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Patika Area Study

I.

GENERAL A. Geography 1. Location and size.
a. Location in relation to neighboring provinces – Paktia borders the Pakistani-ruled tribal areas of North Waziristan and Kurram. b. Paktia covers roughly 6,432 km² (2,483 sq mi).

2. Physical Features.
a. Waterways and ports – b. Topography – Paktia is a largely mountainous province, with most of the population living in the central valley . c. Natural rescources –Road and rail networks – Almost non-existant

roads. No rail system. 3. Climate.
a. The climate of Paktia is continental dry with seasonal extremes of

heat and cold. It varies with altitude, and benefits from the Indian summer monsoon. Most villages in Nuristan are located between 1,500 m and 2,500 m above sea level. A remarkable absence of wind at this high altitude results in relative comfort for the inhabitants also at low temperatures.
b. In winter, temperatures rarely drop below -10°C. The summer

maximum temperature seldom exceeds +30°C. However, in the

upper valleys, eg Parun, it gets bitterly cold after the winter solstice. There is plenty of snow in winter, and there is often a risk of snow avalanches. There are rain storms, including heavy thunder storms with hail, in spring. Summers and autumns are dry. Most of the water comes from melting snow on the surrounding mountains. 4. Political Geography. a. Politically organized areas and regions b. Effectiveness of administration of political areas in relation to geographic boundries.
c. Cities and towns

d. Boundries - The district borders within Paktia are drawn as

follows:

e. Sources of raw materials – Wood, the most common building

material, is harvested locally. Other commodities are traded among neighboring provinces.
f. Principles or traditions that command loyal support – none

g. State of industrial development – none B. History
1.

Brief history of Paktia.
a.

Najibullah Ahmadzai, the former president of Afghanistan, was from Paktia province, in particular the Melan Valley area. Paktia used to be a unified province with Khost and Paktika, these three

provinces are now referred to as Loya Paktia which means The Greater Paktia. Paktia came to prominence during the 1980s, when a significant portion of Afghanistan's leadership originated from the province. Some of the more notable leaders include: Najibullah Ahmadzai; Mohammad Aslam Watanjar; Shahnawaz Tanai; and Gulabzoy. Dr. Najibullah is known as one of the beloved Afghan leaders whose pictures can be seen in every corner of the country, including Kabul. b. More recently, Paktia was the site of heavy fighting between Taliban and NATO forces following the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan. Paktia was one of the last redoubts of organized Taliban resistance; much of Operation Anaconda took place in Zormat, one of Paktia's larger districts. c. Influence exerted by major powers in development - In addition to these caste/class divisions, Paktia society is subdivided into clans, and each of these contains various lineages, which in turn are further sub-divided into branches composed of closely related families.
d. Divisions or partitions resulting from wars and treaties - Clan

and/or community feuds, often about water rights, arable land, theft of livestock, grazing rights and/or abduction of girls and wives, within valleys and between valleys can be violent. When there is a feud involving a whole village, then everyone in the village is expected to provide both moral and material support.
e. Major political factors to the current status in the area - The

fragmentation among the tribes and tribal leaders in the area contribute to the continued instability in the area.
f. Present and previous forms of government - While there is a

provincial governor and government, the real governance is done at the tribal or clan level. g. Extent of political control over other areas – None.
h. Degree of control over the population exercised by the government

- None. i. Susceptibility of existing government towards major powers – The Provincial governments are fairly weak and are fairly susceptible to external influence.
j.

Political organizations in the area – Jamiat-e Islami (Islamic Society of Afghanistan): Led by former Prime Minister Burhanuddin Rabbani. It is predominately a Tajik political party which was active in the anti-Soviet jihad and a major political player in the Northern Alliance. Today Rabbani

Summary pronouncements of national policy pertinent to te subject area or country – None C. 000 b. he is closely allied with Karzai who strongly supported him for this position. A doctor by profession. who are Western sympathizers. Despite ideological and cultural similarities with the Taliban. the latter from places as diverse as the Southern Philippines. a. HiG was famous for its shifting loyalties. Distribution and density – All population lives in rural areas. According to Altai surveys it comes in at 18% of the province. . the former often Arab. Population. Brief coverage of each: a. People. He follows strict Wahhabi interpretations of Islam. 2. In February 1993 government forces and members of the Ittihad-e Islami massacred over 700 Hazara in the Afshar district of West Kabul. and is not known for tolerance. Hamnazar: One of the most important parties of the Meshrano Jirga. is a former HiG commander. Hajji Ghafour. The Kanta tribal chief. and has been since the antiSoviet campaign. International treaty to which subject area is a signatory – None b. Numbers – Approximately 415. Former members continue to wield considerable influence in the province. According to Altai surveys it comes in at 8% of the province. . Status of Forces agreements – None c. and was the favorite party of Pakistan’s ISI until the rise of the Taliban.supports Karzai. The party is particularly popular in Wama and Parun districts. Ittihad-e Islami (Sayyaf): This fundamental party is under the guidance of one Abdul Rasool Sayyaf. The group numbers some thirty parliamentarians and is led by Amin Zai. Chechnya. Hamnazar (Alliance) mainly consists of pro-Karzai MPs. In the past this party has been known for its foreign supporters and followers. Sayyaf did not join them (for personal reasons) and went with the Northern Alliance. 1. Yunus Qanuni’s Hezb-e Afghanistan Naween broke away from Jamiat-e Islami. and Bosnia. Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin (HiG): The party of former Mujahed and Prime Minister Gulbuddin Hekmatyar.

When there is a dispute involving the whole village then the entire village is expected to provide both moral and material support. and imported or exported labor forces). Main languages: Dari (Afghan Persian).Main ethnic groups: Pashtun. government.When there is a dispute involving the whole village then the entire village is expected to provide both moral and material support.c. 1) History. Baluch. 2) Heroes and leaders of groups. Culture.67% annually.. Pashto. Shi'a Muslim 19%. sex. or situations. sex. Biological sketches of prominent personalities: 2. tribal. . Women are considered second class to men. 6) Attitudes toward age. Kizilbash. – Not known. .Official data on the ethnic composition in Paktia are not available. The population is growing at approximately 2. or religious) and population distribution (rural or urban with ratios of age. 3) Ethnic groups (racial. The average life expectancy is 44 years of age. Turkmen. b) Traditionally conducted activities. Annual number of births – Approximately 6660. a. Religions: Sunni Muslim 80%. a) Events and facts considered most important. Districts ???? Males Females Total 4) Minority groups (unique challenges or conditions) . Nuristani. Uzbek. race – Elders are held in high regard. . Birth and death rates. Culture and social structure. Hazara. beliefs. Tajik (9%).In addition. with reasons for special esteem. Aimaq. there are smaller ethnic groups of 5) Moral Codes . and geography as they affect the cultural makeup of the people. d. other 1%.

– Not known. Instead. competition. b. respect for personal and private property) – Paktian people engage in subsistence trading for the most part. Men’s basic outfit consists of Tunic-shirt. 7) Influences on personality development. Most dwellings are interconnected. 9) Privacy – There is very little privacy within the family. solid colors and plain designs are common for the two-piece tunic-shirt and pants. the Paktians do not concentrated their embroidery in any specific area such as the bodice or sleeves. 8) Individuality – The Paktians tend to identify more with the tribe than the individual. Everyone is expected to . As for Men’s basic outfits. The Paktians norms are the only norms they know and understand.Paktians generally are proud and ethnocentric people who do not look favorably on outsiders of any ethnic type. which is less brightly colored than the clothes worn by other Afghan women. 10) Nature of people’s perceptions – The remoteness of Nuristan creates a sheltered existence where there is vey little external influence. There is an average of 9 family members per household. The Paktian women embellish their clothes with embroidery using brightly colored thread. Unlike the dresses of most other ethnic groups in Afghanistan. Social Structure 1) Status of males and females. The shape and length of the Paktian dress is similar to that of the Baluchis. 11) 12) Fatalism or self determination – Fatalism 13) Values in economic philosophy (cooperation. by age 2) Humor and entertainment – None 3) Community Participation – Community is fairly cohesive at the tribal and village level. Clothing – Women’s clothes tend to be black or dark blue. The most common stitching technique used is the cross-stitch. pants and head covering (Turban or hat) and shoes. the entire fabric of the dress is covered with embroidery. It is more geometrical in shape with long sleeve.

f) Entrance rites and rituals – Not known g) Markers of social change. Young boys get priority of education over young girls. special activities. obedience. b) Nuclear or extended – Paktians exist as part of the extended family and have great regards for family lineage. – Not known. place. 5) Public displays of emotions. Children are expected to assist with the work. and expectations of members. – No. They are interdependent upon each other for survival. 7) Cooperation versus competition. including economics – Paktians tend to be cooperative internally. e) Inheritance customs – Women and daughters generally receive no inheritance. Women work the crop fields and men tend to farm the livestock. – Men are the heads of the household and have authority over all family members.The family is a central institution within the society. Inheritance is divided equally between surviving male children.contribute when responding to an external threat or internal crisis. 4) Exchange of gifts – The Paktian people will exchange friendship gifts with visitors. c) Authority. 9) Dating and marriage . adulthood. Wives are secondary to husbands. Children are secondary to parents and elders. 8) The family a) Roles and status of family members – Gender roles are rigid. Children and women are expected to be obedient to the men. 6) Lines of authority – Informal based on an elder’s reputation and respect. d) Place in society . Young girls are expected to help care for younger siblings and help mothers in working the fields.

followed by the health of the other’s family and livestock. e) Farewell and leave taking. f) Divorce. – Not known. f) Use of first names versus titles. Marriage before adulthood is acceptable. 2. – Not known. c) Compliments given or received. sitting. d) Space and time (standing. b) Influence of family and peers – It is acceptable for families to arrange marriages. – Not known as the Paktian people speak six mutually unintelligible languages. – One always starts by asking about the other’s health. It is very difficult for woman to divorce their husbands. g) Favorite. group dating. familiar. women have few options and often lose child custody. distance between people). – Not known. – Not known. – Not known. 11) Visiting Practices a) Conversations 1. Husbands have to agree to the divorce and there must be witnesses to why the woman should be allowed the divorce. b) Distinctive approaches for greetings. – Men can divorce their wives for little or no justification. – Not known. 10) Greetings a) Conversation and gestures on meeting.a) Age standards – There are no set age standards for marriage. or pleasing phrases – Not known. Topics. courtship activities – Not known. g) Sexual mores – Not known. Appropriate part of visit. c) Common dating practices. aloneness. separation. d) Chaperones. – Not known. . – Not known. Once divorced. e) Engagement Customs.

– Not known. and affection. family.Eating and Drinking. and the women will socialize with the women. If an Afghan acquaintance expresses a wish to entertain. and children. c) Specific foods reserved for special occasions or rituals. b) Gifts. b) Average diet. Separate-sex entertaining is the norm. the official government and religious holiday for Afghans. c) Compliments on possessions. posture. . gestures. the men will socialize with the men. – Pork. a) Table manners (before. – Not known. – Not known. Meals are usually eaten twice a day with the mid day meal being omitted. Attitude. pitch.3. – Not known. – Food is never passed with the left hand. . rate. 12) Eating practices. It centers on pilaus. eye contact. d) Forbidden foods. Many parties are for either male or female groups. and after the meal). during. or to invite an American to tea. e) Social and other occasions. – Friendship gifts are often exchanged. – Not Known.Even the poorest Afghan families who can hardly feed themselves go to any length to make a visitor feel welcome and valued. kabobs. meal size. Picnics are important events on Fridays. . Afghan social occasions are predominantly family and extended family affairs. Afghan food is essentially a variety of Persian food. with influences from the nonIranian ethnic groups. d) Parties and other social events. and scheduling. laughter. f) Mannerisms. and facial expressions. The experience would be shared with much fellowship. The best foods are offered in large quantities. e) Business discussions. – Not known. and tone. and dumpling-like dishes introduced by the Altaic peoples from the north. chalows.

