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Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a methodology that is typically used to develop, maintain and replace information systems

for improving the quality of the software design and development process. The typical phases are analysis, estimation, design, development, integration and testing and implementation. The success of software largely depends on proper analysis, estimation, design and testing before the same is implemented. SDLC (Software development life cycle) is a common software development model used to develop a new system or re engineer an existing one. This model follows completion of logical sequence of stages/phases. The output of one stage becomes input for the next stage. The following are the steps Planning - Project management plan and other planning documents are developed. Requirements Analysis - Functional requirements documents and user requirement documents are developed Design - Detailed requirements are transformed into complete detailed System designs. Implementation - Development environment is setup, System designs are converted in code. Integration and testing - Code are integrated and tested for defects Operations and maintenance - operate and maintain the system in production environment and post delivery in customer environment. SDLC stands for Software development life cycle. 1) So here before we want to develop any type of software at that time first we are gathering the requirements. 2) After getting the requirements we want to analyze how to develop, how much cost, how to handle we are think off it. 3) Next after completion of analyzing then we can plan to design the gathering the requirements. Here we can observe two types of designing‟s 1) Low level design 2) High level design so low level design means to divide module to sub module and high level design means to split project into Modules. 4) After completion of design then developers will enter in to in this picture and they will write the code. 5) After completion of the code Testers will test whatever developers developed the Application. 6) After completion of testing we can delivery to the client and maintenance the developed Software so these following are very important for developing the Software. 1) Gathering the Requirements. 2) Analysis 3) Design 4) Coding 5) Testing 6) Delivery and Maintenance The Different Stages of the software development life cycle are We ensure that different stages of the software development life cycle are executed in various geographical locations so as to leverage the cost advantage offered by these regions Estimates for the effort required at the later stages of the software development life cycle are done in a detailed form, using differential techniques, towards the end of the requirement analysis and the preliminary design stages Resolving problems in the development process and integrating security into every step of the software development life cycle is much easier said than...

data. System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Model B.tetsing 6. Requirements analysis: In this phase. Prototype Model 4.Analysing the gathered requirements 3. it does not determine how the software will be designed or built. Spiral Model 5. However. XP Model 1. the requirements of the proposed system are collected by analyzing the needs of the user(s). the users are interviewed and a document called the user requirements document is generated. Component Assembly Model There are various SDLC models. It is one which the business analysts use to communicate their understanding of the system back to the users. Usually. V Model 7. security requirements etc as expected by the user.. The V-Model demonstrates the relationships between each phase of the development life cycle and its associated phase of and maintenace The following are some basic popular models that are adopted by many software development firms A. interface. Waterfall Model 2. the process steps are bent upwards after the coding phase.designing 4. Verification Phases 1.requirement gathering 2. Incremental Model 3. 1. The users carefully review this . performance. The user requirements document will typically describe the system‟s functional.. Rapid Application Development Model (RAD) 6. This phase is concerned about establishing what the ideal system has to perform. V-Model The V-model is a software development model which can be presumed to be the extension of the waterfall model. Prototyping Model C. to form the typical V shape.There are six stages for SDLC 1. physical.codingor implementation 5. Instead of moving down in a linear way. Rapid Application Development Model D.

