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4541 CHEMISTRY THE STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM

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MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

1.1. Matter Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. Matter is made up of ……………………..and ………………….particles The tiny particles may be atoms, ions or molecules. Atom is the ………………..neutral particle of an element that can participate in chemical reaction. Molecule is a group of ……….or more atoms which are chemically bonded togethter Ion is a ………………..or negatively charged particles, Diffusion occurs when ……………………of a substance move in between the particles of another substance ACTIVITY : Determine the type of particles in the following substances: Substances Hydrogen gas (H2) Copper(II) sulphate (CuSO4) Argon (Ar) Type of Particle Substances Sulphur dioxide (SO2) Iron (Fe) Carbon (C) Atom Type of Particle Substances Type of Particle Tetrachloromethane Molecule (CCl4) Zink Chloride (ZnCl2) Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)

Ion

1.2. Kinetic Theory of Matter: Matter consists of ……………….. particles that always collide among each other. The particles move faster when energy is ……………and slower when they are cooled. 1.3. The Evidence of Particles Theory of Matter and Kinetic Theory of Matter

Matter is made up of small and discrete particles -Estimation of the size of oil molecule

Matter consists of mobile particles. -diffusion -melting and freezing points of acetamide or naphtaline

Particles in matter are constantly colliding - Brownian Movement

JPNT 2009

CHAPTER 2 : THE STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM

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MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

1.4. Change of states of matter based on the Kinetic Theory: a) Comparison of characteristics of Solid, Liquid and gas: State of matter Draw the particles arrangement Solid Liquid Gas

Particle arrangement Particles can only vibrate and rotate about their fixed positions. Very strong forces between particles

The particles are packed closely but not in orderly manner

The particles are very far apart from each other Particles can rotate , vibrate and move feeely

Particles movement

Attractive forces between the particles Kinetic energy of particles

Strong forces between particles but weaker then the forces in solid Greater energy

Greatest energy

1.5. Inter-conversion of the state of matter
…………………. BOILING/EVAPORATING

Solid
FREEZING

Liquid
……………………

Gas

……………………..

The temperature at which a solid changes into a liquid is called ………………………………….

• •

Boiling point-The temperature at which a liquid changes into a ………at a particular pressure. Freezing point - The temperature at which a ……………. changes into a solid at a particular pressure

JPNT 2009

CHAPTER 2 : THE STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM

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MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

2.1. EXPLANATION ON THE HEATING PROCESS Temperature/C

D B C

A
Time/s

-When the solid is heated, the particles move faster and its energy content increases. As heat is absorbed , the state of matter is changed. Point State of matter solid Explanation Heat energy absorbed by the particles causes kinetic energy increase and particles vibrate faster. The temperature increases.

A to B

B to C

Solid and Liquid

C to D

Liquid

JPNT 2009

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MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

2.2. THE EXPLANATION ON THE COOLING PROCESS OF MATTER
Temperature/°C

P

Q

R S
Time/s

Point

State of Matter liquid

Explanation

P to Q

The particles in the liquid lose their energy and move slower.Heat given out / heat loss to surroundings.

Q to R

Liquid and solid

R to S

solid

Freezing point: The temperature at which a ………….changes into a …………….... During the freezing process, the temperature remains unchanged because the heat lost to the environment is ………………………. by the heat released when the liquid particles rearrange themselves to become solid.

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MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

3.0. ATOMIC STRUCTURE

3.1.

History of the development of atomic models : Atomic model Discovery i. Matter is made up of particles called atoms ii. Atoms cannot be created, destroyed nor divided . iii. Atoms from the same element are identical. iv. Atoms are hard physical body that cannot be penetrated.

Number

1

2

Thomson i. Positive charge called protons and mass of the atom found in the nucleus. Electron move outside the nucleus

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ii. Neils Bohr

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Atom contains neutral particles called neutrons

3.2. Subatomic particle Subatomic particles Electron Proton Neutron Symbol e Charge negative Relative atomic mass 1/1837 Position In shell

JPNT 2009

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MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

a. Proton Number : number of ………………in the nucleus of an atom. Number of protons = number of electrons in a neutral atom. b. Nucleon Number : total number of protons and neutrons in the ………….of an atom. c. Symbol of element A XAZX Z Symbol of Element Nucleon number of atom X Proton number of atom X

Examples:
Oxygen: O Magnesium: Mg Nitrogen: N Sodium: Na Aluminum: Al Calcium: Ca Chlorine: Cl Hydrogen: H

d. Example : i. 39
19

K

The element: …………. has a nucleon number of ………, proton number of ………, So, the number of neutrons equals……… , the number of Protons equal ……………… , nd the number of electrons quals……………….

