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RUKUN NEGARA The Rukunegara or sometimes Rukun Negara (Malay for "National Principles") is the Malaysian declaration of national

philosophy instituted by royal proclamation on Merdeka Day, 1970, in reaction to a serious race riot known as the May 13 Incident which occurred in 1969. The incident proved at that time that Malaysian racial balance and stability was fragile at best. Immediately thereafter, the Malaysian government sought ways to foster unity among Malaysians. One of the methods used to encourage unity is the Rukunegara. The word Rukunegara can refer to the whole declaration, the words after the preamble (beginning Maka kami...) or the five principles alone. WHEREAS OUR COUNTRY, MALAYSIA nurtures the ambitions of:
    

achieving a more perfect unity amongst the whole of her society; preserving a democratic way of life; creating a just society where the prosperity of the country can be enjoyed together in a fair and equitable manner; guaranteeing a liberal approach towards her rich and varied cultural traditions; and building a progressive society that will make use of science and modern technology.

NOW, THEREFORE WE, the people of Malaysia, pledge to concentrate the whole of our energy and efforts to achieve these ambitions based on the following principles:
    


KEPERCAYAAN KEPADA TUHAN KESETIAAN KEPADA RAJA DAN NEGARA KELUHURAN PERLEMBAGAAN KEDAULATAN UNDANG-UNDANG KESOPANAN DAN KESUSILAAN THIRTY-SIX years ago, our national ideology, the Rukun Negara, was proclaimed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong at the launch of the Merdeka Day celebrations in 1970.

1Malaysia is intended to provide a free and open forum to discuss the things that matter deeply to us as a Nation. It provides a chance to express and explore the many perspectives of our fellow citizens. What makes Malaysia unique is the diversity of our peoples. 1Malaysia‘s goal is to preserve and enhance this unity in diversity which has always been our strength and remains our best hope for the future. I hope this website will initiate an open and vital dialogue exploring

our Malaysian identity, our purpose, and direction. I encourage each of you to join me in defining our Malaysia and the role we must play in its future. Each of us – despite our differences – shares a desire for a better tomorrow. Each of us wants opportunity, respect, friendship, and understanding. Figuring out One Malaysia What is One Malaysia? This has been troubling supporters of UMNO since Datuk Seri Najib Tun Abdul Razak announced it in his maiden speech as prime minister nine days ago. Opposition parties have claimed it mirrored the Malaysian Malaysia concept championed by the DAP and, before that, the PAP under Lee Kuan Yew when Singapore was part of Malaysia. This claim has troubled Barisan Nasional politicians aiming to regroup after the coalition‘s disastrous Election 2008 outing. Today, the UMNO-owned Mingguan Malaysia (read above) refuted that connotation in an opinion piece and put in perspective that One Malaysia means no one in the country will be sidelined but affirmative action policies will continue. In not too many words, it remains faithful to the two planks of the National Economic Policy (NEP) – the eradication of poverty irrespective of race and economic restructuring that was launched by Najib‘s father Tun Abdul Razak Hussein in the aftermath of the May 13 race riots. The opinion piece headlined ‗Satu Malaysia versi sebenar‘ by Awang Selamat, a pseudonym used by the newspaper‘s editors, allayed fears that Najib will end the NEP and ensure equality for all. Among others, Awang wrote, it included elements of development based on unity and integration, the people‘s interests and excellence to push the country‘s progress, adding he was glad when Najib denied it had anything to do with a ‗Malaysian Malaysia‘ although the government would be fair to all races to transform the country. ―Awang hopes the true version of One Malaysia is understood clearly. The affirmative policies to help the Malays who really poor and left behind (compared to other races) will continue. ―Indeed there is a need to continue the affirmative policies due to historical realities and the social contract while the government intensifies efforts to increase the quality of life for all,‖ he wrote. While Mingguan Malaysia, which enjoys wide circulation in Malaysia‘s rural areas where Umno still commands majority support and respect, has made its definition, it remains to be seen how Najib will put the slogan into action. However, it is clear that the concept will not work with a top-down approach as Malaysians become more aware of the power of their vote and are willing to shop around for a political party or coalition more in tune with their desires and needs.

[1] Public policy Improving government efficiency is an important aspect of 1Malaysia.Najib says. The country‘s sixth prime minister has added ―People First. loyalty. The 2010 values of 1Malaysia as articulated by Najib Razak are perseverance. and civil servants to more strongly emphasize ethnic harmony. Malaysians – particularly the young and those in the urban areas – have been clamouring for an independent judiciary. Slogan   2009 . Performance Now) 2010 . and meritocracy. a culture of excellence.While the economy is at the forefront of their minds. handing former prime minister Tun Abdullah Ahmad Badawi. The use of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs).Menjana Transformasi (Generating Transformation) Ideology 1Malaysia stresses national unity and ethnic tolerance. metrics and targets more typically used in private business. integrity. 2010. Pencapaian Diutamakan (People First. and National Key Result Areas (NKRAs) is thus naturally an important part of the 1Malaysia effort. and efficient governance. And ensure that his ―One Malaysia‖ is the same as their ―One Malaysia‖. education.Rakyat Didahulukan. respectable police force. equal treatment and politicians who don‘t speak from both sides of their mouths. acceptance.  logo and slogan An official logo and slogan has been introduced along with the launch of 1Malaysia concept. to ensure they live up to his slogan. national unity. 1Malaysia is an on-going political programme designed by Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Tun Razak on September 16. government agencies. humility. which has already been maligned by the opposition. The logo is the symbol of '1' which incorporates the national Jalur Gemilang flag and the word Malaysia. They have been demanding reforms in various government policies and institutions. calling for the cabinet. Performance Now‖ to his One Malaysia concept to recapture the people‘s confidence and it will be up to him and his cabinet. a huge mandate in the 2004 elections but taking it back in 2008 when the reforms faltered. "The government is committed to carrying out a transformation programme as .

Najib said that KPIs were implemented to ensure ―the people‘s satisfaction. to work with Dr. Idris Jala. As CEO of Pemandu Idris will support the work of Koh.‖ [3] Najib's announcement of the KPI effort was generally well-received. These are known as National Key Result Areas (NKRAs). KPIs include detailed job descriptions and goals for ministers. Deputy Prime Minister Ahmad stated. increased access to quality education.[6] National campaign The 1Malaysia concept is being promoted through a wide range of activities."[2] Immediately after assuming the office of Prime Minister of Malaysia Dato Seri Najib Tun Razak introduced a series of KPIs in order to measure and improve the efficiency and quality of government services as well as realizing the 1Malaysia concept. innovation. performance now.. politicians. reducing government corruption. strong will..people first.‖ [7] .[4] The KPIs provide a mechanism for the evaluation of ministries and other government agencies including performance reviews carried out every six months. Koh Tsu Koon in training over 500 government officers to implement the KPI system. and some other senior government officials. The NKRAs include crime prevention. Deputy Prime Minister Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin said the KPI formula was a yardstick against which the people could measure the performance of Najib and the government. whether we have solved their problems. improvements in the standard of living for low income groups.its main agenda based on approaches and philosophy of 1Malaysia -. and improvements in public transportation. Prime Minister Najib has instructed the National Civics Bureau or Biro Tata Negara (BTN) to use its courses and seminars to educate present and future civil servants.[3] Najib has identified six major policy areas in which KPIs will play an especially important role in improving the effectiveness of the Malaysian government. and community leaders about 1Malaysia and promote national unity. was appointed Minister Without a Portfolio and CEO of Performance Management and Delivery Unit (Pemandu). ―We will ensure that the BTN courses also inculcate the 1Malaysia concept and its eight values. upgrades to rural infrastructure. accuracy.whether they are satisfied with our service. the former CEO of Malaysia Airlines. deputy ministers. Each ministry has been required to establish specific KPIs including that focus on policy outcomes over the traditional emphasis on inputs typically found in government performance assessments and planning. loyalty and wisdom.[5] Najib also introduced a new cabinet position to support the Unity and Performance Minister in implementing the KPI system. who is the minister in charge of National Unity and Performance Management. integrity. knowledge. namely high performance culture. He said the KPIs would provide motivation for every minister to perform well.

colds. Dr Chandra Muzaffar said. Maybe their ability may exceed our expectations and maybe they can do something which has not been thought of by us. We want them to be creative and innovative.[11] Prime Minister Najib said that 1Malaysia Youth Fund reflected the government's commitment to empowering young people. Please see the discussion on the talk page. Y1M works to coordinate and supplement government and private-sector activities related to 1Malaysia. Malaysia citizens are charged RM1 for treatment and medication.[8] 1Malaysia clinics Prime Minister Najib's Budget 2010 includes funding for 50 medical clinics to provide basic medical services for illnesses and injuries such as fever. Please do not remove this message until the dispute is resolved.Radio Television Malaysia (RTM) and private television channels have incorporated ideas from 1Malaysia into numerous TV programs. RM20 million was allocated for the fund under Malaysia's budget passed in 2010. The fund was proposed by the Barisan Nasional Youth Lab. have a multiplier effect on the general community. "Y1M is planning to expand and strengthen the commitment from all Malaysians towards national unity through various activities to increase public awareness and community development.‖ said Najib. The objective is to encourage youths to use their imagination to the fullest."[10] 1Malaysia Youth Fund The 1Malaysia Youth Fund was launched in order to provide financial support for young people to undertake creative projects that nurture national unity. "The scope and the projects should address three criteria – focus on nurturing unity in Malaysia. The use of multi-lingual hosts and actors from different ethnicities is one of the methods uses to promote national unity. Chairman of the Y1M Board of Trustees. Non-citizens are charged RM15. and hypertension.[11] Response to 1Malaysia The neutrality of this section is disputed. and be led by young people.[9] NGOs 1Malaysia Foundation The 1Malaysia Foundation (Y1M) Foundation was established in 2009 to promote and develop the idea of 1Malaysia. cough. (November 2010) . wounds and cuts. diabetes.