Two dishes. lavish meals are prepared. – Paktikans must have a relationship with an individual before they do business with them. and others. During the celebrations. and Iranians. is Nawroz. Dos and don’ts: -Don’t retaliate against innocent people for attacks . and hierarchy. 13) Work and recreation. if both sexes are invited. status. – a) Age. f) Family. – Men sometimes play a games called quoits or field hockey. which occurs on March 21. successes. sex. The festival has its roots in Zoroastrianism. c. vacation. Literally meaning ‘new day. cultural. they will socialize separately.’ Nawroz is celebrated with picnics. Samanak is a dessert made of wheat and sugar that can take two days to prepare. – Food is not to be eaten or passed with the left hand. – Not Known. g) Individual recreation (age and sex exclusions and variations). e) Bribes are a common and an accepted practice. similar to American cookouts. samanak and haft-mehwah are specially cooked for the occasion. or failures. athletes. – Not known d) Business codes. h) Distinctive arts and sciences. the vernal equinox. and sports. the New Year celebration. f) Unique problems and challenges.and in rural areas of Afghanistan. – Not known. and social recreation. b) Schedules – Not known c) Obligations. Haft-mehwah consists of seven fruits and nuts that symbolize the coming of spring. – None i) Well-known artists. a religion brought from Persia long before the rise of Islam. The most festive holiday celebrated by Afghans.

Not Known c. -Don’t trust US informers who are not being honest. – None. -Don’t raid houses at night for no cause. Standardization of languages. the Pashai language is spoken in Nurgram and Doab Districts of western Nuristan Province. – Vasi. Nishei. ANA soldiers should e the lead in all houe clearing operations. Pashai. b. Kalasha – ala. 3. Sanu. Funeral and burial practices. Kata. and geographic locations). Religious sects (number. 4. . Language distribution. Vai. -Do take the time to understand the local people. -Don’t inflict excessive casualties on civilians while taking out few insurgents. Gramsana. Additionally. Ashkun. like the majority of Muslims in Afganistan. Language a. Ashkunu. Minority Groups. Kamkatavari. Mumo. These informers have their own agenda and manipulate the truth. – Many Mullahs speak out against OEF and ISAF presence in the area as well as supporting Taliban leaders. – There are five separate but related Paktikan languages spoken by some fifteen ethnic groups across Nuristan Province. Kom Kushto. Gurjari is spoken by Gujar settlers.by insurgents. c. Within those districts. Tregami. Gujar. Pashtun. These languages include Vasi-vari. Religion a. Tregami.. key leaders. Kata. Most adult Nuristani males and many females speak Pashto or Dari as second languages. Religious problems. – Paktikans are Sunni Muslims of the Hanafi doctrine. Dari is spoken as a first language in a few westernmost Nuristani villages of Mandol District. b.

however none are in the area at the current time due to the declining security situation. U. Eating and dietary habits – Paktikans follow the fasting practices of Ramadan. C2 of other functional areas. U. – Polygamy is acceptable in that men are allowed to have as many as four wives.S. – Civilian organizations have many interests in the area. c. Legal agreements and treaties. 4. Wood and wood products are also of trade interest in the area. Interests. Space and facilities at echelons above corps. 5. . e. 1. – Not known.S. – None at the current time due to the declining security situation. 1. – The area has a substantial amount natural resources in the form of gemstones. . – None.S. Government organizations in the area and their interests. – None. Paktikans follow Sharia law. including interrelations and intermarriages with alien personnel. Trade and commercial interests. 3. U. C2 a.There is a Provincial Reconstruction Team operating in the area. Sexual mores. FN Support.S. 2. There are some intermarriages within different ethnic groups and tribes. – The security situation in the area is declining in the area. b. Written and unwritten laws of conduct and human behavior.d. Area security. U. military units and teams in the area and their activities. Other military operations have been suspended in the area due to the declining security situation. f. E. D. Civilian organizations and interests in the area.

There are no railways. Combat service support. railways. 1) Skilled. Civilian services (laundry. Labor. bakery. 3) Agricultural. availability. Depot operations and depot maintenance. 2. bath. – No. d. – There are few good roads in the province. 2) Unskilled – This describes the majority of the laborers in the area. – Not known. b. 2) Repair of communications systems. – Not known. – None. Dislocated civilians. – Yes 6) Third country (labor necessity. – None. 8) Linguists and interpreters. Families sell food that is surplus to their needs. . – None 3) Cable construction and repair. including highways. e. 1) Use of communications systems. and water). a.S. f. – None. waterways. Use of FN transportation and distribution systems. Use of FN buildings. Material handling equipment. and quantity). 4) Laborers for hire are almost exclusively male. – None.d. or ports in the province. There is a basic subsistence economy in place with small businesses providing some of these basic services. food. 7) Screened by intelligence. – Not known. ports (public and private). employees. – There are a nominal number of dislocated civilians. Battlefield circulation control communications. c. e. – Not known. waterways. – Most families engage in subsistence farming. 5) Draft exemption for U.

and Culture and Information). military medical evacuation only. Education. General System of Public Administration. 10) Workdays. – Per capita income is estimated at about $200 per year. The government administrative positions are not fully occupied. 2. – yes 4. 3. Medical supplies and equipment. . b.g. d. U. Obstacle construction. and pipelines. presence on the FN economy. Mobility and Survivability a. 1. – None. Political stability.Currently many directors of line departments are displaced in neighboring provinces and Kabul. e. c. The governor’s office.The government is ineffective in that it is not able to provide basic services to the citizens in the area.The reconstruction of government buildings and offices was singled out as the top priority by the governor.9) Salary (standard wage). 6. Medical evacuation.S. highways. military medical supplies on hand. FN POC for U. Decontamination. – Not applicable. Medical. Contract guard service. c. Port facilities and repair. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. A. II. – Limited to U.S. Hospitals. Repair of railroads. – Sunday through Thursday. forces and procedures. . Impact of U.S. Only a few are functioning at minimum level (e. a. Other departments are located in nearby villages. 3. Standards and effectiveness. . – The nearest hospital is the Mehtarlam Hospital in Laghman. f.S. RRD. – The infrastructure (roads) is in poor shape. – None. – Not known. b. and a few departments are using office spaces in the police HQ in Parun. Political traditions. 5. . – Not needed. Barrier and construction materials.

Civil rights and practices. The constitution involves a strong presidential system. The President of Afghanistan is elected directly by the Afghan people to a five-year term. b. Today Rabbani supports Karzai. and can be elected no more than twice.. The Kanta tribal chief.This fundamental party is under the guidance of one Abdul Rasool Sayyaf. with the addition of the Panjshir region as a province. 6. Yunus Qanuni’s Hezb-e Afghanistan Naween broke away from Jamiat-e Islami. HiG was famous for its shifting loyalties.The party of former Mujahed and Prime Minister Gulbuddin Hekmatyar. According to Altai surveys it comes in at 8% of the province. and dynamics. c. Governors are appointed by the president. movements. The Wolesi Jirga has the primary responsibility for making and ratifying laws and approving the actions of the president. Jamiat-e Islami (Islamic Society of Afghanistan) – Led by former Prime Minister Burhanuddin Rabbani. a. At least 64 delegates must be women. He follows strict Wahhabi interpretations of .Not known. The National Assembly of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan consists of two houses: the Wolesi Jirga (House of the People) and the Meshrano Jirga (House of Elders). The constitution divides Afghanistan into 32 provinces. The president has two vice-presidents. and has been since the antiSoviet campaign. The party is particularly popular in Wama and Parun districts. and ten Kuchi nomads are also elected among their peers. The Wolesi Jirga. According to Altai surveys it comes in at 18% of the province. Despite ideological and cultural similarities with the Taliban. Hajji Ghafour. Members are elected on a provincial basis and serve for five years.The constitution provides for an elected President and National Assembly. 5. is a former HiG commander. Former members continue to wield considerable influence in the province. Every village and town will also have councils. with members serving for three years. Political factions. Sayyaf did not join them (for personal reasons) and went with the Northern Alliance.4. one being more important than the other because one is number one and the other is number two. It is predominately a Tajik political party which was active in the anti-Soviet jihad and a major political player in the Northern Alliance. Ittihad-e Islami (Sayyaf) . consists of a maximum of 250 delegates directly elected through a system of proportional representation. Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin (HiG) . the more powerful house. Each province is governed by a provincial council with members elected for four-year terms. and was the favorite party of Pakistan’s ISI until the rise of the Taliban. Constitutional system .

National police. Rural Rehabilitation and Development.One of the most important parties of the Meshrano Jirga. he is closely allied with Karzai who strongly supported him for this position. A doctor by profession. Chechnya. Irrigation department. LIST OF THE CURRENT GOVERNMENT AUTHORITIES IN PAKTIA . Hamnazar . Henceforth. In the past this party has been known for its foreign supporters and followers. Mines and Industries. At the moment the most important Government departments include Education. the former often Arab. Agriculture. Women Affairs. 1. the latter from places as diverse as the Southern Philippines. Structure of Provincial Government. and is not known for tolerance. and etc.Islam. national Security. it goes without saying that provincial authority lacks both the capacities to provide basic services and the means to respond to any emergency situation. Health. In addition. in the present setting. who are Western sympathizers. Hamnazar (Alliance) mainly consists of pro-Karzai MPs. Perhaps the Governor is on the top of Provincial administration. Martyrs and Disabled. there is no provincially based sectoral policy ad strategy that guides the operational functions of those departments. B. Public Work. Hajj and Awqaf. In February 1993 government forces and members of the Ittihad-e Islami massacred over 700 Hazara in the Afshar district of West Kabul. In reality these provincial entities have neither qualified personnel nor financial and material sources to run their daily business efficiently. The group numbers some thirty parliamentarians and is led by Amin Zai. and Bosnia. d.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Name of Department Governor’s Office Finance (Mastofiat) Education Provincial Court Agriculture Afgha Red Crescent Society Public Works Attorney/Prosecution State Affairs Dept of Tribes Custom House Culture / Information Radio/TV Public Health Monopoly Communication Women Affairs National Security Religious Affairs Transport Martyrs/Disabled Irrigation Social Affairs Foreign Affairs Municipality Rural Rehabilitation Electricity and Water Religious trust Refugees and Returnees Name of Department Head Mobile Phone or Satellite No. Email Address .S.

another round of voting could do more harm than good. 2707 candidates.S. Onethird of the members were appointed by the president. logistical problems. The next election of the members of the Wolesi Jirga is due on 18 September 2010 (postponed from 22 May 2010). 3. The Meshrano Jirga or House of the Elders consists of 102 members. Wolesi and Meshrano Jirga members are elected. meaning that one-third of the seats in the Meshrano Jirga will be vacant when it assembles. while another third was elected by the provincial councils. 2010. Otherwise. Legislative branch. Karzai insisted that the elections had to be held in On January 24. due to "security concerns. the election authorities in Afghanistan decided to postponed the elections until September 18. However. District governors are appointed by the President. Reflecting to the disputed previous presidential election. This was the first parliamentary election in Afghanistan since 1969. 2010. including 328 women. Afghanistan could risk American financial support. 2005. The election was conducted with multiple seat electoral constituencies. competed for 249 seats. elections for the district councils have been postponed.2. Methods of selection of key officials. in December 2009 representatives of donor nations expressed worries and even suggested that the polls should be postponed. Elections for the provincial councils were held simultaneously with those for the Wolesi Jirga. The planned election might lead to a new campaign of violence by the Taliban to intimidate voters.?????– No Further Information Available Deputy District Governor – Chief of Police – . and insufficient funds". The registration of candidates is open from January 23 till February 6. Congressmen visiting Kabul that month also urged President Karzai to delay until electoral reforms were in place. Each province is a constituency and has a varying number of seats. . Biographical sketches of key officials. 4. Voters have a single nontransferable vote. The remaining third is supposed to be elected by district councils. U. The 2005 Parliamentary Election for the Wolesi Jirga or House of the People were conducted on September 18. Since the violence and the accusations of fraud that accompanied the 2009 election. District Governor . depending on population.

