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3.5.2011 © MERVENTO
3 MW wind turbine Rotor diameter 112 m Traditional geared turbine with one bearing on main shaft
3.5.2011 © MERVENTO
3.5.2011 © MERVENTO
3.5.2011 © MERVENTO
5.Vestas V164 6 MW wind turbine Rotor diameter 164 m Semigeared 155 3.2011 © MERVENTO .
5.WinWinD WWD-3 Semigeared 3 MW Rotor diameters 90 and 100 m Multibrid-technology Two stage planetary gear Prototype in 2004 yp Serial production 2005 Annual volume approximately 20 pp y Coming years volume 50 y annually Nacelle 127 t Total weight nacelle + rotor 163 t 156 3.2011 © MERVENTO .
WinWinD WWD-3 157 3.5.2011 © MERVENTO .
WinWinD WWD-3 158 3.2011 © MERVENTO .5.
2011 © MERVENTO .5.WinWindD 3 3 MW Rotor diameters 100. 109 and 120 Frequency converter and transformer down to tower base Nacelle weight 80 t (without hub?) 159 3.
Market positioning .
0 Areva M5000 ØEnercon E-126 100m 90m 80m Vestas V90 Established turbines mainly in the 2.Established turbines 150m 140m 130m Rotor diamete er 120m 120 110m Siemens SWT 3.5.6-120 RePower 5M Bard 5.2011 © MERVENTO .5 MW class The rotor diameter depends on the wind class Mainly high speed double fed turbines ØEnercon E-82 2 MW 3 MW ØDirect drive ØOld fashioned technology 4 MW 5 MW 161 Medium speed ØModest technology 6 MW High speed ØFuture technology 7 MW 8 MW 3.6-107 Siemens SWT 2.3-101 Alstohm E100 MWT92 Siemens SWT 3.
3-113 RePower 3.New prototypes 150m 140m 130m Rotor diamete er 120m 120 110m Nordex 2.2011 © MERVENTO .4-117 RePower 3.4M104 Ø Siemens SWT 3.0-101 ØLeitwind LWT101 Gamesa G128 RePower 6M Vestas V100 100m New prototypes mainly in the 3 MW class 90m 80m ØLeitwind LWT93 Doosan WinDS3000 SL3000/90 The rotor diameter depends on the wind class High speed approximately 50% of new developments d l t The number of direct drive new developments has increased recently 2 MW 3 MW ØDirect drive ØOld fashioned technology 4 MW 5 MW 162 Medium speed ØModest technology 6 MW High speed ØFuture technology 7 MW 8 MW 3.2M114 SL3000/105 RePower 3.2M114 Ø Siemens SWT 2.5.
5 Mitsubishi PSE Ø? Areva M6000 Ø? 100m Ø Avantis AV928 New developments mainly in the 3 MW and 5-6MW classes The rotor diameter depends on the wind class High speed approximately 50% of new developments d l t The number of direct drive new developments has increased recently 90m 80m 2 MW 3 MW ØDirect drive ØOld fashioned technology 4 MW 5 MW 163 Medium speed ØModest technology 6 MW High speed ØFuture technology 7 MW 8 MW 3.0-110 WinWinD 3 Goldwind 2.5MW Alstohm Ø? Ø Vestas 6MW Ø? Bard 6.2011 © MERVENTO .5.6-118 Ø Mervento 4.5-118 Ø Darwind 5MW Shanghai Electric Ø? ØGE 4.New developments 150m 140m 130m Rotor diamete er 120m 120 110m Vestas V164 Sinovel 128 Goldwind Ø? Dong Fang Ø? g g WinWinD 3 Ø Mervento 3.
5.4-117 RePower 3.2011 © MERVENTO .2M114 Ø Siemens SWT 2. 2 MW 3 MW ØDirect drive ØOld fashioned technology 4 MW 5 MW 164 Medium speed ØModest technology 6 MW High speed ØFuture technology 7 MW 8 MW 3.5 MW class Doosan WinDS3000 WinWinD 3 Acciona AW3000 Nordex 2.3-113 Vestas V100 100m 90m 80m All latest developments are 2 .Wind class III 150m 140m 130m Rotor diamete er 120m 120 110m Previously the class III turbines has been 2.3 MW with very large rotor diameters or The class III turbines are mainly geared machines. The direct drive new comers are immediately focusing on class II and class I wind conditions.
