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4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2

)

PNT 2009 CHAPTER 6 : ELECTROCHEMISTRY

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Chapter 6 : ELECTROCHEMISTRY

A Understanding properties of EIectroIytes and Non-eIectroIytes.

Three classes of substance that can be made based on electrical conductivity :

Type of
substance
Characteristic ExampIe
Conductor
Substances that .........
..............change
normally metals and carbon.

EIectroIyte
hemical compounds that can conduct
electricity only in .... or .....
and undergo chemicaI changes but
cannot conduct electricity current in
..... form normally ionic
compound acid and alkali.

Non-eIectroIyte
hemical compounds that ......
conduct electric in molten aqueous
solution and solid states normally
.......compound.



1 hat are electrolytes

Electrolytes are substances that .............. electricity either in
the .......... state or ....... solution and undergo chemical
changes.


2 CIassify substances given below into electrolytes and non-electrolytes.


Tetrachloromethane l
4
molten aluminium oxide Al
2
O
3
sulphuric acid solution H
2
SO
4


glucose solution

H
12
O

molten naphthalene
10
H
8
sodium hydroxide solution NaOH


EIectroIytes Non-eIectroIytes


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3 rite ( \ ) for the correct answers and ( X ) for the wrong answer.

(a)
Solid sodium chloride Nal salt is a good electrical
conductor.

(b) Mercury Hg is an electrolyte.
(c) Sulphuric acid H
2
SO
4
is an electrolyte.
(d)
ompounds can conduct electricity in the presence of
freely moving ions.

(e) ovalent compounds can conduct electricity.
(f)
ommon salt Nal is an electrolyte in molten or aqueous
state.



4 omplete the chart with the correct answer.












Substance
Observation / BuIb Iights up
SoIid MoIten Aqueous soIution
Sugar,

H
12
O

Lead(II) bromide,
!bBr
2


Sodium iodide, NaÌ
SuIphur, S
8

AIuminium oxide,
Al
2
O
3


NaphthaIene,
10
H
8












Compound
Bulb
Carbon electrode
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5 Explain hy the substances below can conduct electricity and cannot conduct
electricity.

Substances
Types of
compound
ExpIanation
1. Ammonia NH
3
in
methylbenzene//
tetrachloromethane
(organic solvent)
ovalent compound

2. SoIid sodium
hloride Nal
Ìonic compound

3. MoIten sodium
hloride Nal//
Sodium chloride
soIution
Ìonic compound




B ELECTROLYSIS

1. Electrolysis is a process whereby compounds in ........ or
........... state are .......... into their ...........
............ by passing ........... through them.

2. Electrolytic cell consists of ........ .......... and two
.......

3. onductor which is dipped into electrolyte is called as eIectrode.

4. Anode (+) : .................................

athode (-):

.................................

5. During electrolysis the negative ions or anions move to the ..... whereas the
positive ions or cation move to the .....





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B1 EIectroIysis of MoIten Compounds

Example : Electrolysis of molten lead(ÌÌ) bromide

1. Ìn moIten lead(ÌÌ) bromide ...... ions and ........ ions move freely.
2. hen electricity is passed through molten lead(ÌÌ) bromide a reaction take place.
This is called ..........
3. Lead(ÌÌ) bromide !bBr
2
is an ..... compound. Ìt consist .........
!b
2+
and ......... Br
-
.
Ìn soIid lead(ÌÌ) bromide these ions .. ... move freely but are held in
fixed positions in a lattice.
Ìn moIten lead(ÌÌ) bromide these ions free to move.
4. During electrolysis of molten lead(ÌÌ) bromide the .... ions move to the
.... whereas the ....... ions move to the .....
At the cathode :
...... undergo discharged.
Each of !b
2+
ions accepts two electrons to form a neutral lead atom.
Half equation :

...........
...... is formed.
At the anode :
..... undergo discharged.
Each of Br
-
ions released an electron to form a neutral bromine
atom.
Br
-
÷ Br + e
Two bromine atoms combine to form a bromine molecule.
Half equation :

...........
...... is released.
Overall equation :
!b
2+
+ 2Br- ÷ !b + Br
2








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Activity 1

1. Electrolysis of moIten lead(ÌÌ) oxide using carbon electrodes

Diagram : (Label the diagram below)













Molten lead(ÌÌ) oxide consist of ..... ions and .........ions.

EIectrode Cathode (-) Anode (+)
Ìons that attracted to //
Ìons that are move to
!b
2+

Half equation at 2Br - Br
2
+ 2e
Overall equation
Substances formed at
//
!roducts form at

Observation at

B2 EIectroIysis of Aqueous SoIutions

ExampIe :

EIectroIysis of copper(II) suIphate soIution using carbon eIectrodes.

1. hen electricity is passed through copper(ÌÌ) sulphate solution a reaction take
place. This is called ..........
2. copper(ÌÌ) sulphate solution uSO
4
is an ..... compound. Ìt consist
copper (ÌÌ) ions .... ......... ions SO
4
2-
...... ions H
+

and hydroxide ions ....
Ìn solid copper(ÌÌ) sulphate these ions .. ... move freely but are held
in fixed positions in a lattice.
Ìn copper(ÌÌ) sulphate solution these ions ...... to move.

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3. During electrolysis of copper(ÌÌ) sulphate solution the ....... ions move
to the .... whereas the ....... ions move to the ........
At the cathode :
..... ions and ... ions move to the cathode.
....

ions are selectively* discharged.
Each of ....

ions accepts .... electrons to form a neutral
.... atom.
Half equation :

............
...... metal is formed.
At the anode :
....ions and ... ions move to the anode.
....... are selectively* discharged by donating electrons.
Half equation :

...............
..... gas is formed.

Activity 2

1. Electrolysis of 0.1 mol dm
-3
silver nitrate AgNO
3
using carbon electrodes

Silver nitrate solution AgNO
3
(aq) consist of ......... ions
........ ions ........ ions and ......... ions.
EIectrode Cathode (+) Anode (-)
Ìons that attracted to //
Ìons that are move to
Ag
+
H
+
OH
-
NO3
-

Ìons that selected to
discharge at
OH
-

Half equation at
Substances formed at
//
!roducts at

Observation at




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2. rite half equations to represent the discharge of ions at the anode and the
cathode for each electrolyte and then predict the products formed. .

EIectroIytes
HaIf equations Products
Anode Cathode Anode Cathode

1. Electrolysis of dilute zinc
chloride Znl
2
aqueous
solution using carbon
electrode


2. Electrolysis of dilute
lead(ÌÌ) nitrate !b(NO
3
)
2

aqueous solution using
platinum electrode


3. Electrolysis of dilute
magnesium sulphate
MgSO
4
aqueous
solution using carbon
electrode






B3 Factors That Affect The EIectroIysis Of An Aqueous SoIution

There are ..... factors that may influence the selective discharge of ions
during the electrolysis of an aqueous solution :

..................................

..................................

..................................




(a) hen more than one type of ion move towards the electrode during electrolysis only
............ is selected to be ....... Selective discharge onIy
occur in aqueous soIution because it usually has more than one type of ion attracted
to the anode or cathode.


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(b) The selection of ion for discharge depends on three factors :
(Ì) ........ in the Electrochemical Series (normally in diIute soIution and
inert eIectrode)

(ÌÌ) The ........ of electrolyte (normally in concentrated soIution and
inert eIectrode)

(ÌÌÌ) The ...... of electrode (when active metaI eIectrode is used)


I The position of ions in the eIectrochemicaI series

hen electricity is conducted in dilute solution used inert electrodes the cations or
anions in the ........ of the Electrochemical Series will be selectively
discharged.

EIectrochemicaI Series
Cation Anion

K
+
F
-
Na
+
SO
4
2-

a
2+
NO
3
-

Mg
2+
l
-

Al
3+
Br
-

Zn
2+
Ì
-

Fe
2+
OH
-

Sn
2+
Ease of
!b
2+
discharge
H
+
......
u
2+

Ag
+








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ctivity 3 :

1. Select the ion to be discharged from the following pairs of ions.
State at which electrode it occurs and write the discharge equation :

pair of ions
Ion to be
discharged
Discharge equation
At Anode
or Catode
(i) OH
-
& SO
4
2-

(ii) OH
-
& NO
3
-

(iii) H
+
& u
2+

(iv) H
+
& K
+

(v) H
+
& Sn
2+


2. omplete the following table for the electrolysis of 0.1 mol dm
-3
sodium nitrate solution
using carbon electrodes.

rite the electrolyte
ionisation equation

Ìons exist in electrolyte
At the anode At the cathode
rite the formulae of ions
that are attracted to the
anode and cathode


rite the reaction equation
at the anode and cathode


Name of the products at the
anode and cathode


Observations

onfirmatory test
(method and observations of
the test)







