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4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2

)

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CHAPTER 8 : SALTS

A. SYNTHESIZING SALTS

1 Meaning of saIts






1.1 Example : formation of salts from hydrochloric acid, HCl

Sodium chloride, NaCl is a salt (ionic compound) formed when hydrogen ion,
H
+
from hydrochloric acid, HCl is replaced by sodium ion, Na
+
(metal ion)

Ammonium chloride, NH
4
Cl is a salt formed when hydrogen ion, H
+
from
sulphuric acid, H
2
SO
4
is replaced by ammonium ion, NH
4
+











Sodium chloride Ammonium chloride


Task 1 : Find out more about salts by replace hydrogen ion from an acid;

Acid SaIt
FormuIa Name


Hydrochloric acid, HCl
KCl




Magnesium chloride





Nitric acid, HNO
3
NH
4
NO
3




Potassium nitrate





Sulphuric acid, H
2
SO
4
ZnSO
4




Copper(ÌÌ) sulphate




A salt is an...........formed when the ..........................................
from an acid is replaced by ................................. or an ................................
H Cl
Na Cl Cl NH
4
Hydrochloric acid
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1.2 How to write a Chemical Formula of ionic compound (salt)

Cation M
m+

Anion X
n-






Task 2 :

Write the chemical formula of the following ionic compound (salt)

Acid Cation
Anion
from acid
Na
+
K
+
Mg
2+
Cu
2+
Zn
2+
Pb
2+
Fe
3+
AI
3+
NH
4
+
HCl Cl
-

HNO
3
NO
3
-





H
2
SO
4
SO
4
2-



H
2
CO
3



CH
3
COOH CH
3
COO
-




Task 3


























Uses
of saIts
Ìndustrial Field

1.
2.
Agriculture

1.
2.
3.
Medical Field
1.
2.
3.
4.
Food Ìndustry

1.
2.
M
m+
X
n-


m n
n m

Chemical Formula, M
n
X
m

or MX (if m = n)
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2 SoIubIe SaIt and InsoIubIe SaIt

S Sa aI It ts s S So oI Iu ub bi iI Ii it ty y How to
remember??
ExampIes
N Ni it tr ra at te e s sa al lt ts s A Al ll l n ni it tr ra at te e s sa al lt ts s a ar re e
s so oI Iu ub bI Ie e i in n w wa at te er r
All nitrate salts
soluble
Sodium nitrate, NaNO
3

Copper(ÌÌ) nitrate, Cu(NO
3
)
2

A Am mm mo on ni iu um m, ,
S So od di iu um m a an nd d
p po ot ta as ss si i u um m s sa al l t ts s

A Al ll l t th he es se e s sa al lt ts s a ar re e
s so oI Iu ub bI Ie e i in n w wa at te er r

All ANaK salts
soluble

Ammonium nitrate, _______
_______________, NaCl
_______________, K
2
SO
4
S Su ul lp ph ha at te e s sa al lt ts s A Al ll l s su ul lp ph ha at te e s sa al lt ts s a ar re e
s so ol lu ub bl le e ( (d di is ss so ol lv ve e) ) i in n
w wa at te er r e ex xc ce ep pt t B Ba aS SO O
4 4
, ,
C Ca aS SO O
4 4
, , P Pb bS SO O
4 4

A Al ll l s su ul lp ph ha at te e s sa al lt ts s
a ar re e s so ol lu ub bl le e
( (d di i s ss so ol lv ve e) ) e ex xc ce ep pt t
B Ba aC Ca aP P
S So ol lu ub bl le e
_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _
Ì Ìn ns so ol lu ub bl le e
_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _
C Ch hl lo or ri id de e s sa al lt ts s
[ [b br ro om mi i d de e/ /i io od di i d de e
s sa al lt ts s] ]
A Al ll l c ch hl lo or ri id de e s sa al lt ts s a ar re e
s so oI Iu ub bI Ie e ( (d di is ss so ol lv ve e) ) i in n
w wa at te er r e ex xc ce ep pt t A Ag gC Cl l, ,
P Pb bC Cl l
2 2
, , H Hg gC Cl l
A Al ll l c ch hl lo or ri id de e s sa al lt ts s
a ar re e s so ol lu ub bl le e
( (d di i s ss so ol lv ve e) ) e ex xc ce ep pt t
P PA AH H
S So ol lu ub bl le e
_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _
Ì Ìn ns so ol lu ub bl le e
_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _
C Ca ar rb bo on na at te e s sa al lt ts s A Al ll l c ca ar rb bo on na at te e s sa al lt ts s a ar re e
i in ns so oI Iu ub bI Ie e i in n w wa at te er r
e ex xc ce ep pt t N Na a
2 2
C CO O
3 3
, ,
K K
2 2
C CO O
3 3
a an nd d
( (N NH H
4 4
) )
2 2
C CO O
3 3

