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SREE SASTHA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY DEMOLITION: EQUIPMENTS AND TECHNIQUES AUTHORS NAME

:
ARUNPRAKASH A

Email Id:Arunprakash.ce@gmail.com CO-AUTHORS NAME:
KOLANJINATHAN B

Email Id:
Kolanji.nathan003@gmail.com

In the current scenario demolition is a safe and easy process because of the new sophisticated machines and explosives (which are controlled). windows etc. Destruction is not necessarily evil. Construction involves putting a structure up and demolition involves pulling it down. bulldozers.ABSTRACT: Demolition is simply the process of destroying structures such as houses and other buildings and even destroying walls. Mechanical demolition uses such machinery as rams. Sometimes it’s a necessity. Contents: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Introduction Non-explosive demolition Building implosion Equipments Used Deconstruction Gallery References . Newer construction methods and changing building and architectural styles are sometimes the things that mark an older building for demolition Demolition – Different Variations: There are multiple types of demolition procedures used to take down structures. but some are considered safer than others. Demolition is also needed when the life span of the building is over or when it’s in danger of collapse. In this presentation I am explaining about the process of demolition. The most common is the age and safety condition of the building. The general rule is the safest and simplest method that can do the job is the one selected. the various kinds of demolition regarding the building and the machine/technology used and the current machinery and techniques used in demolition INTRODUCTION: The process known as demolition is called the opposite of construction. For renovation demolition is essential. Sometimes it is simply a matter of removing the old to make room for the new. Mechanical demolition involves both the pulling down and the knocking down of the structure. The types of demolition all involve safety considerations. Closely related is mechanical demolition. For something new to come the old one will be destroyed. Every owner needs to renovate his/her home and some needs to destroy his building to construct something new. Such buildings are not good for usage and are dangerous as it may come down at any second. Simple manual demolition is indicated for smaller buildings such as single story homes. Quite often smaller buildings use a combination of manual and mechanical methods. The size of the building and the location are factors in determining the most appropriate type. As people say failure is a step to success we can say that demolition is a step to construction. Manual demolition usually involves pulling the structure down. Demolition is indicated for a number of reasons.

The building is slowly taken apart and as much material as possible is salvaged for reuse elsewhere. but the actual implosion process takes mere seconds to unfold. undermining can bring down the building not only quickly. which was built in 1908 and torn down in 1967-1968 to be replaced by One Liberty Plaza." This is thought of as the most environmentally sound method of demolition and it is sometimes called "Green demolition" for this reason. A new type of demolition that is growing in popularity is called "deconstruction.cranes. The most dramatic type of demolition is certainly implosion. the idea is to batter the building into pieces. The floor is lowered and this process is repeated for each floor. Larger structures involve wrecking balls. the building will come down into its own "footprint". Implosion is only used as a last resort because of the high safety risk involved. but also in the desired direction. hence the name "implosion." When this process is done properly. minimizing damage to surrounding structures. When done properly. Wrecking balls are heavy balls attached to strong cable and swung by large cranes. This involves a controlled series of explosions that causes a collapse of the structure. This process causes the collapse of the building by removing important supporting structures usually near the base. and excavators. Basically. This lightens the load on the landfills that usually receive the debris of a building destroyed by conventional demolition procedures The technique of Vérinage is used in France to weaken and buckle the supports of central floors promoting the collapse of the top part of a building onto the bottom resulting in a rapid. This technique is safer and more environmentally friendly. Another type of demolition is called undermining. It involves a slow and careful process that is almost the reverse of the construction method. The explosive charges are placed and fired in a controlled manner that causes the building to fall in upon itself. collapse. This type of demolition takes a long time to set up and a long time to clean up. The Japanese company Kajima Construction has developed a new method of demolishing buildings which involves using computer-controlled hydraulic jacks to support the bottom floor as the support beams are removed. The tallest demolished building was the 47-story Singer Building in New York City. and is useful in areas of high population density. . symmetrical.

steel. The building is pulled down either manually or mechanically using large hydraulic equipment: elevated work platforms. that are only two or three stories high. demolition is a rather simple process. The strategy is to undermine the building while controlling the manner and direction in which it falls. Hydraulic excavators may be used to topple one. For small buildings. but this is not always the case if the building design dictates otherwise.or two-story buildings by an undermining process. The walls are typically undermined at a building's base. At that point undermining takes place as described above. while hydraulic shears are used to remove the bridge's structural steel. such as houses. In some cases a crane with a wrecking ball is used to demolish the structure down to a certain manageable height. Safety and cleanup considerations are also taken into account in determining how the building is undermined and ultimately demolished. A wrecking ball in action at the demolition of the Rockwell Gardens. and concrete. The demolition project manager/supervisor will determine where undermining is necessary so that a building is pulled in the desired manner and direction. Newer methods may use rotational hydraulic shears and silenced rock-breakers attached to excavators to cut or break through wood.NON-EXPLOSIVE DEMOLITION: weight on a cable that is swung by a crane into `easily controlled and often less efficient than other methods. excavators or bulldozers. However crane mounted demolition balls are rarely used within demolition due to the uncontrollable nature of the swinging ball and the safety implications associated. Hoe rams are typically used for removing the concrete road deck and piers during bridge demolition. A high-reach excavator is used to demolish this tower block. a heavy . The use of shears is especially common when flame cutting would be dangerous. Larger buildings may require the use of a wrecking ball. cranes.

without the need to exert serious force.High reach demolition excavators are more often used for tall buildings where explosive demolition is not appropriate or possible. To control dust. Skid loaders and loaders will also be used to take materials out and sort steel. and there are a variety of specialized models available for construction workers. secured in fixed location. with the head packing a serious punch which can break through a wide variety of materials. When used by someone with skills and the muscles to control it. from wooden walls to concrete pads. Breaking is commonly used to take out unwanted walls. This type of demolition hammer just needs to be held and manipulated by the user. and to prepare a structure for demolition by weakening its key points so that it can be effectively leveled with a wrecking ball. INSTRUMENTS: The most basic demolition hammer is a standard hammer with an especially large. Hydraulic hammers are often used for concrete structures and concrete processing attachments are used to crush concrete to a manageable size. Jackhammers are probably among the most famous of the electric demolition hammers. ranging from simple models used in do-it-yourself projects to more heavy-duty versions for industrial demolition.‖ referencing the idea that they are designed to ―break up‖ the materials at a construction site. although sometimes it can take a surprising amount of force to hold the tool in place. and they are an important part of the tool arsenal for a construction crew. The sledgehammer is an example of this type of demolition hammer. Demolition hammers are also used to tear up roadways in preparation for roadwork. Other demolition hammers utilize electricity to get a bit of extra power. concrete. this type of hammer can break up brick. Loaders or bulldozers may also be used to demolish a building. Some people refer to demolition hammers as ―breakers. They are typically equipped with "rakes" (thick pieces of steel that could be an I-beam or tube) that are used to ram building walls. fire hoses are used to maintain a wet demolition. ranging from perimeter foundations to solid slab foundations. Excavators with shear attachments are typically used to dismantle steel structural elements. heavy head and a long handle. There are a number of types of demolition hammer on the market. and to remove reinforcing steel. . Hoses may be held by workers. The user can generate tremendous force with the long handle. They are typically heavy and powerful so that they can be used to break up a variety of substances. structural or otherwise. being attached to motors which do the bulk of the work. and other hard construction materials. or attached to lifts to gain elevation. and to break up foundations. Demolition Hammers: Demolition hammers are tools which are designed to be utilized in demolition.