Prior Pashto-language news presenter for Afghan state TV. Wolesi Jirga Members Haji Dad Mohammad Khan – Nuristani Male . 1. Attacked shortly before elections. ????? District: Name of District governor: Name of Education head: Name of Security Commander: Number of police including ? officers: ?? Number of Arbaki militias: ?? ??? District: District Governor: National Security Chief: Criminal Department Head: Head of Education: Police Chief: . Meshrano Jirga Members Al-haj Shair Mohammad Nuristani – Nuristani Male Noorullah Ma’amar – Nuristani Male – Associated with Hamnazar Provincial Council Members C.National Directorate of Security – Chief Khushal Atikhan – He has personally spoken at mosques exhorting the population to support their popularly elected government. in Journalism.Associated with Jamiat (Qanooni) and Hazrat Ali.A. Structure of Government at Other Levels. Prior clerk in Ministry of Women’s Affairs. Sub-Districts. Former Commander (28th Div) Hawa Alam Nooristani – Pashtun Female – Has a B. 20 years of experience in journalism.

IHSA and RRD are working on different projects in this area.Number of Police including ? Police officers: ?? ???? District: Name of District Governor: Name of Head of Education: Name of Security Commander: Number of Policemen including ? Police officers: ?? Number of Arbaki Militias: ???? District: Police chief: ???? District: District Governor: Education Head: Name of District Police chief: Number of Police including ? police officers: ?? National Security Chief: PRT Laghman. ????? District: District Governor of District Security Commander: Number of Police including officers: Number of Arbaki Militias: . MADERA.

000 troops had been trained. Historical background. 2.000 trained soldiers by July of 2003. Growth continued. By January. Upon becoming president of Afghanistan. Name of District governor: Security Commander: Number of Police including ? Police officers: Head of Education: D. Armed Forces. Initial recruiting problems lay in the lack of cooperation from regional warlords and inconsistent international support. the desertion rate was estimated to be ten percent and in midMarch. The problem of desertion dogged the force in its early days: in the summer of 2003.000 men by 2009. 2004 estimate suggested that 3.Head of Education: There are many primary schools and one Middle school with no proper building. 2003 just over 1.S-led Operation Warrior Sweep. however. Recruits who spoke only Pashto experienced difficulty because instruction was given through interpreters who spoke Farsi.000 soldiers had deserted. approximately 1. Organization. Hamid Karzai set a goal of an army of 70. 1 . ??? district: . Swedish Committee of Afghanistan supports the health facility as Basic Health center. though pay for trained soldiers has since risen to $120.000 ANA soldiers were deployed in the U. Some recruits were under 18 years of age and many could not read or write.700 soldiers in five kandaks (Pashtun for battalion) had completed the 10week training course. 1. Soldiers in the new army initially received $30 a month during training and $50 a month upon graduation. That month. and the ANA had expanded to 5. and by June 2003 a total of 4. marking the first major combat operation for Afghan troops. size. and mission.

This agreement called for the establishment of the ANA and formal development of Afghan forces under NATO doctrine. consisting of 600 troops. As of September 2005. By March 1. At least nine brigades are planned at this time. The Battalion The basic unit in the Afghan National Army is the Kandak (Battalion). Army Personnel strength As of May 2009. half of the planned army of 70. total manpower is over 90. Brigades A total of 14 brigades that will primarily be regionally oriented are planned for 2008.000 Afghan troops by President Obama and is supported by the Afghan Defense Ministry.S. An elite special forces unit modelled on the U. Corps Currently the Afghan National Army maintains seven Corps. the four outlying Corps were assigned one or two .000 ANA soldiers had been achieved with 46 of the planned 76 Afghan battalions operating in the fore or in concert with NATO forces. Facilities and capacity planning efforts are rapidly adjusting to the significant increases in national recruiting efforts to meet manpower needs. This was modified to a five year goal of 260. A further proposal for expansion to 134. at least one mechanized and one tank Battalion have been formed. more may be planned. The size and limits of the ANA were specified in the Bonn II Agreement. According to Combined Security Transition Command . Originally.000 personnel with 100. Army Rangers is also being formed.000 expected by August 2009.Afghanistan (CSTC-A) thirteen of these brigades are to be light infantry. signed in 2002. each consisting of six battalions.a. one will be mechanized and one will be commando. Every ANA Corps will be assigned an ANA Commando Battalion with the sixth designated as a special national unit under the Afghan Defense Ministry's purview. 28 of the 31 Afghan National Army Battalions were ready for combat operations and many had already participated in them. Although the vast majority is infantry. 2007.000 was announced in October 2008.

205th Corps (Kandahar) .brigades. Zabul. Three days later. Logar. equipped with 8 helicopters: 4 transport to support the Corps' commando battalion. Five serve as regional commands for the ANA: • • • • 201st Corps (Kabul) .S. 207th Corps (Herat) . 2nd Brigade at Pol-e-Charkhi. Establishment of the corps started when four regional corps commanders and some of their staff were appointed on 1 September 2004. 3rd Brigade. The Corps is charged with operation in eastern Afghanistan. 2nd Brigade. 2 attack.com places most of the 3rd Brigade at Jalalabad. at Pol-e-Chakri. and two medical transport. It’s battlespace includes the Afghan capital of Kabul as well as vital routes running north and south. 203rd Corps. a commando battalion and three garrisons. is to be a mechanised formation including M-113s and Sovietbuilt main battle tanks. Kapisa. The Corps has integrated artillery and air lift capacity. as part of Operation Mountain Fury. and elements at Shindand (including . and Oruzgan. This was superseded by a buildup in which each corps added extra brigades. and only a single battalion of 1st Brigade at the Presidential Palace. or coalition forces.1st Brigade is at the Presidential Palace. Currently the 3rd Brigade of the 201st Corps is the only unit that has control of an area of responsibility in Afghanistan without the aid or assistance of U. Later information from LongWarJournal. and Laghman.The Corps has the responsibility for the provinces of Kandahar. the highest casualties inflicted from indirect artillery fire in ANA history. supplied by a growing Kandahar Wing of the ANAAC. It consists of four brigades. 203rd Corps (Gardez) . Konar. including Kabul. two Embedded Training Team members mentored and advised a D30 artillery section from 4th Battalion.On 19 Oct 06. to conduct the first indirect artillery fire missions during combat operations with harassment and indirect fires. with the majority of the manpower of the army based in Kabul's 201st Corps.1st Brigade at Herat. they successfully conducted counterfire (with assistance from a US Q-36 radar) that resulted with ten enemy casualties. 2nd Brigade at Farah.] The corps is supported by the Gardez Regional Support Squadron of the ANAAC. and valleys leading from the Pakistani border into Afghanistan.

The Afghan government has approved a new seventh corps of the Afghan National Army — Corps 215 Maiwand — to be based in the Helmand capital of Lashkar Gah where the first fresh U. 2 attack. a 2nd Brigade forming at Kunduz. The commandos underwent a grueling three month course being trained by American special forces.S. 2009. unlike the Afghan National Police. and two medical transport. 209th Corps (Mazari Sharif) . it appears. Plans exist to separate this Corps again and reclaim the old Afghan Air Force role as a separate branch of the Afghan military. equipped with 8 helicopters: 4 transport to support the Corps' commando battalion. been relatively unaffected by corruption. troops are expected to arrive The sixth Corps is the Afghan National Air Corps. In late 2008 it was announced that the 201st Corps' former area of responsibility would be divided. and monitoring by. Commandos ANA commandos In July 2007 the Afghan army graduated its first commandos. with a Capital Division being formed in Kabul and the Corps concentrating its effort further forward along the border. and has 1st Brigade at Mazar-i-Sharif and. Due at least in part to its close cooperation with. The corps is supported by the Mazar-i-Sharif Regional Support Squadron of the ANAAC. . The new division.Works closely with the German-led Regional Command North. An Army Corps of Engineers solicitation for Kunduz headquarters facilities for the 2nd Brigade was issued in March 2008. which is the old Afghan Air Force. They received training in advanced infantry skills as well as training in first aid and tactical driving. became operational on April 21. The corps is supported by the Herat Regional Support Squadron of the ANAAC. equipped with 8 helicopters: 4 transport to support the Corps' commando battalion. 2 attack. designated the 111th Capital Division. US forces the Afghan National Army has. 215th Corps (Lashkar Gah) .• • commandos). and two medical transport.

when the army will double in size. Members of the coalition forces in Afghanistan have undertaken different responsibilities in the creation of the ANA. Afghan commandos are expected to increase significantly in number by 2011. They will also receive more advanced equipment from NATO. 0 4 5 6 0 1 7 8 9 6. There are also female soldiers being trained. 4. By the end of 2008 the six ANA commando battalions will be stationed in the southern region of Afghanistan assisting the Canadian forces. General military policy. trained under the Soviets. became the first female general in the Afghan National Army on 19 August 2002. Training. NATO hopes that elite Afghan commando units can help in the fight against the Taliban. International treaties.They are fully equipped with US equipment and have received US style training. Foreign influence. The new Afghan commandos are the most elite branch of the rising Afghan Army. Political control and effectiveness. 3 3. Recruitment. a two-star level multinational command headquartered in downtown Kabul. Key officers and qualifications.9% GDP (2006 Est. Defense budget. 0 2 Paramilitary forces. 1. 7. Military establishment and the national economy. On the ANA side. The first female Afghan parachutist Khatol Mohammadzai. 5. Reserves. especially around the mountainous Durand Line border region. All these various efforts are managed on the Coalition side by Combined Security Transition Command . as of July 2006 all training and education in the Army is managed .) Military pay.Afghanistan (CSTC-A). Conscription. Quality and source of manpower.

While OCS is administratively under OTB's control. NCOs. Individual basic training is conducted primarily by Afghan National Army instructors and staff at ANATC's Kabul Military Training Center. OTB candidates in the Platoon and Company Command courses are usually older former militia and mujaheddin 'officers' with various levels of military experience. also located at Kabul Military Training Center. mentorship. with various levels of CSTC-A oversight. and also runs the Drill Instructor School which produces new training NCOs for the basic training courses. mentoring. and officers are brought together in field training exercises at the platoon. however. line ANA battalions have attached Coalition Embedded Training Teams that continue to mentor . where trainee soldiers. it is kept functionally separate. The British Army also conduct initial and advanced NonCommissioned Officer training as well in a separate NCO Training Brigade. The OMLTs co-ordinate operational planning and ensure that the ANA units receive enabling support. OCS candidates are young men with little or no military experience.and implemented by the newly-formed Afghan National Army Training Command (ANATC). In the Regional Corps. A French army advisory team oversees the training of officers for staff and platoon or company command in a combined commissioning/infantry officer training unit called the Officer Training Brigade. Each ANA HQ above battalion level has an embedded Operational Mentor and Liaison Team (OMLT) of NATO trainers and mentors acting as liaisons between ANA and ISAF. based near the Kabul Military Training Center coordinating collective and individual training. The Canadian Forces supervises the Combined Training Exercise portion of initial military training. and Coalition Force support. The ANA are still supported. company and (theoretically) battalion levels to certify them ready for field operations. This program was formalized in April 2003. and assistance. All training centers and military schools are under ANATC HQ. The United Kingdom also conducts initial infantry officer training and commissioning at the Officer Candidate School. a two-star command which reports directly to the Chief of the General Staff. The coalition forces are partnered with the ANA to mentor and support formal training through Task Force Phoenix. situated on the eastern edge of the capital. The US military assists in the basic and advanced training of enlisted recruits.

1 8. located near Kabul International Airport. prepares mid-level ANA officers to serve on brigade and corps staffs. which will produce degreed second lieutenants in a variety of military professions. A contingent of US and Turkish military instructors jointly mentor the NMAA faculty and staff. 9. both in Kabul. located in southern Kabul. communications. and advise in the areas of intelligence. Weapons and equipment. France established the CGSC in early 2004. 2 Mobilization plans.the battalion's leadership. Eventually all initial officer training (to include the NMAA) as well as the CGSC will be re-located to the new NDU facility. fire support. Formal education and professional development is currently conducted at two main ANATC schools. is a four-year military university. NMAA's first cadet class entered its second academic year in spring 2006. The Command and General Staff College. A National Defense University will also be established at a potential site in northwestern Kabul. Logistics. Small Arms • • • • AK47 Rifle AK74 Rifle M16A2 Rifle RPK LMG Tanks • • T-55 Tank T-62 Tank Armoured Vehicles(800+) • • • • BMP-1 ICV BTR-80 APC M113 APC Humvee (213 in service) Other Vehicles . The National Military Academy of Afghanistan. and a cadre of French Army instructors continues to oversee operations at the school. logistics and infantry tactics.

Ranks. Heavy Arms • • • • • • • • Dragunov SVD sniper rifle PK series MGs RPG-7 Anti-tank weapon Browning M2 heavy MG SPG-9 Recoiless Rifle 82mm Medium Mortar D-30 122mm Howitzer M114 155mm Howitzer 10. Ittihad-e Islami (Sayyaf) . Military justice. In the past this party has been known for its foreign supporters and followers. and was the favorite party of Pakistan’s ISI until the rise of the Taliban. Today Rabbani supports Karzai. According to Altai surveys it comes in at 18% of the province. Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin (HiG) . Hajji Ghafour. E. Despite ideological and cultural similarities with the Taliban. is a former HiG commander. According to Altai surveys it comes in at 8% of the province. and has been since the anti-Soviet campaign. In February . He follows strict Wahhabi interpretations of Islam. the former often Arab. Political Parties. and Bosnia. Chechnya. and insignia. and is not known for tolerance. 12.This fundamental party is under the guidance of one Abdul Rasool Sayyaf. HiG was famous for its shifting loyalties.• • • • • 4 1/2 ton trucks (50+) 2 1/2 ton trucks (100+) Jeeps (120+) Ambulances (15+) Other Technicals of various origins. Jamiat-e Islami (Islamic Society of Afghanistan) – Led by former Prime Minister Burhanuddin Rabbani. It is predominately a Tajik political party which was active in the anti-Soviet jihad and a major political player in the Northern Alliance. Yunus Qanuni’s Hezb-e Afghanistan Naween broke away from Jamiat-e Islami. The Kanta tribal chief. Sayyaf did not join them (for personal reasons) and went with the Northern Alliance. The party is particularly popular in Wama and Parun districts. uniforms.The party of former Mujahed and Prime Minister Gulbuddin Hekmatyar. Loyalty and morale factors. 11. the latter from places as diverse as the Southern Philippines. Former members continue to wield considerable influence in the province.

1. who are Western sympathizers. Sunnis are united in their belief "in the legitimacy of the first three caliphs(successors to Muhammad) Abu Bakr. General conditions and problems. Agencies. Hamnazar (Alliance) mainly consists of pro-Karzai MPs. B.1993 government forces and members of the Ittihad-e Islami massacred over 700 Hazara in the Afshar district of West Kabul. Hamnazar . there are further divisions into the four schools of faith varying in their strictness of interpreting how the Prophet lived. Syria. Religions in the area. Sunnis are the most dominant sect of Islam. Organized. Islam National. The group numbers some thirty parliamentarians and is led by Amin Zai. Unorganized (sects). indigenous and missionary. Influence of religious leaders. International Affairs. Religious beliefs. Within the Sunnis. Umar. Foreign relations. 2. CULTURAL RELATIONS A. Sunnis: Meaning "traditionalists". and education of clergymen.One of the most important parties of the Meshrano Jirga. they are usually located in Iraq. location. 3. Hanabalites : the strictest school. 1. Number. Clergy. Relations with intergovernmental organizations and nongovernmental organizations. and their strict adherence to the Sunna . Relations among religions and religious leaders. F. 3. III. he is closely allied with Karzai who strongly supported him for this position. and Uthman. . comprising about 87% of Muslims worldwide. 2. A doctor by profession. Cultural Affairs. These are: a. and Saudi Arabia.

Muslims must repeat the shahadah in prayer. and parts of China. and consist of verses from the Qur'an. A fixed portion is spent to help the poor or needy.b. This is the practice of giving based on accumulated wealth. c. Shafiites : the least rigorous of the four schools and usually found in the southern tip of the Arabian Peninsula. or "I testify that there is none worthy of worship except God and I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of God. or alms-giving. or ritual prayer. which must be performed five times a day. For others. 1) Major tenets of each religion. Salah is compulsory but flexibility in the specifics is allowed depending on circumstances. including such concepts as— The Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: ‫ )أركان السلم‬are five practices essential to Sunni Islam. Shi'a Muslims subscribe to different sets of pillars which substantially overlap with the Five Pillars. but missed fasts usually must be made up quickly. Muslims must not eat or drink (among other things) from dawn to dusk during this month. flexibility is allowed depending on circumstances. c) Sawm. Sawm is not obligatory for several groups for whom it would constitute an undue burden." This testament is a foundation for all other beliefs and practices in Islam. and Egypt. and think of the needy. and must be mindful of other sins. In many Muslim countries. Some Muslim groups do not fast during Ramadan. They are usually found in North Africa and the Sudan. and also to assist the spread of Islam. Hanafites : less rigorous and located in Turkey. and instead have fasts at different times of the year. Each salah is done facing towards the Kaaba in Mecca. The zakat is considered a religious obligation (as opposed to voluntary charity) that the well-off owe to the needy . b) Salah. The prayers are recited in the Arabic language. Indonesia. Malikhites : rigorous but allow supplementary laws aside from those of the prophet. and non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam are required to recite the creed. or fasting during the month of Ramadan. and during it Muslims should express their gratitude for and dependence on him. and is seen as a personal communication with him that expresses gratitude and worship. Salah is intended to focus the mind on God. India. The fast is to encourage a feeling of nearness to God. d) Zakat. atone for their past sins. reminders called Adhan (call to prayer) are broadcast publicly from local mosques at the appropriate times. and is obligatory for all Muslims who can afford it. which is the basic creed or tenet of Islam that must be recited under an oath with the following specific statement: "'ašhadu 'al-lā ilāha illā-llāhu wa 'ašhadu 'anna muħammadan rasūlu-llāh". The Five Pillars of Islam are: a) The shahadah. d.

According to Islamic legal theory. false accusation of unlawful intercourse. he must dress in Ihram clothing. and analogical reasoning (qiyas). theory was less important than pragmatic application of the law. 2) Law The Sharia (literally: "the path leading to the watering place") is Islamic law formed by traditional Islamic scholarship. the consensus of the Muslim jurists (ijma). Islamic law covers all aspects of life. theft. which consists of two white seamless sheets. For early Islamic jurists. In Islam. The pilgrim. . marriage. is honored in his or her community. or "principles of jurisprudence"). from matters of state. the jurist ash-Shafi'i provided a theoretical basis for Islamic law by codifying the principles of jurisprudence (including the four fundamental roots) in his book ar-Risālah. which is the pilgrimage during the Islamic month of Dhu alHijjah in the city of Mecca. to issues of daily living. is defined as the knowledge of the practical rules of the religion. and restitution for injuries and murder. the Sunnah (actions and sayings of Muhammad). and symbolically stoning the Devil in Mina. and prayer. or "jurisprudence". like governance and foreign relations. consumption of alcohol. and highway robbery. touching the black stone if possible. or the hajji. e) The Hajj. The method Islamic jurists use to derive rulings is known as usul al-fiqh ("legal theory". and "constitutes a system of duties that are incumbent upon a Muslim by virtue of his religious belief". these prescriptions and prohibitions may be broad. which most Muslim groups adhere to. law has four fundamental roots. However. so their application in practice varies. although Islamic teachers say that the Hajj should be an expression of devotion to God instead of a means to gain social standing. The Qur'an defines hudud as the punishments for five specific crimes: unlawful intercourse. In the 9th century. Rituals of the Hajj include walking seven times around the Kaaba. walking or running seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah. Fiqh. charity. Every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it must make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his or her lifetime. Sharia is the expression of the divine will. When the pilgrim is about ten kilometers from Mecca. The Qur'an and Sunnah also contain laws of inheritance. which are given precedence in this order: the Qur'an. Islamic scholars (known as ulema) have elaborated systems of law on the basis of these rules and their interpretations.because their wealth is seen as a "trust from God's bounty". The Qur'an and the hadith also suggest a Muslim give even more as an act of voluntary alms-giving (sadaqah). as well as rules for fasting.

and the "lesser jihad". defined as warfare. is classically defined as "exerting one's utmost power. Islamic rulers frequently bypassed the Sharia courts with a parallel system of so-called "Grievance courts" over which they had sole control. 4) Etiquette and diet Many practices fall in the category of adab. Turkey has been governed as a secular state ever since the reforms of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. or Christian. This includes greeting others with "as-salamu `alaykum" ("peace be unto you"). Muslim societies responded in different ways. is understood in its military aspect. Jihad. Muslims are restricted in their diet. distinguish between the "greater jihad". and burying it in a grave. and aspects of one's own self. Jihad also refers to one's striving to attain religious and moral perfection. and alcohol." Depending on the object being a visible enemy. efforts. Food permissible for Muslims is known as halal food. the devil. saying bismillah ("in the name of God") before meals. In practice. In contrast. 5) Jihad Jihad means "to strive or struggle" (in the way of God) and is considered the "Sixth Pillar of Islam" by a minority of Sunni Muslim authorities. Islamic burial rituals include saying the Salat al-Janazah ("funeral prayer") over the bathed and enshrouded dead body. carrion. in its broadest sense. when used without any qualifier. endeavors. and using only the right hand for eating and drinking. or ability in contending with an object of disapprobation. Prohibited foods include pork products. . which pertains to spiritual self-perfection. or Islamic etiquette. Jew. with the exception of game that one has hunted or fished for oneself. such as the circumcision of male offspring. blood. Some Muslim authorities. the ulema function as both jurists and theologians.3) Religion and state Mainstream Islamic law does not distinguish between "matters of church" and "matters of state". different categories of Jihad are defined. All meat must come from a herbivorous animal slaughtered in the name of God by a Muslim. Jihad. the 1979 Iranian Revolution replaced a mostly secular regime with an Islamic republic led by the Ayatollah Khomeini. As the Muslim world came into contact with Western secular ideals. especially among the Shi'a and Sufis. Islamic hygienic practices mainly fall into the category of personal cleanliness and health.

