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4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2

)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION
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CHAPTER 10 : RATE OF REACTION

10.1 : Meaning of Rate of Reaction
1. Rate of reaction is a measurement of the change in quantity of ....... 47
....... in a certain range of .......


Rate of reaction =


2. Rate of reaction is /irectIyinverseIy proportional with time.

The shorter the time taken, the ...... the rate of reaction.
The Ionger the time taken, the ...... the rate of reaction.


10.2 : Measuring the Rate of Reaction

(a) ;erage Rate Of Reaction

Determination the a;erage rate of reaction from the graph

















( V
1
÷ 0) cm
3


( t
1
÷ 0 ) 8

( V
2
÷ V
1
) cm
3


( t
2
÷ t
1
) 8


The a;erage rate of reaction in the first t
1
second =
The a;erage rate of reaction between t
1
second and t
2
second =

The a;erage rate of reaction for the whole reaction =
V
3

t
3

'olume of gascm
3

Time8
V
2

V
1

t
1
t
2
t
3

V
3

4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION
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(b) nstantaneous Rate Of Reaction ( #ate of #eaction at any gi;en time )

= the gradient of the graph at any given time.












Activity 1



































The rate of reaction at t
a
second
= the gradient of tangent to the curve ,t the
given time
= cm
3

8
= '
2
'
1


t
2
t
1

'olume of
gas cm
3
Time 8


t
a

V
2

V
1

t
1
t
2

raph of the volumes of carbon dioxide gas against time
Time8
'olume of
carbon dioxide
gas cm
3

10
20
30
40
40 80 120 160 200
n experiment is carried out to determine the rate of reaction between calcium
carbonate and dilute hydrochloric acid. The volumes of carbon dioxide gas evolved at
fixed intervals are recorded.

raph of the volumes of carbon dioxide gas against time are shown below.
4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION
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(a) Write an equation for the above reaction.

.................................

(b) Draw a labelled diagram to show the setup of the apparatus in the experiment.



















(c) Calculate

(i) the a;erage rate of reaction for the whole reaction.










(ii) the rate of reaction at 40 secon/ and 0 secon/.

at 40 second at 80 second

















4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION
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(d) Based on the answer in (c) (ii), which have the higher rate of reaction. Explain your
answer.

......................................

......................................

.......................................

.......................................

(e) Suggest another way to increase the rate of above reaction

........................................

........................................

........................................







































4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION
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Activity 2

20 cm
3
of 0.5 mol dm
3
HCl is reacted with excess magnesium ribbon. The results are shown
below.

Time /s 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150
VoIume of
H
2
/cm
3

0.0 8.5 16.0 22.0 27.5 32.0 36.0 39.0 42.0 44.0 46.0

, Draw the graph of the ;olume of hydrogen gas released against time.















































4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION


- From the graph, calculate

(i) the average rate of reaction in the first 20 seconds.







(ii) the average rate of reaction between 30 seconds and 75 seconds.









(iii) the rate of reaction at 30 seconds.








(iv) the rate of reaction at 105 seconds.








. Compare the rate of reaction at 30 seconds and 105 seconds. Explain why?

........................................

........................................

........................................

........................................

........................................








4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION


10.3 : FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE RATE OF REACTION

1. Size of Reactant TotaI Surface Area

(a) Reaction between calcium carbonate (with /iffe7ent 8ize) and hydrochloric acid is
conducted.

(b) Chemical equation for the reaction

CaCO
3
+ 2HCl F CaCl
2
+ H
2
O + CO
2



The graph of volume of carbon dioxide gas against time obtained is as shown below

















Based on the graph complete the following statements

O Average rate of reaction for the whole experiment
Experiment I Experiment II





The value of 5 is ....... than 6.
The average rate of reaction in Experiment II is ........ than Experiment I
throughout the experiment.





÷
5
÷
6
Experiment II
Small pieces
Experiment I
arge pieces
%ime / 8
Volume oI CO
2
g,8 / .2

I
t
y
t
z

V
II
4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION


O The rate of reaction of the small 5ieces of calcium carbonate chips is ........
than the rate of reaction of the large 5ieces.

Relationship between the size of marble chips and their totaI surface area
small 5ieces have a ...... total surface area than that of large 5ieces of marble
chips of the same mass.

