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Albania

Strategy and Action Plan for the Development of the Albanian Tourism Sector Based on Cultural and Environmental Tourism

December 2005

Tourism Strategy and Action Plan

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Strategy and Action Plan for the Development of the Albanian Tourism Sector Based on Cultural and Environmental Tourism

Incorporating Stakeholder Positions Based on Ministry of Tourism, Culture, Youth and Sports Position and Vision Paper

Report to the Ministry of Tourism, Culture, Youth and Sports December 2005

Process Facilitated by: Lawrence Pratt UNDP External Consultant

Tourism Strategy and Action Plan

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY I. Background and Process
The Ministry of Tourism, Culture, Youth and Sports has prepared a position paper titled “Toward a Strategy for Culture Tourism and Ecotourism Development.” The key elements put forth are: “Challenges for the preservation of the biodiversity and culture heritage as well as the economic growth based on: • Promotion of the importance of the nature and culture heritage and culture tourism and ecotourism development as a base for the new possible development; • …… • Providing sustainable management of tourism’s impact on nature and culture heritage sites. Linkages and advantages for involved sectors: • Income for the tourism industry through sustainable tourism, extension of the tourism season, growth of the tourism market with high expenditure tourists, • Improvement of the image of Albania in the world, • Better conservation of biodiversity and cultural heritage sites, • New employment and income generation from cultural tourism and ecotourism in the local communities; • Local residents will perceive benefits from local products” The consultant directed a process to review this vision within the overall framework of the 1993 Tourism Law and the directions and structure established by the 2002 Tourism Strategy. The objective was to establish a clear direction for a national tourism strategy oriented toward nature and culture-based tourism. The process and the resulting document present a synthesis and recapitulation of the Ministry’s position, as informed by meetings with a broad range of stakeholders.

II. Tourism Strategy Framework
A. The Objective of Tourism is to Advance Development Goals
The overall goal of tourism development for Albania is to increase the quality of life of a significant and increasing number of Albanians. Tourism development should be measured and evaluated in the medium to long term on its ability to advance the well-being of the Albanian people. More tourism does not mean necessarily more development or more income for Albanians. The type of tourism a country chooses to develop is the primary determinant of the contribution to the wellbeing of its people. An emphasis on nature and cultural tourism in Albania will maintain an important focus on benefiting rural and provincial communities that currently face limited economic opportunities and risk becoming unviable.

Tourism Strategy and Action Plan

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Vlora. Gyrokaster. as they prefer to interact directly in the communities they visit (shops. C. Specialized tourism products can and should be developed under the general umbrella. This segment does not make a strong distinction between cultural. managed in an environmentally and socially responsible manner. The understanding and appreciation – through the “discovery” of Albania – is how the country realizes its maximum tourism potential. The product is a presentation of a broad cross-section of Albania’s history. It offers the potential for dozens of distinct tourism activities in dozens of destinations. Albania’s core (primary) tourism product must be a general one that encourages visitors to discover the many facets of Albania’s culture and nature. NGOs and a number of other stakeholders. nature. Himara. natural and other tourism products. extensive documentation provided by the Ministry. but particularly in wealthy western countries and Japan. The country is safe. restaurants. Visitors in this segment tend to combine many different activities during their visit. Graphic one presents a simple schematic. UNDP. and site visits to Durres. This demographic segment spends considerably more for tourism products and their spending patterns are highly favorable for development. relatively affluent international tourists2. high-value tourism destination featuring an unparalleled variety of world-class natural and cultural attractions in a small geographic area. Butrint. living culture. Llogaraja. and other local businesses). cultural and natural attractions that are of great interest to international tourists. Experiences that unlock new discoveries for visitors are the most valuable tourism products in the world. Albania is not an easy tourism destination for international markets to understand.” Albania will seek to position itself as an attractive destination for tourists seeking a unique experience featuring high quality cultural sites and nature destinations presented in a truly “authentic” way. and its people are welcoming and friendly. 2 In most countries. Individually. 1 Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 4 . but few are unique or sufficiently compelling by themselves to draw international tourists. Saranda. It has a wide range of historic. the country is still “authentic. Strategic Positioning of Albania’s Tourism Sector “Albania is a safe.” It remains largely unspoiled by foreign influence. there is a direct correlation between level of education and income. archaeology. Most importantly. and Berat. cuisine and Based on the review of existing tour books. Albania’s central product will be the “discovery” of Albania. easily accessible to European tourism markets. all are interesting. General Assessment1 Albania is a beautiful and fascinating country.B. “Discovery” is of interest primarily to educated. broadening the diversity of products for the core tourism market and specialty markets. and usually see the various natural and cultural activities as part of the process of discovering the destination.

In keeping with the concept of authenticity. and respresenting more than 25% of the market. Indian Ocean islands. .creates spaces for the diverse local culture to express itself. within the existing infrastructure and proposed central tourism product. it is experiencing growth rates of no more than 2 to 4 percent per year. festivals. This approach opens more of the country to “discovery”. such as Greece. independent travelers and specialized group travelers. tourism visitation and development. complexity and beauty of the culture and the land.hospitality. lodging. diving. Justification Culture. Albania´s strength will be in creating value for tourists in a wide variety of geographic locations. and whose spending patterns will most contribute to advancing development goals. locally-owned businesses. While sun and sand tourism remains the largest tourism segment in international tourism. among others). The International Ecotourism Society (TIES. agriculture. and many others).ecotourism. undifferentiated packages) is losing ground to ecotourism. cultural tourism and adventure tourism. adventure and “ecotourism”3 are considered to be the fastest growing tourism markets worldwide – 15 to 20% per year. dining and other hospitality elements will be developed wherever possible in small to medium-scale. Albania will specialize in attracting educated. Albania has a unique opportunity to differentiate itself from neighbors and avoid a crowded market with decreasing revenues and profits. The principal target markets will be upper-middle income individuals from Europe (primarily northern Europe and the United Kingdom) and North America. hunting and fishing.4 Neighboring countries. This approach reinforces visitor connections with the cities and sites and creates greater income generation in the communities.permits the development of complementary specialty tourism markets (such as trekking. which: . culinary. Coastal Spain.” 4 World Tourism Organization 3 Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 5 . D. . the Caribbean. further crowding an already very crowded tourism market (which also includes North Africa. Turkey and Croatia are focusing their efforts on sun and sand tourism. in particular the particular customs and traditions of the various regions of the country. climbing. and benefit from. at www. Visitors participating in this discovery will leave with a lasting impression of the diversity.org) defined ecotourism as “responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of local people. Ensuring repeat visits and achieving “word of mouth” recommendations will be the key to sustainable tourism development. This ultimately will depend on the long-term quality of cultural sites and nature destinations and the overall experience of visitors based on the knowledge and interpretation of their guides. Traditional “sun and sand” tourism (large-scale. This segment represents the demographic segment with the highest willingness to pay for Albania’s unique products. archaeology.allows more provincial and rural communities to participate in.

Investment must be planned in the short. it is absolutely Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 6 . the sector will begin small. • Large-scale sun and sand tourism presented in all-inclusive packages in isolated tourism complexes will likely do great harm to the country’s efforts to build a high-value sector. III. medium and long term. While it will be possible to observe progress and measure advances with meaningful indicators. While the unique market position is born primarily of necessity. Tourism growth can be slow in the early years. or converted to other economic uses – nearly all of which offer much less long-term development potential than tourism. The country has the capacity today to receive substantially more overnight international tourists than it is currently receiving. Action Plan In operational terms. It requires investment of political capital across branches of government and between the private. The massive sun and sand tourism is a highly competitive segment that attracts primarily discount-oriented travelers. the tangible benefits critical for ongoing political support and commitment will be observed in the medium term. Success in international markets requires consistency in message and market presence year after year. the attractions will continue to be degraded. The arrival of large numbers of this tourism segment tends to make destinations much less attractive to higher-end tourists. A similar effect has been observed with the arrival of large cruise ships. The concept of sustainability is built into the strategic position by necessity. Albania appears to be ideally situated to meet the shifting demands of an increasingly nature and culture oriented tourism market. There are general tourism development that all countries face as they enter international markets. Without aggressive efforts to ensure the sustainability of the natural and cultural resources. Although the country is not ready for aggressive marketing to broad international markets. it is a powerful position in the international market place. Unfortunately. • • • IV. Without involving the local communities and providing real opportunities to participate in and benefit from the development process. and specific challenges related to establishing a successful nature and culture-based destination. If successful. Challenges The development of Albania’s tourism sector presents a number of challenges. the country is ready to move forward with its tourism sector. but grow rapidly as it gains a positive international reputation. are particularly critical. public and civil society sectors. for Albania there are no real alternative positions. Three however.Tourism focused on independent tourists visiting local communities and participating actively in nature and culture activities has been shown to yield 5 to 10 times more development benefit than large-scale sun and sand tourism per dollar of tourist spending. The nation as a whole cannot enter this commitment lightly. Albania cannot reasonably expect to maintain a market position capable of attracting international tourists. (described in more detail in the full document).

due to the interrelated nature of the identified challenges. the country must begin work immediately in a number of areas in order for tourism to grow effectively. The numerous challenges that Albania faces must be addressed.ready to receive tens of thousands of additional adventurous. However. The specific items of the Action Plan are presented as priorities in nine different areas. but most need not be solved prior to beginning tourism promotion. “pioneering” tourists who are willing to be flexible and “forgiving” in exchange for being among the first to experience a unique new destination. • Awareness and Marketing • Product Development • Investments in Nature Areas to Strengthen the Tourism Sector • Investments in Culture to Strengthen the Tourism Sector • Human Resources • Infrastructure • Business Climate • Enhancement of Tourist Experience • Data and Information Management Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 7 .