their interface relationships.Model.error message listings. 3. 2.complete input and outputs for a module. The V. and performance for the software product. the whole process of software development is divided into separate process phases.Model addresses software development within a project rather than the whole organization. the V. 2. Feasibility: Defining a preferred concept for the software product.Model supports a wide range of development methodologies. Advantages 1. Module Design: This phase can also be called as low-level design. technology details etc. The V. The user acceptance tests are designed in this phase. All these phases are cascaded to each other so that second phase is started as and when defined set of goals are achieved for first phase and it is signed off. including their type and size – all interface details with complete API references. with all elements. 2. They pretty much do that. data structures etc. Disadvantages 1. 4. If any of the requirements are not feasible. verified specification of the required functions.Model is organization and project independent.all dependency issues. interfaces. Other technical documentation like entity diagrams. It may also hold example business scenarios. It is a life cycle process model.Model. and determining its life-cycle feasibility and superiority to alternative concepts. It is only used once during a project.document as this document would serve as the guideline for the system designers in the system design phase. reports for the better understanding. sample windows. In each activity schema there are instructions. Software Design.Model provides concrete assistance on how to implement an activity. so the name “Waterfall Model”. It is hard to find out if peer reviews and inspections are done in the V. This document contains the general system organization. The tailoring makes it possible because the V. The unit test design is developed in this stage. The baseline in selecting the architecture is that it should realize all which typically consists of the list of modules. menu structures. System Design: System engineers analyze and understand the business of the proposed system by studying the user requirements document. Architecture Design: This phase can also be called as high-level design. 3. dependencies. 2. They figure out possibilities and techniques by which the user requirements can be implemented. The phases in Waterfall model are: Requirement Specifications phase. Waterfall Model Waterfall approach was first Process Model to be introduced and followed widely in Software Engineering to ensure success of the project. Requirements: A complete. The software specification document which serves as a blueprint for the development phase is generated. The V. In “The Waterfall” approach. It does not address the whole organization. the user is informed of the issue. data dictionary will also be produced in this phase. A resolution is found and the user requirement document is edited accordingly. You may think that it is done in the self assessment activity before a product is passed on to the QA for inspection.Model is not complete as it argues that it is. Implementation and Testing & Maintenance. database tables. This is not stated explicitly in the V. At each project start.Model is tailored into a specific project V. in pseudocode – database tables. brief functionality of each module. The low level design document or program specifications will contain a detailed functional logic of the module. The integration testing design is carried out in this phase. . recommendations and detailed explanation of the activity.Model supports tailoring. but they do it on a too abstract level. The documents for system testing is prepared in this phase. architecture diagrams.Model. The designed system is broken up in to smaller units or modules and each of them is explained so that the programmer can start coding directly. It argues that the sub models cover all activity areas. The V. The V. All the methods and processes undertaken in Waterfall Model are more visible.

Requirements Review 1. and data structure for the product. 2. The following table will illustrate the phases of activities that happen in the ‘W’ model: SDLC Phase The first „V‟ The second „V‟ 1. Integration: A properly function software product composed of the software components. that is. and training. 1. Specification 2. Build Test Strategy. key algorithms. 3. 4. Maintenance: A fully functioning update of the hardware-software system repeated for each update. . sizing. Detailed Design: A complete verified specification of the control structure. It is documentation driven. 3. Execute Unit Tests 1. Specification Review 1. Architecture 3. Plan for Testing. Regression Round 1. Detailed Design 4. the Waterfall Model has difficulty accommodating the natural uncertainty that exists at the beginning of the project. Architecture Review 1.Product Design: A complete verified specification of the overall hardware-software architecture. 2. 3. As the client usually has a vague idea of exactly what is required from the software product. including such objectives as program and data conversion. Execute System Tests. Coding: A complete. 1. Implementation: A fully functioning operational hardware-software system. control structure. 1. Requirements 1. System Test Case Generation. Code Walkthrough 1. data structure. installation. Detailed Design Review 1. verified set of program components. Execute Integration Tests. 5. thus changes may cause considerable confusion as the project progresses. interface relations. and assumptions of each program component. Acceptance (Beta) Test Scenario Identification. It is an enforced disciplined approach 3. Unit Test Case Generation. The customer only sees a working version of the product after it has been coded which may result in disaster. along with such other necessary components as draft user‟s manuals and test plans. It only incorporates iteration indirectly. Code 5. Integration Test Case Generation. documentation is produced at every stage Disadvantages 1. 2. Any undetected problems are precipitated to this stage. The following diagram depicts the „W‟ model: The ‘W’ model depicts that the Testing starts from day one of the initiation of the project and continues till the end. Testing is inherent to every phase of the waterfall model 2.

