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Q1: Define Spectroscopy.

Ans: Spectroscopy is the use of the absorption, emission, or scattering of electromagnetic radiation by matter to qualitatively or quantitatively study the matter or to study physical processes. The matter can be atoms, molecules, atomic or molecular ions, or solids. Q2: What are spectra? Ans: Spectra are the shapes of graphs obtained during analysis. Q3: Write down the types of spectroscopy. 1. Visible and Ultra Violet Spectroscopy: UV and Visible spectroscopy classify the substance only as organic or inorganic substances. 2. Infra Red Spectroscopy: IR spectroscopy determines the functional group and their position. Instruments used in UV/Visible spectroscopy can not be used in IR spectroscopy. 3. Atomic Emission Spectroscopy: Atomic emission spectroscopy (AES or OES) uses quantitative measurement of the optical emission from excited atoms to determine analyte concentration. 4. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS): Atomic-absorption (AA) spectroscopy uses the absorption of light to measure the concentration of gas-phase atoms. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) determines the presence of metals in liquid samples. Metals include Fe, Cu, Al, Pb, Ca, Zn, Cd and many more. It also measures the concentrations of metals in the samples. Typical concentrations range in the low mg/L range. 5. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Q4: Differentiate UV and Visible spectroscopy. Ans: Radiation Type UV Range (nm) 10 to 400 Radiation Source Hydrogen or Deuterium lamp is used as radiation source. Deuterium is preferred because of its efficiency. Pure Tungsten bulb is used in visible spectroscopy.

Visible

400–720

Q5: Which type of spectroscopy is used in lab? Ans: UV and Visible Q6: Write down the components of EMR. Which component is more active and used in spectroscopy? Ans: There are two components of EMR.

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1. Q8: Define luminescence. Q9: Name different types of photometer. vibrational. Filter photometer 3. is the energy of the molecule due to the rotational motion. Ans: The word Luminescence describe the emission of radiation which results when a material adjust itself from an excited state to the ground state. from the excited singlet state. by emission of a photon. Luminescence indicates both fluorescence and phosphorescence. and phosphorescence. depends on the molecular structure. is the energy due to the arrangement of the electron in the molecule. and translational component. 5. Electric Component 2. 4. Visual Colorimeter Remember Me in Your Prayers Page 2 . fluorescence. Ans: There are three types of photometer: 1. rotational. Only the electric component is active and alternatively energy is transferred with the interaction of matter. 2. The two components oscillate in plane perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the radiation. Phosphorescence is luminescence that is caused by the absorption of radiations (as light or electrons) and continues for a noticeable time after these radiations have stopped. Electric component is more active than magnetic component. is the energy posses by the vibration of the molecule. such that: 1. Translational Energy is used in UV and Visible region. Magnetic Component Electric component is used in spectroscopy. is the kinetic energy of the molecule. Fluorescence occurs when the molecule returns to the electronic ground state. Spectrophotometer 2. Q7: What are the different types of molecular energy? Which types is used in UV and Visible range? Ans: A molecular energy state is a sum of electronic. 3.

Ans: Absorbance: A logarithmic measure of the amount of light absorbed (at particular wavelength) as the light passes through a sample or substance. absorptivity. OR The ratio of the radiant energy transmitted by a body to the total radiant energy received by the body: If T = 100 % then A = 0 If A = 100 % then T = 0 Q12: Name the types of deviation from Beer-Lambert law and the sources of these deviations. and transmittance.Spectrophotometer is more effective. Remember Me in Your Prayers Page 3 . Mathematically these laws can be written as: Q11: Define Absorbance. Q10: State Beer’s and Lambert’s law. Ans: Beer’s law states that the absorbance of a solution is directly proportional to the concentration of solution. A measure of the extent to which a substance transmits light or other electromagnetic radiation Where Po is the incident radiate power and P is the transmitted radiate power Absorptivity: Absorptivity varies with wavelength and is defined as the absorbance of a solution per unit path length and concentration: Transmittance: The transmittance of a sample is the ratio of the intensity of the light that has passed through the sample to the intensity of the light when it entered the sample (T = Iout/Iin). Lambert’s law states that the absorbance is directly proportional to the path length or cell thickness. Also write down their units.

Prism for Transmission and Reflection Parts of Monochromator: 1. Pure Tungsten Filament is used as radiation source. Monochromator: Function of Monochromator is to isolate the light of single wavelength. Flat Diffraction Grating b. Diffraction grating 2. Radiation Source Monochromator Sample Container or Cell Radiation Detector Radiation Source: Region UV Visible Wavelength (nm) 180-375 400-750 Radiation Source Hydrogen or Deuterium Lamp. Ans: There are two types of spectrophotometer: 1. 3. 3. Blazed Diffraction Grating Blazed Diffraction Grating is more efficient than Flat Diffraction Grating. Single beam spectrophotometer 2. Prism: Two types of prism are used: Remember Me in Your Prayers Page 4 . Entrance and exit slits 2.Ans: There are two types of deviations: 1. 2. Deuterium lamp is more efficient. Diffraction Gratings: There are two types of diffraction grating: a. OR Isolate a narrow band of λs (wavelength selector) from a: 1. Positive Deviation 2. 4. Double beam spectrophotometer Q14: Name the components of spectrophotometer and their functions. Negative Deviation Q13: Name different types of spectrophotometer. Lenses (Collimating and focusing) 4. Ans: Basic parts of spectrophotometer are: 1.