While demolition hammers can look like fun to use to a passerby. The water can skim the surface to remove an upper layer of concrete or penetrate more deeply to cut through walls and other materials. primarily for restoration and refinishing projects where crews needed to be able to remove damaged material while leaving a structure intact. especially when concrete contains toxic fillers or inclusions. However. After hydro demolition. Construction companies began using this technique in Europe in the 1970s. Construction workers can inspect rebar and other supports to see if any need replacement before proceeding with a fresh pour. With jack hammering. rather dirty. a cutting head attaches to a machine capable of generating extremely powerful blasts of water. making the job site safer. In order to demolish something safely. roadways. and other structures made from concrete like sidewalks and storm drains. damaged material including bricks and mortar held together with decaying grout. In hydro demolition. the work is grueling. another method of concrete removal. This adds considerably to work time and workers also need to cope with high dust levels. or something as hard as concrete. and water keeps dust down. Rotary Hammers: The best way to learn what a rotary hammer is would be to learn the different uses for rotary hammers. Construction crews primarily use this technique to break up old. Construction crews use vacuums to recycle the water and collect debris as they work. People can use this demolition method on buildings. a surface is often immediately ready for restoration and needs no additional treatment. workers must move carefully and precisely. Failure to observe safety precautions can result in severe injury or death to workers or bystanders. people must remove debris and resurface the material to get it ready for restoration. and set up a demolition plan. determine the best equipment to use. and they may work with engineers and demolition experts to confirm that they are taking the safest approach to a demolition project. This cuts down on working time substantially. which makes cleanup very easy. and highly demanding. a potential health hazard. bridges. The hydro demolition team will meet with a contractor to discuss the needs of the project. The surrounding material will remain intact. The rotary hammer looks like a huge drill and it is considered to be in the category of that tool. Rotary hammers have been around for years and have only improved over time. it is called a hammer . They can also use it on perfectly serviceable surfaces if it becomes necessary to remove layers of material to retrofit or perform other work. Hydro demolition: Hydro demolition is the use of powerful jets of water to break up deteriorating concrete and cement without damaging neighboring materials. The most common use for rotary hammers is drilling into concrete.

. This had been stated of the destruction of 1515 Tower in West Palm Beach. the technique weakens or removes critical supports so that the building can no longer withstand the force of gravity and falls under its own weight. the in and out motion will give you the same function as stepping on the edge of a shovel to dig a hole. you use explosive materials in critical structural connections to allow gravity to bring it down. When concrete needs reinforcement. with a handle that protrudes out of the side for a firmer grip. For example. The movement that the hammer option provides produces more than a thousand blows per minute." A true implosion usually involves a difference between internal (lower) and external (higher) pressure. it becomes a versatile piece of equipment. they are well known as a knuckle-buster as missing the end of the chisel with the hammer was quite common. Instead.because it moves the rotary bit in and out at a rapid speed in order to break up the concrete while drilling through it. For those of you who are unfamiliar with the star-chisel. they will remove dirt or clay if from an area that does not allow for a regular size shovel. While the accessory is not as big as normal shovels. Imagine drilling a hole through a concrete slab over your head and all you have is a star-chisel and a hammer. one accessory for this tool looks like a shovel. . Rotary hammers are also called rotary drills because they can be switched back and forth from drill to hammer. The rotary hammer. When the rotary hammers motor is turned on. But they are used for much more than just pest control. building implosion is the strategic placing of explosive material and timing of its detonation so that a structure collapses on itself in a matter of seconds. Building implosion: In the controlled demolition industry. or inward and outward forces. that is so large that the structure collapses inward into itself. rotary hammers will be used to drill holes so they can add rebar. is a great tool when working over your head. the termite technician will use a rotary hammer to drill through the slab in order to pump the right chemical below the bottom of the slab to kill the termites. That is a lot of power whenever you are holding the end of it and you are trying to penetrate very tough concrete. minimizing the physical damage to its immediate surroundings Building implosion (which reduces to seconds a process which could take months or years to achieve by other methods) typically occurs in urban areas and often involves large landmark structures. Florida. "What happens is. Demolition squads will use them for strategically placing charges to implode a building or to move a certain amount of rock from a mountainside. When houses are damaged by termites. Because you can purchase almost any type of bit for this tool.

severely damaging neighboring structures. breaking windows or causing other damage to surrounding buildings. or other explosives are used to shatter reinforced concrete supports. when improperly prepared for.200 feet. smokestacks. travels upwards and disperses. If you put your hand in front of the water as it comes out. Linear shaped charges are used to sever steel supports. Decommissioning and demolition of the plant began in 1993 and was completed in 2006. strategically placed within the structure. These explosives are progressively detonated on supports throughout the structure.Numerous small explosives. and some demolitions have failed. Even more dangerous is the partial failure of an attempted implosion. however. explosives on the lower floors initiate the controlled collapse. Nitroglycerin.[3] Stephanie Kegley of CST Environmental described shock waves by saying. Germany. Imploding a building is very fast — the collapse itself only takes seconds — and an expert can ensure that the building falls into its own footprint. Any error can be disastrous. making it difficult for workers to approach safely. "The shock wave is like a water hose. dynamite. the shock wave. building implosion using explosives. tilting at a dangerous angle. can kill onlookers. Connecticut Large buildings. the shock wave can travel outwards. it reacts like the hand in front of the hose. almost twenty years before the end of its design lifetime. When a building fails to collapse completely the structure may be unstable. The greatest danger is from flying debris which. When cloud coverage is below 1. This is essential for tall structures in dense urban areas. and filled with undetonated but still primed explosives. a wave of energy and sound. If the sky is clear. but if cloud coverage is low. and increasingly some smaller structures may be destroyed by . Trojan Nuclear Power Plant After sixteen years of service it was closed by its operator. tall chimneys. it fans to all sides. so as not to damage neighboring structures. on 2 December 2006 The demolition of the New Haven 4 Coliseum in New Haven. Then. Demolition of a chimney at the former brewery "Henninger" in Frankfurt am Main. Portland General Electric (PGE). A third danger comes from air overpressure that occurs during the implosion. are used to catalyze the collapse.