A Al ll l c ca ar rb bo on na at te e s sa al lt ts s
a ar re e i in ns so oI Iu ub bI Ie e
e ex xc ce ep pt t A AN Na aK K
S So ol lu ub bl le e
_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _
Ì Ìn ns so ol lu ub bl le e
_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _




















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Task 3 :

State the formula or name and mark ' ' for salts that are soluble and ' x ' for salts that are
insoluble in water


SaIt SoIubiIity in water
Name FormuIa
Zinc nitrate Zn(NO
3
)
2

Copper(ÌÌ) chloride


MgSO
4

Potassium carbonate
AgÌ
Ammonium sulphate
NaCl


Aluminium sulphate
Sodium ethanoate


Cu(NO
3
)
2

Lead(ÌÌ) nitrate


Ìron(ÌÌÌ) chloride
FeBr
2

Lead(ÌÌ) sulphate
CaCO
3
Lead(ÌÌ) chloride
Barium sulphate
AgNO
3

Calcium chloride
NH
4
Cl
Potassium sulphate
Magnesium carbonate












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3 Preparation of saIts in the Iaboratory

O The method used to prepare a salt depends on the solubility of the salt, whether the
salt is a soluble or insoluble in water.







1






...................
2




3




4
.non-copper salts
.non-silver salts


Task 4

State the suitable acid and alkali / metal oxide / metal carbonate / metal for the preparation
of following salts

SaIt Acid aIkaIi/metaI oxide/metaI carbonate/metaI

(i) NaNO
3
HNO
3
.....NaOH(aq).........
(ii) K
2
SO
4
H
2
SO
4
...................
(iii) NH
4
Cl ..... .....NH
3
(aq) .........
(iv) CuSO
4
..... ...................
(v) ZnCl
2
..... ...................
(vi) CuCl
2
..... ...................
(vii) Pb(NO
3
)
2
..... ...................
(viii) ZnSO
4
..... ...................
(ix) MgCl
2
..... ...................
(x) Na
2
CO
3
..... ...................
SALT
[soluble in water?]
V|x|rg ol lWo aqueous so|ul|ors corla|r|rg lre |ors
ol lre |rso|uo|e sa|l.
Cal|or (aq) ÷ ar|or (aq) |rso|uo|e sa|l
Velrod : prec|p|lal|or/douo|e decorpos|l|or
Reacl|or : prec|p|lal|or/douo|e d|ssoc|al|or

eg : Po(N03)2 ÷ Na2301 Po301 ÷ 2NaN03
47 Po

(aq) ÷ 301
2-
(aq) Po301(s)
lrso|uo|e 3o|uo|e
Ac|d + A|ka|| sa|l ÷ Waler
[arror|ur sa|ls, sod|ur sa|ls ard
polass|ur sa|ls| ......ANaK??
Velrod : T|lral|or
Reacl|or : Neulra||sal|or

eg lC| ÷ Na0l NaC| ÷ l20
Ac|d + meta| ox|de sa|l ÷ Waler
(rela| rydrox|de)
eg 2lN03 ÷ Cu0 Cu(N03)2 ÷ l20
Ac|d + meta| carbonate sa|l ÷ Waler ÷ caroor d|ox|de

eg l2301 ÷ VgC03 Vg301 ÷ l20 ÷ C02
Ac|d + meta| sa|l ÷ rydroger gas

eg lC| ÷ Na NaC| ÷ l2
To prepare so|uo|e sa|ls olrer
lrar sod|ur, polass|ur ard
arror|ur sa|ls //
Nor-ANaK sa|ls
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Preparation of soIubIe saIts
1. ammonium, sodium and potassium salts
Flow chart
Acid + Alkali
Salt solution
Saturated salt solution
Salt crystals in saturated salt solution
Salt crystal
Dry crystal salt
Titration method
evaporation
cooling
filtration
drying

Reaction Acid + Alkali Salt + Water
Example HCl + NaOH NaCl + H
2
O
General HA + BOH BA + H
2
O
H
2
A + 2BOH B
2
A + 2H
2
O
















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Example 1

Preparation of sodium chIoride, NaCI crystaI

Apparatus : 25.0 cm
3
pipette, burette, 250 cm
3
conical flask, white tile, evaporating dish, filter paper,
filter funnel, glass rod, beaker, retort stand with clamp, tripod stand, wire gouge, bunsen
burner, filter paper

MateriaIs : hydrochloric acid 1 mol dm
-3
, sodium hydroxide solution 1 mol dm
-3
, phenolphthalein

Procedure :

1 [25.0] cm
3
of 1 mol dm
-3
_______________ solution is measured using 25.0 cm
3
pipette and
transferred into a conical flask
2 2 or 3 drops of _______________ are added into the conical flask.
3 A clean burette is filled with _______________ 1 mol dm
-3
. The initial reading of the burette is
recorded.
4 ___________ acid from the burette is added slowly into the _______________ solution while
shaking the conical flask, until the pink solution turns colourless. The final reading of the
burette is recorded.
5 Volume of _____________________ added to the sodium hydroxide solution is recorded
6 Step ___ to ____ are repeated without the using _________, using the volume of hydrochloric
acid obtained
7 The salt solution in the conical flask is poured into the _________________
8 The solution is ______________ until it becomes saturated
9 The hot saturated solution is _________ to room temperature for crystallisation to occur
10 The contents are ____________ to obtain the _______________ crystals
11 The crystals are ____________ between two pieces of filter paper to be ____________
12 The chemicaI equation :