• Providing sustainable management of tourism’s impact on nature and culture heritage sites. and position papers developed by the Ministry as presented by Minister Leskay on November 23. It is not clear that the existing law can provide the necessary structure moving forward. Linkages and advantages for involved sectors: • Income for the tourism industry through sustainable tourism. as well as for management and development processes over time. The Tourism Law of 1993 The Tourism Law No. A. Background and Process This document was prepared as part of a short-term consulting process supported by the United Nations Development Program’s Albania Office. • Coordination of the strategic interest and activities among sectors. extension of the tourism season. and. This process takes as its basis the existing legal and policy framework (including the 1993 Tourism Law and the 2002 National Tourism Strategy). 1993 “Concerning the development of tourism priority areas” and its amendments provides the overarching legal framework under which the country’s tourism strategies have been developed. Youth and Sports.” The key elements put forth by the Minister of Tourism. 2005 to a broad group of stakeholders. 7665 of January 21. • Increasing the sponsorship and financial support for the tourism activities. The goal of the effort is to facilitate the process of strategy design and implementation directed by the Albanian Ministry of Tourism. The most critical relevant points for this law and by-laws were those issues the country faced at that point in its history. • Establishing the processes that provide for the involvement and engagement of all stakeholders. Among the areas of concern: Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 8 . Culture. • Improvement of the image of Albania in the world. • Local residents will perceive benefits from local products. Youth and Sports has prepared a position paper titled “Toward a Strategy for Culture Tourism and Ecotourism Development. Culture. Culture. Ministry Position Paper and Vision The Ministry of Tourism. • The design of a regulatory framework on cultural tourism and ecotourism development. • New employment and income generation from cultural tourism and ecotourism in the local communities. B. growth of the tourism market with high expenditure tourists.STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN I. Youth and Sports in the above document are: Challenges for the preservation of the biodiversity and culture heritage as well as the economic growth based on: • Promotion of the importance of the nature and culture heritage and culture tourism and ecotourism development as a base for the new possible development. • Better conservation of biodiversity and cultural heritage sites.

for education and training. which provides common guidance to all partners in the tourism industry. private sector operators and tourism industry associations and other related NGOs. It provides an operational and action-oriented strategy for establishing Albania in international tourism markets. The main macroeconomic objectives of the long-term tourism strategy of the tourism sector development are to: • generate jobs and income. • create a positive image of the country internationally as a tourism destination. source markets and target markets for Sun and Beach Tourism. This document presents a synthesis and recapitulation of the Ministry’s position. • increase the revenue of foreign currency and tax income for the government. and Urban Tourism/Business and Congress Tourism in the framework of strategies for the tourism products. • Development directions for the institutions in the tourism area.a. The objective is to establish a clear direction for a national tourism strategy oriented toward nature and culture-based tourism. tourism products. Among the most relevant aspects of this strategy are: • Pre-conditions for Tourism Development. and • Tourism development strategy implementation and the Action Plan for the period 20032006 The present document is presented within the overall framework of the 1993 Tourism Law and the directions and structure established by the 2002 Strategy. communication. C. b. but rather an appropriate response to the priority issues the country faced in 1993. as informed by meetings with a broad range of stakeholders. • accelerate economic and social development throughout the country. and for legislation and regulations in the frame of the institutional support. local government. distribution. The responsibilities for the department of tourism within the Ministry and all other ministries and institutions touching the field of tourism are not clearly defined. and strategic directions for the long-term tourism strategy. c. • initiate economic activities. There is a shortage of additional clarifying regulations for tourism development. Under the “Tourism Development Strategy in Albania” there is a specific objective to update the existing laws and regulations as a specific and comprehensive legal and regulatory framework. • improve living conditions in Albania. including: Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 9 . This strategy was the first concerted effort by the country to bring forth a concrete plan and objectives for the development of the nascent tourism sector. • Alignment of the Tourism Sector among ministries and central institutions. and • develop sustainable and environmentally friendly tourism. The existing law is not a modern and comprehensive law for the tourism development. with market related objectives. Tourism Development Strategy in Albania (2002) The Ministry of Territory Adjustment and Tourism presented in 2002 the “Tourism Development Strategy in Albania”. • Objectives. • Policy statement and vision for 2012. Special Interest Tourism.

The third is a discussion of the challenges that Albania faces in developing tourism. Appendix I presents a list of organizations and individuals contacted during the mission. recommendations and concerns were taken into consideration and analyzed in the context of the Ministry’s position paper. as well as Saranda. Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 10 .1) 2) 3) 4) 5) The Ministry’s Working Group Additional staff of the Ministry Staff of other Ministries NGO representatives in environmental protection and local government development Tourism industry participants (Tirana based. The second is a concise articulation of Albania’s strategic framework for achieving success in international markets. The first is the institutional background. and the fourth is an Action Plan to address priority areas. Gjirokaster and Berat. The various positions. individual business people and associations) 6) Multilateral and bilateral assistance programs and agencies. and based on the consultants’ experience on tourism development and mechanisms to support long-term development of nature and culturebased tourism. and their implementing organizations. The document is presented in four parts.

” More tourism does not mean necessarily more development or more income for Albanians. tourism focused on independent tourists visiting local communities and participating actively in nature and culture activities has been shown to yield 5 to 10 times more development per dollar of tourist spending than large-scale package-based tourism oriented sun and sand. Saranda. The country is safe. Gyrokaster.5 An emphasis on nature and cultural tourism in Albania will maintain an important focus on benefiting rural and provincial communities that currently face limited economic opportunities and risk becoming unviable. Himara. Vlora. and other human development objectives. the country is still “authentic. NGOs and a number of other stakeholders. The type of tourism a country chooses to develop is the primary determinant of the contribution to the wellbeing of its people. For example. The Objective of Tourism is to Advance Development Goals The overall goal of tourism development for Albania is to increase the quality of life of a significant and increasing number of Albanians. and its people are welcoming and friendly. It has a wide range of historic. UNDP. 6 5 Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 11 . In this regard. such as the country’s commitment to the Millenium Development Goals. and Berat. Less tangible benefits include the validation of local culture and traditions. education. and contact and interchange with people from other cultures. extensive documentation provided by the Ministry. and site visits to Durres. Tourism development should be measured and evaluated in the medium to long term on its ability to advance the well-being of the Albanian people. improved infrastructure. Butrint. General Assessment6 Albania is a beautiful and fascinating country. B. Tourism Strategy Framework A. the development impact of tourism can vary enormously. The vision established by the Ministry articulates this commitment: • • “Cultural tourism and ecotourism are the most important part of the Albania tourism product and successful elements of the national economy Ecotourism is a real alternative for the improvement of incomes within rural communities. Most importantly. Llogaraja. additional income for households (primary or supplementary).II. Even within geographic regions. The desired tangible benefits from a successful tourism strategy will be increased employment. in Central America. and enhanced tax revenue to contribute to improved health care. opportunities to keep younger generations interested in staying in (or returning to) their home towns.” It remains largely Inman et al 1999. it can (and should be) a piece of the country’s strategy toward meeting its pressing development priorities. cultural and natural attractions that are of great interest to international tourists. Based on the review of existing tour books.

However. For a non-Albanian. white cheese. wines. visitors prefer to visit several destinations. and handicrafts. adventure and culture. In addition. history ethnography and cultural traditions are substantially different across very small geographic areas. restaurants. and its potential value to international tourism markets very high. the MEDWET organization has produced an outstanding guidebook detailing the cultural and natural monuments. Visitors in this segment tend to combine many different activities during their visit. it is virtually impossible to understand and fully appreciate the country without substantial assistance. Experiences that unlock new discoveries for visitors are the most valuable tourism products in the world. 7 Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 12 . their spending patterns are highly favorable for development. it is this understanding and appreciation – through the “discovery” of Albania – that the country realizes its maximum tourism potential. Berat. history and nature.unspoiled by foreign influence. Saranda. Gjirokaster. and local culture expresses itself in every possible way on a regional basis – even town to town. and the AULEDA organization is working with local communities for small town bed and breakfast lodging focused on small towns with interesting nature and culture. guided cultural and nature tours. and usually see the various natural and cultural activities as part of the process of discovering the destination. It is precisely the combination of activities and destinations within the country that offers the best possibility of building a successful tourism sector. and how they spend their money in a country. olives and lamb have distinct flavors village to village. because of who they attract. all are interesting. There are already great advances in tourism product development in a number of cities.9 Discovery of Albania will depend on detailed explanations and interpretation that open the culture and its history to understanding by outsiders. 9 The Tirana. Its culture. natural and other tourism products. and other local businesses) and tend to purchase a great deal of locally provided products and services. It offers the potential for dozens of distinct tourism activities in dozens of destinations. history. geography and archeology are fascinating. During this period. This demographic segment spends considerably more for tourism products that include new experiences such as education. Albania’s geography and cultural are ideally suited to this approach. The discovery of Albania through its natural and cultural attractions is of interest primarily to educated. even to well-educated tourists. as they prefer to interact directly in the communities they visit (shops. relatively affluent international tourists8. there is a direct correlation between level of education and income. The country is complex. Individually. Albania is not an easy tourism destination for international markets to understand. with several possessing strategies and plans for multi-day itineraries based on their culture. Shkodra. but particularly in wealthy western countries and Japan. Korçe and Kruja regions are ready with interesting itineraries.7 The combination of these factors makes the country unique. Attitudes. With minimal additional effort. in particular excursions. Vlora. usually in 2 to 3-day blocks centered around a central location. For example in the Vlora regionm. For example. but complicated and not easily accessible. adventure experiences. This segment does not make a strong distinction between cultural. but few are unique or sufficiently compelling by themselves to draw international tourists. 8 In most countries. people live and work in traditional ways in much of the country. a number of itineraries could be designed to offer tourists guided tours of many combinations. Typical vacation periods for this segment are from 8 to 14 days.

