You are on page 1of 31

4541 CHEMISTRY

38

MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

CHAPTER 4 : THE PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

A Historical Development Of The Periodic Table
1  Antoine Lavoiser (1743-1794)  The first Scientist classifies substances including ……………. and ……………., into ……………………..and…………………….

 Substances were classified into four groups with similar chemical properties.
 His classification was unsuccessful because ………………, ………………and a few other compounds were also considered as elements.

2  Johann Dobereiner (1780-1849) 
Divided the elements into groups of three elements with similar chemical properties, known as ……………………………………. The atomic mass of the middle element was approximately the average atomic mass of the other two elements in each triad. This classification led chemist to realise that there was a relationship between the ……………………………………. and the atomic mass of each element. Example : Element in triad Li Na K Average relative atomic mass of Li and K
7 +39 = 23 2

Relative atomic mass, Ar

7

39

?

3  John Newlands (1837-1898)

 

He arranged the known elements in order of increasing atomic mass. Elements with similar chemical properties were repeated at every eighth element. This was known as the Law of……………………………….

This system was inaccurate because the Law of Octaves was obeyed by the first 17 elements only and there were some elements with wrong atomic mass/mass number.

JPNT 2009

CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

4541 CHEMISTRY

39

MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

 However, Newlands was the first chemist to show the existence of …………………………….
for the properties of elements.

4  Lothar Meyer (1830-1895) He plotted a graph of ……………………….. against ………………………… for all the known elements.

Mass of 1 mol (g)

Atomic volume = Density (g cm-3 )

 He realised that elements with ………………………………….. occupied equivalent
positions along the curve.
Atomic volume

K

Na Li Be B Mg Al

Ca What colour should be here?

Atomic mass

 He was successful in showing that the properties of the elements formed a periodic
pattern against their…………………………………..

5  Dimitri Mendeleev (1834-1907)  Arranged the elements in order of …………………………………...  He grouped the elements according to …………………………………...  [Elements with similar chemical properties were in the same group].  He left gaps in the table to be filled by ………………………….. elements.  He was able to predict the properties of undiscovered elements.  [e.g : Ekasilicon, Es is predicted by Mendeleev in 1869 was discovered as Germanium, Ge in 1886 ].

JPNT 2009

CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

4541 CHEMISTRY

40

MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

6  Hendry J. G. Moseley (1887-1915)  Studied the ……………………………………….. of elements.  [Introduced the concepts of proton number of each elements]  He concluded that ………………………………… should be used as the basis for the periodic changes of chemical properties of elements instead of the atomic mass.

 He rearranged the elements in order of increasing proton number in the Periodic
Table.

B

Arrangement of Elements in the Periodic Table Elements in the Periodic Table are arranged in an ……………….. order of …………………….., ranging from 1 to 112. Elements with ……………..…………………… are placed in the same vertical column called ……………..……

Vertical
column

Horizontal row

Lanthanides Actinides

 There are ………… vertical columns of elements in the Periodic Table.
 Each vertical column of elements is called a ………………..  The vertical columns are known as ……………… to ………………….

 There are ………… horizontal rows of elements in the Periodic Table.
 Each of these horizontal rows of elements is called a……………………  The horizontal rows are known as ……………. to……………….

JPNT 2009

CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

4541 CHEMISTRY

41

MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

Activity 1:In the table below, write : (a) (b) Group 1 to 18 Period number 1 to 7 the symbol of each element from Hydrogen to Calcium He

(c)
H

Lanthanides Actinides  The number of valence electrons in an atom decides the ……………..………… of an element in the Periodic Table. Example : The proton number of sodium, Na is 11. The electron arrangement of sodium atom is 2.8.1 The valence electron of sodium is 1 Sodium is placed in Group 1 in a Periodic Table.  For elements with 1 and 2 valence electrons, the group number of the element is the number of valence electrons in its atom.  For elements with 3 to 8 valence electrons, the group number of the element is the number of valence electrons in its atom plus ten (+10) [ valence electron + 10 ] Example : The proton number of chlorine is 17 The electron arrangement of chlorine is 2.8.7 The valence electrons of chlorine is 7 Chlorine is placed in Group 17 [ 7 +10 ]