Task 4 : Describe how to prepare the following salts in the laboratory;
(i) potassium sulphate
(ii) sodium nitrate





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Task 5
Give some more examples of ammonium, sodium and potassium salts.
State the reactants of an acid and an alkali to prepare the salt

SaIt Reactant
ChemicaI equation
Name
Fo rmula
Acid alkali

Ammonium
salts
Ammonium nitrate NH
4
NO
3
HNO
3
NH
4
OH



Sodium
salts
Sodium chloride NaCl NaOH



Potassium
salts
Potassium sulphate H
2
SO
4
H2SO4 + 2KOH K2SO4 + 2H2O




Preparation of soIubIe saIts

2 Soluble salts that are not from sodium, potassium and ammonium saIts can be
prepared by three methods. The reaction between
2.1 acid and metal oxide or metal hydroxide
2.2 acid and metal carbonate
2.3 acid and a metal

Examples insoluble salts
(i) zinc sulphate, _______________
(ii) _______________, Mg(NO
3
)
2

(iii) copper(ÌÌ) chloride, ____________
(iv) ______________, PbCl
2

(v) Calcium carbonate, ____________

Note
W metals that are less electropositive than hydrogen (Cu, Ag) do not react with acids
(method 2.3)
W Metals, metal oxides and metal carbonates are solids and do not dissolve in water


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Excise
1. Sodium sulphate can be prepare by adding ________________ to sulphuric acid
A sodium powder
B sodium carbonate powder
C sodium hydroxide
D sodium chloride

2 Which one of the following salts dissolve in water?
A Lead(ÌÌ) bromide
B Magnesium carbonate
C Silver chloride
D Ìron(ÌÌ) nitrate

3 Which is the most suitable method to prepare ammonium sulphate in the laboratory?
A acid + metal
B acid + metal oxide
C acid + alkali
D acid + metal carbonate

4 Write the chemical equation for the following reactions:
(a) hydrochloric acid + potassium hydroxide
...................................
(b) nitric acid + copper(ÌÌ) oxide
...................................
(c) sulphuric acid + magnesium
...................................
(d) hydrochloric acid + zinc carbonate
...................................
5 Write an ionic equation for each reaction between the following pairs of substances
(a) sulphuric acid, H
2
SO
4
and barium hydroxide, Ba(OH)
2
solution
.................................
(b) ammonium chloride, NH
4
Cl solution and silver nitrate, AgNO
3
solution
..................................
(c) lead(ÌÌ) nitrate, Pb(NO
3
)
2
solution and copper(ÌÌ) sulphate, CuSO
4
solution
.................................
(d) ammonia, NH
3
solution and ssulphuric acid, H
2
SO
4

................................
6 You are given magnesium nitrate solution.
How to prepare magnesium nitrate crystal?
.......................................
.......................................
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Preparation of InsoIubIe SaIt
Flow chart
Dilute acid (heated if necessary)
Salt solution and excess solids
The filtrate is the
dilute salt solution
Crystal of salt
metal oxide / metal carbonate/
metal is added little by little
until excess
filtration
- evaporation
- cooling
- filtration
- drying
The residue is
the excess solids








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ExampIe 1 Preparation of zinc chIoride, ZnCI
2
crystaI
Apparatus 250 cm
3
, glass rod, spatula, tripod stand, wire gauze, Bunsen burner, filter funnel,
retort stand with clamp, evaporating dish, 50 cm
3
measuring cylinder
MateriaIs 2 mol dm
-3
hydrochIoric acid solution, zinc oxide powder or (zinc carbonate/zinc powder)
filter paper
Procedure :

1. 50 cm
3
of 2 mol dm
-3
_____________ acid is measured using a measuring cylinder and
poured into a beaker
2. The ___________________ is heated in the beaker
3. ________________ powder is added little by little until excess
4. The contents are ______________
5. The filtrate is poured into an ________________
6. The salt solution is ____________ for evaporation to occur until it becomes ____________
7. The hot saturated solution is ___________ to room temperature for crystallisation to occur
8. The contents are _____________ to obtain the zinc nitrate crystals
9. The crystals are _____________ between a few pieces of filter paper to be dried
10. Observations
11. The chemicaI equation

Task 6 : Describe how to prepare the following salts in the laboratory;
(i) Zinc nitrate, Zn(NO
3
)
2

(ii) Magnesium chloride, MgCl
2

(iii) Ferum(ÌÌ) sulphate, FeSO
4


Preparation of insoIubIe saIts

O are prepared through precipitation reaction (or double decomposition method/reaction)
O reaction involves the mixing of two aqueous solutions containing the ions of the insoluble salt


