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2H2O Neutr alisat 1.Complete the table below. ion Potas sium sulph ACID ate Pink to colou rless
4541/2 (A) 50.00 cm3 potassi um hydro xide solutio 1.n + phenol 2.phthal ein 3.indicat or 1.0.1 mol -3 2.dm sulphu 3.ric acid 4.

ACID AND BASE

BASE/ALKALI The meaning

Example Ionisation equation for the example Name of ion which cause it show the properties 1. Physical properties 2. 3. 1. 2. Chemical properties

[ 7.5 pH 2.≤ Write the chemical formula for the following compounds : < Name Formula Name 8.0 ]
hydrochloric acid It has the nitric acid lowes sulphuric acid t ethanoic acid conce sodium hydroxide ntrati potassium hydroxide on of Aluminium hydroxide OHbarium hydroxide ion. zinc Alkalihydroxide ammonia solution with a lower pH value. The JPNT 2009

Formula

potassium oxide magnesium oxide calcium oxide copper(II) oxide lead(II) oxide potassium carbonate Zinc carbonate zinc chloride magnesium zinc

lower
the conce

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on of

OHion, 4541 / CHEMISTRY the 116 MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

lower
the 3 pH Complete the ionisation equation for these solution in water. value. Using H2O (i) HNO3 + the same ammo H2O H2SO4 + nia soluti H2O on (iii) CH3COOH + pH meter H 2O readin NaOH (iv) + g H2O Type NH4OH + of(v) soluti on pH 4.Complete the table below. ACID:Chemical properties value Chan ging conce Acid reacts with metals that are more Acid reaction with oxide metals or electropositive than hydrogen in the ntrati hydroxide metals (bases/alkali) to on of electrochemical series to produce salt produce salt and water : andammo hydrogen gas : nia Base/alkali + Acid Salt + Water Metal +Acid Salt + Hydrogen soluti MgO + H2SO4 MgSO4 + H2O Mg on2HCI + MgCl2 + H2 Dilute Observation………………………… the Gas test : A ……………………. is put into the ammo of test tube which contain the gas mouth nia produced. Gas released produced ….……… soluti on // Conce Acid reacts with metal carbonates to produce salt, water and carbon ntrati dioxide: on of Metal Carbonate + Acid Salt + Water + Carbon dioxide ammo CuCO3 + 2HCl CuCl2 + H2O + CO2 nia soluti Observation : Effervescence seen on Gas test : The gas produced is passed into ………………and ………………... pH meter ALKALI :Chemical properties pH value 9.0 Alkali reacts with acids produces salt and Ammo nia water. Alkali reacts with ammonium salts solutio produces ammonia gas. NaOH + HCI n NaCI + H2O Ammo NH4+ + OHNH3(g) + H2O nia solutio JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 7 : ACID AND BASES n pH meter

value 8.0 Ammo nia 4541 / CHEMISTRY 117 solutio n 5.pH .Write the chemical equation meter pH i: Hydrochloric acid and zinc : value 8.2 pH meter ii: Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide: pH value 8.4 Ammo iii: Hydrochloric acid and magnesium oxide: nia solutio n Ammoiv: Hydrochloric acid and copper (II) carbonate: nia solutio n pH v: Sulphuric acid and magnesium ribbon: meter pH value 8.6 vi: Sulphuric acid and lead(II) oxide: Ammo nia solutio n vii: Sulphuric acid and aluminium carbonate: pH meter pH value viii: Nitric acid and zinc(II) oxide: 8.8 4541/3 (S)

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=

1 2 Mb × 25.0 x: 1.0 × 25.0 molecxi. ules Ions CH3C OOH xii :

viiii:

Nitric acid and ammonium hydroxide:

Nitric acid and aluminium powder:

Ammonium sulphate and sodium hydroxide

Ethanoic acid and aluminium powder:

CH3C OOJPNT +2009 + H No free

xiii:

Ethanoic acid and sodium carbonate: CHAPTER 7 : ACID AND BASES

ogen ions in 4541 / CHEMISTRY these MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2) 118 soluti on. 6.Complete the table below to show the comparison between strong acid and weak acid Parti cles SIMILARITY in B Have pH Value Below 7 and STRONG ACID WEAK ACID D Similar chemical properties soluti on are PROPERTIES exist pH Value in the form of Ionisation in water molec ules. It Degree of dissosiation prod in water uce high conce Concentaration of ntrati hydrogen ion,H+1 on of hydr THE MEANING ogen ions. THE EXAMPLE A soluti on is THE EQUATION OF a IONISATION for the stron example g acid/c ompl etely ionise d/diss ociate d in water . An acid whic h is comp letely ionise d in water JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 7 : ACID AND BASES .
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water turns chalk y/mil 4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2) 119 ky. Flow 7.the Complete the table below to show the comparison between strong alkali and weak alkali gas prod SIMILARITY uced WEAK Have pH Value above 7 STRONG into ALKALI Similar chemical properties ALKALI lime water PROPERTIES in a test pH Value tube.