Frequency of worship. 7. the ultimate purpose of which is to universalize Islam. Places of worship. this happens only in the case of a general mobilization. jihad is usually taken to mean military exertion against non-Muslim combatants in the defense or expansion of the Islamic state. 6. For most Shias. may be declared against apostates. un-Islamic leaders or states which refuse to submit to the authority of Islam. Most Muslims today interpret Jihad as only a defensive form of warfare: the external Jihad includes a struggle to make the Islamic societies conform to the Islamic norms of justice. offensive jihad can only be declared by a divinely appointed leader of the Muslim community. (b) Impact of faith on life. violent groups. jihad is a collective duty (fard kifaya): its performance by some individuals exempts the others. 5. Worship. and as such is suspended since Muhammad al-Mahdi's occultation in 868 AD. (d) Means of salvation. does jihad become an individual duty. Only for those vested with authority. Under most circumstances and for most Muslims. (g) Degree of religious conviction in lives of indigenous populace. rebels. For the rest of the populace. Socioeconomic influence of religion. (f) Impact of religions on value systems. . (c) Concept of the hereafter. Jihad. (a) Faith. the only form of warfare permissible in Islamic law. (e) Rites of cleaning and purification. especially the sovereign (imam). Forms and significance of worship of each religion. highway robbers. Relationship between religion and transcultural communication.Within Islamic jurisprudence. Relationship between religion and motivation of indigenous people. 4.

Political influence of religious leaders. Interrelation with government. b. Location. Advancements over the past 10 years. Influence. 3. (2) Government. Monuments. Relationship of religious leaders and government officials. Description of conditions of the arts and monuments. Relationship to nonsecular schools. Arts. . type. Monuments. Economic influence of religions. 1. and attendance. (2) Teachings of religions about private property. 7. 4. 2. use. a. b. and Archives. Religious schools. size. Arts. 1 9. Population attitude toward art treasures. Influence of religions on society. 8. c. 6. C. Role of religions and religious leaders in armed forces. Location. (1) Religious ownership of property and other possessions. (1) Private. Agencies through which arts are performed. Artists’ organizations and government control. Advancements in science. d.a. and significance of the fine arts. Government policies and agencies dealing with the arts. Influence of outside countries. 5.

a. Varieties of archives. b. Winter months. The region is fortunate to lie far enough east to benefit from precipitation from the fringes of the Indian summer monsoon. Location of archives. these mountains are impassable. and power lines are being restored. IV. Present significance of historic monuments and sites. (1) Historical. Irrigation occurs on small terraced fields that are laboriously constructed by filling to horizontal behind stone walls. donkeys are the only means of transporting goods in and out of Nuristan. CIVILIAN SUPPLY A. Contents or category of archives. . hollowed-out logs) leading from the rivers or. General Conditions and Problems (Peculiarities of climate and geography that might influence civilian supply). more commonly. from the tributary streams. Archives. (2) Current documents. (3) Ecclesiastical archives. (2) Semipublic archives. the fields are watered by a complicated system of open channels and wooden aqueducts (ie. c. Paktia is located in the rugged mountains and is in the highest elevations in the Hindu Kush mountain range which leads up to the Himalayan Mountains in northeastern Afghanistan. having been constructed by skillful craftsmen. Because rainfall is insufficient. The wooden aqueducts are technically and aesthetically admirable. (1) Public archives. 1 8. Paktia is well covered with trees and roads are being built.Location of historic monuments and sites. Heavy poppy trafficking is pervasive during the summer which makes the trails unsafe due to Talibans. (4) Private or family archives.

No information was found. pears. Commodities: cotton. Beans. The area under cultivation rose significantly in 2004: the area decreased by 21 percent in 2005. grapes. Distribution Channels. figs. The drought of 1999–2002 devastated the rural population and further reduced all types of agricultural output. Butter. Rice. 1) Pulses. Grapes. employing as much as 80 percent of the workforce and contributing at least half of the gross domestic product (GDP).Agriculture: Agriculture traditionally has been the foundation of Afghanistan’s economy. 2006 output again increased. Produced in minimal villages. d. Other supplies. Small Zebu-like Oxen. a. but in the war’s aftermath market production of walnuts declined. Cow’s milk is the most valuable product of livestock raisin . clothing and other essential durables. and persimmons. and edible apricot seeds.Cattle breeding. jujubes. The nomadic Kuchis were forced to find sedentary occupations. Food. Electricity is limited b. Dietary and Clothing Requirements and Customs. WSB/CSB. Tobacco 2) Livestock: Cows. except in the south where the drought continued into 2004. Walnut production was a major source of income for the Paktikans before the Soviet-Afghan War. tobacco. Beginning in 2003. Refrigeration. Nut crops include walnuts. was similarly affected as grazing land disappeared. and Potatoes. 1. Oil. HEB. Livestock raising is a vital part of the agricultural economy. available and required. Vegetables. . in the early 2000s half of Afghanistan’s arable land was uncultivated. With increased rainfall. pine nuts. Corn. Goats and Sheep . men’s business 2. apples. Milk. 1) Food. Roads are unimproved and no transportation to access. Mulberries. sesame. Dried mulberries and apricots also are produced in surplus in some communities. apricots. agricultural output increased because of international aid and increased rainfall. and olives. b. Refrigeration. Millet and Pulses. Other supplies. B. Storage space. Wheat. subsistence agriculture predominates. available and required. NONE c. Because of the poor quality of most agricultural land. almonds. a. trail is limited to donkey’s for delivering food. Storage.People produce cheese. Development project are just beginning to upgrade Paktikan’s horticultural potential. Poppy. Because of limited water supplies. pomegranates. Although many displaced Afghan farmers returned to their land in the early 2000s. Barley. peaches. but productivity increased. hazelnuts. and Processing Facilities. Major Crops: Maize. Food. land mines and the destruction of irrigation systems had made much agricultural land unusable. but delays in the restoration of irrigation systems hampered the reclaiming of additional agricultural land. sugar. Pork 2) Clothing.

As such. a. but is known as one of the most insecure provinces of the country due to difficulties of transportation. Nuristan attempts to adhere to traditional democracy. A. Production Excesses and Shortages.3) Customs that might influence civilian supply. Insurgent and criminal groups are also rife in Nuristan. b. inter-community disputes. Procedures. Traditional practices of leadership and governance. Political crimes are in the Poppy production. This division of labor exactly matches the main spheres of the Paktikan economy: livestock herding (men’s work) and grain production or irrigated terraces (women’s work). LEGAL. The increased level of violence outside of the usual “fighting season” was due in part to an ISAF decision to deny insurgents respite and to aggressively pursue them in their winter enclaves. men and women have very different roles. and violations of Paktia lands and resources by intruders. Penalties. Civil and criminal codes. Gulbuddin Hekmatyar's Hezb-e-Islami militia and a paramilitary led by Maulvi Afzal. e. the provincial government is limited to an advisory role for the central government. A few areas are under the political influence of powerful clerics. Three types of conflict pose problems. There is a strict division of labor. Civil and criminal codes rely on traditional community decision-making and tribal customs for governance. Authority and power in Afghanistan is concentrated in the national government as a means to counter the power of warlords in the provinces. . V. c. The province's border with Pakistan makes it a historical transit point for insurgents. lack of facilities. which have served the Paktians well for so long. 1. None 2. Paktika is lacking security data. A man will not normally engage in ’women’s work’ any more than a woman will normally have anything to do with ’men’s work’. Security is the major issue in Paktia today. if not a central base for the Taliban. the jihadist insurgency. including Lashkar-e-Toiba. while decisions on everything from policies to funding priorities are made in Kabul. Forests provide economic opportunities for woodworking and crafts. Unseasonably warm conditions also facilitated higher levels of insurgent activity during the late winter and early spring. and shortages of government personnel. cannot flourish as long as the jihadist clerics and insurgency are active. Origins. System of Laws. but they are intimidated by the hooded insurgent thugs who come in the night to enforce the clerics’edicts. Political crimes.

With back-door access to Pakistan’s Chitral area across mountain passes and hunting trails. Agencies (national and local). General Conditions and Problems ( primary consideration in this area is whether the existing institutional[police. Afghanistan relies on others for support. None 5. 1. Prosecutors. PUBLIC SAFETY A. civil war and the coercive repression of Taliban rule—Afghan men and women are building a government committed to the democratic rule of law and the full exercise of human rights. Legal training.B. ????? c. Attorney/prosecution. The Bar. To preserve and pursue the progress made. Arbaki Militias and Police. Paktia has traditionally had a quiet reputation. Isolated and difficult to traverse. fire. None e. The Taliban and Hekmatyar’s Hizb-e Islami (HiG) are both operating in the province. Judiciary. Thankfully. Paktia has seen Taliban activity for some time. Historical development. DISTRIC PICTURE HERE General Level of Security: Moderate Despite being an active component in the fight against the communists in 1978. a. Nuristan is extremely poor and ridden with violent ethnic and economic conflicts. Mawlawi Enayatullah (Mazhabyar) Head. Personnel. and foreigners may be hiding there with their assistance. None VI. and penal] may be used to carry out the combat commander’s primary mission and to provide the day-to-day control and bodily protection of the local population). Provincial Court. Nuristan has one of the . Paktia is a fugitive’s dream. Political controls. Mawlawi Musa Madani (Deputy Head) 4. Courts and tribunals (types of jurisdiction [including administrative tribunals]). although this seems to be changing. After 30 years of strife—in Soviet occupation. None d. None b. Judicial procedures. Administration of Justice. General ????Asil khan Totakhel 3. 2. having some experience there. Pashtuns make up the majority of the population of this province.