+






Cation from a
soluble salt solution
Anion from a
soluble salt solution
InsoIubIe
saIt

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Example : To prepare insoluble lead(ÌÌ) iodide, PbÌ
2
(through precipitation reaction)

Material : lead(ÌÌ) nitrate, 1 mol dm
-3
, potassium iodide, 1 mol dm
-3
, distilled water

Apparatus : 250 cm
3
beaker, glass rod, filter funnel, filter paper, measuring cylinder

Procedure :

1 ____ cm
3
_______________ solution, 1 mol dm
-3
is measured using a measuring cylinder
and poured into a beaker
2 Add _____ cm
3
_________________ solution, 1 mol dm
-3

3 The mixture is ______________ with a glass rod
4 A _______________ is formed
5 The resulting mixture is then _______________
6 _____________ the residue with distilled water to remove impurities
7 The salt is ___________ between two pieces of filter paper to be dried
8
Chemical equation : + +

9
Ìonic equation : __________________________________




Task 7 : Describe how to prepare the following salts in the laboratory;
(i) silver chloride, AgCl
(ii) copper(ÌÌ) carbonate, CuCO
3

(iii) lead(ÌÌ) sulphate, PbSO
4


4. PhysicaI characteristics of crystaIs

PhysicaI
characteristics
of crystaIs




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5 Constructing ionic equation using the continuous variation method

O The ionic equation for the formation of an insoluble salt can be constructed
through the ________________________ method.

O The ionic equation for the formation of an insoluble salt can be constructed if
we know the number of _______ of cation and anion reacted together to
form ______ of insoIubIe saIt.

O Ìf x mol of reactant A reacts with y mol of reactant B, then the empirical
formula of insoluble salt is A
x
B
y

X (ion A) + y (ion B) A
x
B
y
(insoluble salt)

Example 1

2 mol of Ag
+
ions react with 1 mol of CrO
4
2-
ions to form 1 mole of silver
chromate(VÌ)

Ìonic Equation : 2Ag
+
(aq) + CrO
4
2-
(aq) Ag
2
CrO
4
(s)

Example 2

1 mol of Pb
2+
ions and 2 mol of Ì
-
ions to form 1 mole of lead(ÌÌ) iodide

Ìonic Equation : __________________________________________________





























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NumericaI probIems invoIving stoichiometric reactions in the preparation of saIts

CaIcuIation steps :

Step aA + bB dD + eE
reactant product
S1 Write the balanced equations
S2 Write the information from the question below the equation
S3 Change S2 information into mol using the mole concept
S4 Compare the mole ratio between the reactants and the products involved in the
reaction
S5 Change the information into the required unit using the appropriate formula.
Example :

Mol D = d
Mol A a

Mol D = d x mol A
a



The ReIationships between the Number of moIes, Number of
ParticIes, mass, moIarity, the VoIume of Gas
Number of
moIes
Mass (g) of
substance
Number of
particIes
VoIume of
gas (dm
3
)
× N
A
÷ N
A ÷ molar mass
× molar mass
× 22.4 at stp
× 24 at room conditions
÷ 22.4 at stp
÷ 24 at room condition
MoIarity
(Concentration)
× volume (dm
3
) ÷ volume (dm
3
)









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ExampIe 1

Ammonium sulphate, (NH
4
)
2
SO
4
is used as a fertilizer. 26.4 g of this salt is prepared by
neutralizing sulphuric acid acid, H
2
SO
4
with ammonia gas, NH
3
. calculate the volume of
ammonia gas reacted at room condition.
[relative atomic mass : H = 1, N = 14, O = 16, S = 32, molar volume of gas = 24 dm
3
mol
-1

at room condition]

Solution

S1

H
2
SO
4
+ 2NH
3
(NH
4
)
2
SO
4


S2


H
2
SO
4
+ 2NH
3
(NH
4
)
2
SO
4

volume? 26.4 g

S3

number of moles of (NH
4
)
2
SO
4
= mass___
molar mass

= 26.4 g___
132 g mol
-1

= 0.2 mol


S4


Mol NH
3
_____ = 2
Mol (NH
4
)
2
SO
4
1

The number of moles of NH
3
= 2 x Mol (NH
4
)
2
SO
4

= 2 x 0.2
= 0.4 mol

S5


The volume of NH
3
= number of moles x molar volume
= 0.4 mol x 24 dm
3
mol
-1

= 9.6 dm
3




The molar mass of (NH
4
)
2
SO
4


= [ 2(14 + 4) + 32 + 4(16) ]
= 132 g mol
-1
write a balanced chemical equation
calculate the number of moles of (NH
4
)
2
SO
4

Compare the mole ratio of NH
3
and (NH
4
)
2
SO
4

Calculate the volume of NH
3

Write the information from the question
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Calculate the number of moles of AgNO
3
and KÌ, n = MV
Write a balanced chemical equation