4.0. Isotope: Example: 1 H 1 Nucleon number = Proton number = Proton number = number of neutrons = 1 2 H Nucleon number = number of protons= number of protons = number of neutrons =

Atoms from the same elements with the …….. proton numbers or the same number of protons but …………….. in nucleon numbers because of the difference in the number of neutrons. Isotopes have the same ……………. properties but different ……………… properties because they have the same electron arrangements.

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MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

4.1. Usage of isotopes: In the …………..field - To detect brain cancer. - To detect thrombosis (blockage in blood vessel). - Sodium-24 is used to measure the rate of iodine absorption by thyroid gland. - Cobalt-60 is used to destroy cancer cells. - To kill bacteria in the sterilizing process. In the …………..field - To detect wearing out in machines. - To detect any blockage in water, gas or oil pipes. - To detect leakage of pipes underground. - To detect defects/cracks in the body of an aeroplane. - To detect the rate of absorption of phosphate fertilizer in plants. - To sterile insect pests for plants. - Carbon-14 can be used to estimate the age of artifacts .

In the …………….field

In the ……………….field

5.0. Electron Arrangement a) The electrons are filled in specific shells. Every shell can be filled only with a certain number of electrons. For the elements with atomic numbers 1-20:First shell can be filled with a maximum of Second shell can be filled with a maximum of Third shell can be filled with a maximum of electrons. electrons. electrons.

First shell-filled with 2 electrons (duplet)

x

Second shell – filled with 8 electrons (octet)

Third shell – filled with 8 electrons (octet)

JPNT 2009

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MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

5.1. The electron arrangement of elements with proton number 1 to 20. Element Hydrogen Helium Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Silicon Phosphorus Sulphur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Number of neutrons 0 2 4 5 6 6 7 8 10 10 12 12 14 14 16 16 18 22 20 20 Number of protons 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number of electrons Number of nucleon 1 4 7 9 11 12 14 16 19 20 23 24 27 28 31 32 35 40 39 40 Electron arrangement 1 2 2,1 2,2 2,3 2,4 2,5 2,6 2,7 2,8 2,8,1 2,8,2 2,8,3 2,8,4 2,8,5 2,8,6 2,8,7 2,8,8 2,8,8,1 2,8,8,2 Number of valence electrons

5.2. The diagrammatic electron structures of elements with protons numbers 1 to 20 Hydrogen Helium Lithium Beryllium Boron

1 Carbon

2 Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon

Sodium

Magnesium

Aluminum

Silicon

Phosphorus

Sulphur

Chlorine

Argon

Potassium

Calcium

2,8,6

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MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

b) Symbol of Element Hydrogen Atom

1

H
Number of protons Number of electrons Number of neutrons Proton number Nucleon number Electron Arrangement

1 •

Helium Atom

4 2

Number of protons Number of electrons Number of neutrons Proton number Nucleon number Electron Arrangement

Lithium Atom

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• • •

3 Li

Number of protons Number of electrons Number of neutrons Proton number Nucleon number Electron Arrangement

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MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

Beryllium Atom

9 4 Be

• •

Number of protons Number of electrons Number of neutrons Proton number Nucleon number Electron Arrangement

• •

Sodium Atom

23 11

Na
Number of protons Number of electrons Number of neutrons Proton number Nucleon number Electron Arrangement

• • • • • • • •• • •

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MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

c) Valence electron: Electron in the outermost shell of a neutral atom. Complete the following: Atom Number of protons 6 6 11 15 16 19 12 Number of electrons Number of neutrons 6 8 12 15 31 20 24 27 2.8.3 Nucleon Number Electron arrangement Number of valence electron

P Q R S T U V W •

………atom and …………atom are isotopes because they contain the same number of ………. but different number of …………...

END OF CHAPTER 2

JPNT 2009

CHAPTER 2 : THE STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM