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Submitted by

SUMESH.S.R REG NO: 15093450

To Cochin University Of Science & Technology In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Degree Of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Department of mechanical Engineering
Sarabhai Institute of science & Technology, Vellanad Thiruvananthapuram- 695573 July -2011

Sarabhai Institute of Science & Technology, Vellanad, Thiruvananthapuram- 695573

This is to certify that this seminar report entitled “MAGNEGAS” is a bonafide record of the work done by SUMESH.S.R under our guidance in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering of Cochin university of Science & Technology.

Seminar coordinators

Head of Department

Thiruvananthapuram for his valuable suggestion. I also express my gratitude to all the staff members. for his guidance & help rendered for the successful completion of my seminar. Vellanad. We also thank the department for providing necessary facilities for the presentation of the seminar. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Firstly I thank God almighty for his abundant grace on preparing this seminar. guidance & encouragement in carrying out the seminar. my parents and my friends who were very co-operative for the successful completion of this seminar report. Sarabhai Institute of Science & Technology. I especially thank my seminar guide. advice. . I express my sincere gratitude to the head of the department.

8875 x 107 metric tons of O2 /day from our atmosphere.CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The focus of this seminar is to explore some of the direction that have been taken to develop less emission and non exhaustable fuels for personal transportation vehicles to be used in next generation. and carbon dioxide. nitrogen oxides. To resolve these problems. from natural gas) implies the permanent removal of oxygen from our atmosphere in a directly usable form. We then show that a conceivable global use of hydrogen from the indicated regeneration origin in complete replacement of fossil fuels would imply the permanent removal of 2. hydrogen carbons. which is essentially a magnetically upgraded form of . After the internal combustion engine consumes the gasoline it releases carbon monoxide. creating a serious environmental problem called Oxygen depletion. Many alternatives have been considered out of which the use of hydrogen as fuel did resolve the environmental problems of fossil fuels due to excessive emissions of carcinogenic substances and carbon dioxide. most of the automobiles use fossil fuel such as oil. acid rain and the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. the combustion of hydrogen originating from regeneration processes (e. Automobiles are the most efficient and convenient way to travel compared to walking or running. since the combustion turns hydrogen and oxygen into water whose separation to restore the original oxygen balance is prohibitive due to cost. Unfortunately.g. with consequential termination of all life forms in our planet in a few years. millions of people use the automobile as their main source of transportation. The chemicals cause air pollution.. Today. However. we propose the upgrading of hydrogen into the new combustible fuel called Magnegas.

Thus Magnegas may be the permissible alternative for the present conventional fuels. by producing a fuel dramatically cleaner than gasoline.hydrogen into new clusters called Magnecules. at a cost visibly smaller than that due to refineries. The new Magnegas technology permits the processing of crude oil in the reactors. Its exhaust has no toxic substances. . a positive balance of oxygen & less CO2 as compared to gasoline exhaust. Its production is cheaper than other fuels. Magnegas is produce as a byproduct in the recycling of liquid waste or from processing of carbon rich liquids.

particles in accelerators.chemical and then industrial research conducted over the past three decades . Dr. by the late 20th century no technology for the production and . physics and chemistry because available disciplines of the time were invariant under the reversal of the direction of time. Santilli was invited by the DOE to apply for a research grant to study the foundations for possible new energies and fuels. During the last years of President Carter's Administration. Ruggero Maria Santilli following mathematics. energy conservation. quantum mechanics and quantum chemistry) are indeed exact for reversible systems (such as the atomic structure.CHAPTER 2 THE MAGNEGAS-CONCEPT 1. and other basic laws) INSUFFICIENCIES TO PRODUCE A COMBUSTIBLE GAS Despite 150 years of development. Santilli indicated his willingness to accept the grant under the condition he would be allowed to search for basically new mathematics. Dr. Therefore. while all energy releasing processes are irreversible over time. and many more) but. when applied to irreversible systems (such as coal combustion) lead to serious inconsistencies (the prediction that smoke and ashes reconstruct the original coal in violation of causality.THE BIRTH OF THE MAGNEGAS TECHNOLOGY: The MagneGas technology has been developed by the Italian-American scientist Dr. reversible theories (such as special relativity. when at the Department of Mathematics of Harvard University. physical .

most of the separated Hydrogen and Oxygen ignite via an implosion by reproducing in this way the original liquid state. Santilli and consists in the fact that the plasma caused by an underwater electric arc around the tips of graphite electrodes is generally composed of mostly ionized atoms of Hydrogen H. with a consequential dramatic reduction of efficiency. Dr. Carbon and . Consequently. Due to the great affinity between Carbon and Oxygen (at the origin of life on Earth). prevented the industrial development of a combustible gas produced with a submerged electric of combustible gases produced by underwater electric arcs had reached industrial maturity. with up to 27% percent CO2 content in the combustion exhaust. Santilli states: The beautiful glow of an underwater arc is partially due to the combustion within the plasma around the tips of the electrodes of Hydrogen and Oxygen into water caused by the arc itself. thus causing an excessive cost of the produced gas. the origin of the latter insufficiency was also identified by Dr. Due to the expectation of substantial fines and charged for any release in the atmosphere of CO2. Santilli as being up to 18% prior to combustion. An additional insufficiency of the gas produced by conventional stationary submerged electric arcs is the high content of the green house gas CO2 that was measured by Dr. Ruggero Maria Santilli. the ratio between the volume of gas produced and the used electric every is small. The reasons were discovered by the Italian-American Physicist Dr. The first insufficiency of stationary submerged electric arc is a very low efficiency. The arc is one of the most effective means for the separation of liquid molecules. such a feature. But such a plasma is traversed by the arc itself. Oxygen O and Carbon C. a stationary submerged electric arc creates a plasma around the tips of the electrodes very rich of Hydrogen and Oxygen.namely. Therefore. alone.

Additionally. 3. irreversible physical and chemical theories without a really new mathematics. new space time. Santilli stressed that there cannot be really new irreversible mathematics without really new numbers. etc.and hyper-mathematics. when traversed by an arc in the presence of Oxygen. Dr. as well as their verification. Santilli recognized that there cannot be really new. burns by forming CO2. gaseous) Carbon Monoxide CO. thus being itself reversible over time. new algebras. Dr. although also applicable to the interior of any physical medium.MATHEMATICAL RESEARCH: To initiate his studies under DOE support. thus explaining the indicate major environmental insufficiency. Santilli passed to the construction of corresponding coverings of physical theories such as special relativity and quantum mechanics. and resulted in new mathematics today technically known as santilli-geno. . new differential calculus. Additional insufficiencies discovered by Dr. new symmetries. Santilli are technical and are treated in the specialized literature 2. because all pre-existing mathematics had no time arrow. Dr. It should be noted that hadronic mathematics consists of new numbers.Oxygen combine by forming (the triple bonded. Mathematical maturity was reach in 1996 when a purely mathematics journal (Rendiconti Circolo Matematico Palermo) dedicated one entire issue to Santilli new mathematics. new groups.PHYSICAL RESEARCH: Following the discovery of the appropriate irreversible covering of the 20th century mathematics. But CO is combustible and. or generically hashadronic mathematics meaning a new mathematics conceived for the structure of strongly interacting particles such as protons and neutrons called "hadrons". These studies alone required more than a decade of research of purely mathematical character.