the public similarly.[14] PRIME MINISTERS 1. according to The Malaysian Insider.[13] Bumiputera rights Prime Minister Najib's efforts to liberalise government policies and create a more open policy towards all races with 1Malaysia led Malay rights group Perkasa to seek further clarification on the policy.Dato‘ Najib RazaK MINISTERS NEW CABINET LINE-UP: Prime Minister and Finance Minister 1 Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak Deputy PM and Education Minister Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin Ministers in Prime Minister’s Department Unity and Performance Dr Koh Tsu Koon Law and Parliament Datuk Seri Mohamed Nazri Aziz Religious Affairs Brig. Gen. "were almost split on the Najib administration's national unity agenda with 46 per cent of the respondents believing that the 1Malaysia concept is only a political agenda to win the non-Malay votes. based on an opinion poll in July 2010.Tunku Abdul Rahman 2." and "only 39 per cent of the non-Malays believed that the concept introduced by Najib after he took over the government was a sincere effort to unite all races in Malaysia". as they feared that his 1Malaysia would undermine Malay or Bumiputera rights in favour of minorities in Malaysia. (Rtd) Datuk Jamil Khir Baharum Economic Planning Unit Tan Sri Nor Mohamed Yakcop . the non-Malays surveyed.Tun Mahathir Mohamad 5.Tun Hussein Onn 4.Tun Abdul razak 3. were wary of the concept.Tun Abdullah Ahmad Badawi 6. In particular.Interpretation A year after the concept's introduction.[12] Almost two years later. Mahathir Mohammad reportedly said he "still doesn't understand (masih tidak faham)" the concept.

Datuk Joseph Entulu Higher Education Datuk Seri Khaled Nordin Deputies: Dr Hou Kok Chung. Ahmad Maslan. Murugiah Finance Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak Finance Minister II: Datuk Ahmad Husni Hanadziah Deputies: Datuk Chor Chee Heung. Jelaing Mersat Information. Datuk Robert Lau Home Datuk Seri Hishammuddin Hussein Deputies: Datuk Wira Abu Seman Yusop. Datuk Dr Awang Adek Hussein Education Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin Deputies: Datuk Wee Ka Siong. Senator Heng Sai Kee Energy. Saifuddin Abdullah International Trade and Industry Datuk Mustapa Mohamed Deputies: Datuk Muhkriz Mahathir. Senator T. Datuk Puad Zarkashi Transport Datuk Seri Ong Tee Keat Deputies: Datuk Abdul Rahim Bakri. Arts and Communications Datuk Seri Dr Rais Yatim Deputies: Datuk Joseph Salang Gandum. Green Tech & Water Datuk Peter Chin Fah Kui Deputy: Noriah Kasnon Plantation Industries and Commodoties Tan Sri Bernard Dompok Deputy: Datuk Hamzah Zainuddin Rural and Regional Development Datuk Seri Shafie Apdal Deputies: Datuk Hassan Malek. Senator Datuk Dr Mashitah Ibrahim. Datuk Jacob Dungau . Datuk SK Devamany.Deputies: Datuk Liew Vui Keong. Culture.

Subramaniam Deputy: Datuk Maznah Mazlan Domestic Trade and Consumer Affairs Datuk Seri Ismail Sabri Deputy: Datuk Tan Lian Hoe Housing and Local Government Datuk Kong Cho Ha Deputy: Lajim Ukin .Science. Tech and Innovation Datuk Dr Maximus Ongkili Deputy: Fadillah Yusof Natural Resources and Environment Datuk Douglas Uggah Embas Deputy: Tan Sri Joseph Kurup Tourism Datuk Seri Dr Ng Yen Yen Deputy: Datuk Seri Sulaiman Abdul Rahman Abdul Taib Agriculture and Agro-based Industries Datuk Noh Omar Deputies: Johari Baharum. Rohani Abdul Karim Defence Datuk Seri Dr Ahmad Zahid Hamidi Deputy: Datuk Dr Abdul Latif Works Datuk Shaziman Abu Mansor Deputy: Datuk Yong Khoon Seng Health Datuk Seri Liow Tiong Lai Deputy: Datuk Rosnah Rashid Shilin Youth and Sports Datuk Ahmad Shabery Cheek Deputies: Datuk Razali Ibrahim. Wee Jeck Seng Human Resources Datuk Dr S.

[11][12][13] The Japanese National Police Agency has officially confirmed 11. Tsunami warnings were issued and evacuations ordered along Japan's Pacific coast and at least 20 other countries. TSUNAMI IN JAPAN The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami (東北地方太平洋沖地震 Tōhoku Chihō Taiheiyōoki Jishin[6]?. 2011.[4][5] The earthquake and tsunami caused extensive and severe structural damage in Japan. Senator A. Saravanan HRH Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah ibni Sultan Abu Bakar Riayatuddin Al-Muadzam Shah[1] (born 24 October 1930 at Istana Mangga Tunggal.[15] Many electrical generators were taken down.361 people missing[4][5] across eighteen prefectures.[4][5] 2."[16] Residents within a 20 km (12 mi) radius of the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant and a 10 km (6 mi) radius of the Fukushima II Nuclear Power Plant were evacuated. and fifth Sultan of modern Pahang. literally "Tōhoku region Pacific Ocean offshore earthquake"[fn 1]) was caused by a 9.[10][14] Around 4.5 million without water.232 deaths. Estimates of the Tōhoku earthquake's magnitude make it the most powerful known earthquake to have hit Japan. and a dam collapse. and at least three nuclear reactors suffered explosions due to hydrogen gas that had built up within their outer containment buildings after cooling system failure.Women.[2][3][7] The epicenter was approximately 72 kilometers (45 mi) east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku.[2][8] The earthquake triggered extremely destructive tsunami waves of up to 30 m (98 ft)[9] that struck Japan minutes after the quake. with the hypocenter at an underwater depth of approximately 32 km (19.9 mi). Yukiya Amano—the head of the International Atomic Energy Agency—described the crisis as "extremely serious.[10] with smaller waves reaching many other countries after several hours. Pekan) was the seventh Yang di-Pertuan Agong (roughly equivalent to King) of Malaysia from 29 March 1979 to 25 April 1984. On 18 March. including the entire Pacific coast of North America and South America. in some cases traveling up to 10 km (6 mi) inland.778 injured. including heavy damage to roads and railways as well as fires in many areas. and one of the five most powerful earthquakes in the world overall since modern . Kohilan Federal Territories Datuk Raja Nong Chik Zainal Abidin Deputy: M.[4][5] and 16. as well as over 125. 11 March.0-magnitude undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan that occurred at 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC) on Friday.000 buildings damaged or destroyed. Family and Community Development Datuk Seri Shahrizat Abdul Jalil Deputy: Datin Paduka Chew Mei Fun Foreign Affairs Datuk Anifah Aman Deputies: Datuk Lee Chee Hong.4 million households in northeastern Japan were left without electricity and 1.

9 in). the tsunami simply washed over the top of some seawalls. consisting of a total eleven reactors. it was reported that favorable winds were carrying radioactive particles from the incidents out to sea. as in the case of Rokkasho nuclear reprocessing plant.6 billion."[19] The earthquake moved Honshu 2.[23] On 21 March.[ NUCLEAR The degree and extent of damage caused by the earthquake and resulting tsunami were enormous.[142] On 16 March.9 ft) east and shifted the Earth on its axis by almost 10 cm (3.[139] Nuclear power plants Further information: 2011 Japanese nuclear accidents The Fukushima I.record-keeping began in 1900.[140] Higashidōri. The cooling process is powered by emergency diesel generators.751-kilometer (21.[137][138] Although Japan has invested the equivalent of billions of dollars on antitsunami seawalls which line at least 40% of its 34.[136] Estimates of the cost of the damage range well into the tens of billions of US dollars. in remarks to the European Parliament on 15 March.[143] Further into the crisis. was already shut down for a periodic inspection. Cooling is needed to remove decay heat for several days after a plant has been shut down.[22] The Bank of Japan offered ¥15 trillion (US$183 billion) to the banking system on 14 March in an effort to normalize market conditions. helicopters were used to dump water on the Fukushima I plant to further attempt to cool the reactors. mitigating some of the negative effects.5 to $34. Over 200. leading to severe problems including two large explosions at Fukushima I and leakage of radiation. ignored the damage wrought by the tsunami along the coast and called the nuclear disaster an "apocalypse". saying that the word was particularly well chosen. before-and-after satellite photographs of devastated regions show immense damage to many regions.4 m (7. this is the toughest and the most difficult crisis for Japan. "In the 65 years after the end of World War II.[144] Europe's energy commissioner Guenther Oettinger. Fukushima II.593 mi) coastline and stand up to 12 meters (39 ft) high.[145] Fukushima I and II Nuclear Power Plants Main articles: Fukushima I nuclear accidents and Timeline of the Fukushima nuclear accidents . also on the northeast coast. making it the world's most expensive natural disaster on record.[20][21] Early estimates placed insured losses from the earthquake alone at US$14. Video footage of the worst affected towns shows little more than piles of rubble. were automatically shut down following the earthquake.[24] Japan's government said the cost of the earthquake and tsunami that devastated the northeast could reach $309 billion.000 people have been evacuated. with almost no parts of any structures left standing. collapsing some in the process. the World Bank estimated damage between US$122 billion and $235 billion.[7][17][18] Japanese Prime Minister Naoto Kan said. Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant and Tōkai nuclear power stations. with most of the damage being caused by the tsunami.[141] At Fukushima I and II tsunami waves overtopped seawalls and destroyed diesel backup power systems. and that Tokyo had almost lost control of events at the Fukushima power plant.

According to Tomoko Murakami. making it potentially more dangerous in an incident due to the neutronic effects of plutonium on the reactor and the carcinogenic effects in the event of release to the environment.[156] below the Three Mile Island accident in seriousness.[162] Unlike the other five reactor units. releasing a large cloud of dust and vapor. as well as residents within 3 km (1. resulting in the evacuation of nearby residents.[157] This was questioned by the French ASN nuclear safety authority.[160] An exterior wall of the building collapsed. this would not result in the release of significant radiation. a large explosion.000 times normal levels.[150] This brought the total number of problematic reactors to six. the Japan Atomic Energy Agency announced that it was rating the Fukushima accident at 4 (accident with local consequences) on the 0–7 International Nuclear Event Scale (INES).[148] and that radiation levels outside the plant were up to 8 times normal levels. which would be comparable to or worse than the Three Mile Island accident. 13 March. They said the accident could be classed as a 5 or 6.9 mi) of the Fukushima II plant.[151] Destruction at the Fukushima site On 12 March. but the reactor itself was not damaged in the explosion.[158] On 18 March.[167][168][169] USN sailors on humanitarian duty are checked for radiation exposure .[152] On Sunday.[159] Another explosion occurred at Reactor 3 of the Fukushima I plant just after 11:00 JST on 14 March. but the reactor vessel was not damaged according to a government spokesperson.[163][164][165] Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) is trying to reduce the pressure within the plants by venting contaminated steam from the reactor vessels into the atmosphere.Japan declared a state of emergency following the failure of the cooling system at the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant. a state of emergency was also declared at the Fukushima II nuclear power plant about 11 km (7 mi) south. the Japanese Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency announced that the explosion had occurred. or MOX fuel. reactor 3 runs on mixed uranium and plutonium oxide.[149] Later. of the nuclear energy group at Japan's Institute of Energy Economics. Japanese authorities admitted that a partial nuclear meltdown could be occurring in Reactors 1 and 3.[146][147] Officials from the Japanese Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency reported that radiation levels inside the plant were up to 1.[166] Residents living within a 20 km (12 mi) radius of the Fukushima I plant were evacuated.[155] On 12 March at 01:17 JST (16:17 GMT). The local population was advised by the authorities to stay home until the radioactive situation of the environment is totally clarified. thought to be caused by the buildup of hydrogen gas. blew away the roof and outer walls of the Reactor 1 building.[161] At 16:29 UTC on Monday 14 March (14 March 01:29 UTC).[152][153][154] A BBC journalist reported being stopped 60 kilometers (37 mi) from the blast site by police. Japan's nuclear safety agency raised the severity level of the crisis from 4 to 5.

with the risk of damage to the reactor vessel and a possible radioactive leak.[178] As of 16 March 2011. There may be a need to replace the contaminated soil. 2 and 3 had experienced (partial) meltdowns due to high temperatures. 160 km (99 mi) offshore. the radiation level spiked to 8.[178] Iodine distribution to recovery workers in Japan A US Navy relief group moved from the immediate area after its helicopters detected low-level radiation while returning to their aircraft carrier from a search and rescue mission. at 11:51 JST Japan suspended operations at the stricken Fukushima I nuclear plant after a surge in radiation made it too dangerous for workers to remain at the facility. was also rocked by an explosion on 15 March. The highest level in the Kantō region was 40 times the normal level in Saitama at 11:00 JST but then receded to ten times the normal level.[189] . Toshigi. or 100. the radiation level in Tokyo reached 20 times the normal level. up to 100 millisieverts (mSv).[184] The government raised the national safety standard governing radiation exposure from 100 to 250 mSv per year.[176] A fourth Fukushima I reactor. Two others are reported missing. Chiba.217 microsieverts (µSv) per hour. could not be ruled out. about 160 people have been exposed to dangerous radiation levels near the power stations. so plant workers could continue their work. Gunma.000 µSv. Saitama.[170] As of 14 March 2011.[186][187][188] Radioactive cesium and iodine were also detected in the soil in some places in Fukushima.[183] However.[179][180] On 15 March.[172] Several people received some radiation doses. One plant employee was killed while operating a crane.[177] Radiation levels of up to 400 µSv per hour were recorded near Reactor 4.[171] An additional eleven employees were injured when the Reactor 3 building exploded. Reactor 4. eight others have been injured. Local officials have assured the public that this is not a threat to human health. per year is considered safe.[175] The government admitted it was "very probable" that the cores of Reactors 1. Tochigi and Gunma.[185] A map showing epicenter of earthquake and position of nuclear power plants It was reported that radioactive iodine was detected in the tap water in Fukushima. workers returned about an hour later after radiation levels decreased. and radioactive cesium in the tap water in Fukushima. and Niigata. at 6:10 am JST an explosion occurred at Reactor 2 of the Fukushima I plant.[174] After the explosion. The flight absorbed the equivalent amount of earthbound background radiation for a month in the span of about an hour. five plant workers have died and 22 others have been injured.[181][182] On 15 March.Additionally. Tokyo.[173] On 15 March. it was reported on 14 March at 07:00 EDT that the fuel rods of Reactor 2 at the Fukushima I plant were now fully exposed. and a meltdown of the fuel rods.

[140] On 14 March it was reported that a cooling system pump for this reactor had stopped working.[196] however. which is sited separately from the plant's reactor.[191] On 13 March the lowest-level state of emergency was declared regarding the Onagawa plant by TEPCO.[4][5] denounced for oppressing internal dissidence.[6] Gaddafi renamed the Libyan Arab Republic to Jamahiriya in 1977. Gaddafi vowed to "die a martyr" if necessary in his fight against the rebels and external forces.Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant A fire from the turbine section of the Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake was reported by Kyodo News. born 7 June 1942).[10][11] .[197] Muammar Muhammad al-Gaddafi[1][variations] (Arabic: Muʿammar al-Qaḏḏāfī audio (help·info). resulting in the lifting of UN sanctions in 2003. but that two of three diesel generators used to power the cooling system were out of order. he relinquished the title of prime minister.[3] Throughout the 1970s and 1980s. commonly referred to as Colonel Gaddafi.[195] Tōkai Nuclear Power Plant The number 2 reactor at Tōkai Nuclear Power Plant was shut down automatically. In early February 2011. broke out in Libya against Gaddafi's government and quickly turned into a general uprising.[9] After the 1986 Bombing of Libya and the 1993 imposition of United Nations sanctions.[193][194] TEPCO stated this was due to radiation from the Fukushima I nuclear accidents and not from the Onagawa plant itself. Gaddafi's government was considered a pariah state by the West.[7][8] Gaddafi was a firm supporter of OAPEC and led a Pan-African campaign for a United States of Africa. the Japan Atomic Power Company stated that there was a second operational pump sustaining the cooling system. has been the leader of Libya since a military coup on 1 September 1969 where he overthrew King Idris of Libya and established the Libyan Arab Republic. cooperated with investigations into previous Libyan acts of state-sponsored terrorism and paid compensation. major political protests. Egypt and other parts of the Arab world. In 1979. acts of state-sponsored terrorism. assassinations of expatriate opposition leaders.[146] and was soon extinguished. based on his socialist and nationalist political philosophy published in Green Book. as radioactivity readings temporarily[192] exceeded allowed levels in the area of the plant. inspired by recent pro-democracy events in Tunisia. and crass nepotism which amassed a multi-billion dollar fortune for himself and his family.[2] His 42 years in power make him one of the longestserving rulers in history.[141][190] The blaze was in a building housing the turbine. and was thereafter called "The Brother Leader" or "The Guide" in Libya's Socialist Revolution. and ended his nuclear weapons program. Gaddafi established closer economic and security relations with the west.

Jakarta. The Asian continent has been through the World War II. on the west by the landmass known as Eurasia. Christianity. Tokyo. the continent is home to more than 60% of the world’s current population. North Asia. Buddhism. Asia is the most populous continent in the world. The various religions practiced in Asia are Hinduism. the Vietnam War and Gulf War during the 20th century. by the Indian Ocean on the south and the Arctic Ocean on the north. South Asia Countries Country Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Cambodia India Indonesia Laos Malaysia Capital Kabul Dacca Thimpu Bandar Seri Begawan Phnom Penh New Delhi Jakarta Vientiane Kuala Lumpur . and Shanghai. having over four billion people. Mumbai (Bombay).ASIA Asia. The earliest Asian Civilization dates back to 2500 BC. The Great Wall of China. statistically. a massive structure on the hills of northern China and one of the seven wonders of the world is the only man-made structure visible from outer space. The Asian countries are divided broadly into South Asia. Zoroastrianism and Shintoism. one of the seven continents. Asia is surrounded by the Pacific Ocean on the east. Japanese. A few largest cities of Asia are Seoul. That is. Islam. is the world’s largest continent. Some of the major languages of Asia are Chinese. English is considered as an international language. East Asia and West Asia regions. Taoism. China is one of the oldest civilizations of the world. Korean. Hindi and Javanese. Here we list the Asian countries and their capitals.

Maldives Myanmar Nepal Pakistan Male Yangon Kathmandu Islamabad Papua New Guinea Port Moresby Philippines Singapore Sri Lanka Thailand Vietnam Manila Singapore Colombo Bangkok Hanoi North Asia Countries Country Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Capital Astana Bishkek Dushanbe Turkmenistan Ashgabat Uzbekistan Tashkent East Asia Countries Country China Capital Beijing .

Japan Tokyo North Korea Pyongyang South Korea Seoul Mongolia Taiwan Ulan Bator Taipei West Asia Countries Country Bahrain Georgia Iran Iraq Israel Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Oman Qatar Capital Manama Tbilisi Teheran Baghdad Tel Aviv Amman Kuwait City Beirut Muscat Doha Saudi Arabia Riyadh Syria U. Damascus Abu Dhabi .A.E.

includes Canada. and Oceania. Asia Pacific or Asia Pacific and Japan (abbreviated as Asia-Pac.g. Russia. The term may also include Russia (on the North Pacific) and countries in North and South America which are on the coast of the Eastern Pacific Ocean. Even though imprecise. finance and politics because.g. into Americas. Mexico. for example. the term has been popular since the late 1980s in commerce. Chile. APJ. Peru. but it typically includes at least much of East Asia. Alternatively. The region varies in size depending on context. APAC. the term sometimes comprises all of Asia and Australasia as well as small Pacific island nations. Apac. the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. when dividing the world into large regions for commercial purposes (e. and the United States. they are mostly emerging markets experiencing rapid growth. e. JAPA or JAPAC) is the part of the world in or near the Western Pacific Ocean. though the economies within the region are heterogeneous. EMEA and Asia Pacific). Asia Pac. Southeast Asia.              Brunei Cambodia China Indonesia Japan Laos Malaysia Myanmar Philippines Singapore South Korea Thailand Vietnam PIF         Australia Cook Islands Federated States of Micronesia Niue Kiribati Nauru New Zealand Samoa .Yemen Sanaa ASIA PACIFIC Asia-Pacific.

