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OXIDATION & REDUCTION
1.1 DEFINITION 1. REDOX REACTIONS are reaction where oxidation and …………….occur ………………………… 2. Oxidation involved :

• •

……………….…of electron losses of ……………….… gains of……………….… ……………….… oxidation number.

3. Reduction involved : • • • • ……………….…of electron losses of ……………….… gains of……………….… ……………….… oxidation number.

4.

Mg

Mg2+ + 2e

Magnesium atom is oxidised because :


magnesium atom ……………….… electrons. the oxidation number of magnesium ……………….… from …..… to

….……. 5.

H2S + Cl2

S + 2HCl

• Hydrogen sulphide is oxidised to ……………….… It acts as an ……………………. agent. • Chlorine gas is reduced to ……………….… It undergoes reduction and acts as an ……………………. agent.

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6. (a)

Zn + 2HCl

ZnCl2 + H2
+ 2e

Zn → Zn2+

• Zinc atom undergoes…………… because its ……….. electrons.

• Its oxidation number increases from ………… to …………
• Zinc acts as an ………..agent

(b)

2H+ + 2e → H2

• Hydrogen ion undergoes…………… because it ……….. electrons. • Its oxidation number …………… from ………… to ………… • Hydrogen ion acts as an ………..agent.
7. • Copper(II) ion undergoes ………………. Cu2+ + 2e → Cu • It…………….. electrons. • Its oxidation number decreases from ……….to ……… • Copper(II) ion acts as an……….agent. Mneumenic method of remembering OIL RIG Oxidation Is Loss electron, Reduction Is Gain electron LEO GER Loss electrons Oxidation, Gain electrons Reduction 1.2 REDOX REACTION IN TERMS OF CHANGE IN OXIDATION NUMBER EXERCISE 1 Calculate the oxidation number in the underlined element a. MnO2 b. MnO4 – c. Mn2O3 d. Na2CrO4

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e. K2Cr2O7 f. HNO3 EXERCISE 2 Determine which of the reaction is oxidation, reduction or neither. Tentukan perubahan manakah diantara berikut adalan pengoksidaan, penurunan atau bukan kedua-duanya. Reactions Cu 2+ Br2 MnO4 IO3
-

Changes in oxidation number Cu : 2 + to 0

Proses Reduction

Cu BrMn 2+ I2 Cr3+ FeCl3 SnO2 NaNO3 Cr3+ Zn2+ NO

CrO42FeCl2 SnO NaNO2 Cr2O7 2Zn NH3 1.3

ANALYSING REDOX REACTIONS IN : 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4 1.3.5 1.3.6 Displacement of metals from its salt solution. Electrolytic and Chemical Cell (Voltaic cell) Rusting of Iron // Corrosion of Metal Displacement of halogen from its halide solution. Change of : Fe2+ → Fe3+ and Fe3+ → Fe2+ Transfer of electron at a distance.

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Reactivity Series of Metals and Its Applications.

1.3.1

DISPLACEMENT OF METALS FROM ITS SALT SOLUTION. Electrochemical Series :  Electrochemical Series is an arrangement of elements according to their tendency to ……………………… electrons to form a positive ion (cation).

Electrochemical Series

K Na Ca Mg Al Zn Fe Sn Pb H Cu Hg Ag Au
Electropositivity decreases
Mneumonic method of memorizing the series Kalau Nak Cari Mangkuk Aladdin Zon Felda Sediakan Peluang Hingga Cuba Hubungi Abang Aku

The …………………. the position of the metal in the Electrochemical Series,

the …………………… is the tendency of the metal atoms to ………………………. electrons (become more Electropositive).

Displacement of metals :

 The metal which is higher in the electrochemical series will ………………… its …………………………. to the metal ………… which is lower in the electrochemical series from its salt solution. The more electropositive metal will be ……………… and dissolves. The less electropositive metal ion will be ………………. and deposited

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EXERCISE 3 An experiment is carried out to determine the relative position of 3 metals, silver, L and M, in an electrochemical series. Diagram below shows the results of the experiment.

Observation • Grey deposit • Grey • No deposit change • Colourless solution • Light blue solution (i) Based on the results, arrange the three metals in order of increasing electropositivity. Explain your answer.

(ii) If M is copper, name the products formed in Experiment II. Write the chemical equation for the reaction.