CaC O3 + 2HC l → CaC l2 + H2 O + CO2

Ionisation of base in water Degree of dissosiation in water Concentaration of hydroxide ion,OH-1 THE MEANING

THE EXAMPLE Carb on THE EQUATION OF dioxi IONISATION for the de // example CO2 Malic acid has a The meaning of pH lower is used to indicate the degree of acidity or pH is alkalinity of a solution conce a scale of numbers to measure the degree of acidity and alkalinity of an pH value less than 7 indicates an…….. ntrati aqueous solution based on the pH value equals 7 indicates a ……. on of concentration ……………………. + pH value greater then 7 indicates an…… H ion. in low conce ntrati The pH scale on. Acid The pH value is actually a measurement of the concentration of whic Note: The strength of acids or alkalis depends on the degree of ionisation or hydrogen ions, H+ and hydroxide ions, OH-. hIts ranges is is dissociation of the acids or alkalis in the water. partia between As the pH value higher. the concentration of hydrogen ions, H+ ……… lly ………to ……. As the pH value higher. the concentration of hydroxide ions, OH- …… ionise JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 7 : ACID AND BASES in water prod

hydr ogen ions, H+ 4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2) 120 U P TheR higher the degree of dissociation of an acid, the higher the concentration of
hydrogen ions, thus the stronger the solution as an acid. (ii) 8. The corelation between pH values and Concentration/Molarity of Acids and Alkalis i) If the concentration of an acid increases, the number of H+ ion in the acid …………….. ii) If the number of H+ ion in an acid increases, the pH value of the acid ……………… pH = - log [H+] Molarity ∞ the number of hydrogen ion, H+ pH value ∞ the number of hydrogen ion pH value ∞ m olarity of acid iii)If the concentration of an alkali increases, the number of OH- ion in the alkali ………... iv)If the number of H+ ion in an alkali increases, the pH value of the alkali ……………….. Molarity ∞ the number of hydroxide ion, OHpH value ∞ the number of hydroxide ion, OHpH value ∞ molarity of alkali 9. Complete the table below. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Term Monoprotic acid Diprotic acid Triprotic acid Base Alkali Metal oxide Non- metal oxide Amphoteric oxide The meaning Example
1 1

Note: Concentration of acid and alkali is the measurement of substance (solute)dissolved in an amount of solvent Concentration of solution refers to the quantity of solute in a given volume of solution. is the quantity of solute (in moles or grams), in 1 dm3 of solution.

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10. Molarity / Molar concentration is the ………………. …………….. of solute that are present in 1 dm3 (1,000 cm3) of solution Example: 0.5moldm-3 NaOH solution means 0.5 mole of NaOH in 1 dm3 of water/solution Notes : 1 dm3 = 1000 cm3 \ Two ways of measuring the concentration of a solution :
Concentration in g dm−3

Mass of solute (g) = Volume of solution (dm3) Number of moles of solute ((mol) Volume of solution (dm ) Mass of solute Molar mass
3 = Volume (cm )of solution 1000 3

g dm−3 Unit mol dm−3

=
Concentration

in mol dm−3

/Molarity

Mole dm-3 Formula : n= MV 1000 n = number of moles of substance M=Concentration in mol dm-3 (molarity) V= volume in cm3

g dm-3 Formula : n= Mass Molar mass n = number of moles of substance Mass=Mass in g Molar mass=Mass in gmol-1

(i)

What is the volume of 1.0 mol dm–3 zinc sulphate solution which contains 0.025 mol of zinc sulphate ? The answer : 25 cm3

(ii)

Calculate the number of mole of sodium nitrate in 500 cm3 of a solution of sodium nitrate of concentration 0.1 mol dm-3 . Theanswer: 0.05 mol

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(iii)

500 cm 3 of a magnesium chloride solution contains 0.5 mol of magnesium chloride. What is the molarity of the solution? The answer: 1 mol dm-3

(iv)

6.6g sodium oxide is dissolved in 500 cm3distilled water .Calculate the molarity of the solution. The answer 0.2 mol dm-3 (Relative atomic mass: Na=23, O=16) S1: Change the quantity in mass into number of mole. Formula n = mass ÷Relative molecular mass S2: Change the number of mole (from S1) into molarity. Formula n M= v 1000