Albania’s proposed strategic position can be articulated as: “Albania is a safe. high-value tourism destination featuring an unparalleled variety of world-class natural and cultural attractions in a small geographic area. Graphic 1: Core and Specialized Tourism Products C. broadening the diversity of products for the core tourism market and specialty markets. easily accessible to European tourism markets. managed in an environmentally and socially responsible manner.Albania must be sold on international markets as Albania. Albania does not have strong enough assets for its central marketing position to be either geographically-based (South versus North versus coast) or thematically-based alone (eco-tourism.” Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 13 . Albania’s core (primary) tourism product must be a general one that encourages visitors to discover the many facets of Albania’s culture and nature. Strategic Positioning of Albania’s Tourism Sector Based on the Ministry’s established direction and a clear validation of this position by a broad base of stakeholders. cultural monuments. etc). Graphic one presents a simple schematic. Specialized tourism products can and should be developed under the general umbrella.

high quality human resources.permits the development of complementary specialty tourism markets (such as trekking. tourism visitation and development.D. Albania’s central product will be the “discovery” of Albania. which: . independent travelers and specialized group travelers. climbing. bringing development opportunities to a broader section of the population. Albania´s strength will be in creating value for tourists in a wide variety of geographic locations. cuisine and hospitality.creates the basis for geographic linking of tourism with neighboring countries-increasing visibility and permitting tourism to develop in provincial and rural areas. agriculture. within the existing infrastructure and proposed central tourism product. and whose spending patterns will most contribute to advancing development goals. Ensuring repeat visits and achieving “word of mouth” recommendations will be the key to sustainable tourism development.broadens the products offered. This segment represents the demographic segment with the highest willingness to pay for Albania’s unique products. and benefit from.creates spaces for the diverse local culture to express itself. In keeping with the concept of authenticity. This ultimately will depend on the long-term quality of cultural sites and nature destinations and the overall experience of visitors based on the knowledge and interpretation of their guides. . General Strategy Albania will seek to position itself as an attractive destination for tourists seeking a unique experience featuring high quality cultural sites and nature destinations presented in a truly “authentic” way. . appropriate infrastructure. strengthening the range and diversity available to visitors. among others). lodging. archaeology. hunting and fishing. Visitors participating in this discovery will leave with a lasting impression of the diversity. creative design of products. . true to its culture. culinary. The product is a presentation of a broad cross-section of Albania’s history. .allows more provincial and rural communities to participate in. dining and other hospitality elements will be developed wherever possible in small to medium-scale. locally-owned businesses. Albania will specialize in attracting educated. Tourism growth will be driven and supported by conscientious marketing. living culture. in particular the particular customs and traditions of the various regions of the country. diving. nature. archaeology. Albanian tourism will grow “organically” as an authentic destination. International best practices in nature and culture tourism. This approach reinforces visitor connections with the cities and sites and creates greater income generation in the communities. complexity and beauty of the culture and the land. and a tourism “business climate” with clear rules of the game and appropriate structures to ensure its long-term economic viability. Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 14 . The principal target markets will be upper-middle income individuals from Europe (primarily northern Europe and the United Kingdom) and North America. hospitality and logistics will be studied and adapted to Albania’s specific needs and cultural context. This approach opens more of the country to “discovery”. festivals. history and natural environment.

at www. While sun and sand tourism remains the largest tourism segment in international tourism. “Theme” travels centered on special-interest activities such as discovery and adventure. further crowding an already very crowded tourism market (which also includes North Africa. sports. together with municipalities. Justification Albania has excellent tourism development potential. the Government of Albania (GoA) must. are the trends in tourism preferences. undifferentiated packages) is losing ground to ecotourism.To create a virtuous cycle of sustainable development based on tourism. the Caribbean. adventure and “ecotourism”10 are considered to be the fastest growing tourism markets worldwide. 4. cultural tourism and adventure tourism. Culture. which have characterized the development of mass tourism since the 1970s. Tourism focused on independent tourists visiting local communities and participating actively in nature and culture activities has been shown to yield 5 to 10 times more development benefit than large-scale sun and sand tourism per dollar of tourist spending. and education are increasingly popular. with nearly 5 million annual tourists. Coastal Spain. Traditional “sun and sand” tourism (large-scale. parks. it is experiencing growth rates of no more than 2 to 4 percent per year.org) defined ecotourism as “responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of local people. No. tourism operators. and NGOs. Tourists now evaluate a country’s environmental responsibility and conservation efforts. E. Turkey and Croatia are focusing their efforts on sun and sand tourism. Consumers from developed countries may change their buying decisions based on the perception of negative environmental impacts or performance. Neighboring countries. and create an identifiable position in the international market place based on the discovery of the country.11 Meanwhile. with annual growth rates of 15% projected through 2010.ecotourism. Many cultural and natural resource attractions are of very high quality and would likely receive high levels of visitation if they were more widely publicized within target populations. Their popularity points to a switch away from “passive” resort-based vacations. Studies conducted by INCAE (Inman 1999) and others have shown that Costa Rica’s nature-based sector keeps nearly 50% of 10 The International Ecotourism Society (TIES. the full range of nature-oriented tourism could represent as much as half of all tourism. and growth rates in the 20% range. Albania has a unique opportunity to differentiate itself from neighbors and avoid a crowded market with decreasing revenues and profits.” 11 World Tourism Organization 12 WTO. and many others). More important for Albania.13 Depending on the definition. markets for cultural tourism are currently believed to represent more than 60 million tourists per year. cities and protected areas that are the core assets of its tourism sector. protect and enhance the sites. Indian Ocean islands. and has shown spectacular growth rates for more than a decade. such as Greece. however. 2001 by Travel and Tourism Intelligence 13 Travel and Tourism Intelligence (TTI) Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 15 .12 Adventure tourism is another small but rapidly growing segment. Albania can position itself successfully upon its impressive comparative advantages of high quality sites in a close geographic area. Travel and Tourism Analyst.

Data on Central American tourism visitation shows that tourists who come to experience a mix of natural and cultural attractions (including beaches) spend 25% more per stay than their exclusive “sun and sand” counterparts. and presents challenges due to declining prices and little contribution to the local economy. it is a powerful position in the international market place. for Albania there are no real alternative positions. 14 Deshazo. Mexico’s sun and sand sector (based on massive all-inclusive resorts) keeps slightly more than 10% in the country.total tourist expenditure (excluding airfare) in the country. Its individual destinations are attractive. but still compete with a wide variety of destinations. Albania appears to be ideally situated to meet the shifting demands of an increasingly nature and culture oriented tourism market. in a unique cultural context. In addition. and the relative proximity of those attractions. where Cancun. to a large number of domestic and international tourists. Unfortunately.14 The experience tourists seek is increasingly valued not only on the quality of destinations or activities. While the unique market position is born primarily of necessity. Trends in tourism visitation worldwide clearly identify nature and culture tourism as the fastest growing segment and with very large numbers of potential tourists. tours. equipment. Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 16 . but also on the conformity of the lodging facilities and management practices with environmental guidelines. but not unique. This was an inference drawn by the author from several studies conducted in Central America conducted by the Harvard Institute for International Development. What makes Albania unique is the close proximity of a rich variety of attractions. Nature and culture tourism presents fewer alternative destinations. overall spending and the multiplier effect of Costa Rican expenditures (guides. Sun and sand tourism competes with very many countries. Italy and Turkey. George. crafts) tend to be greater. Ancient ruins of better quality for international tourists can be found in Greece. 1997.

behavior. Market Intelligence. The nation as a whole cannot enter this commitment lightly. the general associations with Albania range from neutral to negative due to recent history. There are many products and countries competing for the attention of travelers. • • • • • Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 17 . buses and airplanes) is a necessary condition.III. The country will need to invest in market information and knowledge to pinpoint opportunities and fine-tune products and services. and specific challenges related to establishing a successful nature and culture-based destination. A. Without this data. Overcoming previous conceptions of and associations with Albania. Telecommunications and internet are an important and increasingly necessary component for tourism sector promotion and communication (by operators and local tourism offices) and for visitors. One of the advantages of an emphasis in natural and cultural tourism is that the requirements for specialized infrastructure are minimal. Challenges The development of Albania’s tourism sector presents a number of challenges. academia. However. spending. Albania risks wasting substantial investment and precious time. Investment must be planned in the short. It requires investment of political capital across branches of government and between the private. institutes. mini-buses. Albania faces significant challenges in all these areas. public and civil society sectors. There are general tourism development that all countries face as they enter international markets. tourist profiles and other characteristics. local governments. Further. and increasing interest in the type of experience Albania has to offer. travel agencies and publications. medium and long term. but also to avoid conflict and provide reliability in investment and decision-making. Albania will need to invest substantially in domestic data collection and management systems to monitor and analyze tourism visitation. Without detailed knowledge of tourism markets and the expectations of the target segments’ expectations and desires. A successful tourism sector for Albania will require the effort of number of ministries. Coordination among a large number of governmental institutions. Initial research points to a “non-image” among tourism professionals. tourism planning is virtually impossible and scarce resources will be wasted. Success in international markets requires consistency in message and market presence year after year. the basic capacity to safely move tourists (in cars. Infrastructure. international agencies. success also requires a number of new or adapted mechanisms to ensure consistency and coordination. There is interest in new destinations. but it will require a coordinated effort. Internal data. In certain target markets. as well as NGOs. and bilateral assistance programs. General challenges for Albania in tourism development • • Establishing a clear market position in a crowded marketplace.