The process of prototyping involves the following steps: 1. Regression Rounds are performed at regular intervals to check whether the defects.. It also allows the software engineer some insight into the accuracy of initial project estimates and whether the deadlines and milestones proposed can be successfully met. Identify basic requirements: Determine basic requirements including the input and output information desired. Version I: Prototyping is used as a requirements technique. incomplete versions of the software program being developed. Regression Round 2. 3. This process is in contrast with the 1960s and 1970s monolithic development cycle of building the entire program first and then working out any inconsistencies between design and implementation. rather than having to interpret and evaluate the design based on descriptions. since it assumes that the software designer and developer is a single hero who has to slay the entire dragon alone. Performance Tests 1. Version One This approach uses the prototype as a means of quickly determining the needs of the client. The degree of completeness and the techniques used in the prototyping have been in development and debate since its proposal in the early 1970‟s. Version II: Prototype is used as the specifications or a major part thereof. Regression Round 3 1.1. A prototype typically implements only a small subset of the features of the eventual program. 1. Prototyping has several benefits: The software designer and implementer can obtain feedback from the users early in the project.g. is the creation of prototypes. the customer might want to design the Acceptance Tests. 4. 3. 2. including end-users. Prototype Model Software prototyping. If changes are introduced then a repeat of steps #3 ands #4 may be needed. according to which the software program is built.e. a possible activity during software development. This is because. input approaches and output formats). and the implementation may be completely different from that of the eventual product. Performance/Beta Tests In the second ‘V’. i. are re-tested. can typically be ignored. In this case as the development team executes the Beta Tests at the client place. Details. which have been raised and fixed. Versions There are two main versions of prototyping model: 1. The purpose of a prototype is to allow users of the software to evaluate proposals for the design of the eventual product by actually trying them out. . Negotiation about what is within the scope of the contract/product may be necessary. 2. such as security. The emphasis of the prototype is on representing those aspects of the software that will be visible to the client/user (e. examine the prototype and provide feedback on additions or changes. which led to higher software costs and poor estimates of time and cost. I have mentioned Acceptance/Beta Test Scenario Identification. The client and the contractor can compare if the software made matches the software specification. The monolithic approach has been dubbed the “Slaying the (software) Dragon” technique. Review: The customers. Thus it does not matter if the prototype hardly works. Revise and Enhancing the Prototype: Using the feedback both the specifications and the prototype can be improved. Develop Initial Prototype: The initial prototype is developed that includes only user interfaces. Prototyping can also avoid the great expense and difficulty of changing a finished software product. the same team can identify the Scenarios. it is discarded once the specifications have been agreed on.

Version Two In this approach. then it must be rapidly converted into a second version.e. as not time is spent on drawing up written specifications. The presence of the prototype being examined by the user prevents many . incompleteness. the early determination of what the user really wants can result in faster and less expensive software. Improved and increased user involvement: Prototyping requires user involvement and allows them to see and interact with a prototype allowing them to provide better and more complete feedback and specifications. Reduced time and costs: Prototyping can improve the quality of requirements and specifications provided to developers. the prototype is actually used as the specifications for the design phase.Note that if the first version of the prototype does not meet the client‟s needs. Because changes cost exponentially more to implement as they are detected later in development. The inherent difficulties associated with that phase (i. This advantage of this approach is speed and accuracy. Advantages There are many advantages to using prototyping in software development. some tangible some abstract. contradictions and ambiguities) are then avoided. 2. 1.

prototyping can also have disadvantages. Sometimes. 3. Excessive development time of the prototype: A key property to prototyping is the fact that it is supposed to be done quickly. Since users know the problem domain better than anyone on the development team does. Users can also become attached to features that were included in a prototype for consideration and then removed from the specification for a final system. “One of the most productive uses of rapid prototyping to date has been as a tool for iterative user requirements engineering and human-computer interface design. User confusion of prototype and finished system: Users can begin to think that a prototype. This can lead to overlooking better solutions. It has been found that prototyping is very effective in the analysis and design of on-line systems. increased interaction can result in final product that has greater tangible and intangible quality. Developer attachment to prototype: Developers can also become attached to prototypes they have spent a great deal of effort producing. such as batch processing or systems that mostly do calculations benefit little from prototyping. the greater the benefit is that can be obtained from building a quick system and letting the user play with it. should be used all the time. lower productivity can often result. When this underlying structure is omitted. The final product is more likely to satisfy the users desire for look. should be used. Prototyping is especially good for designing good human-computer interfaces. in some form or another. If the developers lose sight of this fact. When the prototype is thrown away the precisely developed requirements that it provides may not yield a sufficient increase in productivity to makeup for the time spent developing the prototype. or both. or perhaps misusing. Further. In addition to training for the use of a prototyping technique. is actually a final system that merely needs to be finished or polished. since a prototype is limited in functionality it may not scale well if the prototype is used as the basis of a final deliverable. Best Projects To Use Prototyping It has been argued that prototyping. feel and performance. Expense of implementing prototyping: the start up costs for building a development team focused on prototyping may be high. there is an often overlooked need for developing corporate and project specific underlying structure to support the technology. Many companies tend to just jump into the prototyping without bothering to retrain their workers as much as they should. this can lead to problems like attempting to convert a limited prototype into a final system when it does not have an appropriate underlying architecture. 2. (They are. A common problem with adopting prototyping technology is high expectations for productivity with insufficient effort behind the learning curve. However. for example. prototyping is most beneficial in systems that will have many interactions with the users. rather than evolutionary prototyping. Disadvantages Using. Many companies have development methodologies in place. (This may suggest that throwaway prototyping.misunderstandings and miscommunications that occur when each side believe the other understands what they said.) This can lead them to expect the prototype to accurately model the performance of the final system when this is not the intent of the developers. the coding needed to perform the system functions may be too intensive and the potential gains that prototyping could provide are too small. intended to be thrown away. often unaware of the effort needed to add error-checking and security features which a prototype may not have. If users are able to require all proposed features be included in the final system this can lead to feature creep. and changing them can mean retraining. where the use of screen dialogs is much more in evidence. The greater the interaction between the computer and the user. 5. especially for transaction processing. retooling. Insufficient analysis: The focus on a limited prototype can distract developers from properly analyzing the complete project. preparation of incomplete specifications or the conversion of limited prototypes into poorly engineered final projects that are hard to maintain.” . Systems with little user interaction. which may not be noticed if developers are too focused on building a prototype as a model. holding up the development team and delaying the final product. 1.) 4. Users can become stuck in debates over details of the prototype. they very well may try to develop a prototype that is too complex.

