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MB0043-HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGENT Assignment-1 Q1.What are the functions that HR attempts to fulfill in any organization?

Ans. The Functions that HR attempts to fulfill in any organization are as follows: 1. Human resource planning Estimating the need for resources in order achieve the desired business results. HR plans can be both short term/immediate as well as long term/strategic. The HR team partners with the line managers to understand the business goals and targets for the year and together plan the HR needs in order to meet the goals. 2. Acquisition of Human Resources Staffing the organization with the right mix of skills and competencies at the right time. It also includes HR initiatives like promotions and internal job posting to fulfill this requirement for human resources. Staffing teams in organization are usually separate group of specialists who work closely with the line managers to understand the skills and competencies needed for the job and engage together to elect the best talent for the open position. 3. Training and employee development Focuses in managing training activities to upgrade skills and knowledge as well as soft skills like the ream building and leadership. The training team is again a group of HR specialist who proposes the training program and consults with the line managers to ensure that the program achieves the desired outcomes. 4. Building performance management systems Focuses on the right processes to set goals for performance as individual / teams and related measurement methods. This is core HR activity and is supported by the Hr generalist.

Countries in which people blindly obey of superior have high power distance. Hoe employees progress in a organization how they are paid w. benefits administration and issuing letters and testimonials. masculinity and long term orientation. The dimensions are: power distance. .5.2 Cultural Dimension of Indian Work Force: The foundation for understanding the unique work practices at a country level can be best is understood by first understanding the culture aspects of the country’s workforce. payroll.2 Discuss the cultural dimension of Indian work force? A. That task is supported by as separate HR operation team who acts as an Hr helpdesk and provides information to the employee/managers. Power Distance Power distance is the extent to which less powerful members of institutions and organizations accept that power is distributed unequally. what employee benefits are offered are some aspects that this function redresses.r. The pioneering work done by Dutch Scientist. compensation administration. uncertainly avoidance. He identified five cultural dimensions around which counties have been clustered. Rewards systems Establishing appropriate compensation systems and reward mechanism that would reward the desired outcome and results in accordance with the cooperate values.t internal and external market factors. While their continued to be other studies like the GLOBE (Global leadership and organizational behavior Effectiveness) project and trompenaar’s framework. The again forms a part of HR generalist’s tasks. hofstede’s model is most popular. like personal files. Geert Hofstede is a useful tool in understanding the cultural differences used to differentiate countries. Geert Hofstede dimension are based on research conducted among over 1000 IBM employees working globally. Q. 6. Human resources information systems That would that would take care of operational transactions form the time an employee exits. individualism.

everyone has a place.High power distance countries have norms.  Managers believe that they must adopt theory X leadership style. some are high. Specifically. values and beliefs which accept that: . they must be authoritarian. and have created beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these India scores 40 indicating low to average uncertainly avoidance characterizes. Uncertainty Avoidance Uncertainty avoidance is the extent to which people feel threatened by ambiguous situation. that is. policies yield power and subordination is acceptable. Organization tends to have tall structures. indicating high power distance as a result of theinequalities both at the level of society as well as the at the workplace. values and beliefs that support:     In equally is good. Indian organization typically have hierarchical structures. Most people should be dependent on a leader.  They will have a large proportion of supervisory personal and  The people at the lower level often will have low job qualifications  Such structure s encourages and promotes inequality between people at different levels. and force workers to perform and need to supervise their subordinated closely.  Organizational structure and systems tend to match the assumption regarding leadership and motivation  Decision making is centralized.  The dimension of high power distance at the workplace can be best understood as:  People dislike work and try to avoid it. high uncertainly avoidance countries are characterized by norms. and that life must go on in spite of this.  Those at the top make most of the decision. some are low. The powerful are entitled to privileges. Countries with low to average uncertainly avoidance have people who are more willing to accept that risks are associated with the unknown. and The powerful should yield the power India score 77 on power distance .

