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4541/CHEMISTRY Chapter 13 : THERMOCHEMISTRY • •

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1.

Thermochemistry is the study of changes in heat energy during chemical reaction. Two types of chemical reactions : Exothermic reaction 2. Endothermic reaction

13.1 : ENERGY CHANGES IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS

1.

Chemical energy is stored within the chemical bonds. During a chemical reaction, chemical bonds of the reactants are ……….. and new bonds in the products are formed.  When bonds are broken, heat energy is ( released / absorbed )  When bonds are formed, heat energy is ( released / absorbed ) ( Underline the correct answer )

2. 3. 4.

Energy that is released or …………… is in the form of heat energy. The …………………….. (the difference between the energy of reactants and the products) in a chemical reaction is called heat of reaction, ∆H. Heat of reaction, ∆H is the energy change when one mole of reactant reacts or when one mole of product is formed. ∆H = Total energy content of products – = Hproducts – Hreactants total energy content of reactants

5.

Two types of reactions that occur are : 1. Exothermic reaction. 2. …………….. reaction

13.1.1 Exothermic Reaction Example :

2H2 + O2

2H2O ,

∆H = - 486 kJ

Bonds are broken in the reactants : ( +1370 kJ heat energy absorbed)

+

New bonds are formed in the products: (-1856 kJ heat energy released ) : JPNT 2009 CHAPTER 4: THERMOCHEMISTRY

4541/CHEMISTRY Energy change in the reaction :
Energy

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Interpretation : Fill in the blanks with correct answers

The quantity of energy absorbed for bonds breaking between hydrogen atoms and oxygen atoms are ……………….. than energy released for the formation of bonds between hydrogen

Energy absorbed +1370 kJ 2H2 + O2
∆ H = - 486 kJ

Energy released -1856 kJ

and oxygen atoms.
  

…………. bonds are broken and ………….. bonds are formed. Heat is ………… to the surrounding  temperature increases. The sign of ∆H is …………………….

strong

2H2O

 Energy change : Chemical energy → …….. energy  Total energy content are decreased. Total energy content of the
product is ………. than total energy of the reactants.

Energy change : ∆ H = 1370 - 1856 = - ………kJ

The value of ∆ H is -……. kJ The heat released from bond formation is ……… than heat absorbed for bond breaking. A negative sign for ∆ H shows that heat is …………….

Energy Level Diagram

 Energy level diagram shows the total energy content of the reactants compared to the products.  Energy level diagram for exothermic reactions ia as follows:
Energy

Reactants t/b
∆H negative (heat is released) [Total energy content of the products is less than total energy of the reactants.

Products

 Try to balance these chemical equations from the examples of exothermic reactions below:
Chemical equation Reaction between acids and alkali Reaction between acids and metals Reaction between acids and carbonate Combustion of ethanol Dissolving sodium hydroxide in water H2SO4 + …..KOH → K2SO4 + ….. H2O ……HCl + Mg → MgCl2 + H2

H2SO4 + Na2CO3 → Na2SO4 + H2O + ….. CO2 C2H5OH + …..O2 → …..CO2 + …..H2O NaOH(s) → Na+ (aq) + ….. OH- (aq)

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4541/CHEMISTRY Adding concentrated acid to water. 13.1.2 Endothermic Reaction Energy Change in Endothermic Reaction: Energy
Energy released ( -ve) Products
∆ H positive Reactants

97 H2SO4(l) → ........H+ (aq)

MODUL P3T ( TAHAP 2) + SO42-(aq)

Interpretation : Fill in the blanks with correct answers The quantity of energy absorbed for bonds breaking is ……… than energy released from the formation of bonds. ………... bonds are broken and ………... bonds are formed. weak Heat is absorbed from the surrounding  temperature decreases The sign of ∆H is ……………………. Energy change : Heat energy → ……………. energy Total energy content are increased. Total energy content of the product is ………. than total energy of the reactants.

