISMT. Because of the ISMT handguard construction, brackets cannot be used to attach PAQ-4C to the ISMT weapons. Attach the (12) PAQ4s and shrouds to each weapon with duct tape. Attach the laser baffle to each PAQ4C. Using the first relay in the prone position, boresight each weapon using the ISMT computer boresight procedure: a. The ISMT boresight procedure applies only to one scenario disk at a time. If you use the rifle range sighting procedures, the PAQ-4C will only be boresighted to the rifle range disk. To use any of the combat simulation disks, the PAQ-4C must be boresighted directly to that disk. b. Using the boresight screen, have the Marines fire at the cross hairs and allow the computer to automatically center the shots. On the screen, using goggles, you will see two dots of light. The strong beam is the PAQ-4C, the other is the ISMT rifle laser. c. If, during training, you change scenario disks, the boresight must be redone. 2. Debriefing Procedures. After each scenario, the lights should be turned on and an on-screen debrief conducted. a. The ISMT operator can announce scores. Do NOT focus too much on scores if suppressive fire was required. If the trainer directs, the ISMT operator can play back the scene in daylight, as the trainer makes his debrief points. b. Individual Marines should suggest improvements to their leader’s performance. A good debrief question is "How can we do this better?" c. Debrief notes on individual task: NWB 5. Engage targets at night with M-16A2 (or M-203), PVS-7 (or PVS-14), and PAQ-4C (or PEQ-2A). (1) When operating PAQ-4C, do NOT use constant beam. Do NOT interfere with Squad Leaders beam being used to signal and coordinate.

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(2) Discuss PVS-7 and PVS-14. Address difficulty of using head mount with helmet, especially in the prone. Helmets should be strapped. (3) Aim low. Shooters tend to fire high at night. The technique for firing with a PAQ-4C (and PEQ-2A) requires NO stock weld and NO sight picture. Marines should assume a good steady position with their face nowhere near the weapon. This deviation from Marine Corps marksmanship training takes some getting used to. Marines should verbally communicate, "Movement at ten o’clock, two-hundred meters!" Sights should NOT be adjusted, as they have no effect on PAQ-4C (or PEQ-2A) accuracy. (4) Change magazines in combat. Trainer should NOT allow same ISMT magazine to be reinserted each time. Trainer should NOT allow magazines to be staged or dropped to the deck. Practice magazine change drill: new magazine from pouch, old one in cargo pocket. "Changing!" call should alert team members. "Covering!" response should be expected. "I’m up," "Malfunction!" and unit SOP communications can also be trained. d. Debrief notes on leader individual tasks (1) NWL 5. Mark a target at night with a Hand-held Laser Pointer. The PAQ-4C is used as a pointer to assign sectors and targets. The Squad leader should draw an exaggerated vertical line when defining sectors, "This dip in the treeline is your left flank!" Squad Leaders should ‘snake’ a target reference point, drawing a squiggly figure eight on the target, "This bare sport on the deck is TRP 3!" After assigning sectors or targets, have team leaders backbrief, using their own PAQ-4C as pointers, "Where is the right flank of your sector?" (2) NWL 6. Control fire with a Hand-held Laser Pointer. The squad leader needs to take charge of the situation. He needs to listen to the ISMT frag order. He should execute the order correctly, identify friendlies on screen, and open or cease fire as required. When his voice commands are not heard, or PAQ-4C beam is not seen, he should move to team leaders to insure communications. (a) The Squad Leader needs to enforce the four safety rules. Trainers should hear weapons go to SAFE between engagements. (b) The Squad Leader needs to control weapons conditions of his squad. The four weapons conditions and their correct commands should be reinforced. (c) Teams cover their sectors. Random firing across the screen is poor fire discipline. (d) Other lessons: Rates of fire, Shoot to kill versus shoot to suppress, How to use M-16A2 as a suppressive weapon. e. After leaving the line, each squad leader conducts a debrief outside the ISMT. If three trainers are available, one for each squad, the trainer can also participate. 3. Additional Training Tasks. The PVS-4 (or PVS-17) scope can also be attached to ISMT weapons for training on the following task: Engage target at night with PVS-4 (or PVS-17) on M-203 (or M-16A2).

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January 2005

Chapter 5 Night Vision Equipment Section 5.1 Night Vision Equipment Distribution Lists
1. Tables A through F are recommended night equipment distribution lists for the rifle company. Allocation recommendations are in bold type. Comments from Marines from OIF are in italics. Comments from the 2004 Marine Gunner’s Conference are in italics. Current equipment is shown as currently allocated by rifle company T/E N1174, dated 27 Feb 2004. T/E B1184 is for rifle companies in Hawaii, N1164 is for 1st MarDiv, N1174 is for 2nd MarDiv, and N1184 is for 3rd MarDiv. (182) Marines are assigned to the Marine rifle company. Recommended changes to current allocations are shown as ‘R’ for ‘Required.’ 2. Weapons are shown as allocated by rifle company T/O 1013G, dated 03 April 2000. (130) M-16, (27) M-249, (21) M-9, and (4) M-4 are currently allocated by T/O. (27) M-203s are currently allocated by T/E. The Marine Gunner’s Conference recommended that (12) Marines currently armed with M-9 should be armed with M-16 instead.
Table A Rifle Platoon Squad Leader Team Leader Auto Rifle Asst Auto R Rifleman Team Leader Auto Rifle Asst Auto R Rifleman Team Leader Auto Rifle Asst Auto R Rifleman Sqd TOTAL (3) Squads 1 1 7 21 3 9 3 9 0 0 1 3 9 7 21 1 3 1 1 1 1 R 1 1 1 R R 7 21 R 1 R 3 9 3 9 1 1 1 1 R 1 1 1 R R R 1 R 1 R 1 1 R R 1 3
M-16 M-203 M-249 M-9 PVS-7 PVS14 3X PEQ-2 VLI PVS17B PAS13 RCO Beacon LBS PEQ-4 M-24 Mini Bino

1 1 1 R

1 1 1

1 R R

1 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 1 1 1 1

R R R R R R R R

R

1

R

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Plat Comdr Plat Sergeant Guide RO Plat TOTAL
Additional Required

1 1 1 1 25 9 9 0 1 1 11 9

1 1

1 1 R R

1 R 1 R R R 23 20 34 0 9 27

R R R R 0 34

R 1

R

R R

23

5

0 4

4 1

0 5

0

Table B MG Sect Section Leader 1st Squad Ldr Team Leader Gunner Ammo Man Team Leader Gunner Ammo Man 2nd Squad Ldr Team Leader Gunner Ammo Man Team Leader Gunner Ammo Man 3rd Squad Ldr Team Leader Gunner Ammo Man Team Leader Gunner Ammo Man Sect TOTAL
Additional Required

M-16

M-203 M-249

M-9

PVS-7

PVS14

3X

PEQ-2

VLI

PVS17B

PAS13

RCO

Beacon

LBS

PEQ-4

M-24 Mini Bino

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 15 0 0 7

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 R 21 1 0

1 R 1 R 1 R R R 1 R R R 1 R 1 R R R 1 R R R 1 R 1 R R R 1 R R R 10 22 0 15 R 0 0 6 0 15 R R R R 0 6 0 3 3 0 R R R R R R R R R R R R R R 1 R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R 1 R R R R R R R R R R 1 R

R R

R

R

0 4

Table C Mortar Sect Sect Leader

M-16

M-203 M-249

M-9

PVS-7

PVS14

3X

PEQ-2

VLI

PVS17B

PAS13

RCO

Beacon

LBS

PEQ-4

M-24 Mini Bino

1

1

1 R

R

1 R

R

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Squad Leader A-Gunner Ammo Man Squad Leader A-Gunner Ammo Man Squad Leader A-Gunner Ammo Man Sect TOTAL
Additional Required

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 0 0 7

1 R R 1 R R 1 R R 4 6 0

1 R 1 R 1 R 4 4 0 3 R 0 0 0 3 R 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 R R R R

Table D Assault Sect Sect Leader Gunner Ammo Man Gunner Ammo Man Gunner Ammo Man Gunner Ammo Man Gunner Ammo Man Gunner Ammo Man Sect TOTAL
Additional Required

M-16

M-203 M-249

M-9

PVS-7

PVS14

3X

PEQ-2

VLI

PVS17B

PAS13

RCO

Beacon

LBS

PEQ-4

M-24 Mini Bino

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 0 0 7

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 13 0

1 1 R 1 R 1 R 1 R 1 R 1 R 7 6

1 1 R 1 R 1 R 1 R 1 R 1 R 7 6 0 6 0 6 1 R 0 1 R 1 R 1 R 1 R 1 R

R

1

R

0 1

1

0 1

0

Table E Company HQ Weapons HQ CO XO 1stSgt CoGySgt Police Sgt

M-16

M-203 M-249

M-9

PVS-7

PVS14

3X

PEQ-2

VLI

PVS17B

PAS13

RCO

Beacon

LBS

PEQ-4

M-24 Mini Bino

M-4 M-4 M-4 M-4

1 1 1 1 1

1 R 1 R R R R

R R R R R

R R R R R

R R R 1

R R

R R R R

1

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Driver Co HQ TOTAL
Additional Required

1 6 0 0 0

1 2 4 2

R 0 6

R 0 6 R R 0 0 2 0 0 0 0

R 0 6 R R 0 2

R 0 4 R 0 1 1 2 1 R 1 2 1 0 2 0 4 R R 0 0

Wpns Plat Cmdr Wpns Plat Sgt W HQ TOTAL
Additional Required

1 1 2 0 0 0 0

1 1 2

1 R 1 R 2 2

Table F Co TOTALS 1st Platoon
Additional Required

M-16

M-203 M-249

M-9

PVS-7

PVS14

3X

PEQ-2

VLI

PVS17B

PAS13

RCO

Beacon

LBS

PEQ-4

M-24 Mini Bino

25 25 25 15 3 6 6 2 107 107

9 9 9 0 0 0 0 0 27 27

9 9 9 0 0 0 0 0 27 27

0 0 0 7 7 7 0 0 21 21

11 9 11 9 11 9 21 1 4 6 13 0 2 0 0 0 73 73 34

23 23 23 0 0 0 4 2 75 75

5 20 5 20 5 20 10 22 4 4 7 6 2 6 2 2 40

23 34 23 34 23 34 0 15 0 3 7 6 0 6 0 2 76 76

9 9 9 0 6 0 6 0 0 33

9 34 9 34 9 34 0 15 0 3 0 6 0 6 0 2 27 27 6 1 4 1 1 6 4 4 4

4 1 4 1 4 1 3 3 1 1 1 0 1 2 2 1 20 2 0 10 4 1 1 4 5 5 5

2nd Platoon
Additional Required

3rd Platoon
Additional Required

MG Sect
Additional Required

Mortar Sect
Additional Required

Assault Sect
Additional Required

Co HQ
Additional Required

Wpns HQ
Additional Required

Co TOTAL T/O and T/E
Additional Required

33

20


27

100 134

134 25

3. PVS-7 and PVS-14 Every Marine needs an NVG. (73) PVS-7 and (75) PVS-14 are currently allocated by T/E. (34) more PVS-14 are needed to equip every man. Company PVS-14 allocation should be raised from (75) to (109) on the T/E. PVS-14 allows Marines to retain one eye for unaided observation, peripheral vision and situational awareness. Marines, especially SAW gunners and machinegunners, should have PVS-14 to shoot with PVS-17 or PAS-13. Eventually, all PVS-7s should be replaced with

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PVS-14 for all (182) Marines, raising the company PVS-14 allocation to (182) on the T/E. The Marine Gunner’s Conference recommended this as well – (182) PVS-14 to equip every Marine of the rifle company. Every Marine needs a helmet mount. Head strap mounts are useless. Helmet mounts, NSN 5855-01-441-0401, should be ordered for all NVGs. All attachments – corpsmen, FOs, FACs, drivers, radio operators – need to join with an NVG mounted to a helmet mount. 4. 3X Magnifier No specific number is currently allocated by T/E. Company 3X allocation should be (40) on the T/E. The 3X is heavy and bulky, but is excellent for stationary defensive roles, especially for machinegunners and FOs at long ranges in the desert. The Marine Gunner’s Conference recommended (67) – to additionally equip all (27) fire team leaders. 5. PEQ-2 All weapons except the pistol need a PEQ-2. All M-16s and M-203s need a PEQ-2. All M249s need a PEQ-2. All SMAWs need a PEQ-2. All M-240G need a PEQ-2 to lay the gun, define sectors, and control fires. Even with PVS-17, the M-249 should still have a PEQ-2. Even with PAS-13, M-240s need a PEQ-2. The Marine Gunner’s Conference agreed. Weapons platoon section leaders armed with pistols need a PEQ-2 for hand-held use if not issued a PEQ-4. Every Marine in the company except for six mortarmen needs a PEQ-2. (76) PEQ-2 are currently allocated by T/E. Allocation should be raised from (76) to (176). 6. VLI Visible Light Illuminator Flashlight Every rifle in the company needs white light capability. In MOUT, every rifle needs white light. The Marine Gunner’s Conference agreed. VLI is a good idea poorly executed – too big, too heavy, and it needs too many batteries. We did not take a single one into Iraq. The current T/E specifies VLI “as required.” Company VLI allocation should be (134). A smaller and lighter light, capable both hand-held and weapons-mounted, should be fielded. 7. PVS-17B 2.25X Night Vision Sight (33) PVS-17B are currently allocated by T/E. Systems Command recommends distribution to fire team leaders for mounting on the M-203 as a replacement for the PVS-4. The Marine Gunner’s Conference recommended PVS-17 be issued to automatic riflemen, machinegunners, and SMAW gunners, for a total of (39). PVS-17 is great on the M-249 for defensive positions but not for patrolling. An AT-4 mounting bracket is needed for PVS-17.

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SMAW should mount PVS-17. Laser Boresight System can zero PVS-17 to SMAW and AT-4 very accurately. RCO used in line with PVS-14 detracts from usefulness of PVS-17. 8. PAS-13 TWS Thermal Weapons Sight (TWS) (27) PAS-13 are currently allocated by T/E. Systems Command recommends distribution to automatic riflemen for the M-249. A lighter weight thermal sight, suitable for use with the M-249, should replace the PAS-13 in the infantry company. (6) additional PAS-13 should be allocated for M-240. Company TWS allocation should be raised from (27) to (33) on the T/E. The Marine Gunner’s Conference recommended that PAS-13 be issued to automatic riflemen and machinegunners, who would then carry both PVS-17 and PAS-13. PAS-13 is effective for the M-240G but too big and heavy for the M-249. PAS-13 is too bulky to be mounted on individual weapons. It is valuable in the hand-held mode for OPs at the squad level. PAS-13 has poor battery life and cannot be used in conjunction with our lasers. 9. RCO Rifle Combat Optic Every rifle in the company needs an RCO. The scope was the favorite technological advancement for the average Marine. The perfect solution to acquire, identify, and discriminate targets at a distance, under poor conditions, and in MOUT. RCO improved marksmanship, improved low-light visibility, and improved BDA. Many stacked RCO with PVS-14 to get a true night capability. The T/E currently has no specific number of RCO. RCO allocation should be (134). 10. IR Beacon All separate units need a multi-pattern IR Beacon. A must for every unit fire team and up. Enough beacons are needed so both the vehicle and the unit are marked. Lack of different flashing patterns made it difficult to distinguish units on a crowded battlefield. The Marine Gunner’s Conference recommended that the platoon sergeant also carry a beacon, bringing the total for a rifle platoon to (5). No specific number of IR Beacons are currently allocated by T/E. Company IR Beacon allocation should be (25) on the T/E. 11. LBS Laser Boresight System (20) LBS are currently allocated by T/E. Every squad needs the capability to boresight. 12. PEQ-4 Company leaders need a powerful hand-held laser pointer. Leaders need something that stands out on a battlefield crowded with PEQ-2 lights.

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ZERO (0) PEQ-4s are currently allocated by T/E. FACs are assigned PEQ-4 on the H&S Company T/E. A rifle-mounted or hand-held PEQ-2 can be used to direct local organic fires, but is not powerful enough to direct supporting direct fire units such as tanks, LAVs, or weapons company vehicles at longer ranges. Small unit leaders without FACs need a handheld laser to mark targets for CAS. Ten infantry company leaders need a powerful hand-held laser pointer for illuminating and marking targets, identifying lateral limits and target reference points, and coordinating supporting fires: CO, XO, Weapons Platoon Commander, Mortar Section Leader, (3) Platoon Commanders, and (3) machinegun squad leaders who need the ability to mark when they are attached out to platoons. PEQ-4 allocation should be raised from (0) to (10) on the T/E. 13. M-24 Mini-Binoculars Key leaders down to the squad level need binoculars. The RCO does not replace the requirement for binoculars. Leaders need the flexibility and magnification binoculars provide over a weapon-mounted optic. The T/E specifies binoculars “as required.” Company allocation should be (27) on the T/E. 14. General OIF Comments on Night Vision Equipment: Every Marine needs NVGs and a PEQ-2 on his weapon. Every rifle needs an RCO and white light. But…we are strapping too many things on our weapons, making them unwieldy and affecting center of balance and marksmanship. We need to look at the amount of buttons. I question the ability of Marines to master the ever-growing array of equipment. Breakage, resupply, maintenance, and training issues are tremendous and should not be underestimated.

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January 2005

Section 5.2 Batteries

1. AA Batteries are needed for most night vision equipment. A common battery greatly increases flexibility and availability. AA batteries with integral testers are especially useful. 2. IR Beacons use 9-volt batteries.

3. Standard Battery Procedures All batteries that are issued are recovered. Two types of batteries are recovered: Good and Bad. Collecting dead batteries is NOT a litter issue. Dead batteries recovered by the enemy are not only evidence of Marine operations, they can be used to trigger bombs or power enemy equipment. Every piece of battery-powered equipment is combat-ready at all times. It is up to the individual to know the battery status of his equipment. Two batteries should be issued to each man for every battery he requires. The CoGySgt knows the company battery requirements. Using Section 5.1, the Infantry Company currently needs hundreds of AA batteries and dozens of 9-volt batteries just for night equipment. Battery resupply is continuous. Communications equipment has separate additional battery requirements. These numbers are doubled when each man is issued spares. To go to war tomorrow, an infantry company needs over a thousand batteries of multiple types.

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January 2005

Section 5.3 Standard Armory Procedures
1. Each piece of night vision equipment is assigned to an individual Marine. Use Section 5.1 to assign each piece of equipment to an individual Marine using a NAVMC 10520 card. Each Marine then has multiple cards, one for each piece of his equipment. This billet-specific equipment list creates a set of equipment for each billet. When men change billets, turn over all equipment, including weapon. Establish SOPs for what SL-3 gear is always drawn and what is not. Examples:
• • •

PEQ-2 are issued at the armory without accessories or manual. PVS-7 and PVS-14 are issued without light interference filter, manual, or demist shields. 3X magnifiers are always drawn. The case is not. The 3X is stored in the NVG bag.

In the field, the cloth NVG bag holds all night vision equipment. Spare batteries, 3X, IR beacons, chemlites, and other items are kept together with NVGs in one place. This ‘Night Bag’ should be worn on the deuce gear so packs can be left behind. All weapons mounts should be attached at all times, even in the armory. PEQ-2 mounts maintain boresight even when weapons are stored in the armory. 2. The Infantry Company draws weapons and equipment in (90) minutes. The CoGySgt should establish a tight round-robin schedule. All equipment should be drawn at all times. This reinforces equipment SOPs.
H-Hour to H+20 1st Platoon 2nd Platoon 3rd Platoon Wpns Platoon Armory Co Gear Ammo Chow H+20 to H+40 Chow Armory Co Gear Ammo H+40 to H+60 Ammo Chow Armory Co Gear H+60 to H+90 Co Gear Ammo Chow Armory

Company Gear is Comm, batteries, chemlites, HLZ kits, EPW kits, and any other mission-specific equipment.

3. Storage. By Marine Corps order, serialized equipment such as night vision equipment needs to be secured, but it does NOT need to be stored in an armory.

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January 2005

Section 5.4 Acquiring Equipment
1. Tables of Equipment Every unit in the Marine Corps rates a fixed suite of equipment. The equipment listed on an infantry battalion Table of Equipment (T/E) is held by the battalion supply officer. The infantry company rates a portion of the battalion T/E. Every company commander needs a copy of his T/E, available from the supply officer or online. The company commander needs to know what equipment the company rates, what new equipment is becoming available, and what additional equipment, accessories, and consumables are needed for training and combat. Marine Infantry Company Tables of Equipment are: N1164 for 1st MarDiv, N1174 for 2nd MarDiv, N1184 for 3rd MarDiv, and B1184 for Hawaii. 2. Type 1 Equipment Type 1 items are those pieces of equipment that the Marine Corps requires a unit to possess. The T/E defines the exact number of each Type 1 item that a unit is required to have either on-hand, on-order, or budgeted to purchase in order to maintain the number set by the T/E. Type 1 items have Table of Authorized Control Number (TAMCN) numbers that begin with A – communications, B – engineering, C – general, D – motor transport, or E – weapons. 3. Type 2 Equipment Type 2 items are those pieces of equipment that the Marine Corps authorizes a unit to have, if the unit commander chooses. Unit commanders can adjust the numbers of Type 2 items to meet their unit’s mission. Type 2 items have Table of Authorized Control Number (TAMCN) numbers that begin with F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, or N. Headsets, cables, computers, ropes, tools, binoculars, goggles, compasses, and flashlights are all examples of Type 2 items. Any item NOT listed at all on a T/E that is requested, approved and acquired by the unit becomes a Type 2 item.

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4. Storage Account Codes All equipment is also assigned a Storage Account Code (SAC): SAC-1 equipment is paid for by the unit. SAC-2 equipment is paid for by MCLB Albany. SAC-3 equipment is paid for by HQMC. Most SL-3 equipment, accessories for major end items, is SAC-1. Replacement helmet mounts, SL-3 for PVS-14, need to be paid for by the unit. 5. New Equipment. New equipment, regardless of TACNM, is initially issued cost-free to units. After that initial issue, repairs, exchanges, and SL-3 replacements are handled by the assigned Type and SAC code system. 6. Open purchase is used to acquire equipment that is not currently stocked by the DoD supply system. The battalion supply officer, with the Battalion Commander’s approval, executes a purchase request to acquire equipment directly from manufacturers. 7. Consumables. Consumable items are available either through the Marine Corps Supply System – by ordering or purchasing at a Self-Service facility – or by purchase from a local supplier. The company commander should know the NSN and unit cost of common consumables such as chemlites, batteries, and Glint tape. 8. The Company Commander needs to insure that the battalion supply officer understands his unit’s needs and issues.

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