There are no “recipes. urban planning. there is an identified shortage of qualified hospitality personnel at all levels and in all regions. and in provincial areas in particular will also present challenges. A number of alternative tourism strategies have proven to be non-complementary. In addition. The arrival of large numbers of this tourism segment tends to make destinations much less attractive to higher-end tourists. among others. Without involving the local communities and providing real opportunities to participate in and benefit from the development process. infrastructure development. Without a serious investment commitment. Very high-quality tour guides are perhaps the most critical success factor for Albanian tourism. to the maximum extent possible. • The concept of sustainability is built into the strategic position by necessity. environmental protection. Tiranabased institutions and international experts.B. and will need to be aggressively recruited and trained. International experience. While there is considerable local capacity in the larger cities and identified cultural centers. the products themselves must represent. Local-national issues. Limited language skills (English in particular) across these categories. However. Without aggressive efforts to ensure the sustainability of the natural and cultural resources. The massive sun and sand tourism is a highly competitive segment that attracts primarily discount-oriented travelers. many cities and towns will require substantial amounts of additional support from the central government. while meeting the general expectations of international tourists.” Albania’s tourism products must be authentic. The nature and culture tourism segment is highly dependent on very specialized human resources. Large-scale sun and sand tourism presented in all-inclusive packages in isolated touirsm complexes will likely do great harm to the country’s efforts to build a high-value sector based on nature and culture. Nature and culture tourism require substantial involvement of local governments in tourism planning. Developing a successful sector requires substantial levels of investment in infrastructure. or converted to other economic uses – nearly all of which offer much less long-term development potential than tourism. historic preservation and living culture. and potentially harmful to building high-value tourism. knowledge and best practices should be sought aggressively to inform decisions and plans for the country. the attractions will continue to be degraded. A similar effect has been observed with the arrival of large cruise ships. the country will not be successful. Specific Challenges for Nature and Culture Tourism A strategy focusing on nature and culture tourism presents a variety of additional challenges beyond the general ones. The country will need qualified managers for natural and cultural sites. marketing. natural area management. Albania cannot reasonably expect to maintain a market position capable of attracting international tourists. an authentic Albanian approach. • • • • • Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 18 . cultural preservation. The most likely outcome will be the adoption and adaptation of strategies and mechanisms from a number of countries’ best practices in different regions of the world. human resources.

• Tourism growth can be slow in the early years. If successful. Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 19 . the tangible benefits critical for ongoing political support and commitment will be observed in the medium term. but grow rapidly as it gains a positive international reputation. While it will be possible to observe progress and measure advances with meaningful indicators. the sector will begin small.

The country has the capacity today to receive substantially more overnight international tourists than it is currently receiving. However. The specific items of the Action Plan are presented as priorities in nine different areas. Awareness and Marketing Albania must work at multiple levels to: increase awareness of the country. outfitters. In operational terms.IV. establish a credible internet-based presence. etc). consolidate a unifying theme to link the country’s tourism product with international markets. Albania has not managed this aspect of its public image very successfully. due to the interrelated nature of the identified challenges. • Awareness and Marketing • Product Development • Investments in Nature Areas to Strengthen the Tourism Sector • Investments in Culture to Strengthen the Tourism Sector • Human Resources • Infrastructure • Business Climate • Enhancement of Tourist Experience • Data and Information Management 1. convince market opinion-leaders that the country is worth visiting. legal and institutional structure. nature and culture provide excellent opportunities for senior officials to communicate Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 20 . the country is ready to move forward with its tourism sector. “pioneering” tourists who are willing to be flexible and “forgiving” in exchange for being among the first to experience a unique new destination. Although the country is not ready for aggressive marketing to broad international markets. the country must begin work immediately in a number of areas in order for tourism to grow effectively. Coverage in the international press continues to be neutral to negative. a) Awareness and positive association This must be a diplomatic and political effort. increase positive associations with Albania. but most need not be solved prior to beginning tourism promotion. Tourism. The numerous challenges that Albania faces must be addressed. it is absolutely ready to receive tens of thousands of additional adventurous. Action Plan This section presents a plan for the country to advance its tourism sector and tackle its principle challenges within the context of the strategy presented above and the existing policy. and establish a sustainable structure for continued marketing efforts. hotels. increase contact between specialized outbound travel companies in target markets and local tourism companies (inbound operators.

1 Development of a national tourism press kit and stand. It is very important that Albanians abroad feel proud and willing to visit Albania with relatives and friends. US and northern Italy). Action Item 1. The model of validation can be depicted as concentric circles (see Graphic 2). Action Item 1.2 Increase positive media coverage in target markets. the most important opinion-leaders are frequently writers and publishers of articles. he or she should set aside time to promote tourism to select audiences and to the media. For a destination such as Albania. The process includes creative design process. UK.positive messages. The country needs professional assistance in selecting and designing a theme that reflects the national cultural and environmental strategy. testing of the concept in various target markets and other steps to guarantee the strength and clarity of the message. Albania must be more aggressive in communicating positive messages in target markets. b) Consolidate a unifying theme to link the country’s tourism product with international markets Today Albania is using a number of different themes to present itself – two can be found on the official tourism website. They must be supported by the national unifying theme presented in “b)” below. video. and the image the country wishes to portray to the world. and others in different promotional materials. Positive news on natural and cultural issues should provide substantial benefits. with printed materials. Every time the Prime Minister or other senior officials visit a target market country (particularly Germany. consuls and even ambassador’s should be briefed on the use of the prepared materials and provided with frequent news feeds to create opportunities for advancing a positive image.4 Hire an international public relations firm with experience in the strategic positioning of tourism destinations. scripts and other materials to permit easy presentation of the country in any priority location. culture and travel. and guidebooks oriented toward nature. Action Item 1. This is imperative. There are decades of experience.3 Work closely with Albanian Diaspora. journals. science and art behind the design of market positioning. Action Item 1. For example Mexico has developed a campaign welcome home Paisano (Countryman). This takes away focus and could eventually create confusion. Commercial officers. press officers. analysis of potential opens. knowledge. Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 21 . and connects these with a message that finds a proven resonance within the target market group that the country is seeking to attract. with each ring looking to the next inner ring for advice and recommendations. Occasionally they are travel companies known for “discovering” new destinations. c) Convince market opinion-leaders that the country is worth visiting Specialized products are only successful in the tourism market if their qualities are “validated” by respected opinion leaders.

6 Invest in presence in high quality “paid” magazine space. Specifically.3. and • Rough Guides (UK) to consider including Albania in their portfolio of guide books.5. to determine which publications and information sources the desired target market uses to make decisions to travel to a destination.” Sub-item 1.1 Albania must conduct a study. The specific selection of publications should be based on the research conducted in 1. Sub-item 1.1 above. in conjunction with the public relations firm identified above.Graphic 2: Concentric circles of information marketing Action Item 1.5 Engage in an aggressive effort to increase Albania’s visibility in opinionleader publications. d) Increase contact between specialized outbound travel companies in target markets and local tourism companies Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 22 . a secondary objective is to identify the decision processes of the “pioneering visitors. Action Item 1. Marketing professionals argue that a good article about a product or destination in a credible publication is worth 5 to 10 times more than the same amount of paid advertising space in the same publication.2 Increase coverage and currency of Albania in tour guidebooks directed at independent “adventurous” travelers. • Lonely Planet Guides (UK) to produce a dedicated guide (rather than appearing in shared Eastern Europe one). Since much of early-stage tourism development is by “word of mouth”. Certain publications with high credibility (in particular National Geographic and National Geographic Traveler) decide on much of their editorial content based on paid advertising space (X pages of advertising space “entitles” the purchaser to Y pages of editorial content from national geographic staff and photographers). Albania should convince: • Bradt Travel Guides Ltd (UK) to expand and update its excellent travel guide.5.

” Positive results can be of varying quality. • Creation of an Albania tourism forum. • Search engine placement. • A linked private sector portal to provide easy access to tourism industry participants. linked to numerous sites and monitored and responded to daily by a tourism promotion program person. Action Item 1. attached to the national tourism website. Action Item 1. Albania will need to identify seed capital for this fund. Information experts can assist the Ministry and the private sector in strategies to ensure the national website and other sites rank in the top of “Google searches.8 Establish an International Tourism Fair in Albania.albaniantourism. And it sends a message that the country is “open for business. restaurants. The Minister of Tourism. lodgin.Action Item 1. Albania should implement a mechanism used by a number of countries. The national unifying theme must be the overarching position presented in the show. Youth.7 Increase presence at major fairs where nature. such as inbound operators. All funds collected from the special tax (ranging from 2 to 5% applied to all hospitality businesses) are dedicated toward tourism marketing. Culture. not just individual organizations.” Design of a comprehensive internet presence strategy that includes: • A second generation of the National Tourism Organization’s website to include more detailed explanations and information on routes. A dedicated tourism marketing fund is financed by a special tourism tax.9 Strengthen Albania’s presence on the internet. but lack of presence is universally regarded as bad.10 Establish a permanent financial structure that ensures a consistent marketing budget each year and allocation of that budget toward nationally agreed-upon marketing priorities. International expertise on tourism fair organization should be secured. The best place to show Albania is Albania. outfitters.com) is a good initial effort to ensure ensuring that potential visitors can find basic information on the country. culture adventure and “alternative” tourism destinations are featured. and allow for approximately one year to ensure proper organization and communication. Albania’s participation in these fairs must be coordinated under the unifying national theme to maintain focus on the message and with clear objectives to achieve as a country. Sports recently reiterated his support for a Fair in 2006. Annual budgeting and expenditures are agreed upon by a special tourism promotion committee (or Board) comprised of Ministry representatives and the tourism sector. and contact with licensed tourism companies and the private sector portal. Best practices in planning suggest that Albania evaluate the best available times slots on the international calendar. The National Tourism Organization’s web site (http://www.” f) Establish a sustainable structure for continued marketing efforts Action Item 1. but could conceivably make it a revolving fund in a relatively short time – replenishing the fund with dedicated tax revenues Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 23 . etc. Trade fairs are considered by most countrypromoters as a “necessary evil. e) credible internet-based presence.