Even worse. namely that there is a larger Taliban influence and presence than reported. there is an extremely high level of belief in Taliban missives at ??% (highest in ??? at ??%). although there have been problems ensuring said police are paid. Conflict between tribes is minimal. Only ??% of the province reports a Taliban presence (highest in ????l District at ?%). as ??% believe FF to be unfair. ungoverned space. Infrastructure is essentially nonexistent. Public attitudes toward Taliban: Despite low reporting numbers. indicators paint a different picture. and ??% of the province reports having no fear of the Taliban (the Taliban is most feared in ???l District by //% of the population). in both cases the worst perceptions exist in Parun. ??% of the province feels the security situation is “bad” (highest in ??? District at ??%) and??% feel unsafe. Organization at all levels. Moderate Risk ????? districts. Significant Risk: ????? districts.highest levels of police per capita of all Afghanistan. a. and ??% believe FF under-equipped. but no investigative agencies b. The districts of primary concern are: ?????? Public attitudes toward security: On average. Areas of responsibility and jurisdiction: . Al Jazeera still commands the largest broadcast audience). ??% of the province believing that FF do not bring security. leaving much of the territory empty. ?% of the populous feels the ANA abuses their power. and local milias to help out ANP. B. Public attitudes toward FF: Paktiase opinion of Foreign Forces. and the population is concentrated in certain valleys. although blood-feuds have been known to go on for the better part of a century. ??% believe they’re poorly trained. Organization: The ANP of each district report to a provincial police station with a provincial chief who is General ???????l and he sends his reports to MOI(Ministry of Interior) c. Types of police forces and criminal investigative agencies: Nuristan has ANP and Police chiefs for all the districts. Both the Taliban and HiG use strategically located districts as rear positions for operations in Afghanistan and Pakistan. and ??% believe the ANP does. Police System. 1. ??% of the province actually believes they bring insecurity.

and rockets for RPGs Modern crime-fighting equipment N/A Traffic control equipment N/A Riot control equipment N/A Police communication. RPKs. e.the strength of the police varies from district to district the district uses also the local militia of the village to help out. Strength. Morale and state of training. Reliability. Method of selection: the police officers in theory should go to the academy in the province(run by dyncorps) but that for the most part does not happen.Russian jeep very few/ Ford Ranger pick-up truck. c. Equipment: a. Russian pistols American made S@Ws 9mm RPGs limited supply. donkey 3. PKMs. and they are selected because they know someone or their social status in the village.In theory should go to the academy run by dyncorps to be trained. the militias are their own thing and are just random people from the village c. militas also have same types of weapons minus S@Ws. Names and biographical sketches of key personnel Provincial Chief (General ??????????) a pashtun born in 19?? he received training at District Chiefs: name and Bio N/A 2.semi reliable depends are who they are fighting d. d.Main radio for Province Station Transportation. . f. but it varies from strength between 8 and 14 police officers and 50 militia soldiers.Each district police chief has jurisdiction and responsible of his district. walking. in reality a lot are not trained at all. Arms and special equipment AK-47s. Limited supply of ammo. Chain of command MOI (Ministry of Interior) Provincial Chief (General Asil tuta khail) District Chiefs Militas e. to your face b. and the provincial Chief (General ??????????l) has jurisdiction and is responsibility for the whole province. b. Personnel: a. d.

your social status in the village and who you know 4. C. but also deal a lot in tribal law. e.every afghan can have an AK in their house. gatherings and curfews. Criminal action. Disorder and disaster control. Restrictions on ownership of firearms. Prisons and jails(number. Functions and authority: a. such as the influence of family ties. b.N/A d. Penal Institutions: 1. Psychological effect on the local population. 6.the Taliban uses a a lot of scare tactics in certain districts. and role of the military.they do enforce civil ordinance but a usually are very busy just trying to fend off the Taliban c. which the US does not have (tribal law) b. and in their view not getting paid enough and feel they are outgunned and not supported.get acted by the Taliban and criminal groups b. location. to make the people loose trust in the police or afghan government. Restrictions on travel. General. and it is still a very tribal society. so lots don’t have ID cards. Identification system. Promotion basis. Jails are mostly an empty house or building can hold up to about 30 persons depends on the district.the elders still have a lot of say in how the village is run. and capacity).they are like the keep order in the villages for the most part. but are frustrated because they are not getting paid.they have an ID card if they have gone to the academy. Miscellaneous: a. . c. but some districts may not even have a jail or know what to do with people in the jail. Police regulations that differ from US concept of law and order a.they say they have ok morale(maybe). National and local a. Other methods of enforcing law and order.they follow the Afghan govt law(maybe. Civil ordinances. but also are fighting like the ANA (Afghan National Army) 5. and family and tribal law rule it.

Juvenile. 7.N/A a.ANP/ MOI Inmate breakdown a. Miscellaneous: a.c. such as overcrowded cities. General Conditions and Problems Paktia. and local water pressure. while men generally raise livestock. Type. Names and political reliability of key personnel.. Adaptability of local military firefighting equipment-N/A 9. The mountainous landscape makes Nuristan’s land difficult to cultivate. Concentration camps and labor camps( number.N/A Parole. N/A b.to rural and remote b. Fire Protection: 7. location. Training status and efficiency. Sex. 8. Criminal. Additionally.N/A b. and Capacity). Strength and mode of selection. the same as for the police). location.Males for the most part Adequacy(sanitary and health conditions).N/A c.N/A 10. D.Terrible conditions Treatment of prisoners.ANP/N/A Government agency exercising control.N/A 5. Particular problems in certain areas.N/A sit in cell Probation. Narrow streets. – All the village b. 6. Personnel: a.N/A 2. Equipment. 4. Women are responsible for crop production in Paktia. Possible use of equipment in controlling riots and other public disasters. Organization (at general. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. located deep within the Hindu Kush. N/A VII.N/A d. forests provide economic opportunities for woodworking and crafts. Organization. A. Political (reliability and future use in the US cause). 3. and many villagers rely on livestock as their source of livelihood. N/A bucket Brigade 8. . and adequacy of existing equipment and facilities.mostly criminal in jails c.

some not. . funded by outside entrepreneurs who. each of which should be chaired by the director of the core responsible line department. subsistence agriculture and forestry have been the main sources of income. Most Paktian subsist as farmers and herders but in this remote and difficult to access region where steep. The Afghan National Bank has a branch office in Nuristan. It also has a number of working groups devoted to different sectors. and illegal logging. b) Other levels Public Finance is handled through the Afghan Central Banking system. some of the men are employed by logging or illicit gem mining enterprises. Organization a) National level. as the suppliers of the necessary capital and machinery. in addition to smuggling of consumer goods and precious stones. Isolation has proved two-edged: beneficial development has been hindered. Some logging is legitimate. Both are transported beyond the central government’s control through Pakistan. B. Gems such as rubies. Public Finance 1. Other sources of income are opium. but all gem extraction is illegal by government restriction. Nuristan. yet a singular culture and its varying languages has been kept intact. animal husbandry. Each province has a Provincial Development Committee (PDC) which is responsible for overseeing the progress made on implementation of the Provincial Development Plan. narrow paths challenge even mules and transport is mostly on foot. and which will lead the provincial development planning process in the future. lapis lazuli and tourmalines of a superior quality known since 5000 BC to Silk Road traders and throughout the world today as well. food aid and remittances from male family members working outside Paktia. leaving Paktia as one of Afghanistan’s most impoverished areas. reap huge profits that are not fairly shared with local laborers. emeralds. The PDC involves all government line departments and other key stakeholder groups involved in development activities in the province. wage labor. President Hamid Karzai’s cabinet includes both MoE (Minister of Economy) and MoF (Minister of Finance). are the region’s primary resource.Traditionally.

Mohammad Jalil Shams Biography currently unavailable. Afghanistan Minister of Economy: Dr. As of 2007 there was not a PDP established in Nuristan. . new policy exchanged 1. .Unknown Accounting systems used. a) b) c) Fiscal and economic policies. c) Biographical sketches of key personnel. . . This more stable and less inflated currency reassured the international community and encouraged its delivery of pledged assistance. Afghanistan Minister of Finance: Omar Zakhilwal Biography currently unavailable.Unknown 3. Monetary System. a) Currency.000 old Afghani for 1 new Afghani. Introduction of new Afghani currency in 2002. Policies.Unknown Special conditions and policies.The structure of the PDC and its associated working groups approved by the Ministry of Economy. 2.

Unknown 5. . Federal Reserve Bank in New York.Unknown Formulation of tax policies. a) b) Analysis of taxation (amount of taxes collected. method of collection. . Afghanistan’s central bank reserves were measured in year 2002 at $200 million USD in gold held by the U. .7 (2005). – Unknown Budgetary analysis. . 48 (2004).b) Reserves or backing of currency.Unknown Exchange rates.Unknown h) i) 4. 47. Sources of government income. and type of taxes).Unknown Patterns of expenditure and distribution. .Unknown . a) b) c) d) e) Current budget. . The vision for the Afghan central bank is to provide for monetary stability which will then set a platform to attract foreign investment. Afghani currency is backed by the central bank. 46 (2006). e) f) Controls. Budgetary system and current budget. c) Issuing authorities. Afghanis (AFA) per US dollar . 49 (2003) g) Government authorities. Afghan Central Bank d) Stability of currency.Unknown Governing authorizes and controls.Unknown Analysis of budgetary procedures.Unknown Other means of exchange. . . Other legal instruments of exchange.50 (2007). such as the black market. .S.

location.Unknown 2. and credit policies). drugs and weaponry.Unknown Specialized savings institutions . and provided training for bank staff. .Unknown 3. Controlling authorities and control exercised.Unknown C. Today.c) Investments. and procurement payments. and restrictions). Financial Institutions a) Banking institutions (facilities. the main occupations of the Paktians are agriculture and sheep and cattle breeding. Foreign exchange (balance of trade. One in seven households (14%) earn some income through nonfarm related labor .Unknown Other sources of government income. Miscellaneous investment companies. The majority of commercial activity in Paktia is related to trade in agricultural. 1. Eighty percent of rural households own or manage agricultural land or garden plots in the province. Applicable laws and regulations. a) Private enterprise. . Agriculture and livestock represent sources of income for 88% of households in Paktia province. size. like centuries ago. . gems. USAID expanded and refurbished the provincial branch of Da Afghanistan Bank in Paktia.Unknown 8. .Unknown 7. timber. payroll. The bank operates as the paying agent for the government and disburses all social. and location). implemented an automated Core Banking System. capital. . controls. Economics and Commerce 1. b) Investment institutions. . d) 6. Description of economic system. Stock institutions. – Foreign Aid. .Unknown c) d) Insurance companies (number.

The sector of small industries is dominated by one commodity. Summary of important trade agreements and extent of participation in world trade. .Unknown Human. 68% of households in Paktia reported taking out loans. Paktia has significant oil and gas reserves. tobacco. Resources. In 2005. honey.Unknown 4. leading to increased sales. Of these loans. Unknown 2. b) c) Developed. b) Public enterprise. b) c) Intermediate-range. olives and sharsham in Paktia. In total the government employs ?????? people in Paktia province. Improving market bazaars to increase commerce.Unknown 3. National economic policy and controls. sugar. USAID estimated support to Paktia from January 2002-April 2009: $17. a) Natural. . c) Biographical sketches of key officials and business leaders. sesame.There is very little production of industrial commodities such as – cotton. . . Goals and programs. 5. Gravelling and drainage improvement will provide a safer. . more pleasant shopping experience.Unknown Long-range. Unknown whether any efforts underway to tap these reserves..7 million a) Short-range. a significant percentage was used to invest in economic activity such as agricultural inputs (21%).