 A high-reach excavator is used to demolish this tower block in northern England. At 439 feet (134 m) and 2. demolition of a house is a twoperson job that can be completed in a day or two. Minnesota   With heavy equipment. it can be dangerous and is only used as a last resort when other methods are impractical or too costly.   An excavator is used to demolish a barn. Hudson Department Store and Addition is the tallest steel framed building and largest single structure ever imploded.  Demolition of the Jamestown Bridge in Rhode Island .200. the J."[4] While a controlled implosion is the method that the general public often thinks of when discussing demolition due to its spectacularity.000 square feet (204. The destruction of large buildings has become increasingly common as the massive housing projects of the 1960s and 1970s are being leveled around the world.The wave from the shock fans out instead of up toward the sky. Grain elevator demolition in Minneapolis.[5]  Rotational hydraulic shears and standard reinforced bucket attachments are common demolition tools. L.000 m2).

Netherlands. Hydraulic excavators can be purpose-built for the rigorous work of demolition. Brazil  Demolition of Clarke Tower in Ballymun.000 lb. Florida.Implosion of Tampa Stadium in Tampa. undergoing demolition in June 2008  A tower block in Glasgow being demolished by explosives. Dublin.  This high-reach excavator can reach up to 110-feet and can carry up to 8. Republic of Ireland. UK. Leeds. work tools for demolishing tall structures.  Demolition of a house in Belo Horizonte.  Demolition of Rockwell Gardens in Chicago.  Demolition of Bacinol in Delft. . April 1999   Kays Catalogues Distribution Centre on Marshall Street in Holbeck.

1996.html 7) ^ Dick Grogan (1997-06-11). Inc. 9) ^ Controlled Demolition. Maura (2007-0926).. NOVA spoke with Ms. Curtice (1997). 8) ^ a b Brent Blanchard (February 2002).com/vi deo/x2td63_hd20h20070822chun k2_news 2) ^ "Kajima Demolition Tech". December 2008.palmbeachpo st. Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Explosives and Blasting Technique. ACT Magistrates Court and Tribunals (Coroner's Court).dailymotion. 10) ^ Madden (ACT Coroner). and her uncle. 6) ^ a b WGBH Boston (199612). (1999). ISSN 0732-619X. Retrieved 2008-11-18. Hudson Department Store". The Bender Coronial Decision. "Pillars of the church may save the nave". Construction Equipment Guide. 2. Popular Science. Controlled Demolition. pp. 27–44. From the South-East. Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved 2008-05-19. Shane G. "She learned the fine art of demolition from her father. "A History of Explosive Demolition in America". Doug Loizeaux—president and vice-president of the company. "Demolition Eliminates Final Remnant of Charlotte Hornets". p. "Interview with Stacey Loizeaux". International Society of Explosives Engineers. The Irish Times. BNET Business Network.REFERENCE: 1) ^ http://www. Loizeaux a few days before Christmas. Retrieved 2010-0329.. 3) ^ Cultice." a. Retrieved 2009-04-29. Inc. ^ http://www.com/news/taking-down1515-tower-no-implosionnot-quite-223838. 4) ^ Bohart. City Edition. "General Chronology and Overview". 5) ^ "J. . NOVA Online. "Seattle Kingdome demolition". Home News Section. Retrieved 2008-05-19. Retrieved 2007-03-07. "Blasting a path to world markets".L. Mark Loizeaux.