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TEA

In India, there are three distinctly different tea growing regions. These regions are geographically separated, thereby producing three entirely different teas both in style & in taste/flavor. Three regions are:    Darjeeling (North-Eastern India), Assam (far North-East India) & Nilgiri (South India).

In order to prevent tea from any possible adulteration, Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 is in existence. Tea therefore shall conform to following specifications as indicated in PFA Act, 1954. PFA specifications for tea
Total ash determined on tea dried to constant weight at 100° C 4.0 to 8.0 percent by weight

Total ash soluble in boiling distilled water

Not less than 40.0 percent of total ash Not more than 1.0 percent by weight on dry basis

Ash insoluble in HCL

Extract obtained by boiling dry tea (dried to constant weight at 100° C) with 100 parts of distilled water for one hour under reflux

Not less than 32.0 percent

Alkalinity of soluble ash

Not less than 1.0 percent and not more than 2.2 percent expressed as K2O on dry basis

Crude fibre determined on tea dried to constant weight at 100° C

Not more than 17.0 percent

The opposite of orthodox tea is CTC tea. All wholeleaf tea is made with orthodox production methods. 2. Again black tea is of two types viz. Kenya produces mainly CTC teas. Definition: Orthodox tea refers to either hand-processed tea or tea that is rolled with machinery in a manner that mimics hand-rolling.e. 5. Green tea is different from Black tea since fermentation of green leaves is arrested in manufacturing green tea.  Black Tea . peptic substances. oolong tea & green tea. Orthodox tea is generally known for being more nuanced and complex than CTC tea. tea is classified into black tea. . which is machine-processed in a way that chops the leaves into uniformly-sized bits that are typically used for low-grade teabags. Characteristic of beverage like tea is determined by major components of leaf i. Tearing & Curling) Orthodox teas are manufactured with help of orthodox roller in process of rolling while CTC machine/Rotervan is used in rolling process in manufacturing. Most specialty tea is made with orthodox production methods. flavouring constituents & caffeine. Withering Rolling Fermentation Drying Sorting & Grading Depending on system of tea processing. 4.  Orthodox tea & CTC tea (Crushing. Oolong tea & Green Tea. TEA Processing: Tea processing in any factory in traditional way comprises following phases 1.Tea types: Made tea or Tea manufactured from green tea leaves is generally classified into 3 types viz. While. 3. Black tea is obtained by so called fermentation process where as for making green tea fermentation is prevented. polyphenols. most of teas produced in Sri Lanka is of ‗orthodox‘ variety.

Soluble Matter (46%) : Tea leaves contain following soluble matter: 1. cellulose.59 6. Crude Fibers Proteins Cellulose Residues 22% 18% 13% 1% Insoluble part contributes to physical structure & appearance of tea & consists of crude fiber. proteins.35 11.00 3. 2. chlorophyll & other pigments & starches.12 1. 4.11 215 18.77 CTC teas 41.40 19. Average chemical Composition of Orthodox and CTC tea of assam clone Composition 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Water soluble solids % Theaflavins % Thearubigin % Total Lipid Carotenoids (ľg/g) Flavour volatilesd Total fibre % Crude fibre% Chlorophyll a mg/g Orthodox teas 39. lignin.58 10 Chlorophyll b mg/g Chemical structure of tea can be generally divided into two parts –  Insoluble in water & soluble in water. 4.93 11. .38 0.52 0. 3. 5.70 1.48 0.5 3.12 0. fats. 2.Composition of tea Table. 6.20 18.30 18. Tannin Starch Caffeine Sugars Proteins Pigments 22% 1% 4% 1% 16% 2% Insoluble Matter (54%) : Tea leaves contain following insoluble matter: 1.68 176 8. 3.

grapes and chocolate. Catechins present in tea are namely . This part consists of polyphenols to large degree (commonly known as catechins also refereed to as tannin).e. which contains all those health benefits that we like so much. tea is the only beverage that has been found to contain (+)-gallocatechin (GC). taste and aroma as well as the functional properties of tea. oxidized & unoxidized (natural polyphenols).(—)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Both oxidized & unoxidized polyphenols may be beneficial. 1. ECG. water-soluble compounds which impart bitterness and astringency to tea infusions. which does not undergo oxidation. has more natural unoxidized polyphenols. more colour & less pungency tea has. (—)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) and (—)-epicatechin (EC).Part of tea that we are mostly interested in is soluble part. apples. and are characterised by their C6-C3-C6 skeletal structure which corresponds to 2-phenylsubstituted benzopyrans and pyrones. . because black tea undergoes oxidation process which reduces catechin content. Green tea. tea beverage. Therefore. During fermentation process about one third of total amount is oxidized into more complicated oxidized products such as theaflavin. Catechin content is higher in green & white tea. amino acids (theanine). Catechins in tea are also termed as tannins and they make up about 30% of dry weight tea. Catechins. EGC. after this process tea contains two kinds of polyphenols. and EGCG in addition to (+)-catechin (C) and EC. However. while oxidized ones give tea its colour & flavour. polyphenols and caffeine are the most important one which imparts unique flavor and functional properties to tea beverage. (—)epigallocatechin (EGC). Unoxidized polyphenols provide pungency. Polyphenols/ Catechins : Chemical composition of fresh tea leaves and type of manufacturing steps it undergoes affects the type and ratio of chemical compounds formed in the final product i. Black tea has more colour but less astringency. Catechins are not unique to tea and have been found in red wines. They are the fundamental elements of tea leaves in determining the colour. & also more astringency. but also defines the way tea will taste. Catechins are colourless.are type of polyphenolic compounds present in tea leaves in high concentration. Structurally. Higher the degree of oxidation. tea catechins are flavanols derived by the shikimic and acetate-malonate biosynthetic pathways. Among the numerous compounds. caffeine & minerals.