Maize is easier to grow. and provided hygiene education. The USAID infrastructure program for Paktikan Province focuses on the construction of water and sanitation facilities while building the capacity of local workers and supporting the local economy through the use of locally available materials. the cultivation of maize has been expanding at the cost of millet. red beans. hazelnuts. the electricity is mainly used for lighting and ironing.Estimated Population: ????? (Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Central Statistics Office: Estimated Population of Afghanistan 2008-2009) d) Self-sufficiency. c) Capabilities of agriculture. increased employment and accelerated agricultural productivity. Wheat and millet are grown. dependency. These activities increased access to a safe water supply. Extent of development. tomatoes. lentils. energy. installed latrines. a) Capabilites of infrastructure. Many villages in Paktia have small hydro-electric plants. and not so easily beaten down by rain. Most of the water comes from melting snow on the mountains. Capabilities of industry and power. Constructed or refurbished water and sanitation facilities. Around two-thirds (61%) of households have direct access to their main source of drinking water within their community. The growing season in the south is up to seven months. . Reportedly. substitution. The soil is rocky and. pine nuts. livestock. Crop rotation and manuring is practised. Other crops include pumpkins and squash. while in the north it may be as short as three months. transport and communications is one of the key elements necessary to provide the building blocks for private sector expansion. potatoes. on average only 2% of households use safe drinking water. equitable economic growth. and cultivable land is scarce. In recent years. b) . and crops. In Paktika province. improving the health of people. Women do most of the agricultural work. Tiny fields are served by a complex system of carefully maintained irrigation canals.Unknown 6. The provision of basic infrastructure such as water and sanitation.

walnuts, mulberries, grapes, pomegranates, apples and apricots. Men herd the livestock, mainly goats, but also sheep and dairy cattle. Large quantities of milk, ghee (a kind of butter) and cheese are produced. Chickens are raised in and around the homestead. Honey is produced mainly in the southern valleys (Cita, 1986). Both the calendar year and the agricultural year begin in spring, approximately at the vernal equinox when all livestock leave the winter stables and move into the first pastures. Almost every village in Nuristan has its own calendar, built on the lunar system and adjusted to local circumstances. The first six months are related to agriculture, and the next six months are related to animal husbandry. Insufficient agricultural and fertile land, water, inability to expand cash crop production, no alternate sources of income, and poor access to health, education, and markets (especially in the winter) have prevented the majority of people from being able to improve their livelihoods. The most significant farming constraints experienced by households in 2003 were lack of irrigation water, lack of oxen/traction power, lack of availability of farming land, lack of seeds, and lack of credit/cash. Overall, very few women were involved in agricultural activities, though there were distinct provincial exceptions, such as Nuristan where 72% of women reported to be engaged in agricultural work. d) 7. Statistics. a) b) Per capita (income, savings, consumer spending). - Unknown Aggregate (gross national product, national income). Afghanistan Gross Domestic Product (Purchasing Power Parity): $22.32 billion (2008 est.); country comparison to the world: 116 $21.58 billion (2007 est.) $19.25 billion (2006 est.) note: data are in 2008 US dollars Data Source: CIA World Factbook c) Ratios (unemployment, productivity, occupations). Afghanistan Unemployment Rate: 40% (2008 est.); country comparison to the world: 185 Capabilities of service sector. - Unknown

40% (2005 est.)
d)

Validity of statistics (when compiled)

8. Internal movement of goods. - Unknown 9. Exports and imports.
a) b)

Type. - Unknown Quantity. - Unknown Market.- Unknown Influence. - Unknown

c)
d)

10. Commerce. a) Domestic trade. 1. Wholesale and retail distribution system. - Unknown 2. Markets and fairs. - Unknown 3. Weights and measures standards. - Unknown 4. Cooperatives and public markets. - Unknown b) Foreign trade. 1. Principal items of export and import. - Unknown 2. Tariff system, customs, duties. - Unknown 3. Trade agreements. - Unknown 4. Balance of payments. - Unknown 11. Industries.
a) b) c) d) e)

Location of main industrial centers. - Unknown Names of important companies. - Unknown Labor (skills and distribution). - Unknown Power sources and capacities. - Unknown Manufacturig industries. - Unknown

f) g) h)

Types (machinery, chemical, textile). - Unknown Locations (Province, city). - Unknown

Processing industries (types, locations, and capacities). Unknown

12. Agencies, institutions, and programs. a) Government organization. In total the government employs ?????? people in Paktia province; ??% of these are employees and ??% are contract workers. Of the total government workers ??% are men and ?% are women. b) c) d) Trade associations and chambers of commerce. - Unknown Laws governing commerce and industry. - Unknown Subsidies and monopolies. - Unknown

13. Price control and rationing.
a) b) c) d) e)

Stabilization - Unknown Variation of prices. - Unknown Control measures and techniques.- Unknown Commodities under price control. - Unknown Distribution. 1. Essential commodities. - Unknown 2. Imports and exports. - Unknown 3. Ration controls. - Unknown 4. Production and distribution. - Unknown 5. Effect on demands. - Unknown 6. Types and status of markets. - Unknown

f)

Control Systems. 1. Price-Control program. - Unknown

Unknown 3. . . c) d) Ages and distribution. which will create thousands of jobs for residents of the province. Price-control legislation and items subject to price control. . The exact distribution in Paktia is unknown but expect a similar distribution.Unknown Key personnel with biographical sketches. . b) Available manpower and labor supply by special classes. 10% industry. health. . Rationing legislation and items subject to rationing. . . Organization. irrigation. a) Employment data and trends. At the National level the distribution is 80% agriculture. USAID’s programs will focus on rural development. e) Labor productivity. USAID recently allocated $?????? for development projects over the next s??? months. Labor Force. . Rationing program. Labor 1.Unknown 2.). At the National level unemployment rate runs around 40%.Unknown Other levels. and agriculture needs. . and 10% services (2004 est.2.Unknown g) Legislation. a) b) c) National Level. with Agriculture as high as 90%-100% in rural areas.Unknown D. Unknown 2. In response to needs identified by community leaders. Unemployment rate in Nuristan is currently Unknown.Unknown 4. Raw materials.Unknown Unemployment. Financial. 1.

Road access constitutes the main obstacle in front of the Aid Agencies to go and launch projects there. 1. .Unknown 4. Relations with foreign or international labor organizations. institutions. and ages) . and programs a) Government labor policy. 1. Food and Agriculture A.Unknown Labor disputes. Total potential labor force (type.Unknown b) Labor organizations.Unknown 2. animal and forest production provide the main sources of livelihoods for the people over there. political influence) Unknown 2.3. including mechanisms for settling. leadership. Unknown 4. .they are pretty self . Government job placement controls. . location. – Unknown VIII. Wages and standards.Unknown c) d) Social insurance.Unknown 3. . size. Since arable lands are extremely limited. Membership. . distribution. Organizations(type. it is how they survive in the whole province 2. Role of government . Wages and other incentives. including hours and working conditions.Unknown 4. Importance of agriculture in total economy.very import. General Conditions and Problems: Around ??% of the landmass is mountainous. Extent of agricultural productivity and self sufficiency. Labor laws and working conditions. . Each part of the province is totally isolated from one another.Unknown 3. 1. Agencies. subsistence agriculture is mostly practiced alongside the slopes of high mountains. mobility.

methods of processing.try to come up with better refrigeration programs. Agriculture Products and Processing: 1.N/A more roads better landscape 3. amounts. Agricultural Practices: 1. Agricultural Geography: 1. cows. Attitude of farm population. Types of Crops. Crops(types.dirt road. Goats and Cows to the other provinces of the country. 3..N/A try to plant more trees 4. N/A 3. also it is very hard to get to Nuristan.No effective department of agriculture. Wheat other questions. Corn. Milk and also export sheeps. 2. there is one but not an effective. vaccinate more people. Livestock and dairy products(types. storage).very rocky soil 3. methods of processing.N/A the main source of income for the people of Paktia is Livestock. 4. that is the way they survive as province. Extent of mechanization-N/A 2. refrigeration) goats. the Soviet war and the years of fighting that have been going on. Influences of climate and topography. it is really on the village to provide the food for the village or each individual. Principal Problems. Butter. armounts.along the slopes of the high mountains. has destroyed a lot of the fruit trees and agriculture. rice. very narrow through mountains C. can also look down on them because of social status. very high and low elevation. warehousing).very mountainous. Poultry(types. but for the most part get along with them. amounts. Locations of principle farm areas. chickens. because there really are no roads. sheep. very mountainous..they like them. wheat 5. Improve programs. methods of processing. Conservation programs.Sufficient and each village produces their own amount of agricultural there is really no department of agriculture. 4. People produce cheese. 2. N/A for how is stored and refrigerated D. Farm to market road net. rest N/A . Types of soil. refrigeration. B. storage. Pest and disease control.

Need it for food and fuel 3.have and administration. but very hard to get aid to them because how rough the terrain is in Paktia. General Conditions and Problems 1. Agencies. Government. Quantity.N/A 3. cows. just not effective. Hunting( laws and regulation and types of game) N/A 5. 2. Importance of forestry to the country.enough for the village-N/A 3. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT A. Location. Reforestation program. Forestry: 1. Processing. Private. Commercial. Land-Holding System and Reform Programs: N/A F.N/A J. Food Products: 1. Conditions . Products and their programs.N/A 4. Institutions and Programs: 1. Type.N/A H.N/A 2. Problem areas.N/A G. cows. Fisheries: N/A very mountainous 1. Private. sheep.N/A 5.Fruit trees. Restocking program. rice. Forestry services or administration. chickens 2.E. 4.USAID have planted many trees especially fruit trees. size. goats.N/A I.N/ 4. ownership of warehouses. Applicable Laws and Regulations Governing Food and Agriculture: N/A IX. Types and quantity of food supplies stored.they have the departments but not very effective 2. wheat.

No media or publications regarding the environment h. No central rules and regulations c. Problems a. Weak in power of enforcement b. Soil Erosion e. Poverty g. Lack of personnel . Deforestation b. Literacy d. No true recognized central government b. Local commanders/leaders are in power f. Afghanistan Forestry Department a. Insecurity e. Pollution Control and Environmental Management Organizations 1. Air pollution d. Water Shortage e.a. No awareness of the people for the environment g. Land slides f. Wildlife endangerment f. Range land destruction c. No waste management program B. No existence of a budget to address environmental issues 2. Low budget c. Poor personnel training d.

No regulation on disposal of hazardous chemicals and waste c. Health Hazard 1. Laws and Regulation 1. N/A D. Minimal health care which is a factor in the spread of disease d. Use of unregulated chemicals 2. Asphalt Factories c. Sources of Pollution 1.e. Governmental corruption C. Small Brick Factories b. Water a. Increased small car use with increasing urban population increase d. No regulation on disposal of hazardous chemicals and waste 3. Soil a. Significant erosion (1) Drought and heavy grazing pressure (2) Removal of riparian vegetation (3) Erosion by heavy rains E. Immediate and present threats . Poverty which leads to contamination c. Poor electricity infrastructure to support treatment facilities e. No waste management in urban or rual areas b. Air a. No waste management in urban or rual areas b.

PUBLIC HEALTH A. Mid-term a. Poor vector control 3. Toxic disposal of chemical and biological wastes c. All elements listed in 1. Organization 1. U. Ministry of Health 2. Contaminated drinking water with bacterial contaminates b. Biographical sketches of key personnel a. Illegal use of pesticides which are carcinogenic b.2 and 3 will have long term affects X. ie… lead 2. United Nations Office on Drug and Crime (UNODC) d. World Health Organization (WHO) e. Release of toxic chemicals into air.S.Dr. National level a. Agency for International Development (USAID) 3. Health . United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) c. Near-term a. Other levels a.a.Hazrat Shah . Long-term a. Developmental delays and medical conditions secondary to chronic exposures to irritants and chemicals in the food and water 4. Public Health (DoPH) b. Chronic exposure to carcinogenic materials b. Swedish Committee for Afghanistan (SCA) b.