JPNT 2009

CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

4541 CHEMISTRY

42

MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

Elements from Period 3 Complete the following table. Element Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar Proton number 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 2.8.7 7 17 2.8.3 3 13 Electron arrangement 2.8.1 Valence electron 1 Group 1  The position in the period of an element in the Periodic Table is determined by the number of Group : ……………………..10 Valence electrons + occupied/filled with electrons in the atom of that element.

 The period number of an element is the number of shell occupied with electrons in it’s atom. Example : The proton number of magnesium is 12 The electron arrangement of magnesium is 2.8.2 There are 3 shells occupied with electrons in magnesium atom. The period number of magnesium in the Period Table is 3 Activity 2:Complete the following table : Element Proton number Electron arrangement Number of valence electron Group Number of shells occupied with electrons Li 3 2.1 C 6 O 8 Ne 10 Mg 12 2.8.2 Al 13 2.8.3 3 13 3 P 15 Cl 17 K 19 Ca 20

JPNT 2009

CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

4541 CHEMISTRY

43

MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

Period Specific name of certain groups : Group 1 2 3 to 12 17 18 Specific name Alkali metal # Alkali-earth metal Transition element # Halogen # Noble gas #

3

# The important groups that will be studied from the aspect of physical and chemical properties. Activity 3:1 Write the electron arrangement for each element in the following Periodic Table. Symbol of element : [ Standard form ]

A
1 PERIOD 2 1 H 1 ……. 7 Li 3 GROUP 1 2 9 Be 4

………….number

X
Z

………..number 18 13 11 B 5 …… 27 Al 13 14 12 C 6 …… 28 Si 14 …… 15 14 N 7 …… 31 P 15 …… 16 16 O 8 …… 32 S 16 …… 17 19 F 9 …… 35 Cl 17 …… 4 He 2 …… 20 N e 10 …… 40 Ar 18 ……

3

4

……... …….. 23 24 Na Mg 11 12 …….. 39 K 19 …….. …….. 40 Ca 20 …….. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2

……

TRANSITION ELEMENTS

JPNT 2009

CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

4541 CHEMISTRY

44

MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

2

Complete the statement and answer the following questions based on the table below. Nucleon number 9 31 35

Element A B C

Number of neutrons 4 16 18

(i) The proton number of A is ……… and the number of electrons in an atom A is

……. . The electron arrangement of atom A is………………….. The valence electron of atom A is ………………….. Atom A is in Group …………..and Period ………….. (ii) Atom B is in Group …………..and Period ………….. (iii) A student states that atom C is in Group 17 and Period 3 in Periodic Table of Element. Is the statement true or false? Explain your answer. ………………………………………………………………………………………........ . ……………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………….  Advantages of Grouping Elements in the Periodic Table The systematic arrangement of elements in the Periodic Table helps us to study the elements systematically, especially in their ………………… and ……………….. properties. Elements with the ……………….. number of ………………………. are placed in the same Group because they have the same chemical properties. Elements are arranged systematically in the Periodic Table in the order of increasing proton number which enable chemists to study, understand and remember : (a) the chemical and physical properties of all the elements and compounds in an orderly manner. (b) the properties of elements and their compounds are predicted based on the position of elements in the Periodic Table. (c) the relationship between the elements from different groups can be known.

JPNT 2009

CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

4541 CHEMISTRY

45

MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

C GROUP 18 ELEMENTS [Refer to Text Book, page 64] 1. Group 18 elements consists of ……………., …………….., ………….., ……………, …………. and ……………………….. 2. These elements are known as …………………… gases.

3. Group 18 elements exist as monoatomic at room condition because Noble gases
achived stable electron arrangement which is …………………… for helium and …………………… for other elements.

4. Noble gases do not have to lose, gain or share electrons.
Physical Properties of Group 18 Elements Noble gases have very …………….. atomic sizes. They are …………………. gases at room temperature and pressure. Noble gases have …………….. melting and boiling points and also ……………….. densities. Noble gases are …………………… in water, ………………… conduct electricity and ………………. conductors of heat.  Going down Group 18 [Refer to Text Book, page 64] Element Helium, Neon, Argon, Xenon, Radon, He Ne Ar Xe Rn Relative atomic mass 4 20 40 84 131 222 Proton number 2 10 18 36 54 86 Atomic radius (nm) Melting point (oC) Boiling point (oC) Density (g dm-3)

Krypton, Kr

Increases

Increases

Increases

 When going down Group 18 :

• The atomic size …………… as the number of shells in the atom increases from Helium
to Radon. • The melting and boiling points is very low.  because the atoms of Noble gases are attracted by weak force. Less energy is required to overcome it. However, the melting and boiling points ………………. when going down Group 18.  because the atomic size of each element ………………… down the group,

JPNT 2009

CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

4541 CHEMISTRY

46

MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

 the forces of…………………. between the atoms of each element become stronger  thus more ……………… is required to ………………… the stronger forces of ….. ………. during melting or boiling. • The density of an element ……………….. down the group because the atomic mass of each element is ………………… The Inert Property of Group 18 Elements All Noble gases are inert which means ……………….. ……………………. Noble gases and the electron arrangement of their atoms. Noble gas Helium Neon Argon Krypton Xenon Radon Electron arrangement 2 2.8 2.8.8 2.8.18.8 2.8.18.18.8 2.8.18.32.18.8

Helium has two valence electrons. This is called a ………………. electron arrangement. Other Noble gases have eight valence electron called the ………….. electron arrangement. These electron arrangements are very stable. That is why Noble gases exist as monoatomic gases and are chemically unreactive; because they achived the stable octet/duplet electron arrangement. Uses of Group 18 Elements Noble gas Helium, He Neon, Ne Argon, Ar Krypton, Kr Xenon, Xe Radon, Rn Uses

JPNT 2009

CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

4541 CHEMISTRY

47

MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

D

GROUP 1 ELEMENTS

1. Write the name and symbols of elements in Group 1 (except Hydrogen)

2. Group 1 are also known as …………………… which react with water to form alkaline
solutions.

3. Write the symbols in the boxes for all the elements in Group 1 in the Periodic Table of
Elements :

4. Write the proton number and electron arrangement for all elements in Group 1.
Elements Li Na K Rb Cs Fr Proton number 3 Electron arrangement Density / g cm-3 0.534 0.971 0.862 1.530 1.973 Boiling point / 0 C 1360 900 777 505

2.8.18.8.1 2.8.18.18.8.1 2.8.18.32.18.8.1

All Group 1 elements have ……… valence electron in their outermost occupied shells.

5. Physical Properties of Group 1 elements :    
 …………… metals. compared to other metals such as iron and copper.

…………… densities. …………… melting points.

silvery solid with …………. surface. good ………………………… of heat and electricity.

JPNT 2009

CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

4541 CHEMISTRY

48

MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

 Change in the physical properties going down the group : • The atomic size ……………………… because the number of shells increases. The density ……………………… because the increasing in atomic mass is faster than the increasing in atomic volume/size. The melting and boiling points ……………………… because when the atomic size increases, the metal bond between the metal atoms becomes weaker. The hardness of the metal ……………………….

• •

6. Chemical Properties of Group 1 elements : (a) React with water to produce alkaline metal hydroxide solutions [colourless
solutions] and released …………………… gas.

Metal G1 + H2O → metal hydroxide + Hydrogen gas Red litmus paper turns blue

metal*

Red litmus paper

water

Metal*

Observation Lithium moves ……….. on water surface with ………… sound.

Reaction becomes more vigorous

Li

The …………… solution formed; turns ….. litmus paper to ……... Sodium moves …………. on water surface with ………… sound.

JPNT 2009

Reactivity increases

Na The ………….. solution formed; turns ……. litmus paper to …….. Potassium moves ……………. on water surface with ………. sound. K The ……………. solution formed; turns ……. litmus paper to ……..

CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

4541 CHEMISTRY

49

MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

Chemical equation : # Chemical equation 2Li Lithium + 2H2O Water hydroxide 2LiOH Lithium + H2 Hydrogen gas

Write the chemical equation for the sodium and potassium. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………..

(b) React with oxygen gas to produce metal oxides [white solids]. Metal G1 + O2 → metal oxide
Gas jar spoon

Gas jar

White fume

Metal* Oxygen gas

Metal*

Observations Lithium burns ………… with a ……… flame.

Reaction becomes more vigorous

Li

A ………. / fume solid is produced. Sodium burns …………. with a ………….. flame.

Na

A ………….. solid is produced. Potassium burns ……………. with a …………… flame.

K

JPNT 2009

CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

4541 CHEMISTRY

50

MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

A …………… solid is produced. Chemical equation : Example: 4Li Lithium + O2 Oksigen gas + 4K + O2 O2 2Li2O Lithium Oxide 2Na2O

(c) React with chlorine gas to produce metal ………………. [white solids]. Metal G1 + Cl2 → metal chloride
Gas jar spoon

Gas jar

White fume

Metal* Chlorine gas

Elements

Observations Lithium burns ………… with a ……….. flame. A …………. solid is produced. Sodium burns ………….. with a …………… flame. A …………. solid is produced. Potassium burns ……………... with a ……... flame. A …………… solid is produced.

Li

Na

K

JPNT 2009

CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

4541 CHEMISTRY

51

MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

 Group 1 elements also react with bromine gas to form metal bromides. Complete the chemical equation following. 2Li Na K + + + Br2 Br2 Br2 2LiBr …………………….. ……………………..

Alkali metals have one valence electron in their outermost occupied shells. Each of them reacts by donating one electron from its outermost occupied shell to form an ion with a charge of +1, thus achieving the stable electron arrangement of the atom of noble gas. Example : Na 2.8.1 → Na+ 2.8 + e K → 2.8.8.1 K+ 2.8.8 + e

7. Reactivity of elements in Group 1 :
When going down Group 1, • the proton number are ……………………..

• the number of shells occupied with electrons are ………………………… • • the atomic size of atoms are ………………………………

the single valence electron becomes ………………… away from the nucleus. the force of attraction between the nucleus and valence electron (nuclei attraction) becomes …………………………

it is …………………… for the atom to donate the single valence

electron to achieve the stable octet/duplet electron arrangement of the atom of Noble gases.

Reactivity increases when going down the group!

JPNT 2009

CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

4541 CHEMISTRY

52

MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

Activity 4 :1. Table below shows the electron arrangements of element W, X and Y. Arrange the elements in ascending order of reactivity. Element W X Y Proton Number 11 3 19 Electron Arrangement 2.8.1 2.1 2.8.8.1
b

X
a

W

Answer : ……………………………………………………….

 [ Size of atom increases when the number of shells filled with electrons increases] Safety precautions in handling Group 1 elements Alkali metals are very reactive. Safety precautions must be taken when handling alkali metals. ◙ ◙ ◙ ◙ ◙ ◙ The elements must be stored in paraffin oil in bottles Do not hold alkali metals with your bare hands Use forceps to take them Wear safety goggles Wear safety gloves Use a small piece of alkali metal when conducting experiments

JPNT 2009

CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

4541 CHEMISTRY

53

MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

E

GROUP 17 ELEMENTS

1.

Write the symbol of elements in Group 17.

F
Fluorine

Cl
Chlorine

Br
Bromine

I
Iodine

At
Astatine

2. Group 17 elements are known as …………..……… 3. Halogens exist as diatomic molecules.{ F2, Cl2, Br2, I2 } 4. Halogens have …..…… valence electrons. 5. All Group 17 elements are non-metals.
6. Write the symbol in the boxes for all the element in Group 17 in the Periodic Table of Elements : 17

7. Elements F Cl Br I At

Going down the : Write the proton number and electron arrangementgroup : Proton number Electron arrangement Proton number : ………….…... Number of protons : …………… Number of electrons : ………… 35 53 85 2.8.18.7 2.8.18.18.7 2.8.18.32.18.7 Number of shells occupied with electrons : …………...… Atomic size : ……………… Molecular size : ………………..

JPNT 2009

CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

4541 CHEMISTRY

54

MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

8.
(i)

Physical properties of elements in Group 17 : Complete the table below : Symbo l Proton Number 9 17 35 53 2.8.18.7 2.8.18.18.7 Electron Arrangemen t Melting point / o C -220 -101 -7 114 Boilin g point / o C -188 -34 59 184 Physical state at room Temp.

Element

Colour

Flourine Chlorine Bromine Iodine

(ii)

Physical state of halogens at room temperature, 25 oC : Fluorine and chlorine are ............... , bromine is a ..................... and iodine is a ...............

(iii) (iv)

The colour of the elements becomes ……………….. going down the group. Halogen have …………… melting and boiling points because their molecules are attracted to each other by …………. inter-molecular forces. (Van der Waals force : force of attraction between molecules).

(v)

When going down the group, the melting and boiling points increases / decreases. This is because : • the molecular size ……………………….. • Forces of attraction between molecules becomes ……………………… • Need ………………. energy to overcome the forces of attraction between molecules.  the melting and boiling points ……………………..

9.

Chemical Properties

(a)

React with water to produce two acids. Example :
Chlorine gas

In general :

Br2

+

H2O

HBr +

HOBr

Halogen : F, Cl, Br, I

JPNT 2009

CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS
water

4541 CHEMISTRY

55

MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

HX and HOX solutions are ……………... HOX solution exhibits …………… property.

Cl2

+

H2O

+ Hydrochloric acid

Chlorine gas Hypochlorus acid

Bromine water

water

Heat

Br2

+

H2O Hydrobromic acid

+ Hypobromus acid

Iodine (solid)

water

Heat

I2

+

H2O Hydroiodic acid

+ Hypoiodus acid

(b)

React with hot iron/ferum to produce iron(III) halides. Example :
To produce Cl2 gas Iron wool Combustion tube Soda lime To absorb excess Cl2 gas that is Heat poisonous so that it does not escape CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS to the enviroment.

Concentrated hydrochloric acid

JPNT 2009
Potassium manganate(VII)

4541 CHEMISTRY

56

MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

2Fe

+

3Cl2

2FeCl3 Iron(III) chloride
Iron wool

Fe

+

Br2 Iron(III) .....................
Solid iodine Heat Heat

Fe

+

I2 Iron(III) .....................

Alkali

(c)

Halogen reacts with sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution to produce …………………, …………………….. and water.

Example :
Chlorine gas Sodium hydroxide solution

2KOH

+ Cl2

KCl

+

KOCl

+ H2O Sodium chlorate(I) + Potassium bromate(I) H2O

Potassium chloride KOH + Br2 + Potassium bromide

JPNT 2009

CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

4541 CHEMISTRY LiOH + I2

57 +

MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2) + H2O

Halogens have seven valence electrons in their outermost occupied shells. Each of them reacts by receiving one electron in its outermost occupied shell to form an ion with a charge of -1, or by sharing a pair of electrons thus achieving the stable electron arrangement of the atom of noble gas. Example :

F
2.7

+

e

→ F2.8

Cl
2.8.7

+

e

→ Cl2.8.8

Complete the electron arrangement for the atoms and molecule of flourine below :

F

F

F

F

two fluorine atoms molecule ( F2 ) 

Fluorine

Exists as diatomic molecules [ 2 atoms of elements sharing a pair of its valence electron ] to achive the stable octet electron arrangement.

 Chemical properties of all elements are …………………………. because the number of valence electrons are the same and attain/achive the Noble gas arrangement in a similar way.

10.

Reactivity of Group 17 elements : When going down Group 17, • the proton number are ……………………… the number of shells occupied with electrons are ……………………… the atomic size of atoms are ……………………………… the outermost occupied shell of each halogen atoms becomes ……………… away from the nucleus.


• •

• •

the nuclei attraction forces to attract one electron into the outermost occupied shell by the nucleus becomes ……………………… it is …………………… for the atom to attract one electron to achieve stable octet/duplet electron arrangement of the atom of Noble gas.

JPNT 2009

CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

4541 CHEMISTRY

58

MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

• •
Activity 5 :1

The strength of halogen atom to attract electron decrease from Fluorine to Astatine [Electronegativity decreases] this causes the reactivity ……………… down the group.

Chlorine, bromine and iodine have similar chemical properties.  Do you know WHY???

• •

Chlorine, bromine and iodine have …………………. number of valence electrons. When halogens take part in chemical reactions, their atom always gain ……………. electron to achieve …………………. electron arrangement / a stable electron arrangement.

2

The reactivity of halogens decrease down the group.  Do you know WHY??? The explanation ……

 The atomic size …………………. down the group.  The distance of the outermost shell becomes …………………… from the nucleus.  The force of attraction of the nucleus on the electrons of the outermost shell
………………..

 The tendency of an atom to receive ……………….. electron to achieve an octet
electron arrangement ………………………….

3

Why fluorine atom forms a negative ion more easily than chlorine? The explanation ……

 The atomic size of flourine is …………………. than chlorine.  The …………………………… between nucleus of fluorine atom and valence
electrons are ………………………….  Fluorine atom can ………………… electron easily.

JPNT 2009

CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

4541 CHEMISTRY

59

MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

Safety precautions in handling Group 17 elements 1. The vapour of flourine, chlorine and bromine are …………………

2. The following precaution should be taken when handling halogen :
a) Halogen gas and liquid should be handled inside a …………………… b) Wear safety ………………… when handling halogen fumes. c) Wear safety ………………… when handling halogen materials. Activity 6 :-

1.

Elements X, Y and Z are in the same group in the Periodic Table of Elements. Element Proton number X 9 Y 17 Z 35

(a) What is the valence electron of the elements X, Y and Z? …………………………………………………………………………………………… (b) Which group in the periodic table can you find the elements X, Y and Z? …………………………………………………………………………………………… (c) Element Y can react with water. State two chemical properties of the solution produced? …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… (d) Write an equation for the reaction between element Z and hot iron. …………………………………………………………………………………………… 2. (a) List all halogen elements from the top to the bottom of Group 17. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. (b) Which are the most reactive and least reactive halogen?

JPNT 2009

CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

4541 CHEMISTRY

60

MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

 Most reactive : …………………………, least reactive : . ……………………………............

3.

Write the chemical equations for the following reaction : (a) (b) (c) Chlorine with water bromine with iron : ……………………………………………………... : ……………………………………………………...

iodine with sodium hydroxide : ……………………………………………………...

4.

Explain the changes to the reactivity of halogens when going down Group 17.  The atomic size of halogen …………………….. down the group.  The distance of the outermost shell becomes ……………………… from the nucleus.  Therefore, the force of attraction by the nucleus on the electrons in the outermost shell becomes ………………………

 The tendency of an atom to …………………………. one electron to achieve an
octet electron arrangement decrease.  This causes the reactivity …………………… down the group.