Energy absorbed (+ve)

Energy Level Diagram  Energy level diagram shows the total energy content of the reactants compared to the products .  Energy level diagram for endothermic reactions : Energy

Products b
∆H positive (heat is absorbed) [Total energy content of the products is greater/more than total energy of the reactants ]

Reactants

 Try to balance these chemical equations from examples of endothermic reactions below :
Chemical equation Decomposition of calcium carbonate salt when heated Decomposition of copper(II) sulphate crystals to anhydrous salt and water when heated Dissolving ammonium chloride salts in water CaCO3 → CaO + ….. CO2 CuSO4(s) (white) + …..H2O(l)

CuSO4.5H2O(s) (blue) H2O NH4Cl2(s)

NH4+ (aq) + …… Cl- (aq)

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Activity 1:1 Complete the following table to compare and contrast between Exothermic and Endothermic reactions. Exothermic Absorb /release heat Temperature of surrounding change Total energy content Reactants > products Release heat Decrease Products …… reactants Endothermic

Energy level diagram
Energy Reactants

∆H = Value of ∆H
Products Reactants Positive

∆H =

2

Construct energy level diagram for the following thermochemical equations :

(i) (ii)

HCl

+ NaOH →

NaCl

+ H2O

∆ H = - 57 kJ mol-1 ∆ H = + 26 kJ mol-1

NH4NO3(s)

NH4+(aq) + NO3 -(aq)
Energy

HCl + …….. ∆H = - 57 kJ mol-1 NaCl + JPNT 2009

NH4+ + ∆H = + 26 kJ mol-

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13.2 : APPLICATION OF KNOWLEDGE OF EXOTHERMIC AND ENDOTHERMIC REACTIONS IN EVERYDAY LIFE

(a) Hot packs • •
Contain chemicals that released heat [exothermic reaction] It is a plastic bag containing separate compartments of water and anhydrous calcium chloride. • The anhydrous calcium chloride dissolve in water to release heat; the temperature increase. CaCl2(s)
H2O

Ca2+(aq)

+ 2Cl-(aq)

∆H = - 83 kJ

Name other substances that can be used in a hot pack.: …………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………… • A reusable hot pack uses supersaturated solution of sodium ethanoate crystallization and resolution.

(b) Cold packs • • •
Contain chemicals that absorbed heat [endothermic reaction] It is a plastic bag containing separate compartments of water and solid ammonium

nitrate. The solid ammonium nitrate dissolve in water and absorbed heat from surrounding;the temperature decrease. NH4NO3(s)
H2O

NH4+(aq)

+ NO3 - (aq)

∆H = + 83 kJ

Name other substances that can be used in a cold pack. ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4.3 : DETERMINE THE HEAT OF REACTION (∆H)

1. Heat of Reaction, ∆H
State what heat of reaction is: ………………………………………………………………. Or is the energy change when …….. mole of product is formed.

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2. Name the four types of heat of reaction in the table below:
Heat of reaction Definition Example Pb(NO3)2(aq) + Na2SO4(aq) → PbSO4(s) + NaNO3(aq), ∆H = -50.4 kJ 1 Heat of ……………….. Heat change/ Heat energy released when 1 mol of …………………… is formed. Ionic equation : Pb2+ + SO42- → …………….

 50.4 kJ heat energy is released when 1 mol of
lead(II) ions reacted with 1 mol of sulphate ions to form 1 mol of lead (II) sulphate. Zn(s) + CuSO4(aq) → ZnSO4(aq) + Cu(s), ∆H = -217 kJ Heat change/ Heat energy released when 1 mol of metal is displaced from its salt solution. Ionic equation : Cu2+ + Zn → Zn2+ + ………

2

Heat of ……………….

 217 kJ heat energy is …………. when 1 mol of
copper is displaced from copper(II) sulphate solution by zinc. KOH(aq) + HNO3 (aq)→ KNO3(aq) + H2O(l), ∆H = -57 kJ

3

Heat change / Heat energy released when 1 mol of Heat of ………… is formed from ……………….. neutralisation of acid with an alkali.

Ionic equation : H+ + OH→ ……….

 57 kJ heat energy is released when 1 mol of
water formed from neutralization of potassium hydroxide with nitric acid.

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Heat of ……………….

Heat change / Heat energy released when 1 mol of fuel is burnt completely in excess …………...

C2H5OH + 3O2 → 2CO2 + 3H2O, ∆H = -1366 kJ

 1366 kJ heat energy is released when 1 mol of
ethanol is burnt completely in ………. oxygen.

3. Method of calculating ∆H  Quantity of heat change in a substance depends on :   
Mass of substance, m (g)

Specific heat capacity of a substance, c ( J g-1 oC-1 ) Temperature change, θ (oC)

Heat change, H = mcθ
(J)

 As the chemical reaction occurs in an aqueous solution, these assumptions are
made during the calculation of heat of reaction :

Density of aqueous solution = Density of water = 1 g cm-3

  • •

1 cm3 of aqueous solution has a mass of 1 g x cm3 of aqueous solution has a mass of x g

Specific heat capacity of solution, c = Specific heat capacity of water = 4.2 J g-1 oC-1 No heat lost to the surroundings during reaction, all heat released in an exothermic reaction is absorbed into the reaction mixture.

 Heat change, H  The heat change in a reaction can be calculated the following formula :

Heat change = mcθ  Heat of reaction , ∆H 

m = mass of the solution in gram c = specific heat capacity of solution in J g-1o C-1 θ = temperature change in ºC

Heat of reaction ( ∆H) is the energy change when


Calculation : JPNT 2009

one mole of reactant reacts or one mole of product is formed.

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If n mol of reactant/product absorbs/releases H J of heat energy, 1 mol of reactant/product absorbs/releases ∆H (heat of reaction) = +/- H J

H n

J mol -1

n

x = number of moles of reactant/product

Note :

i. ii. iii. iv.

The sign of ∆H is negative for exothermic reaction ( temperature increases) The sign of ∆H is positive for endothermic reaction (temperature decreases) The unit for heat of reaction is kJ mol-1. When the amount of heat is presented in ∆H, it is written ∆H = +/- ……kJ mol-1.

Example 1 : (Heat of Precipitation) 100 cm3 of 0.025 mol dm-3 silver nitrate solution reacts with 100 cm3 of 0.025 mol dm -3 potassium bromide solution at a temperature of 30 oC. A yellow precipitate was formed and the highest temperature reached is 36 oC. Determine the heat of reaction, ∆H and draw the energy level diagram for this reaction. Solution : Steps S1: Determine the mass of the solution, m (Density of aqueous solution = 1 g cm3 ) S2 : Determine the temperature change, θ S3 : Determine the energy change/ heat released, H (Specific heat capacity of solution = 4.2 J g-1 oC-1) S4 : Determine the number of moles of silver bromide precipitated, n Mass of the solution, m Calculation =

Temperature change, θ Heat released, H

=

o

C

= mcθ = = ……….. J = = 0.0025 mol

Number of moles of Ag+

Number of moles of Br-

= = ……………… mol

AgNO3 + KBr → AgBr (s) or + Ag + Br- → …………..(s) From the ionic equation : JPNT 2009

+ KNO3

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1 mol of Ag+ ions reacts with 1 mol of Br- ions to form 1 mol of AgBr ……… mol of Ag+ ions reacts with …….. mol Br- ions to form ………… mol of AgBr. Number of mole of AgBr, n = ………. mol S5 : Determine the heat of reaction, ∆H ∆H = = -

H n

0.0025 = - …….. J mol-1 = - ………kJ mol-1

∆H is negative because temperature increased / heat is released to the surrounding (Exothermic reaction).

Energy Level Diagram :

Energy

From chemical equation

From ionic equation

Energy

AgNO3 + ?
∆H =

Ag+ + ?

- ……… kJ mol-1

∆H =

- … kJ mol-1

AgBr (s) + KNO3

AgBr(s)

Example 2 : (Heat of Displacement) Excess zinc, Zn powder is added to 50 cm3 of 0.05 mol dm-3 copper(II) nitrate, Cu(NO3)2 solution. The temperature of the reaction mixture rises by 2.0 oC. Calculate the heat of displacement, ∆H of copper, Cu from its salt solution and draw the energy level diagram for this reaction. Solution : Steps S1: Determine the mass of the solution, m (Density of aqueous solution = 1 g cm3 ) S2 : Determine the temperature change, θ Mass of the solution, m m Temperature change, θ Calculation = = …….. g =

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4541/CHEMISTRY S3 : Determine the heat released, H (Specific heat capacity of solution = 4.2 J g-1 oC-1) S4 : Determine the number of moles of copper(II) nitrate, n

104 Heat released, H = mcθ = = ……… J

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Num. of moles of Cu(NO3)2 / Cu2+ = = ………… mol Cu(NO3)2 + Zn → Cu + Zn(NO3)2