development begins by specifying and implementing just part of the software. As originally envisioned. the iterations were typically 6 months to 2 years long. The iterative lifecycle model can be likened to producing software by successive approximation.4. For each cycle of the model. The first three phases of the example iterative model is in fact an abbreviated form of a sequential V or waterfall lifecycle model. Each phase starts with a design goal and ends with the client (who may be . Iteration should eventually result in a requirements phase that produces a complete and final specification of requirements. Drawing an analogy with mathematical methods that use successive approximation to arrive at a final solution. 5. This may be a new design. Review phase. This process is then repeated. or an extension of an earlier design. Spiral Model History The spiral model was defined by Barry Boehm in his 1988 article A Spiral Model of Software Development and Enhancement. Consider an iterative lifecycle model which consists of repeating the following four phases in sequence: A.The key to successful use of an iterative software development lifecycle is rigorous validation of requirements. which can then be reviewed in order to identify further requirements. tests have to be repeated and extended to verify each version of the software. producing a new version of the software for each cycle of the model. for system integration and for acceptance. This model was not the first model to discuss iterative development. integrated and tested. Eventually a point will be reached where the requirements are complete and the software can be delivered. but it was the first model to explain why the iteration matters. Implementation and Test phase. for software integration. and changes and additions to requirements proposed. in which a software solution to meet the requirements is designed. Design phase. and a fresh start has to be made. B. C. Iterative Model An iterative lifecycle model does not attempt to start with a full specification of requirements. or kept as a starting point for the next cycle (sometimes referred to as incremental prototyping). D. when the software is coded. in which the software is evaluated. the benefit of such methods depends on how rapidly they converge on a solution. Requirements phase. As the software evolves through successive cycles. or it becomes impossible to enhance the software as required. a decision has to be made as to whether the software produced by the cycle will be discarded. in which the requirements for the software are gathered and analyzed. Instead. the current requirements are reviewed. Each cycle of the model produces software that requires testing at the unit level. and verification (including testing) of each version of the software against those requirements within each cycle of the model.

A preliminary design is created for the new system. weaknesses. with an eye toward the end goal of the project. The Spiral Model The spiral model. Routine maintenance is carried out on a continuing basis to prevent large-scale failures and to minimize downtime. 4. add the final graphics. Estimates (i. or any other factor that could. is a systems development method (SDM) used in information technology (IT). (3) planning and designing the second prototype. The new system requirements are defined in as much detail as possible. and. 5. The final system is thoroughly evaluated and tested. At the customer‟s option.e. 8. The spiral model is intended for large. at some point. Advantages 1. Risk factors might involve development cost overruns. based on the refined prototype. budget. and complicated projects. Applications For a typical shrink-wrap application. another prototype is developed from it according to the fourfold procedure outlined above. The spiral model is used most often in large projects. 3. because important issues are discovered earlier. (2) defining the requirements of the second prototype. For smaller projects. (4) constructing and testing the second prototype. The preceding steps are iterated until the customer is satisfied that the refined prototype represents the final product desired. A first prototype of the new system is constructed from the preliminary design.) become more realistic as work progresses. and risks. The final system is constructed. expensive. A second prototype is evolved by a fourfold procedure: (1) evaluating the first prototype in terms of its strengths. schedule. in the customer‟s judgment. result in a less-than-satisfactory final product. This model of development combines the features of the prototyping model and the waterfall model. add features in phases. This usually involves interviewing a number of users representing all the external or internal users and other aspects of the existing system. The steps in the spiral model can be generalized as follows: 1. and. 9. also known as the spiral lifecycle model. . 2.internal) reviewing the progress thus far. Analysis and engineering efforts are applied at each phase of the project. the entire project can be aborted if the risk is deemed too great. 7. the spiral model might mean that you have a rough-cut of user elements (without the polished / pretty graphics) as an operable application. and represents an approximation of the characteristics of the final product. This is usually a scaleddown system. etc. operating-cost miscalculation. The US military has adopted the spiral model for its Future Combat Systems program. 6. the concept of agile software development is becoming a viable alternative. The existing prototype is evaluated in the same manner as was the previous prototype. if necessary.