Conductivity: Conductivity is the degree to which a water sample can carry an electric current. Photo Multiplier Tube Detector (PMT): There are two types of PMT a. 3. conductivity. total dissolved solids. alkalinity. 4. Circular PMT Circular PMT is more effective than Linear PMT Q15: Write down the applications of spectrophotometer. 2.a. The value obtained will depend on the indicator used. The amount of total solids is measured in milligrams of residue per liter of water. This is called Total Solids. Sample Container OR Cell: There are two types of cell 1. There are two types of Detector: 1. Radiation Detector: A device which is used to convert radiant energy into electrical energy is known as Radiation Detector. Photo Tube Detector 2. Flat Bottom Cell 2. Also write down the parameters used for these analyses. 60° Prism (Cornu Quartz Prism) b. Linear PMT b. The conductivity of water provides an indication of the quantity of dissolved material present. Conductivity is measured in micro-mhos per centimeter (mhos/cm) or micro-Siemens per centimeter (S/cm) Alkalinity: Alkalinity is the capacity of the water to react with acid to a specific pH end point. hardness. Remember Me in Your Prayers Page 5 . Ans: Total Solids (TS): This is the matter that remains as residue upon evaporation and drying at 103°C 105°C in an oven. The magnitude of the conductivity of a sample is a function of the amount of ions present in the sample. Ans: Applications of spectrophotometer are given below: 1. 30° Prism (Littrow Quartz Prism) 30° prism is more efficient. chloride and sulphate content of water. Round Bottom Cell Flat Bottom Cell is more efficient. Formation of spectra Determination of concentration Multi component mixture analysis Spectrophotometric titration Q16: Define total solids.

The pH test measures the H+ ion concentration of liquids and substances. 2. 42). never both. Since almost all chloride salts are highly soluble in water.(hydroxyl) ions. Dissolved Solids: The filtrate remaining in beaker after filtering the sample through filter contains dissolved solids. (what-man Filter Paper No. magnesium. Hardness: Hardness is due to the presence of multivalent metal ions which come from minerals dissolved in water. Chloride (Cl-1): Chloride (Cl-1) is one of the major anions found in water and are generally combined with calcium. Remember Me in Your Prayers Page 6 . Hardness is also a very important indicator of the ability of the water to deposit ‘scale’ or Ca/Mg salts over time in plumbing fixtures. 3. Sulfate may also be dissolved from materials on the surface of the ground. Suspended Solids (SS): These are the solids in wastewater. Sea water contains over 30. small amount of organic matter and dissolved gases. but both are commonly reported as mg CaCO3/L. Ans: There are five forms of Solids viz. Hardness is based on the ability of these ions to react with soap to form a precipitate. Sulfate Content: Sulfate is found in almost all natural water. Total Solids (TS): This is the matter. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS): Total Dissolved Solids refer to the amount of physical matter dissolved in water. Each measured liquid or substance is given a pH value on a scale that ranges from 0 to 14. Water hardness is measured in "grains" per gallon and in terms of mg/L CaCO3. 1. which remains as residue upon evaporation and drying at 103°C -105°C in an oven.000 mg/L as NaCl. While filtering the sample through a fine filter. as calculated by titration. Sulphate of water is measured in Q17: Name different types of solids. The amount of total dissolved solids is measured in ppm. Decaying organic matter such as leaves and trees is the primary source of this sulfate.A water sample will have either an acidity value or an alkalinity value. the suspended solids contain much of the organic matter. Volatile Solids and Fixed Solids. or sodium. Chloride content of water is measured in This reaction provides the basis for a method of analysis called a titration. which remain present on filter paper. pH: Water (H20) contains both H+ (hydrogen) ions and OH. Suspended Solids. It includes mainly inorganic salts. Dissolved Solids. This is called Total Solids. Total Solids. the chloride content ranges from 10 to 100 mg/L.