5.

Explain the changes to the electronegativity of halogens when going down Group 17.  The atomic size of halogen …………………….. down the group.  The distance of the outermost shell becomes ……………………… from the nucleus.  Therefore, the force of attraction by the nucleus on the electrons in the outermost shell becomes ………………………

 The tendency of an atom to …………………………. one electron to achieve an
octet electron arrangement decrease.  This causes the electronegativity ……………………… down the group.

JPNT 2009

CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

4541 CHEMISTRY

61

MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

F

ELEMENTS IN A PERIOD Properties of elements in Period 3 Complete the table below. Element of Period 3 Proton number Electron arrangement Valence electron [ Group ] Atomic size Physical state at room temperature Electronegativity solid Na 11 2.8.1 1 [1] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] Mg 12 Al 13 Si 14 P 15 S 16 Cl 17 Ar 18 2.8.8 [ ]

Electropositivity

 The trends of changes across Period 3 (from left to right)

1.

The proton number increases by …………………… unit from one element to the next element. 2. All the atoms of the elements have ……………………… shells occupied/filled with electrons.

3.

The number of valence electrons in each atom increases from ……………to …………….. 4. The atomic radius/size of atom of the elements …………………………..

 This is due to increasing of nuclei attraction force on the electrons.

JPNT 2009

CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

4541 CHEMISTRY 5.

62

MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

The electronegativity of elements ……………………………

 This is also due to the …………………..of the nuclei attraction force on the ……………… in the outermost shell and the …………………… in atomic size.

6.

All the elements in Period 3 exist as ……….…………. except chlorine and argon which are …………………………………  ACID-BASE properties of oxides of elements in Period 3. P4O10

Na2O

MgO

Al2O3

SiO2

SO2

Cl2O7

(…………oxides)

…………….. oxide

(…………. oxides)

Basic oxides reacts with acids to form ………………. and …………………….. Example : Na2O + 2HNO3 → 2NaNO3 + H2O

Acidic oxides reacts with alkalis to form ………………. and …………………….. Example : SO2 + 2NaOH → Na2SO3 + H2O

Amphoteric oxides can react with both acids and alkalis. Na & Mg are ………………., Al is ……………., Si, P, S & Cl are ……………………….

The elements change from metals to metalloid and finally to non-metals across the period.  Uses of semi-metals (metalloids) in Industry

 Semi-metals or metalloids are weak conductors of electricity. Semi-metals such as
silicon and germanium are used as semiconductors.

 Semiconductors are used to make diodes and transistors that widely used in the
making of microchips for the manufacture of electrical and microelectronic equipments such as computers, mobile phones, televisions, digital cameras and video recorders.

JPNT 2009

CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

4541 CHEMISTRY

63

MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

SEMI-METALS e.g : silicon and germanium used to make ……………………. and ……………………. widely used in the making of …………………………..

for the manufacture of : …………………..and …………………………….. Activity 7 :1 Table below shows the symbol of element, proton number and atomic radius of elements in Period 3. Element Proton number Atomic radius Electron arrangement (a) Complete the electron arrangement in the above table. (b) When crossing the period from left to right, the atomic size decreases. Explain why. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… Na 11 0.156 Mg 12 0.136 Al 13 0.125 Si 14 0.117 P 15 0.111 S 16 0.104 Cl 17 0.099 Ar 18 -

JPNT 2009

CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

4541 CHEMISTRY

64

MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(c) Write the symbol of elements for metal, metalloid and non-metal. Metal 1. ……………………. 2. ……………………. 3. ……………………. Metalloid 1. …………………… Non-metal 1. …………………………. 2. ………………………… 3. ………………………… 4. …………………………

(d)

Table below shows the symbol of oxide compound when the elements in period 3 are reacted with oxygen. Na2O MgO Al2O3 P4O10 SO2