Deviant people and ideas should be tolerated . more risk ± taking by managers. The opposite of this collectivism which refers to the tendency of people to belong to group and to look after other in exchange for loyalty India score 48 on individualism. important decision are made by older and senior managers as opposed to individualist cultures. The people of India. Such an organization encourages employees to use their initiative and assume responsibility for their actions. therefore tending towards a more collectistic society. in individualism societies. Laws are not very important and need not necessarily be followed. Indonesia. where as in individualist societies. fewer written rules. and Pakistan & Number of South American countries exhibit collectivism. Further organizations in collectivist culture base promotions mostly on seniority and age. Australia. Germany. Canada. Denmark and Great Britain are good examples of low uncertainty avoidance cultures. favoritism shown to friends and relatives is considered to be unfair and even illegal. Individualism is common in the US. they are based on one’s performance. where decision making is an individual’s responsibility.    Conflict should not be avoided. Individualism Individualism is the tendency of people to look after themselves and their family only. Finally in collectivist cultures. indicating somewhat low scores. Experts and authorities are not always correct and consensus is not important. Group decision making is best and Group protect individuals in exchange for their loyalty to the group Organizations are collectivist societies tend to promote nepotism in selecting managers. Collectivist countries believe that: One’s identity is based on one’s group membership. higher labor turnover and more ambitious employees. Low uncertainty avoidance society such as ours have organization setting with less structuring of activities. In contrast. . Denmark and Sweden. Japan and Spain typify high uncertainty avoidance societies.

money and other material things. each organization needs competent staff with the necessary qualification. jobs are clearly defined by gender. knowledge. Manpower planning is also needed in order to identify an organizations need to reduce its workforce. Hofstede measured this dimension on a continuum ranging from masculinity to femininity.3 Explains the need of human resource planning system? A. 2. Since employees exit and organization both naturally (as a result of superannuation) and unnaturally (as a result of resignation). 5. In higher masculine society’s. . there is an on-going need for hiring replacement staff to augment employee exit. therefore the need to hire new set of employees. 4. There are men’s jobs and women’s jobs. its competitors. Often organization might need to replace the nature of the present workforce as a result of its changing needs. Options such as redeployment and outplacement can be planned for and executed properly. In situation where the organization is faced with severe revenue and growth limitation it might need to plan well to manage how it will workforce. Every organization that plans for its business goals for the year also plan how it will go about achieving them.3 Human resource planning system is a mandatory part of every organization’s annual planning process. In order to meet for the more employees due to organizational growth and expansion.Masculinity Masculinity refers to a situation in which the dominant values in a society are success. work experience and aptitude of work. Men usually choose jobs that are associated with short term employment before marriage. To carry on its work. To meet the challenges of the changed needs of technology/product/service innovation the existing employees need to be trained or new skills sets induced into the organization. Otherwise work would be impacted. and therein the planning for the human resources: 1. Q. skills. its position in the market and the general economy. This growth could be rapid or gradual depending on the nature of the business. India scores 56 tending to be closed to masculinity than femininity. 3. this is turn call for large quantities of the same goods and services as well as new goods.

industry to industry and from worker to worker. for the education of his family members.4 Elucidate the classification of wages in the Indian system? A. the important principles being that minimum wages should provide not only for the bare sustenance of life but also for the preservation of the efficiency of the workers by the way of education. medical care and other amenities. the upper limit is set by the capacity of industry to pay. but for the preservation of the efficacy of the worker. the principles for determining minimum wages were evolved by the government and have been incorporated in the minimum wages act. for his efficiency. For this purpose minimum wages must provide for some measure of education. The place of industry in the economy. However. The prevailing rates of wages in the same or neighboring localities. The lower limit of the fair is obviously the minimum wage. for their medical care.4 In India wages system is classified as follows:  Minimum wages  Fair  Living Minimum wages A minimum wages has been defined by the committee as ³ the wages which must provident only for the bare substance of life. . Between these two limits. It is very difficult to determine the minimum wages because condition varies from place to place. for their amenities.1948. The level of the national income and its distribution.Q. Fair wage It is the wage which is above the minimum wage but below the living wage. In other words. medical requirement and amenities´. the actual wages should depend on consideration of such factor as: The productivity of labor. minimum wages should provide for sustenance for the worker’s family.