General Conditions and Problems 1. Poor Sanitation b.Shamsul Islam Shams B. Child health and Nutrition: Polio Vaccination coverage: DPT vaccination coverage: Measles vaccination coverage: Households consuming Iodized Salt: Children 1-4 years with at least one form disability: d. 5% 7. Womens Affairs . Maternal health: Births attended by skilled birth attendant: Births delivered at home: 1.b. Swedish Committee for Afghanistan . Limited health care d. 7% . Limited safe drinking water 2. 4% 100% 68. Diseases (1) Tuberculosis (2) Polio (3) Maleria (4) Communicable Disease b.Said Bibi Moahed c. Low level of preventative medicine e.Dr. Problems a. Conditions a. 1% 4. Illiteracy c. Malnutrion c. 1% 44. 3% 19.

Threats to Childhood: Women 20-24 married before age of 18 Children 5-15 years involved in child labor: Children under 5 with births registered: f. District (DHC) (a) ) (b) (c) (d) b. Other medical facilities a. Number . Agencies and Institutions 1.Laghman 2. Capacity (number of beds) (1) c. Basic (BHC). Hospitals a. 5% 24. Public 2% 45. Private .Expectant mothers receiving ante-natal care: e. Poor availability to Veterinary Services C. Location and condition of facilities (1) Location . 5% 594 (1) Clinics (Comprehensive (CHC). Mental health disorders g.One (1) Hospital b.

Drugs a. Polio d. Predominant types a. Disease 1. Maleria c. ?? Nurses 2. Surgical and dental equipment a. Communicable Disease . Other supplies a. Testing equipment a. Location E. Basic laboratory equipment 3. Shortages (1) Antibiotics (2) Vaccines 4. Medical Equipment and Supplies 1. Availability (1) Limited – Not all health center have dispensaries b. Tuberculosis (TB) b. ?? Doctors b.(1) N/A D. Numbers (doctors and nurses) a. Limited depending on individual clinic 2. Medical supplies in general are limited depending on facility F. Medical Personnel 1.

Typhoid f.e. Environmental Sanitation 1. Polio Eradication Program by WHO G. Disposal of sewage and waste a. Maleria Control Program by WHO c. TB Control Program by WHO b. Regulations governing food and drugs 2. Control programs a. Supply (1) 2% households use safe drinking water (2) 61% households have access to main water source (3) 38% households must travel up to 1 hour for water (4) 1% households must travel up to 3 hours for water 3. Water control and supply a. 2. Control (1) Urban Development Municipality Red Cresent Water Supply Private Sector Environmental protection Provincial Council (PC) (2) UN agencies (3) NGOs (International and National) b. Types of toilet facilities and percentage of households (1) 1% none/bush/open field (2) 4% open pit (3) 22% Traditional covered latrine .

Major social problems a. Biographical sketches of key personnel (1) N/A 2. Other levels (1) Swedish Committee for Afghanistan (2) USAID c. Public Welfare 1. Poverty and dependency 3. Juvenile delinquency (1) Low school attendance (2) Ongoing military conflict b. National (1) Ministry of Health b. Unemployment d. Public assistance a. Alcohol and narcotics abuse (1) UNODC – Community Based Drug Awareness Programs c. Organization a.(4) 0% Improved latrine (5) 0% flush latrine H. Basis upon which granted b. Types of relief and medical care provided (1) Basic and Comprehesive Health Clinics (2) One hospital .

4. Unemployment (1) None f. Child welfare (adoption.S. and programs a. Welfare services (government and private) a. Old age. disability. Emergency and war relief (1) Rural Rehabilitation Department (RRD) c. Health insurance (1) None c. institutions. Relief and public assistance (1) For mentally and physically handicapped . Accident insurance (1) None d. maternal) (1) Currently the U. Family assistance (1) Food assistance program sponsored by NGOs g. Agencies. Embassy states that adoption is not Possible (2) Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs instituted program to supply food to the orphanages country wide b. Social insurance (1) None b. and survivor’s pension (1) None e. Other (1) N/A 5.

location. Homes for the aged (number. and capacity) (1) None c. Physical therapy (number and location) (1) Minimal and episodic based on funding by SCA 7. Programs a. Orphanages (number. and capacity) (1) 54 government run in Afghanistan and 8 private (2) 10. Health (1) Medical training to doctors and nurses by the WHO (2) Mental Health Care/Assessment training to doctors by WHO d. Vocational (1) Limited. Child care (1) No government funded programs at this time . Recreational (1) Provided by NGO’s b.205 orphans are currently place in orphanages b. location. Institutions a.sponsored by NGO (a) Poultry raising (b) Gardening (c) Tailoring c.(a) Screening by WHO program (2) For aged and indigent (a) N/A 6.

Number available by type of organization (1) N/A 9. Laws and regulations (1) Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs. Regulations governing public welfare a. Martyrs & Disabled b. Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Professioanl standards (1) N/A b. General Conditions and Problems . Article 52. Martyrs & Disabled (2) Ministry of Public Health c. Financial plan ( how funds are obtained) (1) Grants and loans by USAID and other NGOs (2) Funds distributed and prioritized by : (a) Ministry of Public Health (b) Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs. Wefare personnel a. Financial and legal a. Volunteer assistance (1) N/A c.8. XI. PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION A. Organizational structure (1) N/A 10.

Telephone. B. There is a post office in Nuristan. In addition the Afghanistan Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (ATRA) in consultation with the involved parties has completed the Universal Access Policy and Manual of Operating Procedures of Telecommunications development fund documents in late 2008 and the authority is now ready to embark on the implementation of the first Rural Telecommunications Development project. many post offices are dilapidated and lack even such basic equipment as scales and franking machines. Local entrepreneurs and NGOs have built community hydropower projects in a few villages since the mid 1990s. a. A lack of all weather roads connecting key areas of the province is a major impediment to governance and economic development. USACE. Internet. and the potential for the postal network to function as not only a delivery vehicle for letter and parcels. Money order service. 2. Issuance of licenses. PRT. Following the analysis of . Rural. Postal savings. PUBLIC COMMUNICATIONS A. Metropolitan. b. Security and other problems have slowed construction progress. XII. b. operated by Afghan Telecom. Censorship. and photocopying services to both the district government officials and the public at large. 5. 1. a. General Conditions and Problems. However. provide telephones. Other functions. Postal System. but also government services. C. Local contractors are carrying out several road construction project with international (USAID. Extent and frequency of service. There are three District Communications Network centers. MoPW) funding. These facilities.1.000 people. 4. at present. The country teledensity remains on the order of 2 telephones per 1. Parcel post service. Postal service is still recovering from years of conflict. Tax information service. General Conditions and Problems 1. c. UNOPS) and ministerial (MRRD. other communications technologies and (potentially) financial services. PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES A. Private carriers. 3. d. XIII.

6. Applicable Laws Governing Communications Systems. Radio Kalagush. frequencies. D. Channels. Transmitting stations (number. Telegraph. Exchanges and local service. Priority usage. N/A XIV. Foreign influence. Censorship. Public Education . 6. 3. F. 6. which means they are exposed to international viewpoints (although Al Jazeera still commands the largest audience) 1. a U. and location). The only plus to public opinion in Nuristan is that 68% percent of television viewers watch Indian television. Exchanges and local service. Transmitting stations (number.telecommunications status in various parts of the country. 8. 3. type. These provinces are in the bottom of the telecommunications development index and the selected districts do not have access to telecommunications services and are not included to in the development plans of telecom companies for 2009. International and intercontinental wire and submarine cables. International and intercontinental wire and submarine cables.-funded Afghan radio station broadcasted from Forward Operating Base Kalagush. Private systems. Radio and Television. N/A 1. 4. Long-line systems and connecting grids. E. 2. Hours of operation. 7. 20 districts in Nuristan provinces were selected. Foreign broadcasts. 5. 2. 2. 4. Private systems. Censorship. 5.S. Programming. 1. Censorship. Long-line systems and connecting grids. 5. and trunk lines. Priority usage. type. and location). Propaganda usage. 4. 3.

and Stage of Development. In addition to basic education for children. and political factors. economic. C. 2. Effect of geographic. The Indian government was supporting school instruction in 2007. However. Problems. this is true for only around one-fifth of women (19%).A. ?? in dedicated buildings and the rest in makeshift quarters. ??????????????????????????? 1. HiG was famous for its shifting loyalties. It is predominately a Tajik political party which was active in the anti-Soviet jihad and a major political player in the Northern Alliance.2% of men and no women able to read and write. A. Primary Political Parties: Jamiat-e Islami (Islamic Society of Afghanistan): Led by former Prime Minister Burhanuddin Rabbani. Organization B. Actively opposed to US-led and Afghan national forces. The male population is aged between 15 and 24 is less literate than that of general male population. According to Altai surveys it comes in at 18% of the province. For women in the same age group the figures show an even greater decrease in the literacy rate to just 9%. Agencies. Due to both basic need and as a COIN strategy. Paktians understand the need for education to compete in today’s marketplace. led by Gulbuddin Hekmatyar. and Programs 1. and USAID and PRT have continuing programs. Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin (HiG): Mujahideen party active since the Soviet invasion. CIVIL INFORMATION. Institutions. The overall literacy rate for Pashto and Dari (second languages for the region) is estimated at 25%. The Pashtun population in the province has particularly low levels of literacy with 4. vocational training is in demand. General Conditions. Paktia has approximately ??? schools. with 25% literacy rate. Yunus Qanuni’s Hezb-e Afghanistan Naween broke away from Jamiat-e Islami. . the Ministry of Education has made Paktia is a priority and new schools are being built. Former members continue to wield considerable influence in the province. while nearly one-third of men are literate (31%). Paktia Province is located in eastern Afghanistan. General Conditions and Problems 1. social. The party is particularly popular in Wama and Parun districts. but again construction has been slowed down due to insurgent activity. XV. Today Rabbani supports Karzai. and was the favorite party of Pakistan’s ISI until the rise of the Taliban.

Chechnya. In the past this party has been known for its foreign supporters and followers. Procedures. 3. Hamnazar: One of the most important parties of the Meshrano Jirga. Others. C. the former often Arab. Location. and is not known for tolerance. Name. Techniques to measure impact.Hekmatyar is a Kharoti Ghilzai and. 3. 2. In February 1993 government forces and members of the Ittihad-e Islami massacred over 700 Hazara in the Afshar district of West Kabul. A doctor by profession. Reading. 2. 5. 6. 7. Ownership. . Publication. 9. 2. viewing habits. 12. and has been since the anti-Soviet campaign. Periodicals. Equipment. Despite ideological and cultural similarities with the Taliban. therefore. the latter from places as diverse as the Southern Philippines. Unknown 1. 6. Unknown 1. Circulation. 8. Hamnazar (Alliance) mainly consists of pro-Karzai MPs. and Publishing Firms. less influential than the much more respected and powerful Khugianis. Ittihad-e Islami (Sayyaf): Sayyaf is under the guidance of Adbul Rasool Sayyaf. listening. he is closely allied with Karzai who strongly supported him for this position. Anticommunist appeal. who are Western sympathizers. Advertising agencies. International outlook. Miscellaneous Means of Communications. Employees. 4. 10. Language. B. 4. Rural-urban differences. and Bosnia. 3. 11. Sources of supply. such as Haji Din Mohammad and Anwarul Haq Mohammad. The group numbers some thirty parliamentarians and is led by Amin Zai. 5. Revenue. Sayyaf did not join them (for personal reasons) and went with the Northern Alliance. Private printing facilities. Editorial policies (political persuasion). He follows strict Wahhabi interpretations of Islam. Newspapers.