The smaller the size of marble chips, the ......... the totaI surface area of
marble chips.

The larger the totaI surface area of marble chips, the ......... the rate of
reaction.

The smaller the size of marble chips, the ......... the rate of reaction.


O The maximum volume of carbon dioxide gas collected for both experiments are
........ because the ........ of the reactants are ........
The ........ and .......... of HCl in both Experiments are the same.
Number of moIe of HCl in both Experiments are the same.





Activity 3

group of students was carried out two experiments to investigate the factor affecting the rate
of a reaction between zinc and hydrochloric acid.

Table 3.1 shows information about the reactants used in each experiment.

Experiment Reactants
I
Excess zinc granuIes and 25 cm³ of 0.5 mol dm
3

hydrochloric acid.
II
Excess zinc pow/er and 25 cm³ of 0.5 mol dm
3
hydrochloric
acid.

Table 3.1

(a) Write the chemical equation for the reaction occur in these experiments.

........................................

(b) State the factor that affecting the rate of the reaction of Experiment Ì and Experiment ÌÌ.

........................................



4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION
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The graph 3.2 shows the result obtained from these experiments.





































(c) Calculate the average rate of reaction for Experiment Ì and Experiment ÌÌ.










(b) Based on the table and graph, compare the rate of reaction between Experiment Ì and
Experiment ÌÌ

........................................

........................................

........................................
Time (s)
VoIume of gas
coIIecte/ (cm
3
)
I
II

20
10
1
10 30 40 0 60 20 70 80
raph 3.2
4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION
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2. Concentration of Reactant
(a) Reaction between sodium thiosulphate solution and dilute hydrochloric acid is
conducted.

(b) The rate of reaction is measured by how fast yellow precipitate (8:5h:7) is formed.
Observation is made on the time taken for the "X¨ sign placed under the conical flask to
disappear from view.
Temperature, volume and concentration of the hydrochloric acid are fixed but the
concentration of sodium thiosul5hate solution is varied.

(c) Chemical equation for the reaction

a
2
S
2
O
3
+ .HCl F ........................

(d) The graph of concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution against time are plotted.
Sketch the graph of concentration against 1time.



























Time
(s)
Concentration of
a
2
S
2
O
3
(m4 /m
-
3
)
1time (s

1
)
Concentration of
a
2
S
2
O
3
(m4 /m
-
3
)
O Concentration is .......proportional to
time.
When the concentration of a
2
S
2
O
3
increases,
the time taken for yellow precipitate formed that
covers the 'X' mark is ...........

O The higher the concentration of a
2
S
2
O
3
, (the
higher the number of moles of a
2
S
2
O
3
) the
...... the number of particles perunit
.........
Therefore, the ...... the frequency of
collision between particles.
The ...... the frequency of effecti;e
collisions.
The ...... the rate of reaction.
O Concentration is ......proportional to
1/time.
[ 1time 8h48 the rate of reaction (
When the concentration of a
2
S
2
O
3
increases,
the rate of reaction is ...........

O The higher the concentration of a
2
S
2
O
3
, the
........ the number of particles perunit
........
Therefore, the ...... the frequency of
collisions between particles.
The ...... the frequency of effecti;e
collisions.
The ...... the rate of reaction.
4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION
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3. Temperature
(a) Study through observation to yellow precipitate (8:5h:7), the product of the reaction
between sodium thiosulphate solution with hydrochloric acid.

(b) Ìn this reaction, the temperature of the sodium thiosulphate solution is changed.

(c) ll other conditions such as volume and concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution
and hydrochloric acid is remain constant.

(d) Time taken for certain amount of the yellow precipitate formed and covered the 'X' mark
below the beaker is recorded.

(e) Two graph are obtained












































O Temperature is .......proportional to
time.
When the temperature of a
2
S
2
O
3
increases, the
time taken for yellow precipitate formed that
covers the 'X' mark is ...........

O The higher the temperature of a
2
S
2
O
3
, the
.... the kinetic energy of S
2
O
3
2
ions and H
+

ions.
Therefore, the ...... the frequency of
collision between particles [ S
2
O
3
2
ions and H
+

ions (.
The ...... the frequency of effecti;e
collision.
The ...... the rate of reaction.

O Temperature is ...... proportional to
1/time.
[ 1time 8h48 the rate of reaction (
When the temperature of a
2
S
2
O
3
increases, the
rate of reaction is ...........

O The higher the temperature of a
2
S
2
O
3
, the
.... the kinetic energy of S
2
O
3
2
ions and H
+

ions.
Therefore, the ...... the frequency of
collision between particles [ S
2
O
3
2
ions and
H
+
ions (.
The ...... the frequency of
...... collision
The ...... the rate of reaction.

Time (s)
Temperature of
a
2
S
2
O
3
(m4 /m
-3
)
1time (s
1
)
Temperature of
a
2
S
2
O
3
(m4 /m
-3
)
Sketch the graph of temperature againts 1time
4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION
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Activity 4

Diagram 4.1 shows the setup of apparatus for Experiment Ì, ÌÌ, ÌÌÌ, Ì', ' and 'Ì to investigate
the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and sulphuric
acid. Ìn the experiment, 50 cm
3
of 0.1 mol dm
3
of sodium thiosulphate solution is poured into
a conical flask and is heated to 30°C. 5 cm
3
of 2.0 mol dm
3
of sulphuric acid is added
immediately to the sodium thiosulphate solution. The conical flask is then placed on a paper
with 'X' mark as shown in the diagram 4.1. The time taken for the 'X' mark to disappear from
sight is recorded.




















The experiment is repeated with sodium thiosulphate solutions at 40
o
C, 50
o
C, 55
o
C, 60
o
C and 65
o
C. Diagram 2.2 shows the readings of the stopwatch in each experiment.


















at 30
o
C


......
at 40
o
C


......
at 50
o
C


.....



Experiment I Experiment II Experiment III
'X' mark
Sodium thiosulphate solution
+ sulphuric acid
Eye
Diagram 4.1
4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION
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(a) (i) Record the stopwatch readings in the space provided in Diagram 4.2.

(ii) Calculate the value of
time
1
for each experiment.
Construct a table to record and show all the data in the experiments. These
data will be used to plot a graph in 1 (e).















(b) State a hypothesis for this experiment.

.......................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................

(c) State three conditions that must be kept constant in this experiment.

1. ...................................

2. ...................................

3. ...................................


Diagram 4.2
Experiment IV Experiment V Experiment VI
at 55
o
C


......
at 65
o
C


......
at 60
o
C


......
4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION
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(d) State the operational definition of the rate of reaction based on this experiment.

.......................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................

(e) Plot a graph of
time
1
against temperature.














































4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION
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(f) Based on the graph you have drawn, find the time taken for the mark 'X' to disappear
from sight if the temperature of the sodium thiosulphate solution is 45
o
C.

.......................................................................................................................................

(g) Ìf 50 cm
3

of 0.05mol dm
3
of sodium thiosulphate is used in Experiment Ì, predict the
time taken for the mark 'X' to disappear from sight. Explain your answer.

.......................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................





























4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION
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4. CataIyst
W Catayst is a chemical substance that .................................................................................
........................................
W Characteristics of catalyst

Ìt does not change the quantity (amount) of the products formed.
Ìt is unchanged chemically at the end of the reaction.
The amount of catalyst is the same before and after reaction.
Ìt is specific.
Only small amount is needed.
Ìt could become less effective when there are impurities.

W Most catalysts are transition elements 47 com5ounds of transition elements.
W The presence of catalyst affects the rate of reaction.
W Quantity of catalyst also can effect the rate of reaction.

W Effect of catalyst studied through

I The reaction between zinc with dilute sulphuric acid
[co55er(II) sul5hate, CuSO
4
soIution as the catalyst(

II The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, H
2
O
2

[using manganese(IV) oxide, MnO
2
as the catalyst(

Experiment I

The reaction between zinc with dilute sulphuric acid [CuSO
4
as the catalyst(

(a) Chemical equation for the reaction

..................................

(b) 'olume of hydrogen gas collected in a burette are recorded at every 30 seconds.
(c) This experiment is re5eated by adding 2 cm
3
copper(ÌÌ) sulphate solution.
(d) Ìn this reaction, mass of zinc, volume and concentration of sulphuric acid and
temperature are remain constant.

Draw a labelled diagram to show the set up of apparatus to carry out this experiment.















4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION
1

(e) raph of volume of hydrogen gas produced against time are obtained

State which curve is obtained when catalyst is used.















W From the graph above

The gradient of the curve with catalyst is ....... than the curve without
catalyst.
t the end of this reaction, the total volume of H
2
gas in both reactions is the same
because the ..... of zinc and the.............. of sulphuric acid
is the same.

W Copper(ÌÌ) sulphate as catalyst lowered the .............., E
a
for the reaction.

therefore, more particles will reach the same or more than the .........,
E
a
of the reaction.
the frequency of coIIision between particles .............
the frequency of effective coIIision ...............
the rate of reaction ...................


















VoIume of H
2

gas cm
3

Times
II
I

I ..............
II .............
4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION
1

Activity 5

The following equation shows the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide at room condition
using a catalyst.

2H
2
O
2
(L) ÷ O
2
(g) + 2H
2
O(L)


Oxygen gas was collected and the result shown in Table 5.

Time (s) 'olume of oxygen gas (cm
3
)
0 0.0
10 15.0
20 25.0
30 32.5
40 38.0
50 42.0
60 45.5
70 47.5
80 49.0
90 50.0
100 50.0

Table 5


(a) Plot the graph of the volume of oxygen gas against time on the graph paper
provided below.




















4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION
19

























































4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION
20

(b) Based on your graph in (a), calculate the rate of reaction at 20 s.












(c) Why does the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide decreases with time?

...................................................

(d) (i) Suggest one catalyst that can be used for this reaction.

................................................................................................................................

(ii) With reference to the collision theory, explain how does catalyst in (d) (i),
affects the rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.

.............................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................





























4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION
21
O5tim:m c4n/iti4n8

Temperature 400 500
o
C
Pressure 200 ÷ 400 atm
Catalyst Ìronferum, Fe

10.5 : AppIication of factors that affect the Rate of Reaction
Daily lives

V Cooking of soIi/ foo/ in smaIIer size
The total surface area on a smaller cut pieces of food is larger. The food can
absorbed more heat. Hence, the time taken for the food to be cooked is
lowerdecrease.

V Storage of foo/ in a refrigerator
When the food kept in refrigerator, the food lasts longer. The low temperature in
the refrigerator slows down the activity of the bacteria. The bacteria produce
less toxin , the rate of decomposition of food lower.

V Cooking in a pressure cooker
The high pressure in pressure cooker increases the boiling point of water to a
temperature above 100 HC. The kinetic energy of the particles in the food is
increasehigher. Hence time taken for the food to be cooked is
lowerdecrease.
Thus the food cooked faster at a higher temperature in a pressure cooker.


Ìn In/ustry

V Haber process; manufacture of ammonia


2
+ 3H
2
÷ 2H
3



V Contact process; manufacture of sulphuric acid
[ c,t,y8t ............... (

V OstwaI/ process; manufacture of nitric acid
[ c,t,y8t ............... (















4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION
22

10. : The CoIIision Theory
W For a reaction to occur, the reactant's particles must collide.
W ot all collisions result in chemical reactions.
W For a reaction to occur, the collisions must satisfy two conditions
(i) The colliding particles must also have the right orientation of collision.
(ii) The colliding particle must have enough energy; i.e e6ual or more than a
minimum amount of energy known as Activation Energy, E
a


W The collisions that lead to a chemical reaction are known as effective collisions.


10. : Energy ProfiIe Diagram and Activation Energy, E
a













E
a
The minimum energy the reactant particles must possessed before collision
between them can result in a chemical reaction.

E
a
' The lower activation energy in the presence of a cataIyst.


Activity 6


Draw an Energy Profile Diagram for the reaction. On the diagram, show the
Heat of reaction, H
ctivation energy without a catalyst, E
a

ctivation energy with a catalyst, E
a
'







reactants

Energy
Progress of reaction
E
a
5roducts
E
a
'
H
E
a
= ctivation Energy without catalyst

E
a
'
= ...............

H = Heat of reaction
(The ene7gy /iffence in the
7e,ct,nt8 ,n/ in the 574/:ct8)


Zinc powder reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid. The temperature of the mixture increases.
4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION
23

10. Frequency of Effective CoIIision and Rate of Reaction
O When the fre6uency of coIIision between particles of reactants increases, the
fre6uency of effective coIIisions between particles will also increase.

O The effective collisions will result in chemical reaction. When frequency of effective
coIIision increases, the rate of reaction will also increase.




CoIIision Theory and Factors InfIuencing The Rate of Reaction


































The frequency of collision between particles increases.

SIZE OF
REACTANTS /
TOTAL SURFACE
AREA

The smaller the size
of reactant, the
Iarger ......
.........
.........
exposed to collision.
CONCENTRATION OF
REACTANTS

The higher the
concentration of
reactants, the higher
...........
...........
...........
TEMPERATURE OF
REACTION MIXTURE

The higher the
temperature, the higher
...... .......
of reacting particles. The
reacting particles move
faster.
CATALYST
Catalyst provides an
alternative path of
reaction which needs
Iower cti;ation
Energy, (E
a
').

More particles are
able to overcome the
new cti;ation
Energy, (E
a
')
The frequency of ...... ......between particles increases.
The rate of reaction .......
4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION
24

Activity 7

Four experiments are carried out to study the factors that affect the rate of reaction.
The table below shows the details of each experiment.

Experiment Reactants
Temperature of
HCI / H
I
Excess of magnesium ribbon and
50 cm
3
hydrochloric acid 1.0 mol dm
÷3

30
II
Excess of magnesium powder and
50 cm
3
hydrochloric acid 1.0 mol dm
÷3

30
III
Excess of magnesium powder and
50 cm
3
hydrochloric acid 1.0 mol dm
÷3

40
IV
Excess of magnesium powder and
50 cm
3
sulphuric acid 1.0 mol dm
÷3

40


(a) Write the chemical equation of the reaction occurred in Experiment I and IV

Experiment I ................................

Experiment IV ...............................


(b) Calculate the maximum volume of gas released at room condition in
[ 4,7 v4:me 4f g,8 ,t 744m c4n/iti4n = 24.0 dm
3
(

(i) Experiment I
























umber of mole of HCl =
From the equation in (a)

.. mol of HCl produced .. mol of H
2

So,

.. mol of HCl will produced .. mol of H
2

'olume of H
2
= ........ × 24.0

= ....... dm
3

4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION
25

(ii) Experiment IV





















(c) Sketch the graph of the volume of gas released against time for each Experiment I, II,
III and IV on the axes provided below.

































Time 8
VoIume of H
2
gas cm
3
umber of mole of H
2
SO
4
=
From the equation in (a)

.. mol of H
2
SO
4
produced .. mol of H
2

So,

.. mol of H
2
SO
4
will produced .. mol of H
2

'olume of H
2
= ........ × 24.0

= ....... dm
3

4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION
2

(d) Explain the difference in the rate of reaction in the experiments below.
Use the Collision Theory in your explanation.

(i) I and II

........................................

........................................

........................................

........................................

........................................

........................................


(ii) II and III

........................................

........................................

........................................

........................................

........................................

........................................


(iii) III and IV

........................................

........................................

........................................

........................................

........................................

........................................











4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION
2

10.9 Interpretation of graph.

Study the graphs below and complete the following






















































The gra/ient of graph I is ....... than graph II.
The rate of reaction for reaction I is ....... than reaction II.
Possibilities

Reaction I used ..... size of reactants than reaction II.
Reaction I ..... pieces of CaCO
3
;
Reaction II ..... pieces of CaCO
3
.
Temperature of reaction I is ..... than reaction II.
Concentration of the reactants for reaction I is ..... than
reaction II.
Presence of catalyst

Reaction I .......... .
Reaction II ...........

Final quantity of pro/uct for reaction I and II are the same.
Quantity of the reactants (n:mbe7 4f m4e8) for reaction I and II
must be ........
Mass of the reactants used in reaction I and II is
.......
umber of moles [ n = M' ( of the reactants used in
reaction I and II is .......
Quantity of product
Time
I
II
t
1
t
2

V
RPH 9.1

The gra/ient of graph I and graph II are ..........
The rate of reaction for both reactions are ..........
Possibilities

Size of reactant for both reactions are ......
Temperature for both reactions are .......
Concentration of the reactants for both reaction are
.......

Final quantity of pro/uct for reaction II is twice than reaction I.
Quantity of the reactants (n:mbe7 4f m4e8) for reaction I must be
..... than reaction II because the concentration of the
reactants are the same in both reactions.
Ex,m5e
Reaction I 250 cm
3
of HCl 1.0 mol dm
3
Reaction II 500 cm
3
of HCl 1.0 mol dm
3


Time
V
2V
I
II
Quantity of product

RPH 9.2
t
1
t
2

4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION
2


























































The gra/ient of graph I is ...... than graph II.
The rate of reaction for reaction I is ...... than reaction II.
Possibilities

Size of reactants for reaction I is ..... than reaction II.
Reaction I ..... pieces of CaCO
3
;
Reaction II ..... pieces of CaCO
3
.
Temperature of reaction I is ..... than reaction II.
Presence of catalyst
..
Reaction I .......... ...
Reaction II .............
Concentration of the reactants for reaction I is ..... than
reaction II

Final quantity of pro/uct for reaction II is twice than reaction I.
Quantity of the reactants for reaction II must be ... than reaction I.
Mass of the reactants used in reaction II is .......than
reaction I.
umber of moles [ n = M' ( of the reactants used in reaction II
is .......than reaction I.

Time

Quantity of product

I
II
V
2V
RPH 9.3
The gra/ient of graph I is ...... than graph II.
The rate of reaction for reaction I is ...... than reaction II.
Possibilities

Size of reactants for reaction I is ..... than reaction II.
Reaction I ..... pieces of CaCO
3
;
Reaction II ..... pieces of CaCO
3
.
Temperature of reaction I is ..... than reaction II.
Presence of catalyst

Reaction I .......... ...
Reaction II .............
Concentration of the reactants for reaction I is ..... than
reaction II.

Final quantity of pro/uct for reaction II is twice than reaction I.
Quantity of the reactant for reaction II must be ... than reaction I.
Mass of the reactants used in reaction II is .....than
reaction I.
umber of moles [ n = M' ( of the reactants used in reaction II
is .....than reaction I.
Ex,m5e
Reaction I 250 cm
3
of HCl 1.0 mol dm
3
Reaction II 1000 cm
3
of HCl 0.5 mol dm
3


Time

2V II
I
t
1
t
2

Quantity of product

V
RPH 9.4
4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION
29

Activity 8

Table 8.1 shows three experiments done by a student.

Experiment Reactants
A Excess calcium carbonate chips and 25 cm
3
of 1.0 mol dm
3
hydrochloric acid.
B Excess calcium carbonate chips and 25 cm
3
of 0.5 mol dm
3
hydrochloric acid.
C Excess calcium carbonate chips and 100 cm
3
of 0.5 mol dm
3
hydrochloric acid.


The graph of carbon dioxide gas produced against time is sketch as shown in raph 8.2.



















Based on Table 8.1 and graph 8.2, determine which curves represent the results of Experiment
B and Experiment C. Write your answers in the boxes provided.





















Table 8.1
Time s
'olume of carbon
dioxide cm
3
raph 8.2

Experiment .....
Experiment A

Experiment .....
4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION
30

Activity 9

Rate of Reaction an/ Thermochemistry (onclusion)

1. The minimum energy of a reaction is ..........., E
a
.
2. ..........., E
a
must be overcome in order for the reaction to take place.
3. Particles of reactants must achieve ............ and with
........... to make the chemical reaction occurs.
4. The use of a ........... reduces the E
a
.

5. H is .....................................

6. The ...... the size of particles, the ...... the total surface area.

7. Magnesium ribbon will react ...... with warm sulphuric acid than cool sulphuric
acid.

8. The ...... the concentration of a solution, the ...... rate of chemical
reaction.

9. ...... is a substance that changes the rate of a chemical reaction. Ìt
...... undergo any chemical change.

10. ......... is a chemical reaction in which a compound is broken down into
simpler substances.





















4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION
31

Activity 10 [Enrichment(

1 Ìn an experiment, 1.34 g of marble chips, CaCO
3
is added to 50 cm
3
of excess dilute
hydrochloric acid in a conical flask. The volume of carbon dioxide gas liberated is
measured at regular intervals of 30 seconds.
Table 1 shows the results of the experiment.

Time (s) 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240
Burrette
rea/ing (cm
3
)
50.00 38.00 30.00 26.50 24.00 22.50 20.00 20.00 20.00
VoIume of
carbon
/ioxi/e gas
(cm
3
)
0.00 12.00 20.00 26.00 30.00 30.00 30.00

TBLE 1

(a) Draw a labeled diagram for the setup of apparatus for this experiment.





















[2 m,78(

(b) Complete Table 1 and fill in the volumes of carbon dioxide gas evolved at 90
seconds and 150 seconds.
[2 m,78(

(c) Write the chemical equation for the reaction in this experiment.

...........................................
[2 m,78(


(d) Based on Table 1, draw a graph of the volume of carbon dioxide gas liberated
against time in the graph paper provided below.
[4 m,78(



4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION
32

Question 1 (d)
























































Graph of VoIume of gas against Time
4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION
33

(e) From the graph in (d), calculate

(i) the average rate of reaction






[1 m,7(

(ii) the rate of reaction at 45 s.










[2 m,78(

(f) What is the total volume of carbon dioxide gas collected in 150 s?

...........................................
[1 m,7(

(g) Sketch on the graph that you have drawn in (d), the curve that would be obtained if ;

(i) 0.67 g of marble chips, CaCO
3
of the same size is used.
(ii) 1.34 g of smaller marble chips, CaCO
3.
is used.
(iii) the reaction mixture is heated to 40
o
C.
[3 m,78(

(h) Explain your answer in (g) (iii) using the Collision Theory.

......................................

......................................

......................................

......................................

......................................

......................................
[4 m,78(







4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION
34

2 Three experiments have been carried out to study the effect of factors affecting the rate
of reaction at room temperature. Table 2 shows the results of the experiments.

Experiment I II III
Setup of
apparatus

Time taken for
magnesium strip to
react completely
(s)
60 30 10

Table 2

(a) Write the chemical equation for the reaction.

.......................................................................................................................................

(b) Calculate the maximum volume of gas released in Experiment I and Experiment II.
[Molar volume of gas = 24 dm
3
mol
1
at room condition(










(c) Using the same axis on the graph, sketch the volume of gas released against time
for Experiment I, II and III.













10 cm
3
of
1 mol dm
3

sulphuric acid
Excess of
magnesium
strip
10 cm
3
of
2 mol dm
3

sulphuric acid

Excess of
magnesium
strip

Excess of
magnesium
powder

10 cm
3
of
2 mol dm
3

sulphuric acid

4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION
35

(d) Calculate the average rate of reaction for Experiment I, II and III in cm
3
8
-1
.






















(d) Compare the rate of reaction between Experiment I and Experiment II.
Explain why there is a difference in the rate of reaction based on the collision theory.

.......................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................
























4541 / CHEMISTRY MODUL P3T (TAHAP 2)
JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTION
3

3 (a) What is the meaning of effective collisions? [2 m,78(

(b) n experiment is carried out to study the rate of reaction between magnesium strip
and different type of acids.
The time taken by magnesium strip to dissolve in acids in each experiment is
recorded in Table 3.

Experiment Reactant
Temperature
(
0
C)
Time
(s)
I
20 cm
3
of 1.0 moldm
3
ethanoic acid +
15 cm of magnesium strip
30 150
II
20 cm
3
of 1.0 moldm
3
hydrochloric acid +
15 cm of magnesium strip
30 60
III
20 cm
3
of 1.0 moldm
3
sulphuric acid +
15 cm of magnesium strip
30 30
IV
20 cm
3
of 1.0 moldm
3
hydrochloric acid +
15 cm of magnesium strip +
5 drops of copper(ÌÌ) sulphate solution
30 42

Table 3

(i) Write an ionic equation for the reaction between magnesium strip and acid.
[1 m,7(

(ii) Compare the rate of reaction between
O Experiment I and Experiment II,
O Experiment II and Experiment III,
O Experiment II and Experiment IV.

Explain your answer based on the collision theory. [8 m,78(

(ii) Ìf experiment ÌÌ is repeated at 40
0
C, predict the time taken for the 15 cm
magnesium strip to dissolve completely. Explain your answer. [3 m,78(

(c) Explain why

(i) food stored in the refrigerator lasts longer than food stored in the kitchen
cabinet. [3 m,78(

(ii) meat cut into small pieces can be cooked faster compare with meat in big
chunks. [3 m,78(






END OF CHAPTER 10