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4541/CHEMISTRY 11 11.

1 CARBON COMPOUNDS ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

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Carbon compounds are compounds that contain the carbon element. Inorganic compounds carbon compounds that are usually do not contain carbon to carbon bonds such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), calsium carbonate (CaCO3) etc.

Carbon compounds

Organic compounds carbon compounds that are obtained from living things (plants and animals) such as sugar/glucose (C6H12 O6), starch, protein, vitamin, enzym etc.

Hydrocarbons

Non-Hydrocarbons

HYDROCARBON Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain ……..…………., C and……………….., H. Saturated Hydrocarbons contain only …………….covalent bonds between ……… atoms. C-C Unsaturated Hydrocarbons contain at least one ……………or ………..covalent bond between carbon atoms. C=C C = C

Hydrocarbons

The main source of hydrocarbons are ………………..gas and ……………………. It is formed as a result of decomposition of plants and animals that died million years ago.

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CHAPTER 2 : CARBON COMPOUNDS

4541/CHEMISTRY 11.2 1 2 3 ALKANES

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Alkanes are ……………….hydrocarbons. The general formula of alkanes:…………………………………… Each carbon atom is bonded to four other atoms(carbon or hydrogen atoms) by …………..covalent bonds. –C–

4

Naming of Alkanes (IUPAC) The names of straight chain alkanes (all the carbon atoms are joined in a continuous chain) are made up of two component parts : Stem / root indicates the number of carbon atoms in the longest continuous carbon chain. The names of stems for the first ten straight alkanes are : Number of carbon atom Stem 1 2 3 4 5 Pent 6 Hex 7 Hept 8 Oct 9 Non 10 Dec

Meth Eth

Prop But

Suffix / ending indicates the family of the compound. For alkane, the suffix is ‘ane’ because it belongs to the alkane group. Number of carbon atoms, n 1

Name of alkane

Molecular Formula, CnH2n+2

Structural Formula

Methane

CH4

2

Ethane

C2H6

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Name of alkane

Molecular Formula, CnH2n+2

Structural Formula

Propane

C3H8

4

Butane

C4H10

5

Pentane

C5H12

6

Hexane

7

Heptane

8

Octane

9

Nonane

5

Physical properties of alkanes Alkanes are covalent compound which consist of molecules. These molecules are held together by …………………intermolecular forces.

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Covalent bond (strong covalent bond)

CHAPTER 2 : CARBON COMPOUNDS Intermolecular force

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MODUL P3T ( TAHAP 2)

Alkanes have physical properties similar to other covalent compounds. Physical property Explaination The molecules are held together by …………..intermolecular forces. ……………..amount of heat required to overcome the forces.

1

Low ……………………points ……………….in water but ……………….in organic solvents (ether, benzene, tetrachloromethene) …………………conduct electricity ……………dense than water Molecular Formula CH4 C2H6 C4H10
CH2

2 3 4

……………on top of water Melting and Boiling point Density

Name of members Methane Ethane Propane Butane Pentane Hexane Heptane 6

Molar mass/ g mol-1 16 30 58 86

……….. Gradually

……….. Gradually

Chemical properties of alkanes Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbon (have single covalent bonds, C – C and C – H) Hence, alkanes are generally chemically………………………..

Combustion

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Alkanes undergo complete combustion in the presence of excess oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water . Alkane + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water Step 1 : Balance C (i) (ii) CH4 + 2O2 7 O2 2 → Step 2 : Balance H → → → CO2 + → Step 3 : Balance O 2H2O 3H2O 6H2O ..X 2

C2H6 +

2CO2 + 4CO2 +

2C2H6 + 7O2 Balance the equations : (iii) (iv) (v) C3H8 + C4H10 + C5H12 + O2 O2 O2

→ → →

CO2 CO2 CO2

+ + +

H2O H2O H2O

Alkanes undergo incomplete combustion when there is insufficient oxygen to form carbon dioxide gas, carbon monoxide gas carbon (in the form of soot) and water. Substitution Reaction Alkanes react with halogens (Cl2 and Br2) in the presence of ……………..or ………………..light In this reaction, each hydrogen atoms in the alkane molecule are substituted one by one by halogen atoms. Example : When methane reacts with chlorine gas in the presence of ultraviolet light, a variety of substituted products are formed :