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3. omplete the following table for the electrolysis of 0.1 mol dm
-3
aqueous dilute
copper(ÌÌ) sulphate solution using carbon electrodes.


rite the electrolyte
ionisation equation

Ìons exist in electrolyte
At the anode At the cathode
rite the formulae of ions
that are attracted to the
anode and cathode


rite the reaction equation
at the anode and cathode


Name of the products at the
anode and cathode


Observations

onfirmatory test
(method and observations of
the test)




II Concentration of eIectroIyte

hen electrolysis is carried out using inert eIectrodes and concentrated soIutions,
ions that are .............. will be discharged but this is only true for
....... ions which are l
-
Br
-
and Ì
-
.
ctivity 4 :

1. State the seIected ions to be discharged at the anode and cathode for the
following concentrated solutions using carbon electrodes.

EIectroIyte
SeIected ion to be discharged at
Cathode Anode
(a)
oncentrated
hydrochloric acid
solution

(b)
oncentrated
potassium iodide
solution

(c)
oncentrated sodium
chloride solution


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ctivity 5 :

Electrolysis of :
Set I : 0.001 mol dm
-3
hydrochoric acid Hl
Set II : 2.0 mol dm
-3
hydrochoric acid Hl
using carbon electrodes















omplete the following table :

The electrolyte
ionisation equation

Ìons exist in electrolyte

Set I : 0.001 mol dm
-3
dilute

Hl
Set II : 2.0 mol dm
-3
concentrated
Hl
The ions that move to
the cathode

Discharge equation at
the cathode

Name of the product at
the cathode

The ions that move to
the anode

Discharge equation at
the anode

Name of the product at
the anode

Observations
onfirmatory test
( method and
observations of the
test)

The electrolyte
concentration after a
while


A A
mol dm
-3

hydrochoric acid
2 mol dm
-3

hydrochoric acid
Carbon electrode
Set I
Set II
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II Types of eIectrode
There are to types of eIectrode :
O Inert eIectrode
An electrode that acts as a conductor of current only and does not undergo any
chemicaI changes. Normally are made of ....... or .........
O Non-inert eIectrode
An electrode that not only acts as a conductor of current but also .....
chemicaI changes. During the electrolysis the metaI anode iII......
while the reaction at the cathode is simiIar to the reaction at carbon
eIectrode. onsist of metal anodes such as ...... .....and nickel.
ctivity :

1. omplete the following table for the electrolysis of 1 mol dm
-3
of copper(ÌÌ) sulphate
solution using carbon and copper electrodes..


The electrolyte
ionisation equation

Ìons exist in electrolyte

Set I : Carbon electrode Set II : Copper electrode
The ions that move to
the cathode

Discharge equation at
the cathode

Name of the product at
the cathode

The ions that move to
the anode

Discharge equation at
the anode

Name of the product at
the anode

Observations
onfirmatory test
( method and
observations of the
test)

The electrolyte
concentration after a
while and the
explanation




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ctivity 9 :

1. rite half equations to represent the discharge of ions at the anode and the
cathode for each electrolyte and then predict the products formed.

EIectroIytes
HaIf equations Products
Cathode Anode Cathode Anode

1. Electrolysis of dilute
copper(ÌÌ) sulphate
using carbon
eIectrode


2. Electrolysis of dilute
copper(ÌÌ) sulphate
using copper
eIectrode


3. Electrolysis of diIute
sodium chloride using
carbon electrode


4. Electrolysis of
concentrated
sodium chloride using
carbon electrode



C EvaIuating EIectroIysis in Industry

State the uses of electrolysis in industries













Uses of electrolysis
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(a) Extraction

Aluminium metal is extracted by electrolysing a mixture of aluminium oxide and cryolite
using carbon electrodes.













(i) rite the equation representing the process at the cathode and the anode.

athode : ..............................

Anode : .............................


(ii) hich substances act as :

Anode : .............................

athode : ..............................

(iii) Name the product at anode : ........ and cathode : .........

(iv) Explain why a mixture is used.

A mixture is used to ............. the melting point of aluminium
oxide.


ctivity 11 :

Extraction Of AIuminium

Fill in the blanks with the words provided in the box.