Preparation of standard solution : 11. Standard solution is ……………………………………………………………………….. The step: 1. Calculate the mass of the solute/substance used; i) Number of moles solute , n = MV 1000 Mass of solute = number of moles x Relative molecular mass Then weigh the substance JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 7 : ACID AND BASES

ii)

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Glass rod eg: Solid sodium hydroxide Stir the solution

Stopper

Put the stopper and Shake the solution gently

Graduation mark

Pour the solution into volumetric flask. Add distilled water drop by drop intil reaches the graduation mark

Volumetric flask

Volumetric flask

Dilution acid/alkali : Dilution refer to the addition of water(solvent) into a concentrated standard solution(stock solution) to form a less concentrated solution. The mass or the number of mole of solute is same but the volume of solvent increases. formula of dilution : M1 V1= M2 V2 -M1 – Molarity before dilution/initial molarity -V1 – Volume before dilution/ initial volume -M2 – Molarity after dilution/final molarity -V2 – Volume after dilution/final volume

Preparation solution by dilution method 12. Explain how to prepare 100cm3 of nitric acid 0.1moldm-3 from the standard solutipn, 1.0moldm-3 S1: Determine the initial volume of nitric acid is needed by using the formula of dilution V1= M2 V2 M1

S2: ………….cm3 0f nitric acid 1.0 moldm-3 is transferred into a 100cm3 of volumetric flask. JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 7 : ACID AND BASES

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Distilled water is added to the 100cm3 mark of the volumetric flask The flask is then closed and shaken. Calculation of dilution of solution 13. 20 cm 3 of water is added to 80cm 3 of ammonium hydroxide, 2.0 moldm -3 What is the molarity of the solution produced? The answer = 1.6 moldm -3 S1: Determine final volume, v 2 = initial volume ,V1+ volume of water added S2: Use formula M1V1 =M2V2 M 2 = M1V1 V2

Neutralisation : 14.Neutralisation is ……………………………………………………………………………. Example : H2SO4 + NaOH Na SO4 + H2O

(a) Write the equation for the reaction between :
(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) nitric acid and zinc oxide sulphuric acid and copper(II) oxide hydrochloric acid and lithium hydroxide ethanoic acid and potassium hydroxide nitric acid and calcium hydroxide

15.Titration is a quantitative analysis method to determine the……………………………… of an acid that required to neutralize a fixed or known volume of an alkali ,and vice versa The method: i)The volume of alkali is fixed , put in a conical flask and added a few drops of indicator. ii)Another solution of acid is dropped from a burette until the end -point is reached 15. The end point is …………………………………………………………………………… JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 7 : ACID AND BASES

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or vice-versa and the neutralisation occur completely , pH of the titration product is 7 (neutral). Ionic equation: H+ + OHH2O

Two ways to determine the end –point: i. Using an indicator ii. Using electric conductivity The colour change in acid , neutral and alkali solutions Indicator name Colour Acid Neutral Litmus paper Methyl orange phenolphthalein

Alkali

The steps in determining the degree of neutralisation such as the molarity or the volume Method 1 S1 Calculate the number of mole for the molarity and the volume given n = MV 1000 S2 Write the balanced equation S3 Use the equation to determine the number of mole for the substance asked in the question by using the correlation between the number of moles of substances involved from S1with the number of moles of the substance in the equation. S4 Change the the number of mole (in S3) to the molarity or volume Formula for S4: Molarity , M = Number of moles of substance, ,n Volume of solvent in dm3 ,V Unit :mole dm-3 or M= n v 1000

OR Method 2 MaVa = a MbVb b Ma = acid concentration in moldm-3 , Mb = alkali concentration in moldm-3 a = coefficient of acid in the balanced equation b = coefficient of alkali in the balanced equation

Solving problem related to neutralisation reaction

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16. 50cm3 of sulphuric acid,0.5moldm3 is reacted completely with 25cm3 potassium hydroxide. Calculate the molarity of potassium solution. The answer : 2moldm-3 Method 1:

OR Method 2: substitute the values in the formula MaVa = a moldm-3 MbVb b Ma = acid concentration in moldm-3 a b , Mb = alkali concentration in

= coefficient of acid in the balanced equation = coefficient of alkali in the balanced equation

Problem solving related to molarity,mass or volume 17. 20cm3 of nitric acid ,HNO3 ,2 moldm-3 reacted with excess zinc powder.Calculate the volume of gas released under room temperature. (1 mol gas accupied 24dm3 at room temperature ) Calculate the number of moles of molarity and volume given . Formula n = MV 1000 Write balanced chemical equation