5 MW class All latest developments are 3 MW with very large rotor diameters Gamesa G128 i probably aiming f class I G is b bl i i for l The class II turbines are becoming more and more direct drive (33%).5. 2 MW 3 MW ØDirect drive ØOld fashioned technology 4 MW 5 MW 165 Medium speed ØModest technology 6 MW High speed ØFuture technology 7 MW 8 MW 3.Wind class II 150m 140m 130m Rotor diamete er 120m 120 110m Gamesa G128 ØEnercon E-126 Ø Mervento 3.6-118 Vestas V112 Acciona AW3000 SL3000/105 RePower 3.2011 © MERVENTO .4M104 ØEnercon E-101 Alstohm E100 Previously Ø Avantis AV928 MWT92 Vestas V90 ØEnercon E-82 100m 90m 80m the class II turbines has been 2.
Areva 6MW.5 100m 90m 80m The class I turbines are very scattered There are lot of new developments g g on p going focusing mainly on the 5-6 MW segment Dong Fang 5MW. Vestas 6MW. RePower 6M.3-101 Acciona ØLeitwind LWT93 SL3000/90 RePower 6M Bard 6.6-120 Ø Mervento 4.5-118 Areva M5000 ØGE 4. Darwind 5MW. Alstohm +5MW.6-107 SWT 3. Mitsubishi 5-7MW. Mitsubishi PSE 6MW 5 MW 166 2 MW 3 MW ØDirect drive ØOld fashioned technology 4 MW Medium speed ØModest technology 6 MW High speed ØFuture technology 7 MW 8 MW 3.5MW.0 Siemens SWT 3.5. Clipper Britannia 7. Sinovel 5MW.2011 © MERVENTO .0-110 Siemens SWT 3.Wind class I 150m 140m 130m Rotor diamete er 120m 120 110m Vestas V164 RePower 5M Bard 5.0-101 Siemens SWT Ø Siemens AW3000 2. Hyundai +5MW. Siemens 5-6MW.
5-118 Areva M5000 ØGE 4.2011 © MERVENTO .5. Sinovel.6 MW RePower 5M RePower 6M Bard 6.0-101 Siemens SWT Ø Siemens AW3000 2.6 MW 2 MW 3 MW 5 MW 3.October 2009 (*As per January 2009) Bard 5.Offshore 150m Size of turbine Number of turbines 130 79 210 96 8 7 Total T t l capacity it supplied *) MW 299 284 420 288 40 25 Vestas V164 140m 130m Rotor diamete er 120m 120 110m Supplier Siemens Vestas REpower GE Wind 1 2.3-101 Acciona 100m 90m 80m SL3000/90 The class I turbines are very scattered Enercon is not offshore (for the time ( being) The big offshore players are Siemens and Vestas Other with a small track record are RePower. WinWinD 5 MW 167 2 MW 3 MW ØDirect drive ØOld fashioned technology 4 MW Medium speed ØModest technology 6 MW High speed ØFuture technology 7 MW 8 MW 3.5 Source: BTM Consult Aps .0-110 Siemens SWT 3. Bard.3 MW 3.6-120 Ø Mervento 4.6-107 SWT 3. GE. Areva.0 Siemens SWT 3.
Direct Drive turbines .
8 % RePower (GE).4 % Mitsubishi (JP).Top 15 suppliers in 2009 Total market 38. 3.5 % 3.5 15% Mingyang (CHI). . ( ).2 % Enercon (GE). 9. 11. 6. 12.103 MW Clipper (US).5. 1.5 g g. 5. 6.5 % Others.2011 © MERVENTO Source: BTM Consult ApS – March 2010 . 12. 2.9 % Vestas (DK).5 12 5 % GE Wind (US). 7.9 % Suzlon (IND). 1.4 12 4 % Siemens (DK). 8.6 16% United Power (CHI).7 % 169 Sinovel (CHI). 2. % Gamesa (ES).4 % Dongfang.2 % GoldWind (CHI). 6. 1.0 % Nordex.
1MW.2011 © MERVENTO .5 MW) 170 3.5.Direct drive Approximately 16% of the market 2009 was direct drive turbines The market share of the Enercon direct drive turbines is in Germany 60% (continously growing) The most produced turbine in the world is the Vensys 1.5 MW direct drive by a number of licensees eg GoldWind In Sweden Piteå will the worlds largest wind power plant with 1101 turbines be built with Enercon direct drive turbines Siemens i d Si is developing di t d i t bi l i direct drive turbines i 3MW and 5 6MW in d 5-6MW According to information from suppliers 80% of the new developments are i E d l t in Europe f focused on di t d i d direct drive There is not any direct drive turbine aimed for the offshore yet (in progress Darwind 5MW GE 4 1MW Siemens 3MW and 5MW. 4. 6MW as well as Mervento 4-4.
Direct Drive Inner rotor designs 171 3.5.2011 © MERVENTO .
2011 © MERVENTO .Direct Drive Outer rotor designs 172 3.5.
221 1.a 29 2) 39 2010 MW 2.663 14.846 3.867 14. Scanwind's figure Scan ind's fig re of 39 MW is c m lati e capacit b the end of 2009 cumulative capacity by 173 3.80% 5.Scanwind (NO) Zephyros (NL) Siemens Wind Power (DK/GE) Others: Dongfang New Energy(CN) Hara XEMC (CN) Zephyros STX Heavy Industries (formerly Harakosan) (JP) Zephyros Total MW % of world market Type/Size DD wound magnets DD PMG DD wound magnets DD PMG DD ? DD PMG DD PMG DD PMG DD PMG DD PMG 2007 MW 2.809 395 2009 MW 3.A Part of Navigant Consulting .339 11.March 2011 Notes: Enercon s track-record is outstanding. It has delivered 22.a 100 18 - n.50% 3.5 MW.951 17.90% 6.60% Source: BTM Consult .5.495 n.769 2008 MW 2.914 n.2011 © MERVENTO .a - - 7 3 3 3 80 128 454 507 2.644 MW of its DD concept since 1994 in all models from 500 kW up to 7.Development of direct drive ( ) (DD) concepts p in the market from 2007 to 2010 Company Enercon GmbH Germany 1) Goldwind (CN) Vensys Mtorres (ES) Mt Impsa (Argentina) Vensys GE.
2011 © MERVENTO .5.2 3-113 SWT 2. March 2011 174 3.Press release 14.Siemens SWT.3 113 Direct-Drive WTG Source: Siemens Renewable Energy .
2011 © MERVENTO .5.A Part of Navigant Consulting .March 2011 175 3.Main permanent magnet g generator suppliers Company Ingeteam ABB The Switch Siemens Weier Converteam Sicme Motori Elin TM4 Inc Danoteck WindGen Wi dG Potencia Industrial Hyundai CSR Electric Nanqi Hui Quan Yuanda Xiangdian Xi an Dunan Yongyi Location Spain Switzerland Finland Germany Germany France Italy y Austria Canada US US Mexico South Korea China China China China China China China Source: BTM Consult .
Higher top-mass weight ') Expensive PM material potentially uncertain security of supply More complex assembly of generator using PMs g Demagnetisation of PM at high temperature More advanced cooling system required Full F ll power rather th th than partial power ti l conversion makes the turbine more expensive Comments: This Thi comparison i b i is based on a t diti d traditional d i t i comprising a d bl f d i d ti generator and l drive train i i doubly feed induction t d a 3-4 stage gearbox. but the concept has an impressive track record from more than 20 GW of capacity in operation.March 2011 176 3.2011 © MERVENTO .5. producing higher energy yield Lower maintenance and greater reliability with less downtime y Improved thermal characteristics due to absence of field losses Full power conversion improves the turbine s grid compatibility Disadvantages of DD Larger diameter of generator/nacelle complicates transportation and installation. Source: BTM Consult . *) The general trend towards higher top-mass weight for direct drive turbines seems to have been brok en by the new DD turbine SWT 3.0 from Siemens Wind Power When comparing the PMG solution to the Enercon DD design.Comparison of direct drive and traditional drive train designs Advantages of DD No gearbox and related wear an tear on mechanical components Simpler turbine with fewer parts Higher electrical (PM) and overall drive train efficiency. the latter is heavier and the absence of a permanent magnet creates excitation loss when magnetising the coils.A Part of Navigant Consulting .
2011 © MERVENTO .Geared versus Direct Drive .5.today Geared + Lower weight + Smaller overall size Direct drive + Low noise level + Low vibration level + Reliability + Components with shortest possible supply chain + Higher total efficiency Weight Size Transportation Erection Strengths Noise Reliability Reputation Availability Time-toTime-to-market Challenges g 177 3.
Impsa (2. GoldWind (5-6MW). AMSC Windtec (10MW HTS technology) 178 3. XEMC (Lagerway. Dong Fang (1. Nordex (6MW). Siemens (3MW). Siemens (6MW). GoldWind (2.5MW). Wind Direct (2.8MW).Direct drive turbines Existing direct drive turbines Enercon (2.4MW). Schuler (2 7MW) Unison 3MW Mervento (3. Sway (10MW). (3.5MW). Avantis (2. Mtorres (1. (2.1 MW) New d N developments l Shanghai Electric Company (5.2011 © MERVENTO .6MW).5. (3 6MW) GE/ScanWind (4MW). Leitwind (1.5MW 1. XEMC Darwind (5MW). Harakosan 2MW) GE/ScanWind (3 5MW) 2MW).7MW).5MW).3MW 7.5MW).65MW).5MW).5MW) Prototype direct drive turbines Enercon (3MW). EWT (2MW with China Energine). GoldWind (1.5MW). 3MW. Leitwind (3MW).
AMSC Windtec. Aerodyn. P. Wind-Direct GmbH. Engineering (not complete turbines). developments for Unison) In reality there is not any engineering company with skill and competence to develope direct drive turbines 179 3.7MW). Windforce.Direct drive turbines Engineering companies developing wind turbines Garrad Hassan (owned by GL). Concepts. Concepts (Sharpower 3MW China). Engineering companies that has developed direct drive Garrad Hassan (for Dong Fang in co-operation with Enmac and The Switch).E. Tembra (developing components for Schuler 2 7MW) Aerodyn (first DD 2. P.2011 © MERVENTO . W2E Wind to Energy (Fuhrländer). EDAG.7MW).E. Tembra (developing components for Schuler 2 7MW) EDAG Windrad 2. S & G GmbH.5. Rotorwerk GmbH.
Mervento 3 6-118 turbine 3.6-118 .
5 MW 5.5 m/s 0.7% Offshore S.0 m/s 118 m 90 m 9. IB with extended temperature range 50.1 MW 3.8 m/s 4.5.5 m/s 118 m 90 / 125 m 9.16 -40ºC +50ºC -30ºC 30ºC +40ºC 40ºC -20ºC +60ºC 8.38 0 38 55% 3.1 rpm 4 m/s 25 m/s 3º 3º 1 1º 12.067 3 067 MNm 5.40 0 40 48.6 rpm 4 m/s 25 m/s 3º 3º 1 1º 11.8 rpm 9.0 MW 3.0 m/s 14. IIA with extended temperature range 42.48 0.0 m/s 0.6 MW 4.0 m/s 12. rated wind speed Mechanical hub power at rated wind speed Maximum torque Rotational speed at cut in Wind speed at nominal turbine speed Maximum power coefficient Cp Power coefficient Cp at rated wind speed Theoretical capacity factor at Rayleigh distribution 181 Near-shore S.Main parameters Wind turbine class Vref 10 minutes mean extreme wind speed within 50 years at hub height Turbulence intensity at 15 m/s Iref Extreme temperature range for stand-by Ambient t A bi t temperature range i operation t in ti Nacelle temperature range in operation Vave annual average at hub height Rotor diameter Hub h i ht H b height Design tip speed ratio Max tip speed Nominal turbine speed Cut-in Cut in wind speed Cut-out wind speed Nacelle tilt angle Hub cone angle Blade cone angle Rated wind speed Nominal rating At sea level.2011 © MERVENTO .423 3 423 MNm 5.0 78.14 -40ºC +50ºC -30ºC 30ºC +40ºC 40ºC -20ºC +60ºC 10.0 87.4 m/s 0.48 0.7 m/s 0.8 rpm 8.5 m/s 3. 15°C.