and generate the necessary conditions for effective synergies between tourism and the areas. with substantial legislation and technical expertise. The recently published compact disk “Albania Nature Monuments. With the assistance of the national government. full days. and perhaps even its viability. Action Item 2. Nature areas (in particular protected areas) are one of the three “jewels in the crown” of Albanian tourism.3 Set up simple tour offices in each major tourist city. they are not yet a reality. two days. Action Item 2. information and interpretation. and can take longer than tourism markets are willing to wait. Budget constraints have led to institutional limitations that threaten the legitimacy of the system.” produced by the Ministry of Environment with support from the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) Small Grants Program is an outstanding contribution to this effort. While strategy and national planning is a “top-down” function. guide services and a variety of other features that determine the quality and value of a destination. restaurants. at its core. Touirsm development has evolved with a regional focus. The routes will be presented with detailed information. hotels. Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 24 . local government and civil society sector in each region.2. food. photographs and other materials in electronic and printed form. the development of the type of tourism sector Albania desires is predominantly “bottom-up. each tourism center must articulate recommended tourism itineraries for visitors – designed in blocks of half days. With shared funding and infrastructure.2 Establish and publish recommended tourism routes and activities for each city-region. Investments in Nature Areas to Strengthen the Tourism Sector Albania has a long tradition in protected areas management. each of the current cities of tourism importance must have an office (even if in shared office space or in another government office) that has at a minimum. transportation companies and. A continuation of this evolution is natural and desirable. tour guides. The country cannot be successful in the long term without significant investment in upgrading and continued maintenance of the core natural assets that form the underlying basis for the sector. While there are many areas and budget needs. health facilities. The second step will be to design a support plan to assist the local actors in whatever way resources permit. Establish mechanisms to support local efforts to bring culture and nature products to market. Action Item 2. if practical a telephone to help connect tourists appropriately.1. The first step of this process is to identify the needs of the tourism sector. etc. complete with recommended sites and activities. stores. Product Development The general tourism strategy establishes the overall framework for tourism centered on the discovery of Albania through its nature and culture. the private sector and NGOs. the following priority areas are those of most critical importance to involve the protected areas effectively in tourism development. a responsible person with up to date listings of attractions. 3. While these offices exist on paper for some cities. lodging. Albania must begin to invest now. and distributed on the web and in print format to visitors. centered around the principal cities and their surrounding areas. because the costs of remediation of damage are high. on the ability of the local areas to effectively organize themselves to convert their natural and cultural assets into a viable tourism product.” Nature and culture tourism depends.

This effort will focus on three particular aspects of Dajti to begin to educate Albanians on the importance of “enjoying and caring for parks. Eco-systems (particularly forests and wetlands) provide extremely valuable services to the economy that are not traditional market goods (e.3 Instill a culture of “National Park” among Albanians. scenic beauty. providing complementary funding such as additional investments channeled from private contributors or international donors. among others.1. New mechanisms and structures must be established to ensure increased funding for nature areas’ protection and tourism development. Sub-item 3. The plans should be environmentally conservative (erring toward protection in absence of complete management plans). Albania must establish an accelerated process for establishing tourism plans in a number of identified priority nature areas with tourism relevance (due to the attraction itself and its proximity to tourism centers).1. if the funds are used to maintain or enhance the park.” De-militarization. Action Item 3.” --usually private foundations (with government sanction and representation). These ecosystems provide: water capture and filtration. particularly in dry season when water is more scarce (or energy purchase prices are higher). management plans require very complex processes that consume large amounts of financial and human resources and can take years.2. Many countries are beginning to establish internal markets to recognize the value and correct economic distortions that lead to suboptimal land use..3 Environmental services payments. park entrance fees are a type of environmental service payment. Albania must explore the wide variety of funding mechanisms (traditional and non-traditional) that can be directed at natural areas.15 Sub-item 3. The most common mechanisms used at an international level are: a) “National Parks Foundations. Maintain and expand the fiscal mechanism currently used for hunting and forestry revenues. in several countries hydroelectric generators pay land owners (including protected areas) to maintain or increase forest cover in their watersheds in order to ensure water flow. they have no price). Sub-item 3. wildlife and biodiversity hosting. Traditional protected area management calls for the development of comprehensive management plans that include tourism plans as a component. In theory.2 Accelerate the development and approval of tourism plans for nature areas. Lead time for successful proposals is typically one to two years from initial approach to approval of the project. While this is the technically correct approach. Sub-item 3. recreational space.g. beginning with Dajti. which are maintained in special accounts with 70% automatically designated for re-investment in nature areas.1. reinvestment of entrance fees and waste management should be the program priorities.1 An aggressive search for additional external funding. Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 25 .1.1 Establish long-term financial mechanisms. The country needs trust funds or a foundation capable of operating outside the Ministry of Finance to channel complementary resources.4 Establish new financial mechanisms to direct funds toward nature areas. that can be managed more simply under established rules administered by a trustee(s). and b) “Nature Trust Funds” specialized funds usually managed for specific purposes such as biodiversity conservation and reforestation activities. and be discussed formally and informally with a broad group of stakeholders to establish a consensus “best professional judgment” on visitor strategy. 15 For example. Action Item 3.Action Item 3. carrying capacity and infrastructure needs. climate control (global and local).

1 An aggressive search for additional external funding. without financial assistance or the use of new economic instruments.2. Cuba recently started a programme in old Havana).2. Properly enforced zoning and planning laws establish the rules and permitted behavior.2 Increase the cost-share for rehabilitation of historic buildings for inns and other tourism infrastructure. Many prime cultural locations in other countries charge as much as $10 or $20 for admission for foreign visitors. Austria. “foundations” and “trust funds” have proven to be successful in many countries. As with natural resources. Action Item 4. In those cases where owners wish the buildings to become part of the tourism Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 26 . Albania must increase investment now. and cultural patrimony is frequently irreplaceable and represents a loss to national identity. the following priority areas are those of most critical importance generate the necessary conditions for effective synergies between tourism and the areas. because the costs of remediation of damage are high. Action Item 4.1. Switzerland.1 Establish long-term financial mechanisms.1.1 Explore the successful (and unsuccessful) experiences of other countries in establishing economic mechanisms for historic preservation in private buildings (the U. The high cost of maintaining the nation’s privately owned historic buildings is beyond the economic capacity of many (if not most) owners. As with the protected areas mechanisms (discussed above). UK.3 Establish new financial mechanisms to direct funds toward conservation areas. France and Spain are recognized leaders in this area. The current system of sharing the costs of refurbishment of important buildings (particularly homes) appears to be functioning in Gjirokaster and Berat. Economic analysis (travel cost modeling and contingent valuation) can assist in establishing correct prices for major destinations. Sub-item 4. However. Investments in Culture to Enhance Tourism Development Albania has a long tradition in cultural preservation. Inserting cultural patrimony into the tourism sector may be a viable strategy. However. Charge modest to substantial admissions fees of visitors to sites to help defray the costs of operating them. Sub-item 4. As tourism continues to expand. the country cannot be successful in the long term without significant investment in upgrading and continued maintenance of the core cultural assets that underlie its tourism position.1. While there are many areas and budget needs. The country needs trust funds or a foundation capable of operating outside the Ministry of Finance to channel complementary resources. Sub-item 4. Albania must explore the wide variety of funding mechanisms (traditional and non-traditional) that can be directed at natural areas. with substantial legislation and technical expertise. Sub-item 4. New mechanisms and structures must be established to ensure increased funding for cultural site protection and tourism development. The needs for cultural preservation in a country with such a rich history will always exceed its ability to protect and restore.2. there will be increased pressure from entrepreneurs wishing to build cheaper structures instead of refurbishing historic ones. Sub-item 4. Lead time for successful proposals is typically one to two years from initial approach to approval of the project.4.2 Economic Mechanisms to slow destruction of historic buildings and districts.S. historic buildings will deteriorate (following the law) or be torn down (violating the law).