Al
3+
carbon O
2-
electrolysis collects aluminium

Oxide cryolite lower electrolyte aluminium oxide



1. Aluminium is extracted from ................. by electrolysis.

2. The ......... is molten aluminium oxide dissolved in molten
.......
Carbon
,3ode
Carbon lining
as c,thode
Molten aluminium oxide
¹ cryolite
Molten
aluminium
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3. This molten mixture melts at a ........ temperature than pure aluminium
oxide.

4. This enables the .............. to be conducted at a lower
temperature.

5. The electrolytes contain the ........ cation and .........anion.

. The anode is made up of ..............

7. The cathode is made up of ............... tank lined with graphite.

8. Electrolysis reactions at :

Anode :

.......... ions are discharged.

Half equation for the discharge of ion :

...................

athode :

.......... ions are discharged.

Half equation for the discharge of ion :

..................

This produces molten aluminium which ....... at the bottom of the
tank.

9. rite the overall reaction :

..........................

(c) Purification

Purification Of Copper

Fill in the blanks with the words provided in the box.


Ores cathode smaller bigger

Anode atom ion impurities

1. opper extracted from its ............ can be made pure by using
electrolysis.



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2. Look at the diagram below. Use the information given to label the diagram below.












3. The ............ is made of impure copper.

4. The ............... is made of pure copper.

5. Electrolysis reactions :

Anode :

opper ............ are ionized.

Half equation for the ionization of the .. :

.................

The anode slowly gets ..............

athode :

opper ......... are discharged.

Half equation for the discharge of ion :

....................

The cathode slowly gets ..............

. rite the overall equation :

............................

7. The .......... from the anode drop to the bottom of the cell.











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(c) EIectropIating

EIectropIating

Fill in the blanks with the word provided in the box.


Discharged cathode coating ions

Anode Dissolves opper u
2+



1. Electroplating is .......... an object with a metal by electrolysis.

2. The .......... is made of the metal to be plated onto the object.

3. The .......... is the object which is to be plated.

4. The electrolyte is a solution of .......... of the metal.

5. During electroplating metal from the anode ......... in the electrolyte as a
metal ions.

. These ions go to the cathode where they are ......... onto the object as a
layer of metal.

7. An example of electroplating copper onto an object is shown in the diagram. Use the
information given to label the diagram drawn.


















8. Electrolysis reactions :

Anode :

........... atoms are ionized.

Half equation for the ionization of the atom : ..............

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athode :
...........ions are discharged.

Half equation for the discharged of ion :

..................

9. The overall reaction :

..............................



2. State the effects of the uses of eIectroIysis in industries :




(a)









(b)





C AnaIysing VoItaic CeII // ChemicaI CeII

SimpIe ceII

1. A cell that produces eIectricaI energy when chemical reactions occur in it.
2. !roduced when to .......metaIs are immersed in an ......................... and are
connected by an externaI circuit.
3. The voItage of chemical cell depends on ....... beteen the to metaIs in
the ........ Series, where the ..... the distance between them the
....... is the voItage.






e3efits

#eactive metals can be ........ by electrolysis

very thin layer oI metal can be ....... on an
object using electrolysis

lectrolysis can be used to produce a very ......

is,dv,3t,es

lectrolysis may cause ..............

lectrolysis is an ........... process
because it require a large amount oI energy
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Example :
























DanieII ceII

(a) Zn ZnSO
4
uSO
4
u cell

Labelled the diagram drawn.











lectrical current produced is detected by
the galvanometer
(Chemical energy F lectrical energy)

!ositive terminal :
O electropositive
metal
O %he electrons that Ilow Irom
the external circuit are
received by the positive io3 i3
the electrolyte through this
terminal


-
Ne,tive terminal :
O electropositive
metal
O Metal atom will
electro3s that will Ilow
through the external circuit
O Metal atom becomes metallic
ion (corrodes)

Magnesium
Copper
Copper(II)
sulphate
solution
lectron Ilow
lectron Ilow
Magnesium is .............. than copper
in the Electrochemistry Series.
A magnesium atom releases
electrons more ............. than a
copper atom.
Mg ÷ ............ + 2e
The Mg
2+
ions are released into the
uSO
4
solution while the electrons
that are released flow through the
external circuit toward the copper
plate.
At the copper electrode the
electrons are accepted by the .........


ions.

............ + 2e ÷ u







......

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(a) inc electrode :
(i) .......... terminal because
...................
(ii) Equation : ...............................
(iii) Observation :
..............................