Calculate the mass of AgÌ
Mass = Number of moles x molar mass
Compare the mole ratio of AgNO
3
, KÌ and AgÌ
Deduce the number of moles of AgÌ

Write the information from the question
Example 2

Silver salts such as silver iodide, AgÌ are used in photography. A sample of the insoluble
silver iodide, AgÌ is prepared by mixing 50 cm
3
of 1.0 mol dm
-3
silver nitrate, AgNO
3
solution
and 50 cm
3
of 1.0 mol dm
-3
potassium iodide, KÌ solution. Calculate the mass of silver iodide,
AgÌ produced.
[Relative atomic mass : Ag = 108, Ì = 127]

Solution

S1


AgNO
3
(aq) + KÌ(aq) _____ (s) + _______ (aq)

S2


AgNO
3
(aq) + KÌ(aq) _____ (s) + _______ (aq)
50 cm
3
50 cm
3

1.0 mol dm
-3
1.0 mol dm
-3
mass ?

S3


The number of moles of silver nitrate, AgNO
3
= .............


The number of moles of potassium iodide, KÌ = ...........

S4



From the chemical equation above, 1 mol of silver nitrate, AgNO
3
reacts with
1 mol of potassium iodide, KÌ to produce 1 mol of silver iodide, AgÌ

From the step S3 : _____ mol of silver nitrate, AgNO
3
reacts with _____ mol
of potassium iodide, KÌ to produce ______ mol of silver iodide, AgÌ

OR write the ratio

Mol AgÌ__ = or mol AgÌ =
Mol AgNO
3
mol KÌ

Therefore, the number of moles of AgÌ = ..............

S5


The mass of silver iodide, AgÌ produced
= Number of moles AgÌx molar mass of AgÌ
= _____ mol x ________ g mol
-1

= ______ g
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B QuaIitative AnaIysis of SaIts


W Qualitative analysis is a chemical technique used to determine the identities of
chemical substances present in a mixture but not their quantity

W Qualitative analysis of salt is a scheme of tests carried out to identify the cation
and anion present in the salt, by

(a) observing the colour of salt or colour of the aqueous salt solution
(b) observing the solubility of the salt in water
(c) observing the effect of heat on the salt
(d) Ìdentifying the gas involved when a test is performed on the salt
(e) identifying the precipitate formed when a specific chemical reagent is
added to the aqueous salt solution
(e) carrying out confirmatory tests to confirm the identify of a cation or an
anion present in a salt

Cation/anion/saIt/ compounds SoIid Aqueous soIution
Salts [Ca
2+
, Mg
2+
, Al
3+
, Pb
2+
, NH
4
+
] White Colourless
CuSO
4
/ Cu(NO
3
)
2
Blue
CuCl
2
Blue
CuCO
3
Not soluble
FeSO
4
, Fe(NO
3
)
2
, FeCl
2
Green
Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
, Fe(NO
3
)
3
, FeCl
3
Brown
PbO Brown (hot)
... (cold)
Not soluble
ZnO .... (hot)
White (cold)
Not soluble
PbCl
2
Soluble in hot water













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6. Confirmatory test for severaI gases.









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Test for gases [Task 7]

Names of
gas
CoIour of
gas
Test on gas Description
Oxygen, O
2
Colourless



Ìnsert a glowing wooden
splinter is lowered into the test
tube containing the gas
(oxygen). The glowing splinter
is lighted / rekindle

Hydrogen,
H
2

Colourless

09od :



Obs0rva9on :

Carbon
dioxide,
CO
2

Colourless


Ammonia,
NH
3

Colourless







Hydrogen
chloride, HCl
Colourless








nitrogen
dioxide, NO
2

Brown










CO
2
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Effect of heat on saIts

W Some salts (ammonium, carbonate, nitrate and sulphate salts) will decompose when
heated

W hen a saIt is heated
(i) the colour change of the solid will give information regarding the type of cation
present
(ii) the type of gas evolved has to be identified and give information to the type of
anion present

Effect of heat on carbonate salts
All carbonate salts (except K
2
CO
3
and Na
2
CO
3
, not decompose) will decompose when
heated to release CO
2
gas






















Example 1 ZnCO
3
(s) ZnO(s) + CO
2
(g)

ZnCO
3
(s) hite coIour
ZnO(s) YeIIow coIour (hot)
hite coIour (coId)
CO
2
(g) Test by Iime water

Example 2 PbCO
3
(s) PbO(s) + CO
2
(g)

PbCO
3
(s) hite coIour
PbO(s) ....... coIour (hot)

....... coIour (coId)
CO
2
(g) Test by Iime water

Potassium carbonate, K
2
CO
3
do not decompose
Sodium carbonate, .....

Calcium carbonate, ..... . decompose to
Magnesium carbonate, .... metal oxide
Aluminium carbonate, ... and
Zinc carbonate, ....... carbon dioxide gas
Ìron(ÌÌÌ) carbonate, .....
Lead(ÌÌ) carbonate, .....
Copper(ÌÌ) carbonate, ....

Silver carbonate, ..... decompose to produce Ag,
carbon dioxide and oxygen

Ammonium carbonate, ... decompose to produce
ammonia gas, carbon dioxide
and water

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Task 8

8.1 Draw the correct labeled diagram for the set-up to test carbon dioxide gas
liberated when the carbonate salt is heated strongly.















8,2 Write a chemical equation to represent the effect of heat on carbonate salts

(i) magnesium carbonate

...............................
(ii) aluminium carbonate

...............................
(iii) Ìron(ÌÌ) carbonate

...............................
(iv) Ìron(ÌÌÌ) carbonate

...............................
(iv) lead(ÌÌ) carbonate

...............................
(v) Copper(ÌÌ) carbonate

...............................

(vi) silver carbonate

...............................

(vii) ammonium carbonate

...............................







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Effect of heat on nitrate saIts

All nitrate salt will decompose when heated


Effect of heat on nitrate saIts























Example 1 2Zn(NO
3
)
2
(s) 2ZnO(s) + 4NO
2
(g) + O
2
(g)



ZnNO
3
(s)

.... coIour

ZnO(s)

......coIour (hot)

....... coIour (coId)
NO
2
(g) Brown colour gas
O
2
(g)

Test by glowing wooden splinter


Example 2 2Pb(NO
3
)
2
________ + ________ + ______

PbCO
3
(s)
.... coIour

PbO(s)

......coIour (hot)

....... coIour (coId)
NO
2
(g)

O
2
(g)
Potassium nitrate, KNO
3
decompose to metal nitrite
Sodium nitrate, ..... and oxygen gas

Calcium nitrate, ...... . decompose to produce
Magnesium nitrate, .... metal oxide,
Aluminium nitrate, ... nitrogen dioxide gas and
Zinc nitrate, ....... oxygen gas
Ìron(ÌÌÌ) nitrate, .....
Lead(ÌÌ) nitrate, .....
Copper(ÌÌ) nitrate, ....

Silver nitrate,..... decompose to produce Ag,
nitrogen dioxide and oxygen

Ammonium nitrate, ... decompose to produce
nitrogen monoxide, N
2
O and
water vapour

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Task 9

Write a chemical equation to represent the effect of heat on nitrate salts above

(i) calcium nitrate

...............................
(ii) magnesium nitrate

...............................
(iii) aluminium nitrate

...............................
(iv) Ìron(ÌÌ) nitrate

...............................
(iv) Ìron(ÌÌÌ) nitrate

...............................
(v) lead(ÌÌ) nitrate

...............................
(vi) Copper(ÌÌ) nitrate

...............................
(vii) silver nitrate

...............................
(viii) ammonium nitrate



Tests for anions

(i) carbonate ion, CO
3
2-

(ii) chloride ion, Cl
-

(iii) sulphate ion, SO
4
2-

(iv) nitrate ion, NO
3
-



(i) Tests for carbonate ion, CO
3
2-


Procedure
W [3] cm
3
of sample (carbonate) salts solution is poured into a test tube
W A little dilute hydrochloric acid, HCl is added
W Gas produced is passed through lime water

Observation
W Effervescence occurs
W The limewater becomes milky



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(ii) Tests for chloride ion, Cl
-


Procedure
W [3] cm
3
of sample (chloride) salt solution is poured into a test tube
W Dilute nitric acid, HNO
3
is added untill in excess
W A little bit of silver nitrate, AgNO
3
solution are added

Observation
W White precipitates form

Ìonic equation,
Ag
+
+ Cl
-
AgCl

OR

Procedure
W [3] cm
3
of sample (chloride) salt solution is poured into a test tube
W Dilute nitric acid, HNO
3
is added untill in excess
W A little bit of lead(ÌÌ) nitrate, Pb(NO
3
)
2
are added

Observation





Ìonic equation,




(iii) Tests for sulphate ion, SO
4
2 ÷


Procedure
W [3] cm
3
of sample (sulphate) salt solution is poured into a test tube
W Dilute hydrochloric acid, HCl is added untill in excess
W A little bit of barium chloride, BaCl
2
solution is added

Observation
W White precipitates form (insoluble salt )

Ìonic equation,



(iv) Tests for nitrate ion, NO
3

÷

[Brown ring test]

Procedure



Observation

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Tests for Cations

The present of cations can be detected by using two common bench alkali
(a) sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution and
(b) ammonia. NH
3
solution

Procedure
W About 2 cm
3
of sample salt solution is poured into a test tube
W Sodium hydroxide solution, NaOH (or ammonia NH
3
solution) is added a little
by little until in excess while shaking it
W Observation is recorded on whether
- precipitate form
- the colour of precipitate
- solubility of the precipitate in excess sodium hydroxide solution (or ammonia
solution)

ChemicoI Tesf For Cofions in soIfs

ExompIes

Copper(II) ion, Cu
Z+

W [3] cm
3
of sample salt solution is poured into a test tube
W Add sodium hydroxide solution, a little by little until in excess.
W Blue precipitate not soluble.