Sub-item 4. well documented and placed in an “official national calendar of cultural events. The increasing importance of the country’s natural and cultural sites will require more sophisticated management expertise. and links to tourism companies capable of providing services. park and site directors tend to be well-trained technical personnel (foresters.3.infrastructure. etc). There are three complementary strategies to be explored.” This information should be published on the national tourism website. Today.1 Publicize existing events. palaces.4. or trained and authorized private guides for hire). Ensuring repeat visits and achieving “word of mouth” recommendations will be the key to sustainable tourism development.3 Spain has had outstanding success with its system of “Paradores”. Action Item 5. Sub-item 4. important dance and music performances. religious events. Skills such as planning. Sub item 4. The most common weakness cited by Albanian and foreign visitors to the country’s museums is the lack of meaningful interpretive information (in Albanian or English).4 Support. trained guides (part of museum staff. at a minimum. local town celebrations. and new electronic guiding systems (recorded information under visitor control). Human resources Albania must invest in several critical human resources for the tourism sector to develop effectively. the expenditure of additional government funds can be justified as the building will be increasing visitation.2 Train Natural and Cultural Site Managers.3 Improved cultural access in museums. Action Item 4. Albania has a great number of these events that should be. the knowledge and interpretation provided by the country’s best tour guides will be perhaps the single most important factor for successful tourism development.2.2 Develop a long-term plan to direct government and private sector support to priority cultural events of interest to foreign visitors. Educated tourists willingness to pay for high quality guides is very high. photographs and soundbites. spending and revenue in the medium term. It will also provide income generating opportunities for currently underemployed university graduates in relevant fields.1 Begin a pilot project in the National Historical Museum to implement an electronic guiding system. curators. architects) who generally lack the training (or interest) to be effective managers. Action Item 5. monasteries and other unique buildings of Spanish patrimony” in a network of “high quality” historic hotels and inns. Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 27 . 5. A great number of tourists seek to plan their travels to coincide with important folk events (dance and music competitions. Because of the complexity of Albania.1 Establishment of an “Elite” Tourism Guide Corps. An Elite Guide Corps will become the hallmark of Albanian tourism and differentiate it from the generally mixed quality of tour guides found across Europe. Sub-item 4. Living culture is a highly sought-after tourism product. Action Item 4. Similarly France has been successful in promoting a national network of “Auberges” and “Chalets” with similar goals. feast days. In many high quality nature destinations they are among the highest paid employees in the tourism sector. promoting the use of “castles. descriptions of the activities. and include history of the event.4. enhance and publicize cultural events and folk festivals. Printed material for individual galleries.

Albania faces significant challenges in all these areas. Action Item 5. 2) Completion of road from Shkodra to Thethi to connect the extreme northern region with the rest of the country for tourism and trade. nature and culture preservations in addition to traditional hotel and management training.3.3.2 Vocational training for young people. among others. cooking. In the Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 28 . project management. Albania will require many more well-trained individuals in order to support an international tourism sector.3 Train hospitality professionals and staff. particularly those in provincial and rural areas possess the basic foreign language skills to needed to effectively conduct their jobs. Sub-item 5. Albania is a remarkably multilingual society. Infrastructure One of the advantages of an emphasis in natural and cultural tourism is that the requirements for specialized infrastructure are minimal. and 2) investigate strategies for recruiting and educating future managers to assume the new challenges. Highways are culturally “sterile” and are not valuable for purposes other than rapid delivery of tourists. and way of life. carpentry.1 Ensure that the tourism faculties at the Albanian universities are preparing managers for the type of tourism Albania seeks to develop. However.4 Enhance language skills. The following are the priority areas of action. Telecommunications and internet are an important and increasingly necessary component for tourism sector promotion and communication (by operators and local tourism offices) and for visitors. people. accounting.” Many adults currently in the sector or wishing to enter the sector need and desire the opportunity to improve skills or acquire new ones. the basic capacity to safely move tourists (in cars.1 Improvements to two critical roads in the North. hotel service. Action Item 5. Secondary roads of touristic importance (for example. Additional effort needs to be directed at ensuring that tourism industry personnel. driving. 1) Improvement of approximately 19km of road connecting Lura National Park with the National road to permit passage of vehicles other than 4-wheel-drive during summer tourist months. The tourism sector will require trained individuals in areas such as plumbing.3 “Continuing Education. buses and airplanes) is a necessary condition. Sub-item 5. English and German are top priorities. mini-buses.3. taxi. The tourism sector and a number of supporting programs cite this aspect as one of Albania’s weakest. Sub-item 5. 6. human resource planning. Kelcure to Berat) should be made passable to regular vehicles in the most economic manner possible . Current road conditions and lack of alternative transportation make the southern region unnecessarily far from the rest of the country. and others are critical skills.2 Maintenance of secondary national roads. Natural and cultural tourist experiences are greatly enhanced by moving visitors (by bus.3 Connect the South. culture. Action Item 6. Action Item 6. electricity. This should include course work on Albanian history and traditions. rental car) on secondary roads. maintenance. There are two priorities in this area: 1) identify appropriate mechanism to train current managers in the required skills. It is the secondary roads that provide the opportunities to see Albanian towns. these routes create opportunities for tourists to spend money in villages that are not their destinations. Travel on these secondary routes permits tour guides to take advantage of numerous opportunities to explain Albanian culture and history. restaurant service. Action Item 6.budgeting. Further.

There should be clear but simple incentives to encourage the tourism Action Item 7. Business Climate A successful tourism sector requires a stable and rather sophisticated business climate. 7.16 Sub-item 6. continued improvements of the highway between Vlora and Saranda will help. Business sectors grow more successfully with a regulatory framework that is clear and ensures that all actors are playing by the same set of “rules of the game. it is imperative to provide additional means to access the south. The priority is to conduct rapid feasibility studies for simple airstrips and related buildings and equipment in Saranda. Increased usage of the systems by local tourism business could help defray the costs of operating the networks. Albania must establish clear and simple mechanisms for informal actors in the tourism sector to formalize.2 Calibrate to international tourism standards. Several priority items will make positive advances toward building s healthy business climate. High quality access permits local businesses to market their products directly and maintain more direct and fluid contact with their customers and suppliers. and for the financial viability of private airplane service.3. Internet access is also an important and valued service for international guests.3. However.5 Improve Signage.2 Study the feasibility and financial viability of sea routes connecting Durres. The tourism sector is stronger.4 Increase rural and provincial connectivity. Berat and Korça. and do not unnecessarily impede formalization. Locals estimate that dozens of business people are currently paying $120 for taxi service to Tirana each week. One of the most convenient mechanisms to encourage this is the active promotion (by government and the private sector) of 16 Conversations in Gyrokaster suggested that there is likely ecconomic justification for airplane service based solely on business travelers alone.1 Formalization of the tourism sector. cultural monuments and natural sites. travel by sea is an attractive alternative for many tourists and would likely be popular among a large number of tourists and locals. Action Item 7. Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 29 . Action Item 6. such as inclusion in the national website and a voice in how tourism promotion funds (to which the contribute) will be spent have proven effective in many countries. The lack of signage makes navigation complicated for local professionals and nearly impossible for visitors. The government needs to ensure that licensing and other requirements are appropriate.1. Albania must encourage its tourism companies to compete at the highest levels of quality. Sub-item 6. Action Item 6. In addition to providing an additional connection mode. There is a shortage of road signs indicating the direction to towns. The specific action item is to explore ways of collaborating with the Ministry of Education and Science’s new “Internet to Schools Project” to connect all schools in the country to internet. Cutting the trip from more than five hours to less than one hour would be valuable for business people and visitors.short-term. Vlora and Saranda. The country must move to provide domestic airplane service. Gjirokaster. It will be incumbent on the private sector (particularly its associations) to push formalization as a necessary and important part of the associations’ work.” Albania’s tourism business climate is unclear at this time. Low-cost incentives. Internet and telephony are extraordinarily important for tourism development.

While poor quality roads are surmountable. transport and logistics.3 Design and establish a National Tourism Quality program. Water-borne and insect-borne (mosquito and tick) disease currently present significant health threats. Local governments require resources. The mostly costly evasions of rules for Albania are those that lead to destruction of cultural patrimony or deterioration of visitor quality. These advisories are normal in many parts of the world and are considered valuable information rather than deterrents to tourism. and national authorities 8.adherence to international standards. ice and street food. Albania must review its system and adjust it to meet the current position of its tourism sector and revenue generation needs. Albania should begin an initiative to incorporate quality principles in parallel with the growth of the sector. In the short to medium term. they expect a country (particularly a European one) to take reasonable provisions for their safety. “Blue Flag” certification for beaches (coasts and lakes). At a minimum the country and the tourism sector need to advise visitors on sanitation precautions -. Enhancement of Tourist Experience Action Item 8. Green Globe 21 for sustainable tourism practices. organic agriculture. the combination of poor roads.4 Update the tourism taxation system. and encourages avoidance). It is easier to establish good practices with a small sector and replicate them. undisciplined drivers and high speed is of great concern.5 Provide strict enforcement of urban plans in coastal areas and historic districts. Long-term solutions are needed for drinking water and irrigation water integrity. Widespread use of these standards raises quality.2 Increase disease prevention awareness. Among the most relevant are the international “stars” system for lodging classification. Action Item 7. The national government and the tourism sector must assist them in these areas. Action Item 7. culture sites. and various EU standards for transportation. and makes it more obvious which companies are lagging behind. Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 30 .avoid tap water. nature sites.1 Improve safety on roads. tour guidebook authors and a number of local experts are: Sub-item 8. While tourists understand that there is some risk in all travel. and to bring appropriate clothing and repellent to avoid mosquitoes and ticks. Achieving high levels of quality in all tourism services (lodging.1 Prevent Physical Risk to Visitors. guides) will be an important characteristic differentiating Albania from its competitors. which is out of step with current best international practice. tourists need to be advised of health risks and basic measures to avoid them. The death of a tourist or group of tourists could virtually shut-down the country´s newly developing sector. The four greatest concerns identified by international visitors. Action Item 7. 2) the tax is too highly concentrated on hotels (which artificially inflates a visible factor in tourist decisions to visit the country. An initial review suggests that 1) the system is not collecting enough tax overall relative to prices and other countries. food. Albania must avoid the death or severe illness of tourists at all costs. knowledge and political will to maintain control over land use. Countries with diverse tourism sectors such as Peru are currently embarking on strategies to ensure customer satisfaction within the context of nature and culture tourism.1. and food safety. 3) none of the funds collected from tourists directed to strengthening the sector.1. Sub-item 8. as well as wastewater management.

or political problems.3 Reduce rubbish in tourism areas. poultry. peaceful country like Albania. and deteriorates the quality of the tourism product that the country is selling to international markets.1. Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 31 . particularly in provincial and rural areas where the country seeks to develop tourism. projects a very negative image. it is not true for tourism in a very safe. The tourism towns.2 De-militarization of tourism destinations. Solutions to this problem must include improved municipal waste collection service (public or private). A system of doctors and translators on-call in tourism areas should be complemented with protocols for deciding when and where tourists will be moved. and the message received by visitors is that the Albanians do not love or respect their towns or their culture. Local attitudes toward trash are troubling. Action Item 8. The levels of trash are shocking to most foreigners.Sub-item 8. in coastal areas and mountain destinations is a strongly negative factor. This is not a recommendation for the military to cease its functions for providing security. it is a recommendation that certain practices and policies be reconsidered as they relate to tourism development in a number of critical areas. river and lake destinations visitors and locals literally participate in activities in their own sewage (and that of the town they are visiting). Inappropriately managed sewage is of great health concern.violence. rivers roads. In coastal. Sound management is critical for the long-term viability of the tourism sector. Priority areas should include 1) personal hygiene.3 Improve food safety practices through education campaigns in the hospitality sector and vocational schools. While substantial investment in equipment in personnel is not viable at this time. in coastal tourism destinations. The heavy police presence on roads. Unfortunately. in particular) in a country that is remarkably free of crime . and massive community-organized clean up campaigns. It is very common in developing and transition economy countries for the prevailing attitude to be that more police and military presence implies more security for locals and visitors. Action Item 8. and certain mountain destinations. the country should employ systems and protocols for attending to sick and injured tourists through existing mechanisms. this system would inspire confidence and be seen as a highly attractive feature. Action Item 8. This is particularly noticeable in the form of roadblocks. This presence sends a message of insecurity to foreign visitors (European and North American. The lack of infrastructure and language skills in the country’s health sector is weak. campaigns to make locals aware of the impact of the problem. Sub-item 8. 2) application of best practices in the handling of meat. and could become an attractive feature showing how responsible Albania is being with its core tourism resources. Other countries have established tourism development as an economic priority of vital national importance.4 Wastewater management.4 Emergency medical attention. fish and shellfish. Given the somewhat elevated risks to tourists in Albania. Albania must put in place a national system for treating visitors who become seriously ill or injured. to where.1. while this may be true in certain cases and certain situations. placing it on an even footing with other national security priorities. 3) water temperature and cleaning techniques. and lakeshores are embarrassingly covered. and logistical mechanisms. Effective management of wastewater must be an integral part of the development of locations.

and distributing timely data to the tourism industry and other relevant stakeholders. Institutional Issues Success for Albania in international tourism markets will require a higher level of cooperation and fluidity among government ministries. public and civil society organizations. but were clearly in need of instructions and formal direction from their management. seen. the comprehensive legal framework for tourism development.1 Ministry Data Department. The Ministry will make this data available to researchers to assist in its analysis. and believed to be a priority at the highest level of the Albanian government. Inc are the most widely used tourism data sources. internationally-developed methodology for systematically collecting and presenting domestic tourism information.2 Maintain and Analyze International Tourism Data.9. 2. it is unlikely that sufficient focus or cooperation among the various instances of government will be possible. Culture. were willing and able to contribute their knowledge and institutional expertise. between local and national government. Establish an office within the Ministry responsible for collecting. Data and Information Management Data on international tourism markets and comprehensive data on the Albanian sector are absolutely essential to tourism planning. The WTO has promoted a comprehensive. Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 32 . related planning and development process. regional and local level. support for regional administration and tourism organization at the national. Item 9. marketing and monitoring.3 Implement the Tourism Satellite Accounts (TSA) data system. analyzing. and is responsible for the set-up. Action Item 9. Without this visible level of commitment. Based on the various meetings in which the consultants participated. This approach permits countries to collect meaningful data and track impact at various levels within the economy and compare the data domestically and internationally. The main responsibilities of the involved ministries include: 1) The Ministry of Tourism. Included in this system is the comprehensive collection of survey data from international visitors. Action Item 9. High Level Support It is imperative that nature and culture tourism development be made. B. Youth and Sports is the lead Ministry for the overall process. World Tourism Organization (WTO) and Menlo Consulting Group. This data should be shared with collaborating university and NGO researchers to increase analytical capacity. 1. Youth and Sports. The Ministry’s WTO repository status allows the Ministry to receive large amounts of high quality market intelligence and data on international tourism. further informing tourism planning and development. implementation and monitoring of the National Tourism Strategy. the technical staff of the various ministries and institutes understand the importance of this effort. and among private. Ministerial Level Coordination The implementation of the Strategy will require a comprehensive and strong leadership process from the Ministry of Tourism. Culture. as well as a very close collaboration of other line ministries and central institutions.

and materials for educational programs for tourism professionals. but in the smoothest most expedient way without unnecessary steps or hurdles. particularly in the area of taxation policy and related frameworks. supporters and facilitators of local government processes to develop tourism. handbooks. 5) The Ministry of Agriculture and Consumers’ Protection is responsible for the development and implementation of strategies for rural development. Public-Private.2) The Ministry of Public Works. Forests and Water Administration. Local Government The local governments will require varying degrees of assistance and support in procedural issues and subject matter expertise. procedures. websites for cultural tourism sites. Culture. The first priorities for the national government are to: 1) Establish a clear “road map” for local governments on how to develop tourism in their towns. They tend to be very unclear on how to proceed administratively and institutionally for receiving appropriate authorizations and approvals.Civil Coordination The successful implementation of the cultural tourism and ecotourism strategy will require the involvement of public. Steps. Most of the cities and regions of tourism interest have substantial human resources on culture and nature issues. Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 33 . development of the sea transport and civil aviation transport in the priority heritage areas. 3) Channel available assistance funds to local government directly (project-based) and through NGO programs that assist these governments. Youth and Sports) are critical for providing the needed information for the handouts. and a very clear understanding of the tourism destinations and products in their areas. 2) Find ways to streamline the process to ensure that all rules are followed and requirements fulfilled. as well as for the issues related to quality and safety of food and beverages. private sector and NGOs. which will assist and support with grants to the municipalities and communes included in the itineraries for culture and nature tourism. guides and others. information requirements. 4) The Ministry of Environment. 3) The Ministry of Interior is a supporting ministry. is responsible for environment policies and sustainable management of nature resources that will offer the opportunity for the development of tourism in protected areas. 7) The Ministry of Finance is a key ministry for tourism development. road maintenance or investment for new tourism roads. including development of tourism in rural areas. Transport and Communication is a supporting ministry responsible for urban planning. and accessing complementary human and financial resources. 8) The Archeology Institute and the Culture Monument Institute (under the Ministry of Tourism. as well as coordination of activities among them. 3. sustainable use of resources. The highest priority for the Ministry and other ministries is to become allies. 4. payback schemes as well as for the environment impact assessment of tourism. access rules. assistance available – and seek to assist them through this process. 6) The Ministry of Education and Science provides education and training for qualified tourism workers. and could develop specific curricula for local tourism guides and operators in the regions with high tourism potential.

The sector is responsible for developing accommodations. Albanian Hotels Association and other tourism related NGOs provide services of value to their members and provide legitimate voices for the sector in discussions with government. tour and travel operations. Albanian Tourism Operators Union (ATOU). on-site infrastructure. They are important allies in the tourism development process that should be included wherever possible in planning and operations programs to improve regional destinations. collaboration in attracting foreign tourisst. At this time. hospitality facilities. Albania’s tourism associations are key institutions in the development of the tourism industry. and training management and staff. Priorities for future efforts identified by association include: relationship with the Government. Albanian Tourism Agencies Association (ATAA). environmental and governance NGOs appear to have the greatest level of experience and knowledge in cultural and nature sites in many regions. Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 34 . marketing activities. They also have a lot to contribute to destination management based on their knowledge of tourist expectations and market. logistics and others.Private sector operators will take the lead on product development. They also possess specific skills in planning and processes of local government development.

Mr. Gezim HALILI Ministry of Tourism. Aleksandra HAXHI Ministry of Tourism. Mrs. Tirana Head of Albania Tourist Operators Union. Genc METOHU Ministry of Tourism. Aben CICO 5. Mrs. Edlira BARDULLA Ministry of Tourism. 2005 Ministry of Tourism. Mr. Aleksandra HAXHI Ministry of Tourism. Youth and Sports Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 35 . Albert DUBALI Ministry of Agriculture and Consumers’ Protection. Mrs. Thimaq LAKO 9. Culture. Mr. Culture. National Entity of Tourism 6. Mrs. Culture. Youth and Sports 4. Tirana Head of Albania Traveling Agents Association. Mrs. Sulejman DASHI Institute of Culture Monuments 12. Director of Tourism Development Directorate Ministry of Tourism. Culture. Culture. Youth and Sports. 2005 1. Mr. Youth and Sports 3. Arlinda KONDIMinistry of Tourism. Youth and Sports. Genc METOHU of Tourism 3. Forests and Water Administration. Directorate of Rural Development 9. Director of National Entity of Tourism 5. Mr. Mrs. Nuri XEPA Ministry of Education and Sciences 11. Mr. November 24. Youth and Sports. Culture. Tirana UNDP Consultant for the Cultural Tourism and Ecotourism Development UNDP National Consultant Ministry of Tourism. Franka PALOKA 2. Enver MEHMETI 7. Director of Tourism Development Directorate 2. Sadik MALAJ 6. Franka PALOKA MEETING WITH STAKEHOLDER GROUP FROM PRIVATE SECTOR Tirana. Lawrence PRATT 8. Mr. Ismail HOXHA 4. Mr. Culture. Erida MUKA Ministry of Agriculture and Consumers’ Protection. Mr.Annex I List of Meetings and Participants MEETING WITH STAKEHOLDER GROUP FROM PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS Tirana. Culture. Youth and Sports 1. National Entity Director of ALBANTOURS Travel Agency. Mr. Youth and Sports. Mr. Thimaq LAKO UNDP National Consultant 14. Mrs. Tirana Head of Hotels’ Association. Youth and Sports. Culture. Mr. Arjana KOCA Ministry of Environment. Mr. Lawrence PRATT UNDP Consultant for the Cultural Tourism and Ecotourism Development 13. Dezdemona LAME Ministry of Finance 7. Directorate of Rural Development 10. November 24. Directorate of Nature Protection 8. Mr.