Classify the oxides into basic oxide, acidic oxide and amphoteric oxide. Basic oxide Acidic oxide Amphoteric oxide

G

TRANSITION ELEMENTS 1. Elements from Group ……………. to Group ………………. in the Periodic Table. [ Between Group ……………. to Group ……………….] 2. All transition elements are ……………………., thus, these elements have the following properties :    

 …………. melting and boiling points solids with …………surfaces.  ………….. densities ductile  good ………….. of heat and malleable electricity high tensile strength

JPNT 2009

CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

4541 CHEMISTRY

65

MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

3. Special Characteristics / Superior Properties of Transition Elements
(i) (ii) (iii) ………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………….

 Different Oxidation Numbers Transition elements can form ions with different oxidation numbers when forming compounds. Transition Element Iron, Fe Copper, Cu Nickel, Ni Oxidation Number +2 +3 +1 +2 +2 +3 Ni3+ Copper(I) ion Cu2+ Ni(NO3)2 Ni(NO3)3 Name of ion Iron(II) ion Ionic symbol Fe2+ Fe3+ Cu2O Copper(II) oxide Example of compound Formula Name FeCl2 Iron(II) chloride Iron(III) chloride

 Coloured Ions or Compounds The colours of some aqueous solutions of ions of transition elements : Name of Ion of transition element Chromate ion Dichromate ion Manganate(VII) ion Iron(II) ion Iron(III) ion Copper(II) ion Cobalt(II) ion Manganese(II) ion Chromium(III) ion Nickel(II) ion Examples of some precious stones and the transition elements present which give their distinctive colours : Precious Colour Transition Element Formula of Ion of transition element Colour in aqueous solution

JPNT 2009

CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

4541 CHEMISTRY Stone Ruby Sapphire Emerald Amethyst

66 present Red Blue Green Purple

MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

 Act as Catalysts Transition elements or its compounds can act as catalysts in certain reactions. Catalysts are chemicals which can increase the rate of a reaction. Example : Industrial Process Haber Process Contact Process Ostwald Process Product Transition element used as catalyst

Activity 8 :1 H O Mg Al Figure 1 below shows part of the Periodic Table of Elements. He

Fe
FIGURE 1 Based on Figure 1 above, answer the following questions :

(a)

What is the element represented by the symbol Fe? ………………………………………………………………………………

(b) (c)

In figure above, mark ‘X’ in the boxes for all the transition element. State one specific characteristic of transition element. ………………………………………………………………………………

JPNT 2009

CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

4541 CHEMISTRY

67

MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

(d)

Write the electron arrangement for the Mg atom ………………………………………………………………………………

(e)

Write the chemical equation for the reaction between aluminium and oxygen gas. ………………………………………………………………………………

Helium Gas • light • not reactive • colourless (f)

Hydrogen Gas • • • light flammable colourless

Based on the above informations, which gas is more suitable to be used in meteorological balloons? Give one reason. ………………………………………………………………………………

. ………………………………………………………………………………

2

Table 2 shows the proton numbers of element P, Q, R, S and T. Element P Q R S T Proton number 3 6 9 11 17 TABLE 2 (a) (b) Complete the electron arrangement for all elements above. In which Group is element S located in the Periodic Table of Elements? …………………….………………………………………..…………………………... (b) State two elements in Table 2 that shows the same chemical properties.Explain the answer. … ……………………………………..………………………………………………. Electron arrangement

JPNT 2009

CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

4541 CHEMISTRY

68

MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

………………………………………………………………………………………….

(c)

(i)

Between elements P and S, which one is more reactive? Explain your answer. …………………………………………..…………………………… …………………………………………..…………………………… …………………………………………..…………………………… …………………………………………..…………………………… …………………………………………..……………………………

(d)

Arrange the elements P, Q, R, S and T in order of increasing of atomic size. …………………………………………………………………………………

END OF CHAPTER 4

JPNT 2009

CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS