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EXPERIMENT NO: H6 Heat Transfer in a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

The objective of this experiment is to investigate heat transfer in a shell-andtube heat exchanger and to compute and compare the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) for both co-current and counter-current modes of operation.

Heat exchangers are widely used in the process industries so their design has been highly developed. Most exchangers are liquid-to-liquid, but gas and noncondensing vapors can also be treated in them. The simple double-pipe exchanger is inadequate for flow rates that cannot readily be handled in a few tubes. If several double pipes are used in parallel, the weight of metal required for the outer tubes becomes large. The shell-andtube construction, such as that shown in Fig. 1, where one shell serves for many tubes, is more economical. This exchanger, because it has one shell-side pass and one tube-side pass, is a 1-1 exchanger. In an exchanger the shell-side and tube-side heat-transfer coefficients are of comparable importance, and both must be large if a satisfactory overall coefficient is to be attained. The velocity and turbulence of the shell-side liquid are as important as those of the tube-side liquid. To prevent weakening of the tube sheets there must be a minimum distance between the tubes. It is not practicable to space the tubes so closely that the area of the path outside the tubes is as small as that inside the tubes. If the two streams are of comparable magnitude, the velocity on the shell side is low in comparison with that on the tube side. Baffles are installed in the shell to decrease the cross section of the shell-side liquid and to force the liquid to flow across the tube bank rather than parallel with it. The added turbulence generated in this type of flow further increases the shell-side coefficient. Theoretical Background The heat-transfer coefficient hi for the tube-side fluid in a shell-and-tube exchanger can be calculated from the following equation:

hi ⎛ Cp μ ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ CpG ⎝ k ⎠

2/ 3


0 .023 1 + ( Di / L)

( DiG / μ )


0 .7


0 .2


The viscosity correction term is omitted in the above equation as well as in all equations that follow since the temperature difference is not much. In this equation the physical properties of the fluid, are evaluated at the bulk temperature. The coefficient for the shell-side ho cannot be so calculated because the direction of flow is partly parallel to the tubes and partly across them and because the cross-sectional area of the stream and the mass velocity of the stream vary as the fluid crosses the tube bundle back and forth across the shell. Also, leakage between baffles and shell and between baffles and tubes shortcircuits some of the shell-side liquid and reduces the effectiveness of the exchanger. An approximate but generally useful equation for predicting shellside coefficients is the Donohue equation (5), which is based on a weighted average mass velocity Ge of the fluid flowing parallel with the tubes and that flowing across the tubes. The mass velocity Gb parallel with the tubes is the mass flow rate divided by the free area for flow in the baffle window Sb. (The baffle window is the portion of the shell cross section not occupied by the baffle). This area is the total area of the baffle window less the area occupied by the tubes, or
2 π Do π Ds2 Sb = fb − Nb 4 4



fb = Ds =

fraction of the cross-sectional area of shell occupied by baffle window inside diameter of shell

Nb = number of tubes in baffle window Do = outside diameter of tubes In crossflow the mass velocity passes through a local maximum each time the fluid passes a row of tubes. For correlating purposes the mass velocity Gc for cross-flow is based on the area Sc for transverse flow between the tubes in the row at or closest to the centerline of the exchanger. In a large exchanger Sc can be estimated from the equation

⎛ D ⎞ Sc = PDs⎜1 − o ⎟ p⎠ ⎝
where p = center-to-center distance between tubes (1.65 cm) P= baffle spacing (15 cm)


The mass velocities are then




Gb =

mc mc and Gc = Sb Sc


The Donohue equation is
0.6 ho Do ⎛ Do Ge ⎞ ⎛ Cp μ ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 0.2⎜ k ⎝ μ ⎠ ⎝ k ⎠ 0.33


where Ge = Gb Gc . This equation tends to give conservatively low values of ho, especially at low Reynolds numbers. More elaborate methods of estimating shell-side coefficients are available for the specialist. In j - factor form Eq. (5) becomes

ho ⎛ Cp μ ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ CpGe ⎝ k ⎠

2/ 3

⎛D G ⎞ = jo = 0.2⎜ o e ⎟ ⎝ μ ⎠



Correction of LMTD for cross flow If a fluid flows perpendicularly to a heated or cooled tube bank, the LMTD, as given by the equation


ΔT2 − ΔT1 ln( ΔT2 / ΔT1)


applies only if the temperature of one of the fluids is constant. If the temperatures of both fluids change, the temperature conditions do not correspond to either countercurrent or parallel flow but to a type of flow called cross flow. When flow types other than countercurrent or parallel appear, it is customary to define a correction factor FG, which is so determined that when it is multiplied by the LMTD for countercurrent flow, the product is the true average temperature drop. Figure 2 shows a correlation for FG for crossflow derived on the assumption that neither stream mixes with itself during flow through the exchanger. FG = 1 for 1-1 heat exchanger. Each curved line in the figure corresponds to a constant value of the dimensionless ratio Z, defined as


T4 − T5 T3 − T1


and the abscissas are values of the dimensionless ratio η H , defined as:


ηH =

T3 − T1 T4 − T1


The factor Z is the ratio of the fall in temperature of the hot fluid to the rise in temperature of the cold fluid. The factor ηH is the heating effectiveness, or the ratio of the actual temperature rise of the cold fluid to the maximum possible temperature rise obtainable if the warm-end approach were zero (based on countercurrent flow). From the numerical values of ηH and Z the factor FG is read from Fig. 2, interpolating between lines of constant Z where necessary, and multiplied by the LMTD for counterflow to give the true mean temperature drop. The true mean temperature drop will be used in the following equation to obtain overall heat transfer coefficient, U.

U= 1 A ( ln{Do / Di }) 1 Ao + o + + Ro + Ri Ai hi 2 π k gl L ho



Note: Ro ≅ Ri = 3.0 * 10-4 m2 oC w-1 . where q could be calculated from the following equation which is applicable to both hot and cold fluids.

q = m( Hb − Ha )


Ha, Hb = enthalpies per unit mass of stream at entrance and exit, respectively. Description of Equipment The test unit consists of a graphite heat exchanger and a shell-and-tube heat exchanger. A schematic sketch showing valves, pressure gauges, rotameters, and the location of temperature sensors is given in Figure 1. The hot water, produced by the graphite heat exchanger using steam, is on the tube side. The cold water on the shell side can be directed co-current or counter-current to the hot water. Opening hand valve HV-3 while closing HV-6 and HV-7 will implement the counter -current mode of operation. Reversing each valve position will implement the co-current mode. The length of the test section is 1 m with 37 tubes each of outside diameter 1.15 cm and of 1 mm thickness. The shell side has 4 baffles, each occupies 50% of its cross-sectional area, distanced 15 cm from each other. The inside diameter of the shell side is 15 cm.


A set of 6 thermocouples is provided to record pertinent process temperatures. A selector switch and digital read-out are provided. The temperature indicators shown in Figure 1 will measure the following temperatures. T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 cold water inlet temperature hot water outlet temperature for the graphite heat exchanger cold water outlet temperature for shell and tube heat exchanger. hot water inlet temperature for the shell and tube heat exchanger hot water outlet temperature, for the shell and tube heat exchanger Steam temperature

Cold water is supplied through a rotameter with a range of 0 - 1.2 CFM. Note the wedge at the side of the rotameter must be used to read the flow rate. Flows are controlled through manual control valves upstream of the rotameters (HV-1 for hot water feed to the shell-and-tube heat exchanger, and HV-2 for that of the cold water). Experimental Procedure i) ii) iii) iv) Keep HV-5 open all the time. Open HV-1 slowly. Open HV-8 slowly. Adjust HV-1 and HV-8 such that T2 is approximately 50oC - 60oC; note that T2 should not exceed 85oC. Choose the mode of operation in the shell and tube heat exchanger by opening and closing the appropriate valves (start first in counter-current mode, by opening HV-3 while closing HV-6 and HV-7). For a fixed hot water flow rate measure the following for six different cold water flow rates: a) cold water flow rate to the shell-and-tube heat exchanger



b) hot water flow rate to shell and tube heat exchanger via the graphite heat exchanger Three) temperature d) cold water outlet temperature cold water inlet


Five) temperature Six) hot water outlet temperature





Repeat the experiment with co-current flow conditions instead of that of the counter-current (i.e. by closing HV-3 while opening HV-6 and HV-7), but keep the hot water flow rate unchanged.

Shut Down Procedure - Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger i) ii) iii) iv) v) Close HV-8 Close HV-1 and HV-2 Close HV-4 Close HV-3 and open HV-6 Leave the unit in a safe and clean condition

Experimental Program A set of six measurements will be taken for each mode of operation. The cold water flow rate will be varied in the range 6.1 - 23.1 Liter/min. The hot water flow rate and temperature will stay approximately constant at about 12.6 Liter/min and 55oC, respectively. Since the cold water for both the graphite and the shell-and-tube heat exchangers is obtained from the same water main, the cold water to the graphite heat exchanger must be checked whenever the cold water to the shell and tube heat exchanger flow rate is changed. A log sheet suitable to record all experimental data is attached.

Data Analysis The following items must be covered in the analysis: 1) 2) Carry out an energy balance for the tube-side and the shell side. Compute the experimental overall heat transfer coefficient for the heat exchanger. Plot on a log-log scale the computed experimental overall heat transfer coefficient vs the shell-side Reynolds’s number. Calculate the theoretical heat transfer coefficient and compare with the experimental one.





Welty, J.R., Wicks, C.E., and Wilson, R.E., “Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat and Mass Transfer”, 3rd edition, Wiley and Sons (1984) Chapman, A.J., “Heat Transfer”, 4th edition, Macmillan Publishing Company (1989)

Notation: A Cp D Area, (m2) Specific heat at constant pressure, (kJ/kg.K) Diameter, (m); De, equivalent diameter of noncircular channel; Di, inside diameter of tube; Do, outside diameter of tube; Ds, inside diameter of exchanger shell. Correction factor for average temperature difference in crossflow or multipass exchangers, dimensionless Fraction of cross-sectional area of shell occupied by baffle window (0.2) Mass velocity, (kg/m2-s); Gb, in baffle window; Gc, in crossflow; Ge, effective value in exchanger, Gb Gc . Individual heat-transfer coefficient, (W/m2.K); hc, for outside of coil, hi, for inside of tube; hj, for inner wall of jacket; ho for outside of tube j factor dimensionless; jo, for shell-side heat transfer Thermal conductivity, (W/m.K); km, of tube wall Thermal conductivity, (W/m.K); km, of the fluid Mass of liquid, (kg)

FG fb G


j kgl k m

Nb P p

Flow rate, (kg/s); m c , of cooling fluid

Number of tubes in baffle window Baffle pitch or spacing, (m) Center-to-center distance between tubes, (m)


Q q S

Quantity of heat, (J); Qr, total amount transferred during time interval tr Rate of heat transfer, (W) Cross-sectional area, (m2) ; Sb, area for flow in baffle window; Sc, area for crossflow in exchanger shell Temperature, (oC); at warm-fluid inlet; Thb, at warm-fluid outlet; Tr, reduced temperature; Ts, temperature of Overall heat-transfer coefficient, (W/m2.K); Ut, based on inside area Ratio of temperature ranges in crossflow or multipass exchanger, dimensionless [Eq. (15-6).





Log-Sheet for Shell and Tube H.C.(Expt #H6)

Hot water flowrate:_______________ Cocurrent Run No. 1 2 3 Cold Flow Lit/min T1 oC T3 oC T4 oC T5 oC

4 5 6 Counter-Current Run No. Cold Flow Lit/min T1 oC T3 oC T4 oC T5 oC

1 2 3 4 5 6





Hand Valve Pressure Indicator Pressure Control Valve Thermocouple Flow Indicator - Rotameter

Graphite Heat Exchanger




HV-7 HV-3

HV-6 T3

T6 HV-1

PI PC V HV-4 Figure 1: Schematic Diagram of Shell & Tube Experiment T1 HV-2 Shell Drain Tube Drain