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1.3.2

ELECTROLYTIC AND CHEMICAL CELL (VOLTAIC CELL)

(a) Differences between an electrolytic cell and a chemical cell :
CHARACTERISTIC

ELECTROLYTIC CELL

CHEMICAL CELL

V

A

Set up of apparatus

Has ……………………. Has ………………………… Same type of electrodes EXERCISE 4

Has no ………………………….. Has Voltmeter …………………… type of electrodes

1. Diagram 1 and 2 shows two different cells. Based on the diagram, answer the following questions

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(a) Referring to the Diagram 1
(i) State all the ion in the electrolyte. ……………………………………………………………………………………… (ii) State the anode and cathode. Namakan elektrod anod dan katod. anode : .......................................................……………………………………. cathode : ..........................................................………………………………… (iii) Write the half equation at Anode:………………………………………………………………………………… Cathode:………………………………………………………………………………. (iv) Name the ion that is Oxidized:……………………………………………………………………………… Reduced:……………………………………………………………………………… (b) Referring to Diagram 2 (i) State the negative and positive terminal. Namakan elektrod positif dan negatif. Positive : ........................................................…………………………………… Negative : .........................................…………………….……………………….. (ii) Write the half equation for the reaction at copper and plate. Tuliskan persamaan setengah bagi tindak balas dikepingan zink dan kuprum dalam Rajah 2. Copper plate:..................................................................................................... Zinc plate:.......................................................................................................... (iii) Name the ion that is Oxidized:............................................................................................................ Reduced:............................................................................................................ (iv) Name the Oxidizing agent:……………………………………………………………………… Reducing agent:……………………………………………………………………… JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 3 : OXIDATION AND REDUCTION

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(v) State the electron movement in the outer circuit. …………………………………………………………………………………………. (c) State the changes in energy in Diagram 1:………………………………………………………………………………… Diagram 2:………………………………………………………………………………… 1.3.3 RUSTING OF IRON // CORROSION OF METAL

 Corrosion of metal is a redox reaction in which a metal atom …………………..to
its ion by ……………………….electrons.  When metal corrodes, it usually forms a metal oxide coating.  Aluminium oxide, for example is non porous and firmly coated the metal. It will protect the aluminium underneath from further corrosion. This further explain the resistance of aluminium to corrosion even though it is higher in the Electrochemical Series ( electropositive metal). Other metals with similar property are zinc, lead, nickel and chromium.

Rusting of iron / corrosion of iron.  Rusting of iron takes place when iron corrodes in the presence of
…………..and…………..  It is a redox reaction whereby oxygen acts as an ……………………….while iron acts as a ………………………………. Mechanism of rusting of iron. O2 Water droplet

O2 B

O2

A

B

Iron

 The surface of iron at A becomes an anode (negative terminal), the electrode at which oxidation occurs.  Iron atom, Fe loses electrons and is………………….. to form iron(II) ion, Fe2+

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Half equation of oxidation :………………………………………………………. The electrons flow through iron to the edge of the water droplet at B, where the concentration of oxygen here is higher.

The iron surface at B becomes cathode( positive terminal) , the electrode at which reduction occurs. Oxygen, O2 gains electrons and is ……………………….to form hydroxide ions, OH-.

Half equation of reduction : ……………………………………………………………….. The iron(II) ion, Fe2+ produced combines with hydroxide ions, OH- to form iron(II) hydroxide.

Fe2+

+

2OH-

Fe(OH)2

Overall equation for rusting :2Fe + O2 + 2H2O → 2Fe(OH)2

 Iron(II) ion, Fe2+ is …………………………..but rust is
………………………..because iron(II) hydroxide , Fe(OH) 2 undergoes further oxidation by oxygen to form hydrated iron(III) oxide, Fe2O3 . xH2O (rust). [ x is an integer whereby the value varies ]

 Iron(II) hydroxide , Fe(OH)2 is oxidized by oxygen to form iron(III)
hydroxide, Fe(OH)3  Then, iron(III) hydroxide, Fe(OH)3 is decomposed to form hydrated iron(III) oxide (rust).

 Rust is brittle, porous and not tightly packed. Thus, water and oxygen can
penetrate the metal underneath. Iron will undergo continuous corrosion.

 Rusting of iron occurs ……………………..in the presence of
……………….or salt because when these substances dissolve in water, the solutions becomes better electrolyte. An electrolyte will increase the electrical conductivity of water.

 Iron structures at coastal and industrial areas rust faster because of : • •
the presence of salt in the coastal breeze the presence of acidic gases in industrial area such as sulphur dioxide, SO2 and nitrogen dioxide, NO2.