3. There on it are annual reviews to make correction per the country’s economic and market/industry trends. including education for his children. The central government and state government may fix minimum wages under the minimum wages act 1948 for the industries. The worker’s willingness for employment at the rate offered implies that they agree to work at that rate. education for his children and protection against misfortunate. a living wage was to provide for a standard of living that would ensure good health for the worker and his family as well as a measure of decency.Living wages One which should enable the earner to provide for himself and his family not only there’re essentials of food. . protection against ill-health.third of the total number of members. In order to advise them in the matter of fixing minimum wages. clothing and shelter but a measure of frugal comfort. comfort. both parties agree to refer their dispute agreed arbitrator and his award becomes binding on the parties. Voluntary arbitration In voluntary arbitration. The committees and the advisory boards consist of equal number of workers and employers representative and also independent members whose number should not exceed one. The management considers the state of the labor market and takes into account of what he can afford to pay and the value of the worker to him. Wage Legislation Wages are fixed according to the law in some industries. 1. In which workers are exploited or too unorganized to protect their own interest. Collective bargaining It is still in the initial stage in India. the government appoints minimum wages committees and the advisory boards. requirement of essential social needs and a measure of insurance against the more important misfortunes including old age´ in other words. through they have had no part in fixing it. 2. Although it is a desirable development in the relation between management and labor. Generally ascertaining wages and deciding who to pay what is a activity undertaken in the beginning when a organization is set up. it cannot be imposed upon either side by compulsion and should evaluate naturally from within.

5. If an agreement is reached in the course of conciliation proceeding. Economics factors such as capacity to pay. provide for consideration in case of dispute between employee and worker. and therefore. the requirement of social justice and the necessity for adjusting wage differential in such a manner as to provide incentives to workers for advancing their skill. On studying the awards one gets the impression that the adjudication are attempting to justify their decision in social and ethical terms. 6. either completely or partly and may be statutorily imposed on the industry in question. the special feature of industry. there is desire to satisfy both parties to dispute. or may be rejected. profit. and consist 7 members.4.Management 2. the govt. In case no agreement is reached. Wages Board The board is appointed by govt. 2 . Conciliation The industrial dispute act 1947. unemployment. may decide to refer the case to industrial tribunal for award. are given due prominence. the conciliation officer sends a full report o the proceeding. . it becomes binding on the parties and takes effects from the date agreed upon or from the date on which it is signed by the two parties. Adjudication Labor courts and industrial tribunal are set up under the industrial disputes act 1947. condition of the economy or welfare of the industry concerned. On the receipt of the report.Labor 2 ± Independent member 1 ± Chairmen The board is expected to take into account the needs of the specific industry in a developing economy. Its recommendation may be accepted by the govt. At the same time.

Ms.Sharma is the general manager HR of a private educational group. HR managers should be familiar with these components bemuse the managers often serve as internal consultants responsible for designing the career development system. S. Some of the activities described are individuals career planning tools and other are commonly used for organizational career management. The norm also rules by the government policy and criteria. interest. Organizational establishing polices that provide for multiple career path options that an employee can choose from and pursue. values. This is supported with a lot of training and development activities that are agreed to with the managers and planned carefully and executed. What are the challenges in implementing the options? A.5 Individually perceived sequences of a attitude and behavior work related activities and experience over the span of a person’s life. It require an individual thinking to identify career-related goals and establishing plans towards achieving those goals. How organizations design and implement their career implement their career development programs. Suggest Ms. Career management is considered to be an organizational process that involves preparing. often it is self driven process. implementing & monitoring career plans undertaken by n individual alone or within the organizational career system. opportunities and constraints. Career development program are as follows: . which every professional appends some time to dwell on and discuss it with peers or superiors and frame it. It is also viewed from time to time that the individual looks for possible new carrier option. An internal focus refers to the way an individual views his/her career and the external or objective focus and refers to the series of job position held by the individual.Q. I general the most effective career development program will use both type of activities. She is planning for the promotion policy for faculty members. Sharma the alternative way to vertical promotion. The dynamics of career development in an organizational context has two dimensions: • • How individuals plan and implement their own career goals. Career planning is a deliberate attempt by an individual to become more aware of their skills. I normal parlance the term career has both an internal and external focus. A variety of career development activities and tools exists for use in organizations. Moreover the options to promote are limited. Having a career plan builds a commitment towards achieving it and is viewed as an excellent personal goal setting exercise for self motivation.5.