S1: S2:

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Determine the number of moles substance asked(H2) by relating the number of obtained in S1 with the number of moles of H2 in the equation,S2 Change the number of mole the substance asked (S3 ) into the volume Volume = number of mole x molar volume

18. S1: S2: S3; S4:

2.7g aluminium reacted with hydrochloric acid. 2 mol dm -3 .Calculate the volume of hydrochloric acid used.(Relative atomic mass : Al = 27) Calculate the number of moles of the mass of Al given. Write the balanced chemical equation Determine the number of mole the substance asked( hydrochloric acid) by relating the number of mole S1 with the number of mole in the equation S2 Change the number of moles the substance asked S3 to the volume.

19.

Complete the table below. APPLICATION OF ACID,BASE AND NEUTRALISATION IN DAILY LIFE

APPLICATION OF ACID IN DAILY LIFE. 1. Sulphuric acid ………………………………………….………………………….. 2. Ethanoic acid …………………….. ………………………………………………. JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 7 : ACID AND BASES 3. Carbonic acid ……………………………………………………………………..

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APPLICATION OF ALKALI IN DAILY LIFE. 1. Aluminium hydroxide or magnesium hydroxide …………………………….. 2. Sodium hydroxide………………………………………………………………… 3. Ammonia solution ………………………………………………………………….

APPLICATION OF NEUTRALISATION IN DAILY LIFE. 1.In agriculture, Acidic soil is treated with …………. 2.In industry, Acidic effluent from factories is treated with……………………………………... In health: 3.Antacid (gastric medicine) contain magnesium hydroxide neutralizes excess ………… ………………………………….. 4. Antiseptic that is alkaline(calamine lotion) neutralizes…………………………………….. 5. Antiseptic that contain weak acid neutralizes ……………………………………………… 6. Tooth paste which contains base such as magnesium hydroxide neutralizes ,, ……………………………………….. 7………………………… is used to cure wasp stings that are alkaline. EXERCISE OBJECTIVE 1 The following chemical equation represents the reaction between hydrochloric acid and excess zinc powder. Persamaan kimia berikut mewakili tindak balas antara asid hidroklorik dan serbuk zink berlebihan. Zn + 2HCl JPNT 2009  ZnCl2 + H2 CHAPTER 7 : ACID AND BASES

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If 12.5 g of zinc reacts with 100 cm3 of 2.0 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid ,what is the mass of the unreacted zinc? Sekiranya 12.5 g zink bertindak balas dengan 100 cm3 asid hidroklorik 2.0 mol dm3 , berapakah jisim zink yang tidak bertindak balas? [Relative atomic mass of zinc = 65] [Jisim atom relatif zink = 65] A B C D 2 6.0 g 6.5 g 12.5 g 19.0 g

Calculate the volume of potassium hydroxide of concentration 0.5 mol dm-3 needed to neutralize 25.0 cm3 sulphuric acid of concentration 0.20 mol dm-3. Hitung isipadu kalium hidroksida yang berkepekatan0.5 mol dm-3 diperlukan untuk meneutralkan 25.0 cm3 asid sulfurik yang berkepekatan 0.20 mol dm-3. A B C D 10 cm3 20 cm3 25 cm3 50 cm3

3.

The pH value of 0.1 mol dm-3 lithium hydroxide solution is higher than the pH value of 0.1 mol dm-3 ammonia solution. This is because Nilai pH bagi 0.1 mol dm-3 larutan litium hidroksida lebih tinggi daripada nilai pH bagi 0.1 mol dm-3 larutan ammonia. Ini adalah kerana A lithium hydroxide is more soluble in water than ammonia. litium hidroksida lebih larut dalam air daripada ammonia B the concentration of hydrogen ion in Lithium hydroxide solution is higher than the concentration of hydrogen ion in ammonia solution. kepekatan ion hidrogen dalam larutan litium hidroksida adalah lebih tinggi daripada kepekatan ion hidrogen dalam larutan ammonia

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C lithium hydroxide ionises partially in water whereas ammonia ionizes completely in water. litium hidroksida mengion separa dalam air manakala ammonia mengion lengkap dalam air D the concentration of hydroxide ion in lithium sodium hydroxide solution is higher than the concentration of hydroxide ion in ammonia solution. kepekatan ion hidroksida dalam larutan litium hidroksida adalah lebih tinggi daripada kepekatan ion hidroksida dalam larutan ammonia

4.