Urban Planning Directorate UNDP Consultant for the Cultural Tourism and Ecotourism Development UNDP National Consultant Ministry of Tourism.MEETING WITH WORKING GROUP. Mr. Thimaq LAKO 6. Aleksandra HAXHI Ministry of Tourism. National Entity of Tourism Ministry of Tourism. Mr. Lawrence PRATT 5. Transport and Communication. Co-PLAN UNDP Consultant for the Cultural Tourism and Ecotourism Development UNDP National Consultant MEETING WITH STAKEHOLDER GROUP FROM PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS Tirana. 2005 1. Mr. Mr. Tourism Development Directorate Ministry of Public Works. Marieta MIMA 2. Dritan SHUTINA 5. 2005 1. November 24. Elian REJSI 4. Mr. Thimaq LAKO 6. Lawrence PRATT 5. Franka PALOKA 2. Mr. Mrs. Mr. Culture. Culture. Mrs. Culture. Youth and Sports. Transport and Communication. Mr. Road Planning Directorate Ministry of Public Works. Tirana Director of Institute for Habitat Development. Youth and Sports. Thimaq LAKO Executive Director of Environmental Center for Administration and Technology (ECAT) Tirana EDEN Center. Mrs. Culture. Youth and Sports UNDP Consultant for the Cultural Tourism and Ecotourism Development UNDP National Consultant Ministry of Tourism. Mr. Culture. Merita MANSAKU 3. Mr. Marenglen PORECI 3. November 25. Ertenka CABEJ 2. Aleksandra HAXHI Ministry of Tourism. Culture. Director of Tourism Development Directorate Ministry of Tourism. Youth and Sports Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 36 . Co-PLAN Program Coordinator. Mr. Mrs. Youth and Sports MEETING WITH NGOs RELATED TO CULTURAL TOURISM AND ECOTOURISM Tirana. Tirana Head of Aquarius NGO. Lawrence PRATT 7. Florjan NURI 6. Gezim HALILI 4. Genc METOHU 3. November 24. Andrian VASO 4. MINISTRY OF TOURISM Tirana. 2005 1. Youth and Sports. Mr. Mr. Mrs.

Mr. AULEDA. Pranvera DAUTAJ 2. Mr. Mr. Tirana UNDP National Consultant MEETING WITH STAKEHOLDER GROUP FROM BERATI DISTRICT Berat. Tirana UNDP National Consultant MEETING WITH STAKEHOLDER GROUP FROM SARANDA DISTRICT Saranda. 2005 1. Mr. Tirana UNDP National Consultant MEETING WITH STAKEHOLDER GROUP FROM GJIROKASTRA DISTRICT Gjirokastra. Mrs. Saranda UNDP Consultant for the Cultural Tourism and Ecotourism Development UNDP Assistant Resident Representative. Sokrat KERRI 3. Mr. Mr. Mr. Anesti PECI 2. Petrit DERVISHI 4. Mr. Batkhuyag BALDANGOMBO 6. Sinoida MARTALLOZI 4. Gjirokastra “Beautiful Gjirokastra” Project. Mrs.MEETING WITH STAKEHOLDER GROUP FROM VLORA DISTRICT Vlora. Tirana UNDP National Consultant Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 37 . Vlora Executive Director of Local Economic Development Agency. Lindita LUZO 2. Berat Tourism Hunting Agency. Mr. Thimaq LAKO Administrator of Tourism Hunting Agency. November 27. Batkhuyag BALDANGOMBO 5. November 28. Lawrence PRATT 3. November 29. Thimaq LAKO Deputy Regional Coordinator of “Beautiful Gjirokastra” Project. Thimaq LAKO Administrator of “Terini Travel Agency”. Lawrence PRATT 5. Lawrence PRATT 4. Batkhuyag BALDANGOMBO 6. Fatos DEMIRI 2. Lawrence PRATT 5. Thimaq LAKO Director or Touristic village of Llogara. Mr. Mr. Mrs. 2005 1. Mr. November 26. Mr. Mr. Institute of Culture Monument. Mr. Elton QENDRO 3. Mr. 2005 1. Mr. Mr. Vlore Manager of Vlora Coastal Zone Management MedWet Project UNDP Consultant for the Cultural Tourism and Ecotourism Development UNDP Assistant Resident Representative. Hasan HALLKO 3. Gjirokastra UNDP Consultant for the Cultural Tourism and Ecotourism Development UNDP Assistant Resident Representative. Batkhuyag BALDANGOMBO 4. Berat Guide. Berati Branch UNDP Consultant for the Cultural Tourism and Ecotourism Development UNDP Assistant Resident Representative. 2005 1.

Youth and Sports. Advisor 6. 2005 1. Lawrence PRATT 3. Youth and Sports Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 38 . Mrs. Thimaq LAKO Ambassador of Austria UNDP Consultant for the Cultural Tourism and Ecotourism Development UNDP National Consultant MEETING WITH WORKING GROUP. December 1. Mr. Chief of Culture Heritage Sector 4. Agron GJEKMARKAJ Ministry of Tourism. Alma KOSPIRI 2. Mr. Youth and Sports Director of Maps and Books Directorate 7. Culture. MINISTRY OF TOURISM PRESENTATION OF DRAFT STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN Tirana. Thimaq LAKO SME and Trade Development Specialist Activity Manager for Agriculture UNDP Consultant for the Cultural Tourism and Ecotourism Development UNDP National Consultant MEETING WITH AUSTRIAN EMBASSY Tirana December 1. Lawrence PRATT UNDP Consultant for the Cultural Tourism and Ecotourism Development 8. Mr. Genc METOHU of Tourism 3. Culture. Armando BORA 2. Mr. Mr. Mr. 2005 1. Youth and Sports. Mr. Director of Culture Heritage Directorate 5. Mr. Culture. Mr. National Entity Ministry of Tourism. Culture. Mr. Vaso TOLE Ministry of Tourism. Culture. DERKOWITCH 2. Youth and Sports. Gentian COCOLI Ministry of Tourism. 2005 1. Youth and Sports. Mr. General Director of Culture and Tourism Directorate Ministry of Tourism. Aleksandra HAXHI Ministry of Tourism. Gezim HALILI Ministry of Tourism. Lawrence PRATT 4. Culture. Mr. Youth and Sports. Thimaq LAKO UNDP National Consultant 9. Mr. Mrs. Kristaq JORGJI 3. Culture. Mr.MEETING WITH USAID EXPERTS Tirana November 30.

Orikum and Narta Ecosystems: Ecological values. Ministry of Touris. “Preparation of the New Management Plan for Dajti National Park. Tirana. Albania. July 2005. “Agritourism. National Tourism Organization website at http://www. 1993) USAID-EDEM Newsletter Number 4. Lejislacioni per trashegimine kultorore. “Technical Assistance in Developing Nature-Based and Rural Tourism in Albania”. Youth and Sports. “Albania: Integrated Coastal Management and clean-up Program: site management framework” SIM-Spa and iMed for World Bank 2005. Tourism Law of 1993 (No 7665 of January 21.com. “Toward a Strategy for Culture Tourism and Ecotourism Development. “Parqet Arkeologjike Kombetare dhe Zonat Arkeologjike ne Republiken e Shqiperise. a New Challenge for Albanian Tourism. Culture. natural. 2000. “The Tourism Development Strategy for Albania”.” Ministry of Tourism. October 2005. November 2005. Albania: Guide to its Natural Treasures. World Tourism Organization Seminar Proceedings 2003. independent study project for masters program at Syracuse University.” General Directorate for Forests and Parks. Llogara. unpublished consultant report conducted by World Tourism Organization experts for the United Nations Development Programme –Tirana. MedWetCoast Project. Tourism Strategy and Action Plan page 39 . Rreza e Kanalit. Tirana 2000. 2005 Lonely Planet Guide to Eastern Europe (and web version for Albania. historical and cultural monuments. Tirana 2005. 2005. Youth and Sport. “Tourism Development versus Nature Conservation in Albania.albaniantourism.Appendix II Principal Written Sources Consulted Albania: The Bradt Travel Guide (Bradt Travel Guides Ltd). “Post-Conflict Environmental Assessment. ECAT-Tirana. Karabarun. from Lonely Planet.” by Ariana Koca. (Leglislation on cultural preservation for archaeological parks and zones in the Albanian Republic). 2004. UK) 2004. Ministry of Territory Adjustment and Tourism 2002. Culture.” United Nations Environment Program.” by Franka Paloka.