(ii) Ìron(ÌÌ) ion, Fe
2+









(iii) Ìron(ÌÌÌ) ion, Fe
3+









Procedure
W 2 cm
3
of sample salt solution is poured into a test tube
W Add sodium hydroxide solution, a little by little until in excess.

Observation :

.......................................
Procedure



Observation

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SampIe soIution
+ sodium hydroxide soIution IittIe by IittIe untiI in excess
No precipitate
hite precipitate
SoIubIe in excess NaOH soIution
NH
4
+
hite precipitate
InsoIubIe in excess NaOH soIution
BIue precipitate
InsoIubIe in excess NaOH soIution
Green precipitate
InsoIubIe in excess NaOH soIution
Brown precipitate
InsoIubIe in excess NaOH soIution
Zn
2+
/ AI
3+
/ Pb
2+
Mg
2+
/ Ca
2+
Cu
2+
Fe
2+
Fe
3+


Task 10

Summarizes the identification tests for anions below in aqueous solution

Anion Test (procedure) Result (observation)

Chloride



Sulphate



Carbonate



Nitrate











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Task 11 : State the observation to identify of the cations below

Cation
(sampIe
soIution)
[5] cm
3
of sampIe saIt soIution is
poured into a test tube
Add sodium hydroxide soIution,
a IittIe by IittIe untiI in excess.
[5] cm
3
of sampIe saIt soIution is
poured into a test tube
Add ammonia soIution, a IittIe by
IittIe untiI in excess.

NH
4
+





Ca
2+





Mg
2+





Al
3+





Zn
2+





Pb
2+





Fe
2+





Fe
3+





Cu
2+





















KSCN solution
KFe(ÌÌÌ)(CN)
6
solution
Blue
precipitate
K
2
Fe(ÌÌ)(CN)
6
solution

Fe
3+
(aq) Fe
2+
(aq)
Reagent
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Task 12

Complete the diagram below


















......
precipitate
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Task 13

Complete the diagram below






















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Exercise

1 Which of the following salts is insoluble in water?
A Sodium chloride
B Lead(ÌÌ) sulphate
C Ammonium sulphate
D Potassium nitrate


2 Sodium chloride and sodium sulphate can be identified using
A dilute nitric acid
B potassium iodide solution
C lead(ÌÌ) nitrate solution
D barium nitrate solution


3 Which of the following ions form a white precipitate that dissolves in excess
sodium hydroxide solution?
Ì Al
3+

ÌÌ Mg
2+

ÌÌÌ Pb
2+

ÌV Zn
2+

A Ì and ÌÌ only
B ÌÌ and ÌV only
C Ì, ÌÌ and ÌÌÌ only
D Ì, ÌÌÌ and ÌV only


4 Which of the following ions form a white precipitate that dissolves in excess
sodium hydroxide solution?
Ì Al
3+

ÌÌ Mg
2+

ÌÌÌ Pb
2+

ÌV Zn
2+

A Ì and ÌÌ only
B ÌÌ and ÌV only
C Ì, ÌÌ and ÌÌÌ only
D Ì, ÌÌÌ and ÌV only

















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Structure

1 Table below shows the positive and negative ions in three salt solutions

Name of saIts Positive ion Negative ion
Copper(ÌÌ) sulphate Cu
2+
SO
4
2-
Sodium sulphate Na
+
SO
4
2-

Lead(ÌÌ) nitrate Pb
2+
NO
3
-

Use the information in Table above to answer the following questions

(a) What is another name for a positively charged ion?

...................................
[1 2ark]
(b) Name the ions in copper(ÌÌ) sulphate solution

...................................
[1 2ark]
(c) Write the formula for sodium sulphate

...................................
[1 2ark]
(d) When 10 cm
3
of 0.5 mol dm
-3
sodium sulphate solution is added to excess
lead(ÌÌ) nitrate solution, a white precipitate is formed

(i) Write the chemical equation for the reaction

...............................
[2 2arks]
(ii) Describe the chemical equation in (d) (i)

...............................
[1 2ark]
(iii) Name the white precipitate

...............................
[1 2ark]
(iv) Calculate the number of mole of sodium sulphate in the solution




[1 2ark]

(v) Calculate the mass of precipitate formed
[the relative atomic mass: O = 16, S = 32, Pb = 207]



[2 2ark2]


4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

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2 Table below shows four types of salts.






With reference to the salts given above, answer the following question :

(a) Write the chemical formula of sodium carbonate.

............................................................................................................................
[1 2ark]
(b) Name the salt which is insoluble in water.

............................................................................................................................
[1 2ark]

(c) (i) What is observed when zinc nitrate salt is heated.

................................................................................................................
[1 2ark]
(ii) Write the chemical equation to represent the reaction.