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Controlling Metal Corrosion
(i) Metal corrosion can be controlled by using other metal.
K Na Ca Mg Al Zn

Fe

Sn

Pb Cu

Ag

Ease of releasing electron increases (more electropositive) When iron is in contact with ……………………………….metal for example zinc, rusting of iron is prevented.

 Zinc, Zn loses electrons more easily than iron, Fe. Zinc corrodes or is
……………….. instead of iron. Half equation of oxidation :  The electrons that are released by zinc flow through the iron to the metal surface where there is water and oxygen. Half equation reduction : When iron is in contact with ……………………metal for example copper, rusting of iron is faster.

 Iron, Fe loses electron more easily than copper, Cu. Hence, iron is
corrodes / rusts or ………………………….instead of copper.

 The further apart the metals in the Electrochemical Series are, the
……………… the more electropositive metal corrodes. EXERCISE 5 If the body of car is made up of iron, it is easily rust. The surface of iron is in contact with air and water. It also easily dented during an accident. To overcome this problem the body of a car is made up of steel. Jika badan kereta diperbuat daripada besi, ia mudah berkarat. Ini adalah kerana permukaan besi terdedah kepada udara dan air, Ia juga mudah kemek apabila berlaku kemalangan. Oleh itu, untuk mengurangkan masalah ini, badan kereta diperbuat daripada keluli. Referring to the above situation, planned an experiment to compare the corrosion of iron and steel Merujuk kepada situasi di atas, rancangkan satu eksperimen makmal untuk membandingkan kakisan besi dengan keluli. Your planning must include the following:

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Perancangan eksperimen anda hendaklah mengandungi perkara-perkara berikut: (i) Problem Statement /Pernyataan masalah (i) Hypothesis: (iii) Manipulated variable: Responding variable: Fixed/ Constant variable (iv) Material: (v) Apparatus

(vi) Diagram:

(vii)Procedure/Prosedur 1 2 3 4 5 6 (viii) Tabulation of data/Penjadualan data

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1.3.4

DISPLACEMENT OF HALOGEN FROM ITS HALIDE SOLUTION. The halogen F, Cl, Br, I, At Electronegativity decreases Halides ion F-, Cl-, Br-, I-, At-

 The more electronegative halogen :  can attract electrons from halides ion that are less electronegative  can displaces less electronegative halogen from its halide solution  gains electrons and acts as an oxidizing agent.  undergoes reduction to form halide ions.

Example :
Cl2 + 2e → 2Cl-

Chlorine molecule :
• • • ........................... two electrons.

Undergoes ………………………… acts as an ……………………agent.

 The halide ions of the less electronegative halogen :  lose their electrons, undergoes oxidation, acts as a reducing agent.

Example :
2I→ I2 + 2e

Iodide ion :
• • • …………………………. Electrons

Undergoes ………………………………… acts as a ……………………………. agent.

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EXERCISE 6 1 A few drops of chlorine water are added to 2 cm3 of potassium iodide solution and the mixture is then shaken thoroughly.

Chlorine water

Potassium iodide solution

Half equation for reduction Half equation for oxidation Ionic equation Explanation :

: : :

Cl2 + 2e- → 2I- → I2 Cl2 + 2I- →

2Cl-

+ 2e2Cl- + I2

• Chlorine molecules, Cl2 …………………electrons to form chloride ions, Cl- . • Chlorine molecule is………………………………………………………………… • Iodide ions, I- …………………………………………to form iodine molecule, I2. • Iodide ions are…………………………………………………………………….. • Iodide ions have …………………………chlorine molecule, Cl2 . Iodide ion is
an………………………. agent

• Chlorine molecules, Cl2 has ……………………iodide ions. Chlorine is
a……………………………..agent. 2 Between these substances: zinc metal, chlorine water, iron(II) sulphate solution, copper(II) sulphate solution, there are substances that can act as oxidizing agent and reducing agent in a redox reaction. Diantara bahan berikut : logam zink, air klorin, larutan ferum(II) sulfat dan larutan kuprum(II)sulfat, ada yang boleh bertindak sebagai agen pengoksidaan dan ada yang boleh bertindak sebagai agen penurunan dalam tindakbalas redoks. (a) What is the color of bromine water? Apakah warna air bromin ?

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................................................................................................................................. (b) State the oxidation number of chlorine in chlorine water. Nyatakan nombor pengoksidaan bagi klorin dalam air klorin. ................................................................................................................................. (c) When iron(II) suphate solution is added with chlorine water, a chemical reaction takes place and the oxidation number of chlorine change. Apabila larutan ferum(II)sulfat dicampurkan dengan sedikit air klorin, tindakbalas berlaku. Didapati keadaan pengoksidaan klorin berubah. (i) Write the chemical equation for the reaction. Tuliskan persamaan ion bagi tindakbalas ini ? …........................................................................................................................ (ii) What is the changes in oxidation number of chlorine? Berapakah perubahan keadaan pengoksidaan bagi klorin ? ..................................................................................................................... (iii) Name another substance that can change the oxidation number of chlorine as in (c) (ii). Namakan satu bahan lain yang boleh menukarkan keadaaan pengoksidaan klorin seperti yang berlaku dalam tindakbalas ini. …........................................................................................................................ (d) When excess zinc powder is stirred with copper(II) sulphate, the color of the solution changes and a solid is formed. Apabila serbuk zink yang berlebihan dikacau dengan larutan kuprum (II) sulfat, warna larutan berubah dan satu pepejal terbentuk. (i) Name the reducing agent in this reaction. Namakan agen penurunan dalam tindakbalas ini. …….................................................................................................................... (ii) State the changes in the color of the solution. dalam tindakbalas ini. Nyatakan perubahan warna larutan

…......................................................................................................................... 1.3.5 CHANGE OF : Fe2+ → Fe3+ AND Fe3+ → Fe2+

(a) Changing of iron(II) ion, Fe2+ to iron(III) ion, Fe3+
Bromine water

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Iron (II) ion, Fe2+ undergoes ……….by its …………… electron to form iron(III) ion, Fe3+ Oxidation half equation :……………………………………………………………… The substance added is an oxidizing agent such as bromine water, Br2. Bromine molecule gains electrons and undergoes ………………….to form bromide ion, Br-. Reduction half equation :……………………………………………………………. Observation for the change of iron(II) ion, Fe2+ to iron(III) ion, Fe3+ : (i) Iron(II) solution changes colour from pale green to yellow Brown colour of bromine water decolourises

(ii)

Confirmatory test for iron(III) ion, Fe3+ :  Add sodium hydroxide solution to the solution until excess.  A brown precipitate is formed. It is insoluble in excess sodium hydroxide solution. Other oxidizing agents that can replace bromine water to change Fe2+ to Fe3+ are : Chlorine water, acidified potassium mangganate(VII), acidified potassium dichromate(VI). EXERCISE 7 1 The following is an equation represents a redox reaction. Based on (aq) 2Fe3+ the redox reaction : + H2S(g) (a) Write half equation for : (i) oxidation : …………………………………………………………………………………… (ii) reduction : …………………………………………………………………………………… (b) Name the substance that acts as : (i) Oxidizing agent :……………………………………………………………………………. (ii) Reducing agent : ……………………………………………………………………………

2Fe2+(aq)

+

2H+ (aq)

+ S(s)

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(c) Change in oxidation number ;
(i) Oxidation number of iron :………………………………………………………………….. (ii) Oxidation number of sulphur :…………………………………………………………….. 1.3.6 TRANSFER OF ELECTRON AT A DISTANCE. and oxidizing agent are separated by an ………………………..in a U-tube.

1. Transfer of electron at a distance occurs when two solutions of reducing agent 2.
Redox reaction occurs as a result of …………………through an external circuit.

3. Electrons flow from the …………………agent (loses electrons) to the …............
agent (gains electrons) through the connecting wires and can be detected by a galvanometer.

4. 5. 6.

Carbon electrode that is immersed in a …………….agent is known as the Carbon electrode that is immersed in an ……………..agent is known as the The electrolyte allows the movement of ………….and completes the electric

negative terminal (anode). positive terminal (cathode). circuit. EXERCISE 8 1 An experiment is conducted to investigate the redoxs reaction using the apparatus in the diagram below. Satu eksperimen telah dijalankan untuk mengkaji tindak balas redoks menggunakan susunan radas saperti dalam rajah di bawah.

(a) What is the function of potassium chloride solution? Apakah fungsi larutan kalium klorida? ……………………………………………………………………………………

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(b) State the changes in the oxidation number of copper in the above reaction. Tuliskan perubahan nombor pengoksidanan bagi kuprum dalam tindak balas ini. ……………………………………………………………………………………. (c) Write the half equation for the reaction at copper rod. …………………………………………………………………………………… (d) Magnesium rod is an anode. Explain why? Rod magnesium adalah anod. Mengapa? …………………………………………………………………………………….

(e) Another experiment is conducted to investigate the redox reaction using the apparatus in the above diagram. The reaction at the carbon rod is represented by the equation below. Satu eksperimen lagi, dijalankan untuk mengkaji tindak balas redoks menggunakan susunan radas saperti diatas. Tindak balas yang berlaku di sekitar rod karbon boleh diwakili oleh persamaan setengah tindak balas saperti berikut: Mn O4 - + 8H+ + 5e →Mn 2+ + 4H2O (i) What is the color changes at carbon rod? Apakah perubahan warna yang berlaku di sekitar rod karbon? ………….……………………………………………………………………………………… (ii) Give the oxidation number for mangan in Mn O4 -. Tentukan nombor pengoksidanan bagi mangan dalam Mn O4 - . [The oxidation number of oxygen is -2] …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

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(iii) On the above diagram, mark the flow of electron by using an arrow. Pada rajah diatas, tandakan arah aliran elektron dengan melukis anak panah. (f) The above reaction is a redox reaction. Explain with the named example and referring to the reactant of the example given, why neutralization is not a redox reaction. Tindak balas yang berlaku dalam eksperimen ini ialah tindak balas redoks. Dengan menamakan satu contoh bahan tindak balas dan merujuk bahan tindak balas yang dinamakan itu, terangkan mengapa tindak balas peneutralan adalah bukan tindak balas redoks. …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………….

1.3.7

REACTIVITY SERIES OF METALS AND ITS APPLICATIONS

(a) Reactivity series of metals is an arrangement of metals in accordance to the reactivity
of their reactions with ……………..to form metal oxides.

K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al, C, Zn, H, Fe, Sn, Pb, Cu
Reactivity Decreases (b) Application of the Reactivity Series

Metals that are located ………………..carbon in the Reactivity Series (less reactive than carbon) can be extracted from their ores (metal oxides) using carbon.

Metals that are located …………………carbon in the Reactivity Series (more reactive than carbon) can be extracted from their ores (metal oxides) by electrolysis of molten ores using carbon electrode.

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EXERCISE 9 1 Diagram 9 shows the the apparatus set up to investigate the redox reaction for 3 elements X, Y and zinc. X is metal powder, Y is black powdered element. After heating according to the procedure, the observation below is produced.

Diagram 9 Rajah 9 menunjukkan susunan radas satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji tindak balas redoks bagi tiga unsur iaitu X, Y dan zink. X ialah serbuk logam, mankala Y ialah serbuk unsur berwarna hitam. Selepas dipanaskan beberapa ketika mengikut langkah-langkah pemanasan untuk mendapat hasil tindak balas yang sempurna, pemerhatian berikut diperoleh. Observation/Pemerhatian Element/Unsur During heating/ Semasa pemanasan Burns brightly/Nyalaan terang Burns brightly/ Nyalaan terang Glows very brightly/Baraan terang After heating/Selepas pemanasan White powder/Serbuk putih No residue/Tanpa baki .......................................

X Y Zink

(a) What is the function of potassium magganate(VII) in the experiment? Apakah fungsi kalium
mangganat(VII) dalam eksperimen itu? ………....................................................................................................................................

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(b) Describe the steps involved during heating to get the perfect product. Huraikan langkahlangkah pemanasan yang perlu dilakukan untuk mendapat hasil tindak balas yang sempurna. .................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................

(c) Name the element X. Namakan unsur yang diwakili X.
....................................................................................................................................

(d) (i) State the observation when zinc is heated and cooled. Nyatakan pemerhatian bagi zink
selepas dipanaskan dan disejukkan. ....................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................ (ii) Write the chemical equation for the reaction at zinc. Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas yang berlaku ke atas zink itu. ……............................................................................................................................... (iii) State the changes in oxidation number of zinc in the above reaction. Nyatakan perubahan nombor pengoksidanan bagi zink dalam tindak balas itu. ..............................................................................................................................

(e) The residue from the heating of zinc is mixed with X and heated. The chemical reaction
takes place. Explain why the reaction is a redox reaction. Baki daripada pemanasan zink dalam eksperimen itu digaul rata dengan X dan dipanaskan. Tindak balas berlaku. Terangkan mengapa tindak balas itu dikatakan tindak balas redoks. ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ...........................................................................................................................................

(f) (i) Name the element Y. Namakan unsur yang diwakili Y.
……................................................................................................................................
(ii) Why is the product of heating Y left with no residue. Mengapakah hasil pemanasan Y

tanpa baki? ………............................................................................................................................... ………...............................................................................................................................

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END OF CHAPTER 12

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