Orthoquinones then combine in pairs in series of condensation reactions. but is bright orange. ECG. Oxidation in relation to the colour of tea: The colour of a black tea infusion is not actually black. EC. They can function as either hydrogen acceptors or hydrogen donors. Combinations can happen through C-O or C-C bonds. These are formed through oxidative dimerisation between quinones derived from a simple catechin and a gallocatechin during the manufacture of black tea (fig. . including taste. and theaflavin 3. Catechins first form intermediate compounds called orthoquinones that are very unstable & reactive.3) Six catechin-derived polyphenols in tea leaves (C. theaflavin 3'-gallate. There are four main TFs in black tea: theaflavin. theaflavin 3-gallate. 1. reddish or reddish brown. GC. are associated directly or indirectly with changes to tea Catechins.Figure1: Chemical structures of tea catechins and their epimers Changes in catechins during fermentation/ processing: Catechins may influence tea quality in several ways. Black tea pigments are usually divided into orange coloured theaflavins (TFs) and brown thearubigins (TRs). Almost all characteristics of manufactured tea. & EGCG) are oxidized by enzyme PPO Firing of leaves heats enzymes to their peak activity rate.3'-digallate (fig. EGC. colour and aroma.2).

TRs are much larger & more complex. thus. together with flavones and their glycosides. the browner the tea infusion. The colour of green tea should be either green or yellowishgreen and should not contain any traces of red or brown colour such as that found in black tea. Catechins react in pairs to form six theaflavins. The content of TFs and TRs and their relative proportions in black tea determine its colour: the higher the TF content. The yellow colour in green tea infusions is mainly determined by water-soluble flavonols which include kaempherol. quercetin and myricetin. catechin oxidation should be avoided in green tea production. indicating that TFs probably act as intermediates to TRs. the brighter the tea infusion. It has been found that the amount of TRs increases with a corresponding decrease in TFs during fermentation of black tea. Biochemical compounds responsible for colour Compounds Theaflavins Thearubigins Flavonol glycosides Pheophorbide Pheophytin Carotene Colour Yellowish brown Reddish brown Light yellow Brownish Blackish Yellow . TFs are unstable & further oxidize through action of PPO. TRs are formed by the oxidation of any one of the tea catechins or a combination thereof. Tab. TRs are a heterogeneous group of phenolic pigments.Compounds formed are called Theaflavins (TF).3-2. Their chemical structure is yet unknown. the higher the TR content. which have similar structures to catechins. They originate from further oxidative condensation via either C-O or C-C bond formation in oxidative polymerisation reactions. which are larger molecules & are unique in chemistry. They then form Thearubigins (TR).0% on a dry weight basis while the TR fraction comprises 10-20% of the dry matter of black tea. The content of TFs in black tea is 0.

Structures of theaflavins in black tea. .Figure 2.

Catechins &The flavour of tea Taste and aroma both contribute to the flavour of tea infusions.astringency. bitterness. sweetness and umami (a brothy or savoury taste. The taste of different types of tea is made up of a balance between these four basic properties. the taste of both green and black teas should contain elements of astringency and bitterness as these represent overall quality requirements. 2. Although bitterness and astringency are unpleasant to most consumers. Biochemical compounds responsible for taste Compounds Polyphenol Amino acids Caffeine Theaflavins Thearubigin Taste Astringent Brothy Bitter Astringent Ashy and slight astringent .Figure 3. Polyphenol oxidation during black tea manufacture. The four major sensory properties associated with tea are.

Phenylacetaldehyde Nerolidol. Biochemical compounds responsible for flavour Compounds Linalool. Tea cream is defined as the precipitate formed when a black tea infusion cools and is a complex of mainly TFs. anti-inflammatory. Phenyl ethanol Flavour Sweet Floral Fruity Trans-2-Hexenal. Therefore. Catechins have been shown to have antibacterial. Catechin.The bitterness and astringency of the green tea brew are almost entirely caused by catechins and other phenolic compounds. b-Ionone Fresh flavour 3. Oxygen accepts electrons to become active Oxygen & . monomeric flavonoids are more bitter than they are astringent. antithrombotic. Complex formation between TFs and caffeine results in an orange-yellow colour. n-Hexanal. main polyphenol of green tea scavenges free radicals. TRs. Cis-3-Hexenol. Benzaldehyde. Grassy. 4. antiallergic. and. the ratio of TFs to TRs can influence the colour of ‗creamed down‘ teas. It was found that binding of caffeine to TRs was weaker than binding of caffeine to TFs. and vasodilatory activities. compounds become more astringent than bitter. Generally speaking. Catechins & Antioxidant properties of tea Catechins are not only important quality contributors to tea but also have important bioactive (functional) properties. ECG) and caffeine. with molecular weight determining whether catechins are bitter or astringent. However. individual catechins differ in their chemical or biological activities according to the concentrations and the media used. Catechins & Complex formation: Tea cream and tea scum can often be observed after a cup of black tea is made. as polymer size increases. Methyl salicylate. indicating that gallated catechins are more bitter and more astringent than non-gallated ones. It is generally accepted that galloyl esters of catechins are more active than non-galloylated catechins because they have lower redox potentials. while the complexes between TRs and caffeine are dark reddish brown. ester-type catechins (EGCG. Table. These properties are thought to be related to their antioxidative activity. Linalool oxide Geraniol. Any biological system creates free radicals as biproduct of living. The intensity of bitterness and astringency for catechins decreases in the order ECG > EGCG > GCG > EC > EGC = GC > C.

rhamnose and ribose. raffinose and stachyose. It has stimulating property and removes mental fatigue. Cellulose. Pectic substances contain galactose.7-tri. galacturonic acid. containing cellulostic materials surrounded by hemi-cellulose and a lignin seal. The contribution of caffeine to the infusion is the briskness and creamy property resulting from the complex formed by caffeine with polyphenols. 4. The reduced succulence in the matured shoot is believed to be due to structural bonding between phenolic components of lignin. isoleucine and theanine (5-N-ethylglutamine) were found to be the principal amino acids present in tea leaf. Caffeine content in black tea is around 3 – 4% of dry weight. arabinose. Caffeine is a purine derivative. Maltose in Assam variety and rhamnose in china variety appeared special. glutamine. Caffeine Caffeine is slightly bitter. Tea fibre The leaf cell wall. tyrosine. which is 1. colorless compound which is present in tea leaf to extent of 2. leucine. hemi-cellulose.3. prevents the penetration of hydrolyzing enzymes. fructose. 3. Catechins protect system against oxidation of lipids & suppress cancer growth by combining protons with free radicals & stopping potential reactions.5%. sucrose. contributing to old-age diseases. valine. Free sugars are responsible for the synthesis of catechins in tea shoot. glutamic. Amino acids Aspartic. polysaccharides and cutin of cell wall. Asparagine was formed during withering.0% to 4. Carbohydrates The free sugars found in tea shoot are glucose. 2. The amino acids play an important role in the development of tea aroma during the processing of black tea. These free radicals attempt to oxidize lipids. Catechins have been shown to be more effective scavengers than other antioxidants like vitamins C & E. 5. pectins and lignins are responsible for the formation of crude fibre content in black tea.Hydroxyl free radicals. Theanine alone contributed around 60% of total amino acid content. making them very good for human systems. Briskness is a taste and sensation while creaming is the turbidity that develops from a good cup of tea when cooled. phenylalanine. Volatile Carbonyl Compounds formed from the amino acids during processing: Glycine —› formaldehyde Alanine —› acetaldehyde Valine —› isobutyraldehyde Leucine —› isovaleraldehyde . formation of heterocyclic flavour compounds during processing of black tea and contributing towards water-soluble solids in tea liquor.methyl xanthine. serine.

5 5.8 3.4 6. Role of organic acids towards the biochemical influence on the quality of black tea is not yet reported. Anthocyanidins: Delphenidin & cyanidin were major anthocyanidins present in tea leaf. lutein. Role of anthocyanins on quality of black tea however. violaxanthine & neoxanthine have been found in tea. tartaric.8 Fatty Acids 9.3 2. has not been found to be significant. Lipids and fatty acids The neutral. fumaric and succinic acids were detected in Assam leaf. The major fatty acids available in tea are linolenic. tearing & crushing method than in conventional orthodox method of tea manufacture. Decrease was found to be higher in curling. All these carotenoids were found to decrease appreciably during black tea manufacture. oleic and palmitic. However. China and Cambod varieties and also during different stages of black tea manufacture. oxalic. carotene & lutein were not significant statistically during withering but were highly significant during fermentation.Isoleucine —› 2-methylbutanol Methionine —› methional Phenyl alanine —› phenylacetaldehyde 6. . malic. reverse was true for violoaxanthine where as neoxanthine shows significant changes in both of these stages.8 8. Organic acids Citric.7 7. Carotenoids: Four major carotenoids. ß-carotene.7 4.5 4. Changes of two of these carotenoids viz. Total lipid contents(%) and total fatty acids (ľg/g) at different stages are as follows: Total Lipid content (%) Green Leaf Withered Leaf Rolled Leaf Fermented Leaf Black Tea 6. linoleic. 9. 8.6 4. Anthocyanin contents were higher in tea shoots from pruned than those of unpruned bushes. glyco and phospholipid contents and their fatty acid composition varied in Assam.

Tear and Curl). large tea leaves gain a higher grading 2.Principal Components of Black Tea Beverage are given below: Components Catechins Theaflavins Thearubigins Flavanols Phenolic acids and Depsides Amino acids Methylxanthines Carbohydrates Protein Mineral matter Volatiles Concentration (g/100g) 3 3 12 6 10 13 8 10 0.8 8 0. The method of production of the tea: There are 2 methods of manufacturing tea. These are the traditional method of production of tea by hand and the more modern mechanized method which is aptly called the CTC process (Crush. The accepted methods of grading tea relate to the grading of Black tea only. .05 The Grading Of Tea The grading of tea facilitates the international trade in tea and is the central component in the assessing of a money value for the various types of tea This classifying of tea into grades is an important tool for the tea experts in their task of making evaluations and comparisons between different varieties of tea that are grown and manufactured throughout the world. The size of the tea leaves: Whole. The two main factors which affect the grading of tea are: 1. It is considered that the mechanized method damages the tea leaves and as a result the tea leaves bear a lower grading.

3.It is considered a medium grading for the classification of tea leaves. For these teas there exists a whole range of grading systems and these differ from tea grower to tea grower. Fanning This consists mainly of pieces of tea leaves. TGFOP Tippy Golden Flowery Orange Pekoe This consists of the tea bud and two uppermost leaves of the tea plant complemented by the flowers of the tea plant. young tea leaves whose tips are golden and are complemented by the flowers of the tea plant. The following classifications relate to choice tea consisting of whole leaves and complemented by one of the above traits: GFOP Golden Flowery Orange Pekoe These are whole. The grading of Green tea and Oolong tea is affected by factors such as the variety of the tea plant . no single accepted method of grading has been developed. In addition to the five main categories of tea there are two further important qualities or traits and these are Golden where gold hues occur in the tea leaves evidencing their quality and Tippy which signifies an abundance of young tea buds. However in this highest grading of tea leaves there are also two further quality refinements marking the best of the best: FTGFOP Fine Tippy Golden Flowery Orange Pekoe for choice tea leaves SFTGFOP Super Fine Tippy Golden Flowery Orange Pekoe which is the highest existing grade for tea leaves. OP . BOP – Broken Orange Pekoe This consists of small tea leaves or pieces of large Leaves. Actually it consists of small pieces of tea leaves and tea dust. These tea grading methods are based on and depend on factors different from those that affect the grading of Black tea . as opposed to black tea.Orange Pekoe This consists of large. FOP – Flowery Orange Pekoe These are the whole tea leaves together with the flowering tea plant. 4. the region and area in which the tea was grown and the stage at which the picking of the tea leaves took place. Dust –D This is the lowest grade in the classification of Black tea. This is the highest category in the grading of tea. 5. . from tea growing region to tea growing region and so on. It is a low grade. The Grades Of Tea There are five main grades for classifying tea and these are: 1. whole tea leaves picked without the flower bud of the tea plant. The grading of Green tea and Oolong tea indicate the taste and quality of the tea. 2.Green tea In respect of Green tea and Oolong tea.

the region where the tea was grown. The sensory test is still the most widely accepted means of evaluating the quality of tea. The Sensory Test:Classification of the quality of the tea by way of the senses – the taste. size and color of the leaves. This sensory test is a subjective evaluation of the quality of the tea and is the result of the knowledge and experience of the expert tea tasters. .The Quality Of The Tea In evaluating the quality of tea. the tea experts give consideration to the variety of tea. and the appearance of the tea which includes the shape. smell. use of the ―electronic nose‖ and other tests. the stage of picking of the leaves and the tea manufacturing process. Two further tests help in determining the quality and the taste of the tea brew and these are: The Scientific Test: A critical assessment of the quality of the tea by chemical and physical means such as an analysis of the chemical composition of the tea. the physical feel of the leaves to the touch.