................................................................................................................
[2 2arks]

(d) State the type of reaction in the preparation of lead(ÌÌ) chloride salt.

............................................................................................................................
[1 2ark]

(e) Describe how to verify copper(ÌÌ) ion and sulphate ion in copper(ÌÌ) sulphate
solution.

Copper(ÌÌ) ion :

............................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................

Sulphate ion :

............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................

[4 2arks]




Sodium carbonate
Zinc nitrate
Lead(ÌÌ) chloride
Copper(ÌÌ) sulphate
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3 Table below shows Experiments Ì and ÌÌ in the preparation of salt


Experiment Method



I










II







(a) State one observation in Experiment Ì

........................................
[1 2ark]
(b) Based on Experiment ÌÌ
(i) state the reason why copper(ÌÌ) oxide powder is added in excess

.....................................
[1 2ark]

(ii) state how the excess copper(ÌÌ) oxide powder can be separated from the
products

.....................................
[1 2ark]
(iii) state the chemical equation for the reaction that takes place in Experiment ÌÌ

.....................................
[1 2ark]
(iv) calculate the maximum mass of the salt formed
[The relative atomic mass of O = 16, S = 32 and Cu = 64]







[2 2ark]
10.0 cm
3
of 0.1 mol dm
-3

sulphuric acid
20.0 cm
3
of 0.1 mol dm
-3

potassium hydroxide
+
phenolphthalein
Copper(ÌÌ) oxide
in excess
50.0 cm
3
of 0.1 mol dm
-3

sulphuric acid
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(c) Experiment Ì is repeated. Sulphuric acid is replaced by hydrochloric acid of the same
concentration. Predict the volume of hydrochloric acid required for a complete
reaction

..........................................
[1 2ark]

(d) There are several steps in the preparation of the salts in each of in the Experiment Ì
and ÌÌ. State one difference in the steps between the two experiments

.....................................
[1 2ark]
(e) (i) state the type of reaction in the preparation of a salt other than that in (e)(i)

.....................................
[1 2ark]





4 The diagram below shows series of reactions for the preparation of copper(ÌÌ) chloride from
copper(ÌÌ) carbonate.



















Based on the diagram,

(a) (i) name the solid X

........................................
[ 1 2ark ]
(ii) suggest how to change copper(ÌÌ) carbonate to solid X in step Ì.

.......................................
[ 1 2ark ]
(iii) explain how gas Y is identified.

.......................................

........................................................................................................................
[ 2 2arks ]


Copper(ÌÌ) carbonate
Solid X Colourless gas Y
Solution R
Copper(ÌÌ) chloride
Step Ì
Step ÌÌ
Excess solid X is added to dilute
hydrochloric acid
Step ÌÌÌ
+
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(iv) Draw a labelled diagram of the apparatus that you can use to produce solid X and
identify gas Y in step Ì.










[ 2 2arks]

(b) (i) Why is excess of solid X added to the heated dilute hydrochloric acid in step ÌÌ?

.........................................
[ 1 2ark ]
(ii) Write the chemical equation for the reaction in step ÌÌ.

........................................
[ 1 2ark ]

(c) Describe how copper(ÌÌ) chloride crystals are obtained from solution R in step ÌÌÌ.

..........................................

..........................................
[ 3 2arks ]

Essay

1 (a) The following are three examples of sulphate salts that can be prepared in the
laboratory

O Potassium sulphate, K
2
SO
4

O Lead(ÌÌ) sulphate, PbSO
4

O Zinc sulphate, ZnSO
4


(i) From these examples, identify the soluble and insoluble salts
(ii) State the reactants for the preparation of the in soluble salt in E1/07(i)

(b) With the aid of a labeled diagram, explain the crystallization method for
preparing a soluble salt from its saturated solution [6 m]

(c) Table below shows the observations from some tests carried out on salt X.


Test Observation
Ì : Heating of salt X solid A metal oxide is formed and a brown gas
is given off
ÌÌ : Salt X solution is mixed with
excess aqueous ammonia
A white precipitate which is insoluble in
excess aqueous ammonia is formed

Based on the information in Table above,
4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)

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(i) Ìdentify an anion that is present in Test Ì and describe a chemical test
to verify the anion [4 m]

(ii) Ìdentify two cations that are present in Test ÌÌ and describe a chemical
test to verify the cations [6 m]



2 (a) (i) Name a soluble salt and an insoluble salt.

(ii) Write a chemical equation for the preparation of each type of salt
given in (a) (i).
[4 2arks]

(b) You are given zinc nitrate crystals. Describe how you can perform a chemical
test to confirm the presence of zinc ions and nitrate ions in the zinc nitrate
crystals.
[6 2arks]

(c) You are required to prepare magnesium nitrate salt from the chemical
substances provided below.







Your answer should include all the chemical equations involved in the
reactions.
[10 2arks]





END OF CHAPTER 8
O Magnesium sulphate solution
O Dilute nitric acid
O Sodium carbonat solution