MERVENTO 3.5.2011 © MERVENTO .6-118 Generator in front of tower Common bearings for turbine rotor and generator rotor Total weight competitive with geared turbines 182 3.
5 kWel 150kVA Self consumption nacelle + electrical station 400V 1 71 – 100 kWel. These powers to be used only in dimensioning of the components.5.2011 © MERVENTO .Main circuit diagram Power losses for dimensioning Rotor power 4000 kW Mechanical after bearing 4000 – 5 = 3995 kW Power after generator 3995 – 190 = 3805 kWel Power after tower cabling 3805 – 12 = 3793 kWel 4440kVA Power after transformer 3705 – 39. average 86 kWel Power after frequency converter and filters 3793 – 88 (2.3%) = 3705 kWel Power after MV switch gear 3594 – 3565 kWel Average 3579 kWel Vacuum circuit b k b f V i it breaker before f frequency converter t The accurate powers are in the power curve calculation.5 (1.1%) = 3665. y g p 183 3.
2011 © MERVENTO .5.Medium voltage electrical system benefits More silent frequency converter Higher reliability Lower total weight Lower total cost Makes it possible for a topology with frequency converter and p p gy q y transformer at tower base Topology ready for even higher voltage levels in range 10 13 kV enabling turbines without transformer and centralized electrical station for several turbines 184 3.
5. maintenance at ground Control room at ground level Electrical station manufactured.Advantages with electrical station at tower base Less weight in the nacelle to be erected Lower nacelle weight decreases g tower weight Longer life time and longer mean time between failure of frequency converter and transformers Easier maintenance of frequency converter and transformers Cooling water system at ground level.2011 © MERVENTO . assembled and tested at factory Shorter erection and commisioning time Lower total costs Total weight approximately 35 tons 185 3.
5.Electrical station General overview Overall dimensions (mm) L x W x hmax = 11227 x 4654 x 4210 Curvature shape roof Door to control room Doors f main t D for i transformer f 186 3.2011 © MERVENTO .
5. Size: 5112mm x 1244mm x 2466mm (L x W x H) Weight: ~6580kg 3.9 kV Three phase. nominal voltage 3.2011 © MERVENTO . th Th h three l level l semiconductors IGCT (Integrated Gate Commutated Thyristor) power stack 187 Voltage ride through (4 seconds at full power) and reactive power capability (no p p y( additional Statcom needed) In-line design.Frequency converter PCS6000 ABB four quadrant (4Q) PCS6000 Medium Voltage frequency converter.
Low weight direct drive 188 3.2011 © MERVENTO .5.
2011 © MERVENTO .Power curve comparison 189 3.5.
5.2011 © MERVENTO .Turbine maintenance costs over the life cycle 190 3.
5.2011 © MERVENTO .MERVENTO 3.6-118 Higher investment g & Higher revenue & Lower total cost of ownership (TCO) = Superior net present value NPV 191 3.
2011 © MERVENTO .6-118 > 3 x 3MW-100 m 192 3.Comparison of Gross Margin g 2 x Mervento 3.5.
5.Direct Reliability Mervento 3.6-118 3.6The first completely gearless wind turbine 193 3.2011 © MERVENTO .
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