       Palau Papua New Guinea Marshall Islands Vanuatu Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Others               American Samoa Fiji French Polynesia Guam Hong Kong Macau Mongolia New Caledonia North Korea Northern Mariana Islands Taiwan Timor-Leste Tokelau Wallis and Futuna Main Countries and territories data Country or territory Australia Brunei Burma Cambodia China Timor-Leste Canberra Bandar Seri Begawan Naypyidaw Phnom Penh Beijing Dili Capital .

Hong Kong Indonesia Japan Laos Macau Malaysia Mongolia New Zealand North Korea Jakarta Tokyo Vientiane Kuala Lumpur Ulan Bator Wellington Pyongyang Papua New Guinea Port Moresby Philippines Singapore South Korea Taiwan Thailand Vietnam Manila City of SingaporeDowntown Core Seoul Taipei Bangkok Hanoi PENGENALAN DAN SEJARAH Pengenalan .

Lembaga Kemajuan Kampung Dan Perusahaan Suatu bayangan tipis cara Inggeris melonggarkan Kritik tajam rakyat terhadap dasar penjajahan.memudahkan serta menjalankan pembangunan ekonomi dan kemasyarakatan dalam persekutuan dan khususnya dalam kawasan-kawasan luar bandar.Majlis Amanah Rakyat (MARA). Usman Awang yang telah menghadiahkan puisi ini kepada MARA. Bermula di zaman penjajah dikenal dengan RIDA . sebuah agensi Kementerian Kemajuan Luar Bandar Dan Wilayah.menggalakkan. Tahun seribu sembilan ratus enam puluh lima Kongres Ekonomi Bumiputera Yang Pertama Merumuskan segala duka nestapa bangsa Bahawa kita memiliki telaga Mengapa masih memegang talinya Sedang orang mencapai timba Maka segala gaung amarah dileburkan Menjadi sumpah amanah suatu wawasan Pada detik 1966 yang menentukan RIDA pun dikerandakan dalam sejarah Untuk sebuah nama baru yang keramat Majlis Amanah Rakyat Kini 25 tahun telah berdetik MARA mencapai kedewasaan usia Mungkinkah bakal tiba Kongres Ekonomi Bumiputera Penyelarasan jalur wawasan dua ribuan Menilai kembali keberkesanan AMARAH dan Amanah Rakyat yang dipahatkan. SN Dato' Dr. ditubuhkan pada 1 Mac 1966 di bawah Akta Parlimen sebagai sebuah badan berkanun hasil daripada resolusi Kongres Ekonomi Bumiputera pertama pada tahun sebelumnya.kolej politek/bas mara/pjabat mara luar ngre/koleh professional mara . Majlis Amanah Rakyat Sebuah nama keramat Lahir dari percikan amarah suatu bangsa Yang mundur sosio-ekonominya Masih menadah tangan menjadi peminta Di tanah airnya yang hampir sepuluh tahun merdeka.     Ibu Pejabat Pejabat MARA Negeri -kolej mara -GIATMARA/IKM/institute kemahiran tertingggi mata. PUISI PENUBUHAN MARA AMANAH DAN AMARAH RAKYAT (25 TAHUN MARA) USMAN AWANG NOVEMBER 1991 Setinggi-tinggi penghargaan kepada pencipta. RIDA yang berdetik pada tahun 1953 Ketika bara nasionalisma marak menyala Tidak mampu menampung ghairah rakyat merdeka Suara Bumiputera yang semakin keras bergema Kemunduran dan kemiskinan yang ketara. Adalah menjadi kewajipan Majlis bagi memajukan.

Sabah o "If one of the parents is a Muslim Malay or indigenous native of Sabah as stated in Article 160A (6)(a) Federal Constitution of Malaysia. whilst . conforms to Malay customs and is the child of at least one parent who was born within the Federation of Malaysia before independence of Malaya on the 31st of August 1957. for NEP is racial-based and not deprivation-based. regardless of their financial standing. are entitled 7 percent discount on houses or property. the Malaysian Higher Education Ministry defined bumiputra as follows. all Bumiputra.DATO‘ ERI IDRIS MARA-is an agency under the Rural and Regional Development Ministry In the book Buku Panduan Kemasukan ke Institusi Pengajian Tinggi Awam. thus his child is considered as a Bumiputra" 3. habitually speaks the Malay language. Sarawak o "If both of the parent are indigenous natives of Sarawak as stated in Article 160A (6)(b) Federal Constitution of Malaysia." Certain but not all pro-bumiputra policies exist as affirmative action for bumiputras. For instance. Program Pengajian Lepasan SPM/Setaraf Sesi Akademik 2007/2008 (Guidebook for entry into public higher learning institutions for SPM/equivalent graduates for academic year 2007/2008). Peninsular Malaysia o "If one of the parents is Muslim Malay as stated in Article 160 (2) Federal Constitution of Malaysia. depending on the region of origin of the individual applicant[3]: 1. thus the child is considered as a Bumiputra" 2. pendidikan dan pelaburan untuk penguasaan ekuiti Bumiputera OBJEKTIF       Membangunkan usahawan berjaya dan inovatif Melahirkan modal insan global dan berintegriti Menyumbang kepada pemilikan ekuiti Memudahkan sistem penyampaian STRATEGI Berteraskan Inovasii-Usahawani-Pekerjai-Pelaburani-Organisasi 12 April 1987-MARA building was launched CHAIRMAN-YB. thus their child is considered as a Bumiputra" Article 160 defines a Malay as being one who "professes the religion of Islam. including luxurious units.VISI KORPORATMenjadi organisasi amanah yang unggul dan diberkati untuk mengangkat martabat bangsa MISI KORPORATMenerajui bidang keusahawanan.

since they were issued to companies with at least 70% bumiputra ownership. and Baba (the non-bumiputra) pays Ali a certain sum in exchange. More than 12. received 6. Most of the policies were established in the Malaysian New Economic Policy (NEP) period. She also said that the policy of . In 2005 she gave a speech that stated: "If there are young Malay entrepreneurs whose companies are successful. the bumiputra. A basket of government-run (and profit-guaranteed) mutual funds are available for purchase by bumiputra buyers only.200 APs were issued in 2003. This is required regardless of the income level of the potential buyer. APs were originally created to allow bumiputra participation in the automotive industry. making him the largest single recipient of APs. There is no bumiputra discount on existing housing. In 2004. Ismail Abdul Rahman proposed this target after the government was unable to agree on a suitable policy goal. This requirement has led to non-bumiputras teaming up with bumiputra companies to obtain projects. Approved Permits (APs) for automobiles preferentially allow bumiputra to import vehicles. qualification for public scholarships. Ali. positions in government. in a practice known as "Ali Baba". Other preferential policies include quotas for the following: admission to government educational institutions. and ownership of businesses. we want Towering Malays of glokal (global and local) standard".a low-income non-Bumiputra receives no such financial assistance. is included solely to satisfy this requirement. For a limited period. They also estimated that the late Nasimuddin Amin.[6] Examples of such policies include:  Companies listed on the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (Bursa Saham Kuala Lumpur) must have 30% bumiputra ownership of equity to satisfy listing requirements. The Amanah Saham Nasional (ASN) has return rates approximately 3 to 5 times that of local commercial banks. former Minister of Trade and Industry. then we appreciate their success.      As a result of these policies. Automotive companies wishing to bring in cars need to have an AP to do so. Foreign companies that operate in Malaysia also must adhere to this requirement. The Edge (a business newspaper) estimated that APs were worth approximately RM 35.000 each. the policy was to create "Towering Malays". Many government-tendered projects require that companies submitting tenders be bumiputra owned. Projects were earmarked for bumiputra contractors to enable them to gain expertise in various fields. In addition to APs. Remaining unsold houses after a given time period are allowed to be sold to non-bumi if the developer proves attempts have been made to fulfill the requirement. a certain percentage of new housing in any development has to be sold to bumiputra owners. the former chairman of the Naza group. foreign car marquees are required to pay between 140% to 300% import duty. According to Tan Sri Rafidah Aziz. comprising at least 30% of the total. many bumiputera with good connections quickly became millionaires. Many policies focus on trying to achieve a bumiputra share of corporate equity.387 in 2003. Housing developers are required to provide a minimum 7% discount to bumiputra buyers of these lots.

full scholarships offered to students to study in leading universities worldwide. The JPA scholars are sent to selected pre-university programmes offered by the government — from there. affirmative is time-bound. the equivalent of O-Levels) results. Shafie Salleh. stated that he "will ensure the quota of Malay students' entry into universities is always higher. and certain quotas. . Quotas also exist for Public Services Department (JPA) scholarships. Bumiputras compose an overwhelming majority of entrants to the matriculation programme. College or such educational institution to candidates for any course of study is less than the number of candidates qualified for such places. and the authority shall duly comply with the directions. such as establishing quotas for entry into the civil service. the number of places offered by the authority responsible for the management of the University. they apply to universities. (8A) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution. public scholarships and public education. Dr. In 2003 it began the system of "Malaysian model meritocracy" for university admission. it shall be lawful for the Yang diPertuan Agong by virtue of this Article to give such directions to the authority as may be required to ensure the reservation of such proportion of such places for Malays and natives of any of the States of Sabah and Sarawak as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong may deem reasonable. the newly appointed Higher Education Minister. ethnic group. College and other educational institution providing education after Malaysian Certificate of Education or its equivalent. Malay supremacy and affirmative action are two different concepts. the Government has discussed phasing out certain affirmative action programs and reinstating "meritocracy".[9][dead link] Bumiputras previously received certain privileges in public tertiary education. Admission to public universities was not based upon a common examination such as the SAT or A-Levels. These scholarships are given on the basis of SPM (Malaysian Education Certificate."[citation needed] Since 2000. where in any University. Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia grants the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King of Malaysia) responsibility for ―safeguard[ing] the special position of the ‗Malays‘(see note) and natives of any of the States of Sabah and Sarawak and the legitimate interests of other communities‖ and goes on to specify ways to do this. but rather upon a two parallel systems of either an one-year matriculation course or a two-year STPM (Malaysian Higher School Certificate) programme. Critics say that the public university entry requirements are easier for matriculation students. In 2004. such as ethnic quotas.Approved Permits (APs) had produced many bumiputera entrepreneurs in the automotive industry.