detailed requirements analysis is done that attempts to capture the system requirements in a Requirements Specification. RAD usually embraces object-oriented programming methodology. Disadvantages 1. Users are forced to “sign-off” on the specification before development proceeds to the next step. Highly customized limiting re-usability 2. the RAD process enables a development team to create a fully functional system with in very short time period. Development Methodology The traditional software development cycle follows a rigid sequence of steps with a formal sign-off at the completion of each. Software engineers (who can get restless with protracted design processes) can get their hands in and start working on a project earlier. (The concept can be applied to hardware development as well. Risk of not meeting budget or schedule 6. This is followed by a complete system design and then development and testing. A complete. or extremely expensive to implement? What if errors in the design are encountered during the build phase? The elapsed time between the initial analysis and testing is usually a period of several months. what if the design phase uncovers requirements that are technically unfeasible. The most popular object-oriented programming languages. If the requirements are well understood and defines. and testing tools. which inherently fosters software re-use. language development environments such as those for the Java platform. It is more able to cope with the (nearly inevitable) changes that software development generally entails.2. reiterative user testing of designs  The re-use of software components  A rigidly paced schedule that defers design improvements to the next product version  Less formality in reviews and other team communication Some companies offer products that provide some or all of the tools for RAD software development.) These products include requirements gathering tools. are offered in visual programming packages often described as providing rapid application development. and the project scope is constraint. groupware for communication among development members. prototyping tools. But. RAD Model RAD is a linear sequential software development process model that emphasis an extremely short development cycle using a component based construction approach. RAD (rapid application development) is a concept that products can be developed faster and of higher quality through:  Gathering requirements using workshops or focus groups  Prototyping and early. C++ and Java. computer-aided software engineering tools. Risk of not meeting budget or schedule 4. 3. Applied differently for each application 3. What if .

iterative development cycles. 2. what information is generated. Both end customer and developer should be committed to complete the system in a much abbreviated time frame. Data Modeling: The information collected from business modeling is refined into a set of data objects (entities) that are needed to support the business. For large projects RAD require highly skilled engineers in the team. Small requirements or priorities change or the users realize they overlooked critical needs during the analysis phase? These are many of the reasons why software development projects either fail or don‟t meet the user‟s expectations when delivered. effective informal communication and simple project management. deleting or retrieving a data object. modifying. The attributes (character of each entity) are identified and the relation between these data objects (entities) is defined. unity of vision and purpose. and IT technical resources. RAD Model Phases RAD model has the following phases: 1. optimizes speed. 4. who process it and so on. RAD is a methodology for compressing the analysis. But new components must be tested and all interfaces must be fully exercised. design. All functions are modularized so it is easy to work with. Business Modeling: The information flow among business functions is defined by answering questions like what information drives the business process. If commitment is lacking RAD will fail. Application Generation: Automated tools are used to facilitate construction of the software. who generates it. Process Modeling: The data object defined in the data modeling phase are transformed to achieve the information flow necessary to implement a business function. This reduces overall testing time. end users. Testing and Turn over: Many of the programming components have already been tested since RAD emphasis reuse.RAD projects are typically staffed with small integrated teams comprised of developers. This has a number of distinct advantages over the traditional sequential development model. Advantage and Disadvantages RAD reduces the development time and reusability of components help to speed up development. Processing descriptions are created for adding. and test phases into a series of short. 5. even they use the 4th GL techniques. 3. iterative development cycles. where does the information go. RAD is based on Object Oriented approach and if it is difficult to modularize the project the RAD may not work well. build. . combined with short.

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