From the equation : 1 mol of Cu(NO3)2 form 1 mol of Cu ……….. mol of Cu(NO3)2 form ………… mol of Cu Number of mole of Cu displaced, n = …………… mol

S5 : Determine the heat of reaction, ∆H

∆H

= = -

H n

0.0025 = - ……… J mol-1 = - ……… kJ mol-1

∆H is negative because temperature increased/rised. Heat is …………….. to the surrounding (Exothermic reaction)

Energy Level Diagram :

Energy

From chemical equation

From ionic equation

Energy Cu(NO3)2 + ?
∆H =

Cu2+ + ?

- …….. kJ mol-1

∆H =

- … kJ mol-1

? + Zn(NO3)2
Example 3 : (Heat of Combustion)

? + Zn2+

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Diagram below shows the set-up of apparatus for an experiment to determine the heat of combustion of butanol.

Thermometer Wind shield Copper can 250 cm3 of water

Butanol Wooden block

Result : Volume of water in copper can, m Initial temperature of water, T1 The highest temperature of water, T2 Initial mass of spirit lamp contains butanol Final mass of spirit lamp = 250 cm3 = 28.0 0C = 59.5 0C = 175.20 g = 174.10 g

Calculate the heat of combustion, ∆H of butanol, C4H9OH and draw the energy level diagram for this reaction. Solution : Steps S1: Determine the mass of the water, m (Density of aqueous solution = 1 g cm-3) S2 : Determine the temperature change, θ S3 : Determine the heat released, H (Specific heat capacity of solution = 4.2 J g-1 oC-1) S4 : Determine the number of moles of butanol is burnt, n Mass of the solution, m m Temperature change, θ Heat released, H Calculation = = ……… g = = ……… oC

= mcθ = = …………….. J = = ………… g

Mass of C4H9OH

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Mr of C4H9OH = 4(12) + 10(1) +16 = 74

106 Num. of moles of C4H9OH =

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17 .7 7 7

= ……… mol

S5 : Determine the heat of reaction, ∆H

∆H

= -

= - 12075 0.015 = - ………. J mol-1 = - ………. kJ mol-1

H n

∆H is negative because temperature increased/rised. Heat is ……………… to the surrounding (Exothermic reaction)

Chemical equation : C4H9OH + 6O2 → 4CO2 + 5H2O

Energy Level Diagram :

Energy

C4H9OH + ?
∆H =

- …….. kJ

4CO2 + ?H2O

13.4

ACTIVITY / EXPERIMENT TO DETERMINE HEAT OF REACTION Procedure Set up of apparatus :
Thermometer Polystyrene cup

Heat of Reaction Heat of displacement

m

c

θ

n

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Number of moles of Volume metal of salt displaced Metal powder solution [calculated from CHAPTER 4: THERMOCHEMISTRY Salt solution

Specific θ = T2 – heat T1 capacity of water

4541/CHEMISTRY Heat of Reaction Procedure

107 m c

MODUL P3T ( TAHAP 2) θ n

Procedure : Measure the volume of salt* solution using a ………………. cylinder. 2. Pour the salt solution into a polystyrene cup. 3. Determine the initial temperature (T1). 4. Quickly and carefully, excess metal** powder is added into the solution. 5. The mixture is stirred with a thermometer and the …………….. temperature reached is recorded (T2).
1.

balanced equation of displaceme nt reaction]

Set up of apparatus :
Acid Acid Alkali Alkali

Heat of neutralisation

Procedure : 1. Measure the volume of ………. and ……….. using ………………cylinders. 2. Pour the solutions into different polystyrene cups. 3. Record the initial temperature of acid & alkali (Ta and Tb). 4. Quickly and carefully, acid is poured into the alkali. 5. The mixture is stirred with a thermometer and the highest temperature reached is recorded (T2). Set up of apparatus :

Total volume of acid and alkali

Specific T1 = Ta + heat Tb capacity 2 of water θ = T2 – T1

Number of moles of water formed. [calculated from balanced equation of neutralisatio n reaction]

Heat of precipitation

Solution B Solution A

Procedure : [Use two aqueous solutions that contain the cation and the anion of the insoluble salt]. Procedure is the same as above. Heat of combustion JPNT 2009 Set up of apparatus :

Total volume of both aqueous salt solutions

Specific heat θ = T2 – T1 capacity of water

Number of moles of precipitat e [calculated from balanced equation of reaction] m1 –m2 RMM of

Volume of water in

Specific heat

θ = T2 – T1

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Thermometer Copper can Water

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Fuel /alcohol

the copper can

capacity of water

fuel

Procedure : 1. Determine the mass of fuel used by measuring the weight of the lamp with the fuel before burning, m1 and after burning, m2. 2. The heat released during burning is used to raise the temperature of water in the copper can [determine the initial temperature of water, T1 and the highest temperature, T2]

13.4.1 Comparison of Heat of Neutralisation (a) Strong acid and strong alkali :
• All neutralisation process can be represented by the following equation : H+ + OH- → H2O, ∆H = - 57 kJ mol–1

• •

1 mol of hydrogen ions react with 1 mol of …………………. ions to form 1mol of water to release 57 kJ of heat energy. Heat of neutralisation for KOH/ NaOH with HCl and HNO3 is the same because all these reactions form 1 mol of H2O. HCl HCl HNO3 HNO3 + + + + KOH → KCl + H2O NaOH → NaCl + H2O KOH → KNO3 + H2O NaOH → NaNO3 + H2O

H+ + OH- → H2O ∆H = - 57 kJ mol-1

Neutralisation of NaOH with H2SO4 (diprotic acid) 2NaOH + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + 2H2O  2 mol of OH- reacts with 2 mol of H+ to form 2 mol of H2O.  Heat released is 2 × 57 kJ, that is, 114 kJ, not 57 kJ.

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 Heat of neutralisation of sulphuric acid with sodium hydroxide remains at -57 kJ mol-1 because the definition for heat of neutralisation is in terms of formation of 1 mol of water, not 2 mol of water.

(b) Weak acid and strong alkali : •
Magnitude of heat of neutralisation for a weak acid with a strong alkali is less than 57 kJ mol-1. NaOH + NaOH +
ethanoic acid

CH3COOH → CH3COONa HCN → NaCN + H2O,

+ H2O, ∆H = -55 kJ mol-1 ∆H = -12 kJ mol-1

hydrocyanic acid

Explanation : Weak acids ionise ……………… in water to produce hydrogen ions in low concentration.

CH3COOH

CH3COO- + H+

  

Some of the acid particles still remain in the form of molecules.

Heat energy is absorbed to break the bonds in the molecules of the weak acid that have not been ionised, so that they ionise completely. Part of the heat that is released is used to break the bonds in the molecules of the weak acid that has not been ionised. Calculation guide :

(i) (ii)

If the experiment is repeated by changing the volume without changing the concentration, change in temperature is the same. If the experiment is repeated by changing the concentration of the solution by x times without changing the volume, the temperature change is x times.

Example 1 : Experiment I II Reactants 50 cm3 of 2.0 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid is added to 50 cm3 of 2.0 mol dm-3 potassium hydroxide solution. 300 cm3 of 2.0 mol dm -3 hydrochloric is added to 300 cm3 of 2.0 mol dm -3 potassium hydroxide solution. Temperature change rises by 13 oC ?

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What is the temperature change in Experiment II? ☺ Solution : Experiment I : Heat released, H = mcθ = = …….. J = = = ……mol Heat of neutralisation, ∆H = = …….. J Heat of neutralisation, ∆H for Exp. I = Heat of neutralisation, ∆H for Exp. II Experiment II : Heat of neutralisation, ∆H = ………..J Number of mole of HCl / H+ = = ……….. mol Heat released, H = …………. = ……………J Heat released, H mcθ = mcθ = ……………J = MV 1000 MV 1000

Number of mole of HCl / H+
Number of mole of HCl = Number of mole of H+ Number of mole of KOH = Number of mole of OH-

KOH + HCl → KCl + H2O
Number of mole of HCl = Number of mole of KOH Number of mole of H2O = Number of mole of HCl Number of mole of H2O = Number of mole of KOH

(300 + 300) × 4.2 × θ = …………. θ Example 2 : Experiment
3

= ….. 0C

Reactants 50 cm of 0.2 mol dm lead(II) nitrate solution is added to 50 cm3 of 0.2 mol dm-3 sodium carbonate solution.
-3

Temperature change rises by 2.4 oC

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50 cm3 of 0.6 mol dm-3 lead(II) nitrate Q solution is added to 50 cm3 of 0.6 mol dm-3 sodium carbonate solution. What is the temperature change in Experiment Q? Solution : ∆H = H n

∆H = Heat of precipitation of lead(II) carbonate H = Heat change = mcθ n
= Number of moles of lead(II) carbonate

Ionic equation for both experiments : Pb2+ + CO32→ PbCO3

Experiment P : ∆H Experiment Q : = …………. J

100800 = 100 × 4.2 × θ 0.03 θ = …… oC

13.4.2 Comparison between Heat of Combustion of Various Fuel 1. The higher the number of carbon and hydrogen atoms per molecule, the higher the heat energy
released by the combustion of 1 mol of fuel.
Heat of combustion of alcohol (kJ mol -1 )

4000 3000 2000 1000 1 2 3 4 5
Copper container Wind shield Thermometer Number of carbon atoms per molecule

 The heat of combustion of alcohols increase with the increasing of number of carbon atoms and
hydrogen atoms in the molecules. Example : Diagram below Water the set-up of apparatus for an experiment to compare the heat of combustion of shows methanol and ethanol. 200 cm3 of water is poured into copper container in this experiment.
Tripod stand Spirit lamp

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Alcohol*

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Wooden block

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Table below shows the results obtained from Experiment I; to determine the heat of combustion of methanol and Experiment II; to determine the heat of combustion of ethanol. Experiment I Experiment II

25 20 15
Initial temperature of water : ………………

25 20 15
Initial temperature of water : .........................

65 60 55
Highest temperature of water : ....................

65 60 55
Highest temperature of water : ...............

150.50 Experiment I

151.35 Experiment II

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Initial mass of spirit lamp and methanol : ... g

Initial mass of spirit lamp and ethanol : ...... g

Final mass of spirit lamp and methanol : ... g

Final mass of spirit lamp and ethanol : ....... g

(a) (b)

Write the readings of the temperature and the mass of spirit lamp and alcohol in the spaces provided. Based on the experiment above, complete the table below. Name of variables Action to be taken (i) ………………..........…………………….. ………………..........…………………….. ………………..........…………………….. (ii) What to observe in the responding variable : ………………..........…………………….. ………………..........……………………. ………………..........…………………….. ………………..........……………………. ………………..........……………………..

(i) Manipulated variable : ………………..........……………………. ………………..........……………………. ………………..........……………………. (ii) Responding variable : ………………..........…………………….

(iii) Fixed variable : ………………..........…………………….

(iii) The way to maintain the controlled variable : ………………..........……………………..

………………..........……………………. ………………..........…………………….. ………………..........……………………. ………………..........……………………..

(c)

(i)

Calculate the energy change, H in the Experiment I and II. [ Energy change = mcθ , specific heat capacity of water, c = 4.2 J g-1 oC-1 ] CHAPTER 4: THERMOCHEMISTRY

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114 Experiment II

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(ii) Calculate the number of moles of methanol and ethanol burnt in this experiment. [ Molar mass of methanol = 32 g mol-1 ; Molar mass of ethanol = 46 g mol-1 ] Methanol Ethanol

(iii) Calculate the heat of combustion of methanol in this experiment. Heat of combustion of methanol Heat of combustion of ethanol

(d)

Compare the heat combustion of methanol and ethanol. Explain the difference. …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………

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2. Fuel Value  Fuel value is the amount of heat released when 1 g of fuel burns completely, the unit is kJ g-1  A fuel with high fuel value can supply more energy.

Example : Type of Fuel Methanol Charcoal Crude oil Kerosene Petrol Natural gas Fuel Value / kJ g-1 23 35 45 37 34 50

 The various aspects to consider when choosing a fuel in any industry :
(a) (b) (c) (d) Fuel value of the fuel. Cost of energy / cost of fuel. Availability and sources of the fuel. Effect of the fuel to the environment.

4.4 OTHER SOURCES OF ENERGY

 World’s major sources of energy are fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas are nonrenewable source of energy, eventually they will be used up.

 Other sources of energy are the sun, biomass, water and radioactive substances.

END OF CHAPTER 13

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