Calculate the mass of sodium hydroxide present in 100 cm3 sodium hydroxide 0.5 mol dm-3 solution. [H,1; O,16; Na,23] Hitungkan jisim natrium hidroksida di dalam 100 cm3 larutan natrium hidroksida 5 mol dm3 . [H,1; O,16; Na,23] A 0.4 g B 0.5 g C 1.0 g D 2.0 g

5.

Calculate the concentration of 20 cm3 of sodium hydroxide needed to neutralise 25.0 cm3 sulphuric acid of concentration 0.20 mol dm-3. Hitungkan kepekatan 20 cm3larutan natrium hidroksida yang diperlukan untuk meneutralkan 25.0 cm3 asid sulfurik 0.20 mol dm-3. A 0.1 mol dm-3 B 0.5 mol dm-3 C 0.6 mol dm-3 D 1.0 mol dm-3

STRUCTURE QUESTION 1 The table below shows observation of the experiments and their pH values of P,Q,R and S solution. Solution P Aqueous Hydrochloric acid 1.0 mol dmQ Hydrochloric acid 1.0 mol dm3 in R Aqueous ethanoic acid 1.0 mol dm-3 S Glacial ethanoic acid in methylbenzene

Experiment

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131 methylbenzene Unchange

MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

Electrical conductivity Reaction with magnesium strip Test with universal indicator

Ammeter shows reading Gas bubbles are formed

Ammeter shows reading Gas bubbles are formed

Unchange

Unchange

Unchange

pH 1

pH 7

pH 3

pH 7

(a)

What is meant by strong acid ? ……………...................................................................................................

(b)

Explain why (i) the pH value of P solution and R solution is different.

……………........................................................................................ ……………........................................................................................ (ii) the pH value of Q solution and S solution is the same.

……………........................................................................................ …….................................................................................................. (c) (d) Write the equation of ionisation for ethanoic acid in C solution. ……………................................................................................................... Calcium carbonate is put into Solution P.: (i) State the observations of the reaction

……………………………………………………………………………… (ii) Write the ionic equation for the reaction.

………………………………………………………………………………

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(e)

……………………………………………………………………………… 25.0 cm3 of P solution was neutralised barium hydroxide 0.5 mol dm-3 solution. Calculate the volume of barium hydroxide solution . .

2.

The diagram below shows the set-up of apparatus for titration of sodium hydroxide solution with sulphuric acid.

20.00 cm3 of sulphuric acid 0.1 mol dm-3

50.00 cm3 sodium hydroxide solution + phenolphthalein indicator

(a) State the colour change of the solution in the conical flask at the end point. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… (b) Name the salt formed in this experiment. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… (c) (i) Name the type of reaction occurred. ….……………………………………………………………………………………… (ii) Write an equation for the reaction occurred in (c) (i).

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………..…………………………………………………………………………….… (d) Calculate the molarity of the potassium hydroxide solution.

(e) (i) Predict the volume of of the 0.1 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid is needed If 0.1
mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid is used to titrate with 50.00 cm3 of sodium hydroxide solution and explain why. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… ….

ESSAY 1 Table 3 shows the results of an experiment to study the pH value of a few aqueous solutions using pH paper. Jadual 3 menunjukksn keputusan bagi satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji nilai pH beberapa larutan akueus dengan menggunakan kertas pH

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Aqueous solution Larutan akueus pH

V

W

X

Y

Z

(a) (i)

1 8 5 7 14 Table/Jadual 3 Identify the aqueous solution in the table could be Kenalpasti larutan akueus dalam jadual tersebut yang merupakan distilled water air suling vinegar cuka potassium hydroxide kalium hidroksida sulphuric acid asid sulfurik [4 marks]

(ii) (iii) (iv)
(b)

Solution W is a weak alkali.. (i) What is meant by weak alkali? (ii) Explain why the pH value of 1.0 mol dm –3 of solution W is lower than solution Z with the same concentration Larutan W ialah alkali lemah. (i) Apakah yang dimaksudkan alkali lemah? (ii) Terangkan mengapa nilai pH larutan W lebih kecil daripada larutan Z pada kepekatan yang sama. [5 marks]

(c)

Calcium carbonate powder is added to the test tube containing solution V. Serbuk kalsium kalbonat ditambahkan ke dalam tabung uji yang mengandungi larutan V. State the gas is released Nyatakan gas yang telah terbebas (ii) Write a balance equation for the reaction

(i)

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Tuliskan persamaan kimia tindakbalas (iii) Describe a chemical test to identify the gas Huraikan ujian kimia untuk menentukan gas yang terbebas [ 6 marks]

END OF CHAPTER 7

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