(b) Copper electrode :
(i) .......... terminal because
..................
(ii) Equation : ................................
(iii) Observation :
..............................

Ìf the inc metal is ...... with a ..... metal the voItage reading

....... because magnesium is ...... from copper in the

........ Series.


State the advantages and disadvantages of the cell in the table given below.

Types of ceII Advantages Disadvantages
1. Lead ÷ acid
accumulator









2. Dry cell
3. Mercury cell
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Types of ceII Advantages Disadvantages
4. Alkaline cell
5. Nickel- cadminium cell



1 Justify the ........ and ....... between an electrolytic and a voltaic
cell.





(i) They consist of an ................. each.

(ii) They consist of two ................. each.

(iii) The process of donation of electron occurs at the

................. while the process of acceptance of electrons

occurs at the ............

(iv) Electron flow from the ............to the
............in the external circuit.

(v) Anion move towards the ............and cations move towards the

.............















$imil,rities
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onvert electrical energy to

.............


Conversion of energy

onverts chemical energy to

.............

(a) The anode (positive
terminal) is .......
charged.

(b) The cathode (negative
terminal) is .......
charged.

Charge of :
(a) anode
(b) cathode

(a) The anode (negative
terminal) is .......
charged.

(b) The cathode (positive
terminal) is .......
charged.


Electrons flow from the

........ to the

........ in the
external circuit.


FIo of eIectrons

Electrons flow from the

........ to the

........ in the
external circuit.


(a) ........ of
electrons.

(b) ........ of
electrons.

Types of reaction that
takes pIace at the :
(a) positive terminaI
(b) negative terminaI

(a) ........ of
electrons.

(b) ........ of
electrons.

arbon or two ......

metals or two .......
metals

Types of eIectrodes
Two ........
metals












A3 electrolytic cell A volt,ic cell
iffere3ces
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ctivity 12 :

The diagram below shows two types of cell.
.
















ompare and contrast cell and cell Y.

CeII CeII Y
Type of ceII ........ cell ........ cell
Conversion of
energy
........ energy to

........ energy.
........ energy to

........ energy.
Type of
eIectrodes

!ositive terminal/Anode :

...........

Negative terminal/Cathode :

...........



!ositive terminal/ Cathode :

...........

Negative terminal/ Anode :

...........


Ions in
eIectroIyte

ation : ............

Anion : ............


ation : ............

Anion : ............

Observations

!ositive terminal/Anode :

.................

.................


!ositive terminal/ Cathode :

................

.................

Copper plate

Copper(II) sulphate
solution
Copper plate
Magnesium
ribbon

! Q
R $
Cell X Cell Y
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Negative terminal/Cathode :

.................

.................


Negative terminal/Anode :

.................

.................


HaIf equations

!ositive terminal/Anode :

...........


!ositive terminal/ Cathode :

...........


Negative terminal/Cathode :

...........


Negative terminal/Anode :

...........



D EIectrochemicaI Series

D1 Synthesising EIectrochemicaI Series


.

D2 Importances of the EIectrochemicaI Series

State the importances of the electrochemical series.
























lectrochemic,l
$eries

The terminaIs of the ceII :


The metal which is situated
at

a ...... position in
the Electrochemical Series
will be

the ...... terminal
while the metal which is

situated at a ......
.. position in the
Electrochemical Series will
be the
....... terminal.

The standard ceII
voItage :


The further apart the
metals are in the
Electrochemical Series

the ...... is the
voltage.

The abiIity of a metaI to
dispIace another metaI
from its saIt soIution :


A metal which is situated at
a

...... position in
Electrochemical Series is
able

to ...... a metal
below it in the series from
its salt solution.
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Four main uses of the Electrochemical Series :

(a) to predict the chemicaI ceII terminaIs

..... electropositive metal negative terminal

.... electropositive metal positive terminal

(b) to predict the voItage of chemicaI ceII

The ...... the distance between two metals in the Electrochemical Series the

...... the voItage of the chemical cell.

(c) to predict the metaI dispIacement reactions

.......... metal can ...... a less electropositive metal from its salt
solution.

(d) to predict the seIected ion to be ....... at the electrode in an eIectroIysis.


F Aareness and ResponsibIe practices hen handIing chemicaIs used in
EIectrochemicaI Industries

1 State the importance of Electrochemical Series in our daily lives.

























END OF CHAPTER 6
Importance