atoms bonded together by the conventional valence force) because the origin of environmental problems caused by fossil fuels s the impossibility of achieving a full combustion due to the strength of the valence . such as the first numerically exact representation from un -adulterated first principle of the binding energy and other features of the Hydrogen. today known as Santilli hadronic chemistry. Santilli was finally in a position to construct the discipline truly needed for energy releasing processes. The so-called "screened Coulomb potentials" did improve the representation but rendered the words *quantum chemistry" equivocal since they no longer admit conventional quantized orbits and have other problems shown in the technical literature. Water and other molecules. conventional chemistry had missed these goals for about one century.CHEMICAL RESEARCH: Only following such a vast prior research. nuclear physics. 4. This additional research also required decades. and also consists in a step-bystep irreversible covering of all various aspects of quantum chemistry. quantum chemistry missed a historical 2% of experimental data on molecular binding energy for the hydrogen and was unable to get the sign let alone the value of the electric and magnetic moment of the water molecule. in particle physics. an irreversible covering of quantum chemistry. Santilli indicated to the DOE that he had no intention of searching for new fuels with the conventional molecular structure (that is. Dr. The new disciplines are today known under the name of hadronic relativity and mechanics and includes a step-by-step lifting of all aspects of conventional theories into broader scientific vistas. By comparison. Dr. astrophysics and cosmology.THE DISCOVERY OF MAGNEGAS: Back in the late 1970s. with impressive experimental verifications. 5. In fact.when applicable.

Dr. Dr. even though stable at ambient temperature. dimers HO. are known to be weaker then valence bonds. At that time (1998). CH. the energy output of fuels with magnecular structure is bigger than that of fuels with molecular structure under the same atomic constituents because of the availability in the former case of free atoms such as H and O ready to combust into H2O. CO. Dr. subject to the condition of allowing a full combustion. In fact. magnetic Santilli finally achieved in 1998 his intended goal with the discovery of a new chemical species today known as Santilli magnecules. C. the prefix "Magne" indicating the new magnecular structure as opposed to the conventional molecular composition. Additionally. physics and chemistry. etc. as an evident pre-requisite to achieve true improvement in combustion. Following the above indicated research in pure mathematics. and ordinary molecules H2. By contrast. Dr. etc. etc. Santilli initiated comprehensive industrial research on the selection of the most effective means for the cost competitive . O. Only following the above vast preparatory research. Santilli was finally able to search for a basically new class of fuels he called MagneFuelsTM (patented and international patents pending). Santilli indicated to the DOE his intent of searching for fuels with a new chemical com position other than that of molecular character. and they are known to disappear at a sufficient high temperature. while in the latter case energy is lost for the separation of H2 and O2 into H and O as a premise for their combustion into H2O. all fuels with Santilli magnecular structure do have indeed full combustion because the bond of their clusters is destroyed by the combustion itself. Therefore. bonded together by opposing magnetic polarities in toroidal deformations of atomic orbitals.consisting of isolated atoms H..

Following the achievement of clean burning. SAt any rate. let a. even partially. environmentally acceptable new energies namely. Industrial maturity for the cost competitive production of clean burning MagneGases requires large investments over one additional decades of industrial research and the construction of dozens of Magnegas Refineries scientifically also known as Santilli hadronic reactors to indicate that they are conceived and designed via the use of hadronic mathematics. energies that cannot be even conceived. in efficiency. Therefore. quantum mechanics s and quantum. Santilli is currently completing his commitment with the DOE of the late 1970s: the search for much needed. all energies that could be conceived via special relativity. physics and chemistry. cost competitive fuels with the new magnecular structure. chemistry . That identification signaled the birth ofMagneGases that is. The result was one an d only one: the use of submerged electric arcs for the gasification of liquids since no other process can compare. the only serious hope for mankind to achieve the much needed new clean energy is to surpass special relativity. quantum mechanics and quantum chemistry were fully identified by the middle of the 20th century and they all resulted to have environmental shortcomings.production of his new fuels with magnecular structure. of various gases with Santilli magnecular treated with the 20th century sciences.

in short problems faced using H2 as fuel can be summarized as 1 Production 2. while hydrogen combustion turns as atmospheric oxygen into H2O.MAJOR DRAWBACKS OF USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL  The use of hydrogen does avoid the release carcinogenic substances and carbon dioxide in the exhaust. Storage of liquid hydrogen. H2O produced is certainly a greenhouse gas. Another major problem faced was that hydrogen tends to leak more than petroleum.Further. Transportation 3. 4. This depletion is due to the fact that gasoline combustion turns atmospheric oxygen into CO2 part of which is recycled by plants into O2. . and hydrogen can embrittle some metals. This process permanently removes oxygen from our atmosphere in a directly usable form due to the excessive cost of water separation to restore the original oxygen balance .  Also Hydrogen fuel typically takes up about four times as much space as gasoline to deliver the same energy content and to keep the fuel at -273ºC requires expensive tanks made of 70 layers of fiberglass and aluminum. Oxygen depletion. but causes an alarming oxygen depletion which is considerably bigger than that caused by fossil fuel combustion under the same energy output. Therefore.

2.1 shows the production process of the Magnegas. resulting in clusters which are stable at ordinary conditions.A REVOLUTIONARY BREAKTHROUGH: CREATION OF MAGNEGAS What is Magnegas Upgrading hydrogen into a new combustible gas called as Magnegas. It is named so because of its unique property of inducing atomic polarization between the atoms and molecules which bond together like magnets. Fig. These clusters are called magnecules because of the dominance of magnetic over the other effects in their creation. 2. Fig.1:PRODUCTION OF MAGNEGAS .

. CO and O2.000ºF which decomposes molecules into plasma state and the H.CHAPTER 3 THE MAGNEGAS-PRODUCTION A new kind of reactors called Hardonic Reactor. The extensive tests have established that the reactor uses in average 100W of electricity for an average hourly production of 500m3 of Magnegas plus heat. C and O plus ordinary molecules H2.1 below shown is US Magnegas Total Recycler whose all operations are computer controlled. Figure 3. which produce up to three million units of the clean burning Magnegas per hour suitable for the large scale automotive uses. C and O recombine to form the clusters of individual atoms of H. In these reactors Magnegas is produced by Plasma Arc Flow process in which an electric arc is passed through the liquid at about 10. including: antifreeze and engine oil wastes etc. It uses ¾ inch electrodes for producing arc.These reactors are also called as Plasma Arc Flow recyclers . Hardronic reactors with 1”.These reactors are called Hardonic because they are based on concept of Hardonic Chemistry rather than Quantum Chemistry. The reactor has been certified for total recycling of any type of non-radioactive liquid waste. The biggest efficiency is obtained by using crude oil which is converted into a fuel cleaner and less expensive than gasoline when compared to the cost of current refineries. are used for processing crude oil and liquid wastes into Magnegas and giving heat as by product . 2” and 5” coal rods.

carbon precipitates and sterile effluent liquid that is under development for organic liquid fertilizer or irrigation water. MagneGas exhaust has been certified by an automotive laboratory accredited with the E. and the atoms are then recombined into MagneGas. which can power cars.P. The revolutionary Plasma Arc Flow(TM) recycler creates this natural gas alternative. to . The technology is called Plasma Arc Flow(TM) (patents and numerous international patents pending) and it is based in flowing the liquid waste through a submerged electric arc between coal electrodes. The machine uses a patented electrical process to decompose the liquid waste molecules into atoms. In this way the liquid waste is converted into MagneGas.A. These byproducts include: a gaseous fuel known as MagneGas(TM).PLASMA ARC FLOW RECYCLERS: The PLASMA ARC FLOW(TM) process gasifies a number of liquid wastes into usable byproducts. industrial equipment. The Plasma Arc Flow moves the plasma away from the electrodes and controls the formation of MagneGas that bubbles to the surface for collection. The arc decomposes the liquid molecules into atoms and forms a plasma around the tips of the electrodes at about 10. or powering natural gas bi fuel automobiles.000°F. and homes. heat. It has the lowest Green House gas emissions when compared to fossil fuel. The fuel can be used for metal cutting. heating. MagneGas is a cost competitive and clean burning fuel that is essentially interchangeable with Natural Gas or it can be mixed with Natural Gas. cooking. The refinery has no odor or noise pollution as it runs quietly in a completely sealed environment. sterile liquid effluent and carbonaceous precipitates collected in a strainer for periodical removal. cooking grills.

carbon dioxide (12%). The liquid is then processed in the Linear Mode for the removal of carbonized solids and completes other processes as may be required by local environmental authorities. III) "Total-Linear Recyclers" for the processing of farm manure and ship or city sludge via their treatment in the Total Mode until the entire liquid is sterilized and its solid content is carbonized. This . plus sterilized liquid that can be processed further via industrially available filters and other systems to produce final effluent as clean as requested by local environmental requirements. carbon monoxide (30-35%). requirements without a catalytic converter.P. commercially referred to as "PlasmaArcFlow(TM) Recyclers. diesel. The waste is converted into MagneGas and a carbon deposit that is under development for the production of electrodes or other uses." These reactors are capable of recycling water-base liquid waste (such as city. farm or ship sewage and sludge. II) "Linear Recyclers" that are intended for the sterilization of bio-contaminated liquid wastes (such as city or ship sewage) via its single passage through one or more electric arcs. This results in the production of MagneGas.A. MagneGas is composed of hydrogen (55-65%).surpass all E.) or certain oil-base liquid waste into a new clean burning fuel called "MagneGas(TM)". making it dramatically cleaner than gasoline. and natural gas.5-1%). The technology is based on specially designed reactors. water vapor (2%). and trace gases (0. carbon precipitates. used antifreeze etc. The recyclers are divided into three different types: I) "Total Recyclers" that are intended for the maximum conversion of liquid to fuel. and is the only fuel that produces oxygen when it burns.

40 gm/mi Nitrogen Oxides 0.247 gm/mi 80% of MG emission 458.234 gm/mi 900% of MG emission 1.00 gm/mi Carbon Dioxide 235 gm/mi 646.655 gm/mi 195% of MG emission EPA Standards 0.494 gm/mi 2096% of MG emission 3. carbon precipitants plus sterilized liquid that can be processed further via industrially available filters and other systems to produce final effluent to meet local environmental requirements.380 gm/mi 2460% of MG emission Gasoline 0. as shown below.262 gm/mi 5. CERTIFICATION OF THE MAGNEGAS EXHAUST Magnegas(TM) fuel was shown by EPA accredited laboratory analysis results to be suitable for use as automotive fuel without catalytic converters while surpassing all current EPA requirements for combustion exhaust emissions.732 gm/mi 260% of MG emission 1.503 gm/mi 275% of MG emission No EPA standard exists for Carbon Dioxide .41 gm/mi Carbon Monoxide 0. Element Hydro-carbons MagneGas (MG) 0.281 gm/mi .process results in MagneGas.026 gm/mi Natural Gas 0.965 gm/mi 750% of MG emission 0.

6% .01% . 5. molecules and newinternal molecular bonds and thus its combustion may referred as burning of amultistage rocket. 2.5%-0. Water vapour – 65 – 70% O2 – 10% CO2 .0.Combustion of Magnegas has positive balance i. 3. hydrogen acquires thenecessary energy density to avoid liquefaction as fuel and when tested it gave energyoutput equivalent to that of gasoline (proved by us Magnegas Inc) 4.8% CO .7% 0.0.00% . 1.Magnegas has three different energy storage levels: magnecules.04% of MG emission No EPA standard exists for Oxygen PROPERTIES AND TEST RESULTS: Many tests and researches are being done till now which brought to light the following characteristics of Magnegas.5%-0.The exhaust emission of an Automobile converted to run on magnegas had following composition. the oxygen produced in the exhaust is bigger than that used in combustion.Gas Chromatographic Mass Spectrometric (GC-MS) and Infra Red Detectorsshowed that it consists of large cluster which cannot be all symmetric and havingunconventional type of bonding which does not give conventional signature.04% of MG emission 0.Oxygen 9%-12% 0.In Magnegas under a sufficient magnetic polarization.7% 0.e.

WHY MAGNEGAS?  Recycles liquid sludge  Pollution Free  On-site production  Limitless quantities  Transportable plant  A cleaner .better planet . .