Step 1 UV

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CHAPTER 2 : CARBON COMPOUNDS

4541/CHEMISTRY CH4 + Cl2

42 CH3Cl +

MODUL P3T ( TAHAP 2) HCl

(methane) Step 2 UV CH3Cl + Cl2

(chloromethane)

CH2Cl2

+

HCl

(dichloromethane) Step 3 CH2Cl2 + Cl2 UV CHCl3 + HCl

(trichloromethane) Step 4 CHCl3 + Cl2 UV CHCl4 + HCl

( tetrachloromethane)

11.3

ALKENES

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4541/CHEMISTRY 1 2 3

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Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons. General formula : ………………………………………… The functional group of the alkene ……………………………… Example : ethene

4

Naming of Alkenes (straight chain) (IUPAC) (i) Determine the longest carbon chain containing double bond, give the stem name according to the number of carbon atoms ; eth, prop, but, pent, hex, hept, oct, non and dec. (ii) Add the suffix “ene” at the end of the name. (iii) Number the carbon atoms from the end nearer to the double bond and give the double bond the smaller number. (iv) The first member of alkenes has two carbon atoms in a molecule because : …………………………………………………………………..

Number of carbon atoms, n 2

Name of alkane

Molecular Formula, CnH2n

Structural Formula

Ethene

C2H4

3

Propene

C3H6

4

But-1-ene

5

Pent-1-ene

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Name of alkane

Molecular Formula, CnH2n

Structural Formula

Hex-1-ene

7

Hept-1-ene

8

Oct-1-ene

5

Physical properties of alkenes Physical properties of Alkenes are similar to alkanes. i …………………….melting and boiling points, ii ……………………in water but ………………….in organic solvents, iii …………………….conduct electricity and Less dense than water

6

Chemical properties of alkenes Alkenes are chemically more ……………….than alkanes because of the existence of ……………….covalent bond between two carbon atoms. Almost all of the chemical reactions of alkene occur at the double bond.

Combustion Reaction Alkene burns completely in the excess oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water.

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Alkene Example :

+

oxygen

carbon dioxide + water → 2CO2 + 2H2O

C2H4 + 3O2

Balance the following equations : (i) (ii) (iii) C3H6 C4H8 C5H10 + + + O2 O2 O2 → → → CO2 CO2 CO2 + + + H2O H2O H2O

Alkene burns incompletely in limited supply of oxygen to form carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon (in the form of soot) and water. Addition Reaction As alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbon, they undergo addition reaction. An addition reaction is a reaction in which other atoms are added to each carbon atom of the double bond, [C = C ] to form single covalent bond product [ C-C ]. C=C + AB C A (i) C B

Addition of Hydrogen (Hydrogenation) Alkenes react with hydrogen at ……………..°C in the presence of ………………………. as a catalyst to produce……………………..

Example : H H
Ni / Pt 180 °C

H

H

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4541/CHEMISTRY H C C H + H2

46 H

MODUL P3T ( TAHAP 2) C C H Ethane H H

Ethene

(ii)

Addition of Halogen (Halogenation) Alkenes react with halogens such as chlorine and bromine at room conditions.(no catalyst or ultraviolet light needed) Example : H H C Ethene H C H + Br2 H H C H C H

(bromine water)

Br Br 1,2-dibromoethane

When ethene gas is passed through bromine water, brown colour of bromine water is……………………………. This reaction is used to distiguish a saturated hydrocarbon and unsaturated hydrocarbon.

(iii)

Addition of Hydrogen Halide [ HX ] Alkenes react with hydrogen halide such as hydrogen chloride, HCl or hydrogen bromide, HBr at room temperature to form haloalkane. Example : C2H4 Ethene C3H6 + Propene + HCl → C2H5 Cl Hydrogen chloride Chloroethane HBr → Hydrogen bromide

………………….

(iv)

Addition of hydroxyl groups (Acidified Potassium manganate(VII), KMnO4 // Potassium dicrhoromate(VI), K2Cr2O7 solution)

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In this reaction, two hydroxyl, -OH groups are added to the carbon-carbon double bond in an alkene molecule. An alkene …………………the purple solution of acidified potassium manganate(VII) // the ……………solution of acidified Potassium dicrhoromate(VI), K2Cr2O7 turns to……………... This reaction is used to distiguish a saturated hydrocarbon and unsaturated hydrocarbon. Example : C2H4 + H2O Ethene + [O] → C2H4(OH)2 Ethane-1,2-diol

Complete the following equation : C3H6 H H (v) + H H + H2O + [O] → H2O + [O] →

C=C

Addition of Water (Hydration) Alkenes react with water (in the form of steam) at high temperature and pressure in the presence of ……………….acid as a catalyst to produce alchohols.
H3PO4

Alkene +

H2O

300 °C / 60 atm

Alcohol

Example : C2H4 Ethene JPNT 2009 + H2O
H3PO4 300 °C / 60 atm

C2H5OH

ethanol CHAPTER 2 : CARBON COMPOUNDS

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Complete the following equation : C3H6 + H H H H + H2O
H3PO4 300 °C / 60 atm

H2O

H3PO4 300 °C / 60 atm

C=C

Addition of steam to alkene is one way to manufacture alcohol in industry: CnH2n + H2O(g) Alkene Polymerisation reaction In this reaction, small alkene molecules undergo addition reaction at a high pressure of 1000 atm and temperature of 200 °C. Thousands of alkene molecule join together to form long chain giant molecules called……………………………….. The small repeating units of molecules that join together to form polymer are called …………………………. Example : Polymerisation of ethene H H C H H C H H C H
H3PO4 300 °C / 60 atm

CnH2n+1OH Alcohol

n is large number up
to a few thousands

n

H

C

Ethene

n
Polythene Polymerisation of propene:

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COMPARING PROPERTIES OF ALKANE WITH ALKENE Alkanes Similar(physical properties) ……………..melting and boiling points ……………..in water but ………………in organic solvents ……………………..conduct electricity ……………….dense than water ………………….melting and boiling points ……………..in water but ………………….in organic solvents ……………………………conduct electricity …………………………dense than water Alkenes

Different(chemical properties) unreactive Burn in air to produce ……………….flame Undergo subtitution reaction …………………react with bromine ……………..react with acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution Burn in air to produce very sooty flame Undergo ………………………reaction ………………….with bromine (brown colour of bromine ………………………. …………………..with acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution (purple colour ……………………)

7

HOMOLOGOUS SERIES Homologous series are groups of carbon compounds that have the following general characteristics :

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(a) Members having the same ………………………… properties because they
have the same ………………………. (group that takes part in a reaction). (b) Members of the series can be represented by a ………………………… formula. (c) Members of the series can be prepared by the …………………………

(d) Two consecutive members in the series have a difference in relative atomic
mass of 14, a difference of CH2. (e) Members of the series have physical properties that ………………………… gradually as the number of carbon atoms in a molecule ………………………… 1. Example of homologous series : Homologous Series General Formula Functional group C–C Single bond n = 1, 2, 3, … Example of members

Alkane

CnH2n+2

Propane

Alkene

Alcohol

CnH2n+1 OH n = 1, 2, 3, … CnH2n+1 COOH

-OH Hydroxyl group -COOH Carboxyl group

Carboxylic acid n = 0, 1, 2, 3, … CnH2n+1 COO Cn’H2n’+1 Ester n = 0, 1, 2, 3, … n’ = 1, 2, 3,… 8 ISOMERISM

-COOC-

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Method of writing the Name of organic compound using IUPAC nomenclature Prefix (Branch) Stem ( number of carbon atoms in the longest carbon chain)* Suffix (functional group / homologous series)

* for alkenes, the smallest number is given to the carbon with the double bond. Example : 2,3-dimethylbut-1-ene Prefix Branch Stem Suffix Homologous series (alkene)

Number of carbon in the longest chain (4 carbon atoms)

()a Name the following compounds. (i) (ii)

………………………………… (iii) CH3  H3C  CH  CH2  CH2  CH3 (iv)

………………………………… H3C  CH  CH2  CH2  CH3  CH2  CH3

Name : ……………………………… (v) (vi)

Name : …………………..……

CH3  H3C  CH = CH  CH  CH3

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Name : ……………………………

Name : ……………………………

()b Draw the structural formula for the following molecules :

()i

2,-methylhexane

(ii)

2,4-dimethylpentane

(iii)

3-methylpent-2-ene

(iv)

2,3-dimethylhex-2-ene

Isomerism is phenomenon where a compound has the …………. molecular formula but ……………………..structural formulae. Molecular formula shows the type and number of atoms in a molecular compound. Structural formula shows the type and number of atoms for each element, and how the atoms are ………………..to one another in a compound. Molecular Formula C4H10 Structural Formula & IUPAC name Number of Isomers

Butane

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…………………….

C5H12

C4H8

C5H10

11.5

ALCOHOL

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1

Alcohols are organic compounds that contain……………., ………………….and ………………………….atoms.

2 3 4

The general formula for alcohol is :…………………………………………………… Functional group :………………………………………………………….. Naming alcohol using IUPAC nomenclature : Determine the number of carbon atoms in the longest carbon chain which contains the hydroxyl group ( –OH )  obtain the name of alkane with the same number of carbon atom as alcohol. Replace the ending “e” from the name of alkane with “ol” Example : Methane Ethane Propane Butane Methanol Ethanol ? ?

Number the carbon atom in the longest carbon chain which is joined to the hydroxyl group -OH with the smallest number  the number is placed in front of the “ ol ” to indicate which carbon atom the hydroxyl group is attached to. Example :
4 carbon atoms -OH

Butan-2-ol
-OH at the 2nd C

Name : …………………..

Name : ………………….

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Name : …………………..

Name : …………………..

Name : …………………..

5 Isomerism in alcohol : Isomers are molecules that have …………………structural formula. …………. molecular formula but

Methanol and ethanol do not have isomers. Isomerism in alcohol begins with propanol Complete the following table : Name of alcohol Molecular Formula Structural Formula & IUPAC name Number of isomers

Propanol

C3H7OH

2

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Butanol

4

6

Preparation of Ethanol

Two methods of preparation of Ethanol Preparation of Ethanol In the laboratory Process : ……………………… ………………..is a process in which microorganism such as yeast act on …………………..(sugar or starch) to produce ………………..and ………………… In industry : Process : ……………………………… Alkene is reacted with …………… at temperature; ……….. oC and pressure; …………atm in presence of

……………………………… as a catalyst. (i) Preparation of ethanol, C2H5OH in the laboratory ( Fermentation of glucose) C6H12O6 → 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 C2H4 + H2O → C2 H5OH Glucose Physical properties of alcohol Ethanol Ethene steam ethanol 7

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Alcohols with one to eleven carbon atoms exist as…………………….. Methanol, ethanol and propanol mix with water in all……………………... Solubility in water decreases with increasing of molecular size. Physical properties of ethanol, C2H5OH : • Colour : ……………………….. mixes with water in all ……………….. ………dense than water boiling point is ………. ....... at 1 atm.


8

Chemical properties of ethanol, C2H5OH (a) Combustion of ethanol

(i) (ii)

Ethanol burns in air to produce …………..and…………………... Ethanol burns readily with a …………flame and …………….producing soot. C2H5OH + 3O2 → 2CO2 + 3H2O

(ii)

Combustion of ethanol releases …………….amount of heat (ethanol is suitable for use as a fuel)

Balance the following equations : 2C3H7OH + 9O2 C4H9OH + O2 → → 6CO2 CO2 CO2 + + + 8H2O H2O H2O 7H2O

C5H11OH + O2 → C6H13OH + 9O2 →

6CO2 +

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(b) Oxidation of ethanol (i)
Ethanol is oxidised by an oxidising agent such as……………………………………………………, KMnO4 or……………………………………………………., ………….7 solution produce ………………………………….

Example : C2H5OH Ethanol or H H C H H C OH H + 2[O] → + 2[O]

From oxidising agent

CH3COOH

+

H2O water

Ethanoic acid

H H C H C

O OH + H2O

Complete the following equations : C3H7OH or CH3CH2 CH2OH Propanol or H H C H H C H H C OH …………………….. H + 2[O] → + H2O + 2[O] → ……………………… propanoic acid + H2O + 2[O] → C2H5 COOH + H2O

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(c) Dehydration of ethanol (i) (ii)
Dehydration of an alcohol involves the removal of ……………molecule from each of alcohol molecule. Water molecule from the alcohol molecule is removed by a dehydration agents such as ……………………/ ………………………/ concentrated ……………..acid / concentrated phosphoric acid.

(iii)

There are two ways to carry out the dehydration of ethanol in the laboratory : 1 Hot vapour of ethanol is passed over a heated catalyst such as porcelain chips /aluminium oxide. 1 Ethanol is heated under reflux with excess of concentrated sulphuric acid / concentrated phosphoric acid. Draw a labelled diagram to show the set-up of apparatus to carry out the dehydration of ethanol.

(iv)

Dehydration of ethanol produces ………………and…………………... Equation for the reaction : H H C H or C2H5OH ∆ Ethanol → C2H4 Ethene + H2O H porcelain C OH H ∆ H C C H + H2O H H

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Complete the following equations : (a) ……….. C3H7OH → ………… + H2O

(b) Butanol 9 Uses of alcohol

∆ …………

+

H2O

Uses 1 2 3 4 As a fuel

Example/explanation releases a …………of heat energy

As a solvent Antiseptic

STARCH GLUCOSE Fermentation ……………. Hydration ETHENE PETROLEUM

Combustion in excess oxygen …………………. and ………………….

Oxidation by an oxidising agent …………………. and ………………….

Dehydration by a dehydrating agent …………………. and ………………….

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11.6 1

CARBOXYLIC ACID [ ORGANIC ACID ]

CARBOXYLIC ACID Consists of elements :…………., C ; ……………., H ; and…………………, O. The general formula of the carboxylic acid is :……………………………………… Functional group is the …………………group : O C OH 4 For straight chain carboxylic acid molecules, the name ends with ‘oic’ and acid. Complete the following table :

2 3

Number of carbon atoms

Molecular Formula CnH2n+1COOH

Structural Formula

Name

1

HCOOH H CH3COOH C

O OH

methanoic acid

2

O C OH

ethanoic acid

3

CH3COOH

Propanoic acid

4

CH3COOH

5

CH3COOH

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4541/CHEMISTRY Number of carbon atoms 6 .

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Molecular Formula CnH2n+1COOH

Structural Formula

Name

CH3COOH

For branched chain carboxylic acid molecules : • • the name and position of the branched group is written as prefix the smallest number is given to the carbon atom that is joined to the functional carboxyl group. Example : H H H O | | | // H–C–C–C–C | | | \ H H CH3 OH 2-methylbutanoic acid

Name: ……………………… Name: ………………………

Name: ………………………

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4541/CHEMISTRY 5 Preparation of ethanoic acid :

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Laboratory preparation through ………………of ethanol by ……………… KMnO4 / K2Cr2O7 solution H H | | H - C - C - OH | | H H ethanol H O | // H - C - C | \ H OH ethanoic acid

+ 2[O]

+ H2O

Draw the set-up of apparatus for the preparation of ethanoic acid by reflux method. (preparation of ethanoic acid in laboratory)

6

Chemical properties of carboxylic acid

(i) Reacts as an acid with…………, …………………………and …………..that
are more electropositive than hydrogen. (a) (b) (c) Carboxylic acid + metal → carboxylate salt + hydrogen gas Carboxylic acid + base → dioxide carboxylate salt + water Carboxylic acid + metal carbonate → carboxylate salt + water + carbon

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CHAPTER 2 : CARBON COMPOUNDS

4541/CHEMISTRY Complete the following equations : (a) HCOOH + + + Mg KOH Na2CO3 → K2CO3 →

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→ → CH3COONa + + + H2O H2O + + CO2 CO2

(b) C2H5COOH (c) CH3COOH (d) C2H3COOH +

(e)

C2H5COOH

+

NaOH

(f)

C5H11COOH

+

K

(ii) Carboxylic acid react with alcohol to produce ……………and……………….. with the presence of concentrated ……………..acid as a catalyst (…………………reaction). Carboxylic acid (a) + Alcohol → ethanol → Ester C2H3COOC2H5 ethyl propanoate + + Water

C2H5COOH + propanoic acid

H2O

(b) butanoic acid

+

C3H7OH → propanol

C2H3COOC2H5 propyl butanoate

+

H2O

(c)

HCOOH

+ ethanol

→ ethyl methanoate

+

H2O

methanoic acid

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4541/CHEMISTRY 11.7 ESTERS 1

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MODUL P3T ( TAHAP 2)

Esters are non-hydrocarbon organic compounds containing……………, …………………and oxygen.

2 3

General formula of ester : ……………………………………………. Functional group : ………………………………………….

O || R – C - O : Derived from carboxylic acid, name ending with ‘oate’. R is alkyl group with general formula CnH2n+1, n = 0, 1, 2, 3, ……… -R’ 4 : Derived from alcohol, name ending with ‘yl’. R’ is alkyl group with general formula CnH2n+1 ; n = 1, 2, 3, ………

Formation of esters : Esters are produced when …………………….reacts with ……………in the presence of concentrated sulphuric acid as a catalyst (Esterification reaction) : O || R - C – O-H carboxylic acid Example: CH3COOH + C3H7OH ethanoic acid propanol → CH3 COOC3H7 prophyl ethanoate + H2O O || R - C - O - R’ ester

+ H-O-R’ alcohol

+

H-O-H water

5

Naming of esters : Name for esters are : first : read from the alcohol component followed by : the carboxylic acid component. Example: CH3COOH + C2H5OH → CH3 COOC3H7 ethanoic acid ethanol ethyl ethanoate or + H2O

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ethanoic acid

ethanol

ethyl ethanoate

Complete the following equations : (i) HCOOH (ii) C3H7OH Propanol (iii) C3H7COOH + C2H5OH + C4H9COOH + C2H5OH
H2SO4

+

H2O

H2SO4

C4H9COOC3H7

+

H2O water

pentanoic acid

H2SO4

+ H2O

(iv) H H H O | | | || H – C – C - C - C - OH | | | H H H Butanoic acid H H H H H | | | | | HO - C - C - C - C - C - H | | | | | H H H H H pentanol

+

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4541/CHEMISTRY 6 Physical properties of esters :

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• • • • •

Ester is a neutral compound with a …………….smell . Esters have…………………; less dense than water. Simple esters are ………………… at room temperature. Simple esters are very volatile. ………………..in water.

7 Uses of esters :

 Most simple esters are found naturally in fruits and……………... The fragrance of
flowers and fruits is due to the presence of esters. Example: Ester CH3COOC5H11 C2H5COOCH3 C3H7COOC5H11 Name Pentyl ethanoate Methyl propanoate Pentyl butanoate Naturel source Pineapple Apple Banana

 Used in the preparation of ………………….and perfumes.  As artificial ……………………in processed of food and drinks  Used in the production of ……………………..( synthetic fibers for making textiles)

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11.8 FATS 1 Fats : A natural ester found in ………..and ……………tissue …………….at room temperature Fats Oils : A natural ester found in …………………. ……………………at room temperature 2 The importance of oils and fats : 1 2 3 Fats and oil provide ………………………… bodies Build …………cell and certain ……………… Dissolve ………………………………………..

3 Glycerol + fatty acid (organic acid with long carbon chain). → Fats + water

R1, R2 and R3 represent hydrocarbon chains (alkyl groups) that are the same or different.

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4

Saturated and unsaturated fat :

Saturated fats molecules are esters of saturated fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids contain …………..carbon- carbon (-C-C- ) covalent bonds. Example :

Unsaturated fats molecules are esters of unsaturated fatty acids .that contain ………………..and hydrocarbon chain. Example : ……………..covalent bonds between ………………their

5

Converting unsaturated fats to saturated fats

The double covalent bonds between carbon atoms in ………………fats are easily oxidized. When this happen, the fat has turn…………………... Unsaturated fats can be converted to saturated fats by ………………………process for example in the manufacture of………………... Catalyst used is ………..at ……oC :

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H H | | C=C
Double bond

Ni + H2 180 oC

H |

H | C-C | | H H

Single bond

Unsaturated fat (liquid) 6 The effect of fats on health Causes : . …….cholesterol Cholesterol ………cholesterol Causes :

Saturated fat (solid)

…………..deposit on the artery walls

Animals fats (saturated fats) contain higher …….cholesterol whereas vegetable oils (unsaturated fats) contain higher HDL cholesterol. 7 Advantages of palm oil in food production. (a) …………………………………………………………………………………..

(b) ………………………………………………………………………………….. (c) …………………………………………………………………………………… 2.12 NATURAL RUBBER 1 Natural polymers are polymers that exist in nature and are not man made. Example : Natural polymer Protein Monomer

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The Structure of Rubber Rubber is formed from the monomer……………………. Molecular formula of ……………………….is C5H8 Isopropane molecules are joined together by addition …………………process to form the polymer of natural rubber, ………………………..:

Isopropane (2-methylbut-1,3-diene) 3 Coagulation of latex

Poly isopropane

Latex is milk like liquid obtained from tapped rubber tree. Latex is a …………… which contains suspension of rubber particles in water. The rubber particles are made up of ………………………rubber polymers [(C5H8)n] surrounded by a………………….. The protein membrane is ………………..charged. The forces of repulsion between negatively charged particles prevent them from combining or coagulate. 4 Latex coagulates when : • …………………………………………………………………………..

Left aside for 1 - 2 days due to bacterial action on latex. Bacteria produces …………….that contains ……………………..( H+) which causes coagulation of latex. Coagulate latex is semi solid

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The repulsion between the negatively charged particles prevents ………………………………………………………………………………………………… Latex could not coagulation

When an acid is added, the …………………ion ………………..the negative charges on the protein membrane.

The rubber particles can now come …………………together………………………with one another ………………………..of the protein membranes

The rubber molecules ……………………….with one another and entangle Causing the latex to ………………………

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Presence of an alkali can prevent the coagulation process of latex :

• • • •
. 6

Hydroxide ions, OH- from …………neutralised the hydrogen ions, H+ produced by ………………..as a result of bacterial attack on protein. The protein membrane remain ……………..charge because there are no more ………………………ions. The rubber particles ………………….each other The rubber polymers cannot ………………………….and ……………………….

Properties and Uses of Natural Rubber

Complete the following table : Property Elastic Resistance to oxidation Description When it is stretched, it straighten out. It return back to its ……………….shape once the stretching force is released. The natural rubber polymers are easily ……………..due to presence of double bonds. When it is heated, it is soften and become…………….. When it is cooled, it becomes ……… and…………………. Natural rubber is soluble in organic, ……………and …………….solution. Uses

.

Effect of heat

Effect of solvent

The properties of natural rubber can be improved through the ………………process. 7 Vulcanisation of rubber :

Natural rubber is………………... (return to its original shape after stretching force released). When the rubber is over stretched, the rubber molecules do not return to its original position. The rubber has lost……………………. Natural rubber becomes more ……………………and elastic after vulcanisation.

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Natural rubber

Rubber stripe is soaked in ………………………… solution in methylbenzene for a few hours and then dried.

Vulcanised rubber

In vulcanised rubber : The sulphur atoms form ………………………..between the long rubber molecule. This reduces the ability of the polymers to ……………….over each other. The rubber molecules ……………………to its original positions after being stretched.

Properties Elasticity Hardness Tensile strength

Natural rubber Less elastic

Vulcanised rubber

Harder

END OF CHAPTER 11

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