It would also specify the particular qualification or special certification that the position demands. An employee aspiring to purpose a career option would need to dedicate time and efforts and the expenses towards acquiring the same. Large MNC’s also encourage the reimbursement of these expenses as an annual fixed amount on successfully the exam / certification. Individual counseling: formally the process allows for individuals to discuss this as part of the performance management process with their immediate managers and share and take feedback with their immediate managers and share and take feedback on the appropriateness of the choices and how to go about pursuing it. Organization assessment programme: it can proactively establish formal process wherein an employee can volunteer to participate and understand himself/herself and his/her strengths. Self assessment tools : These are usually technology enabled on line tools that form part of the performance appraisal system and allow the individual to identify areas of strength the best e. Certain organizations offer psychological testing instrument . 4. Organizations also provide for formal ³mentoring programs´ to which an employee can enroll and sign up a mentor who can then provide the support and counseling on the best career option and how to go about it achieving it. Through the use of assessment center organizations can help an employee identify areas for improvement and means of building those skills. So he can achieve his career plans. These are typically called career ladders or career paths and they help an employee to identify what his options are for future growth and identify the appropriate one based on his personal skills and capabilities/limitation. These career path would be supplemented with additional information on skills and experience that one must have for each role/job in there career path. 5. 3. career workshop etc. The actual move of the employee to the new role would however depend on the existence of the job vacancy in the role. Initial employment programmed organization also run internship and apprenticeship programs wherein the individual aspiring to do a particular job can spend some time as a temporary employee to explore interest and skill fitment for the job/role. 2.1. Employee can also approach career resource / talent management centers supported by HR team for more information on how to plan careers and apply for new roles and job. The employee however needs to find the time and expend the efforts away from work. Information services: organization has establishing policies on what skills and experience that each job in the organization requires.g career planning workbooks. Jobs with similar skills and experience are clubbed together to create parallel career paths. Often managers recommend relevant other managers and leaders who the employee can link with to seek advice and support.

The assessment centers. in housing training. . all prove effective tools to help the individual along.which profile the employee’s strengths and roles and responsibility he/she will best fit into. 6. job rotations program. Development programs focus the efforts of the employee towards helping the employee to achieve his career goals. tuition refund plans.

not just for the customer. committed and well-trained employees who believe that they are able . but for the employee as well. In the past. It is vital for every interaction to be a positive one. the main differentiator for organizations has to be the quality of service that the customer receives. When was the last time you went out to a restaurant for a special meal? Regardless of the quality of the food and the price.Q. motivated. Employee survey techniques have developed significantly over the past few years. Likewise. any HR driven initiative was seen as tactical and of little real benefit to the organization as a whole. This reduction in consumer loyalty can create difficulties in retaining existing customers. in the company is going well? What practices in the company they think are not doing well? Get the feedback on managerial effectiveness. quality and price. which naturally improves the organization’s overall business performance. Suggest the suitable method to collect the employee opinion and explain the method. they take the initiative and switch their allegiance. Research shows that the most successful organizations have satisfied. Following on this same principle. Before doing that it wants to have some details about following:     What the employees think about company? What do they think. higher employee satisfaction levels can come about as customer satisfaction and business performance levels increase because of the pride and kudos that come from working for a successful company.6 ABC is an organization that wants to revise the HR policies. there is a significant amount of survey demonstrating that employees have the greatest single impact on customer service. flexible. In the eyes of the customer. they spend more money. if they feel they are being ³short changed´ in any way. you forget how good the food was and you will probably not visit that restaurant again. Consumer choice has also brought greater competitiveness to the market and in many situations it is difficult for an organization to differentiate itself from the competition in terms of production range. As a result. Customers now have a greater range of choices than ever and are becoming increasingly better informed. If the customer is happy. This in turn means that many have very high expectations and. Ans. This may well result in people buying from you because they engage with specific individuals and the service/ attitude they offer. causing organizations to increase the amount they spend on engaging new customers. Now many enlightened organizations see HR and employee surveys as a powerful business improvement tool. the employee they interact directly with is ³the face´ of that organization and heavily influences how they feel about the organization. with web based technologies it is easier and cheaper than ever to collect and manage data. if the service was poor.

Internal communications evaluations. in turn they are more likely to be supportive of the organization’s products. Managing employees through organizational change programs (e. Procedure/policy evaluation.g. it is vital to define a set of objectives for the survey. shareholders and other corporate investments. people practices were found to have a significant impact on improvements not only in employee satisfaction. The most successful organizations get the most from their employees because they consider them to ³their greatest asset´ and they are prepared to invest in them in the same way as they invest in technology. However. merger. This leads to a critical need to understand and proactively manage the impact that any change will have on your employees in order to protect the investment made in them. acquisition/downsizing. Alignment of employees behind new product development. Defining Employee Survey Goals and Objectives : Before starting on a staff survey process. This means considering employees as a key stakeholder group in the same way as customers. product/brand development and customer segmentation. the survey program will lack focus and it will be difficult to raise enthusiasm for the survey among your key influencers and decisionmakers. . Different Types of Employee Survey Programs Annual climate and employee satisfaction surveys are by far the most popular kind of employee survey activity. Alignment of employees behind organizational rebranding and repositioning efforts. The critical link between employee satisfaction and organizational performance has been clearly established in many independent and academic studies. the following types of survey programs are also gaining in popularity:         Combining employee and customer satisfaction studies. Without these objectives. but also in the organization’s productivity and financial performance.). One approach is to proactively use employee survey to understand what the key motivators and dissatisfies are for them. etc. In many cases your business is your people. Internal customer service evaluations. strategy and goals. Evaluation and design of different benefits schemes.to personally contribute to the success of the organization.

monitored and communicated over time? Quantitative and qualitative research methods can both be highly effective in employee surveys.All employee survey programs need to be seen as a company-wide initiative that is driven by managers and employees from across the whole organization and not something that is solely initiated and managed just within HR. You want to be able to compare performance against other external organizations. It is important to have robust numerical data. The survey needs to cover a large number of different subjects. though. to meet the desired objectives. Quantitative research is most appropriate when:      Large numbers of people need to be included. . In this way. It is therefore vital that any defined objectives for a survey are business related. customer satisfaction data). Deciding on the Appropriate Survey Methodology : Defining objectives at the outset will help to determine the methodology because. to ensure that the correct methodology is used for the type of survey being conducted. You need to have measurable comparison data between different groups. its results and improvements be raised and managed among employees?  How will the progress of improvement actions be reviewed. It is essential. improvements resulting from the survey can be seen as improving customer service and overall business performance.g. you will need to consider the following:  Are all employees affected and should all employees need to be involved?  Will changes and improvement action be required at different levels across the organization?  How will managers and employees be engaged in the improvement process?  How will awareness of the survey.  You want to identify correlation with other survey data (e.

particularly at the outset of the program and we recommend developing a communications plan that covers the following stages: Pre Survey During the Survey Post Survey Between Surveys . Communication is critical to getting this employee buy-in.Face-to-face individual interviews and focus groups are the most common forms of qualitative techniques used in employee research. For example. Communication Employee buy-in is critical to the success of the survey. There are occasions when both methodologies can be effectively combined. the next thing to consider is whether there is a need to survey all employees (³census´) or just a subset of them (sample´). you may decide to use focus groups before designing the survey in order to determine the survey content and/or pilot questionnaire. Then you may also want to use qualitative research after the survey data has been collected to better understand the meaning behind the quantitative results. By undertaking a sample survey. Census or Sample Having defined your survey objectives. in an employee satisfaction survey. they are more likely to participate by completing it and will become actively involved in the follow-up improvement action planning process. Evidence overwhelmingly suggests that a census survey is most appropriate for employee satisfaction surveys. If they believe that improvements will result from the survey. Employee satisfaction surveys are the most common form of quantitative research. Employee Satisfaction Surveys It is worthwhile examining employee satisfaction surveys in more detail given that they are the most popular type of employee survey. This is mainly due to the need to drive through improvement action planning at local levels which requires frontline managers to be provided with their own reports. This is another strong reason for a census approach rather than sample. there may either be not enough responses to provide a report or the number of responses may represent too small a proportion of the whole employee population to be considered statistically robust.

it is important for first line managers and immediate supervisors to be positive role models for the survey so that when they interact with their staff. For example. then neither will they.When developing the plan. they demonstrate active encouragement of the survey. . This is important because employees are usually heavily influenced by their immediate supervisors or line managers. If they do not think that their manager/supervisor believes in the survey. a commitment to administer it properly and to act on the results. The whole process is then derailed before it starts. there is a need to consider the different messages that you want to give to the different audiences and what are the most appropriate communication channels for reaching those audiences.

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