Ans: Total solids is the matter. Phenolphthalein Alkalinity (Alkaphot P) Phenolphthalein alkalinity is present only when free carbon dioxide (CO2) is absent and therefore exists only when the pH exceeds 8. is a chemical treatment applied to cotton fibers or fabrics to permanently impart a greater affinity for dyes and various chemical finishes. heat. Scouring. cloth or garment form by treatment with a dye. This represents the amount of organic matter present in water. Scouring: It is responsible for the removal of fats and waxes”. If the total alkalinity is high. Q20: Define Desizing. in textiles. as indicated by the change in color of methyl orange from orange to pink. Q18: Write down the difference b/w total solids and total dissolved solids of water. Dyeing and Mercerization. Ans: Total Alkalinity Total Alkalinity is an important test in determining the aggressiveness or scale tendency of the water. generally starch. If the total alkalinity is low the water may be aggressive and cause corrosion to pipe work and structures. and fabrics by treatment with chemicals or by exposure to the sun. Bleaching: Bleaching. Therefore the methyl orange end point titration indicates total alkalinity. which remains as residue upon evaporation and drying at 103°C -105°C in an oven and Total dissolved solids refer to the amount of physical matter dissolved in water which remains after filtration. Dyeing: Dyeing is the process of imparting colors to a textile material in loose fiber. the water may more readily promote scale formation. Ans: Desizing: Desizing is the process of removing the size material. or water. Since phenolphthalein changes color at pH~8. process of whitening or removing the natural color of textile fibers. yarn. this corresponds to a pH where all the CO32.present would be protonated.3.5. It converts the bicarbonate to aqueous carbon dioxide. These represent the inorganic matter present in water. Bleaching. 5. Fixed Solids: The residue remains after the ignition of sample in muffle furnace at 550 °C represents the fixed solids. yarns. Methyl Orange Alkalinity (Alkaphot M) The alkalinity is measured by the amount of standard sulfuric acid required to lower the pH of the water to a pH level of 4. saponification and emulsification is done.3. For scouring. from the warp yarns in woven fabrics. Mercerization: Mercerization. Volatile Solids: The difference between the suspended solids and fixed solids represent the volatile solids. phenolphthalein and total alkalinity.4. Mercerizing also gives Remember Me in Your Prayers Page 7 . Q19: Differentiate methyl orange.

The energy required to break this bond is similar to that required to degrade the substrate itself. for the strongest of colors. Q26: Write down the purpose of using soda ash. Ans: Per Oxide Bleaching process is used in lab. greater absorptive properties. Q24: Name the bleaching agent and type used in lab. a high degree of luster. Q21: Write down different types of desizing.cotton cloth increased tensile strength. Hydrogen per Oxide is used as bleaching agent. Ans: Reactive dyes are unique in that they contain specific chemical groups capable of forming covalent links with the textile substrate. It actually activates the fiber molecules so that they can chemically attack the dye. Ans: At first we partially saponify fats and waxes into soap by saponification process. and. For this purpose we used Glacial Acetic Acid (Enzymes work at different pH range mostly 5-7 and the temperature range of 40-70 °C) Q23: Write down the mechanism of scouring. Ans: Enzymatic desizing process is used. usually. Urea has two purposes: it can make it possible to dissolve more dye in a given volume. Salt (sodium chloride. salt and urea in dyeing of fabric. thus accounting for the high wet fastness of these dyes. depending on the method used. Those Fats which are not removed by saponification of the fabric are removed by emulsification. It aids in the dyeing process by helping to drive the dye onto the fiber. or water-attractor. Ans: There are four desizing processes: Enzymatic desizing of starches on cotton fabrics Oxidative desizing Acid desizing Removal of water soluble sizes Q22: Name the type of desizing and desizing agent used in lab. to help keep fabric damp long enough for the reaction to occur. out of solution. Remember Me in Your Prayers Page 8 . Q25: Write down the advantages of using fiber reactive dye. and it serves as a humectant. making a permanent connection that holds the dye to the fiber. so that it is in the right place for any bonding to the fiber to occur. Ans: Soda ash changes the pH of the fiber-reactive dye and cellulose fiber so that the dye reacts with the fiber. specifically) is important in using many types of dyes.

Ans: Q31: Write down the chemical reaction of glycerin during titration. which can then attack the dye molecule. Ans: Determining the concentration of an analyte by reacting it with a known number of moles of excess reagent. Surface coating and paints. the dye will not fix permanently to the cellulose fiber. leading to a reaction that produces a strong. Softeners and Plasticizers. Q28: Name the mercerizing agent used. forming a cellulosate anion. Without a high pH. The excess reagent is then titrated with a second reagent. Remember Me in Your Prayers Page 9 . Also known as indirect titration. In the case of most popular fiber reactive dyes. permanent covalent bond. Ans: It is used in Drugs. The concentration of the analyte in the original solution is then related to the amount of reagent consumed. Ans: NaOH Q29: Define back titration. Q32: Write down some application of glycerin. or degree of acidity. Food and Beverages. Ans: pH: Every chemical reaction works best at a certain pH.Q27: Write down the effects of temperature and pH on dyeing of cotton fabric. Ans: Remaining NaOH is treated with an acid to determine the amount of NaOH consumed in the above reaction (that is the amount of fat present in glycerin). Temperature: Solubility of different chemicals used in dyeing process depends upon the rate of temperature increase. a high pH actually activates the cellulose (cotton) fiber. It is called back titration because it is not carried out with the solution whose concentration is required to be known (analyte) as in the case of normal or forward titration Q30: Write down the chemical formula of glycerin.

but not in water. organic solvents. Removes all chlorine 2. A bed of resin can be used either to remove unwanted ions from a solution passed through it or to accumulate a valuable mineral from the water which can later be recovered from the resin. The most common examples are water softening and water purification. 2. the regenerant chemicals are cheap and if well maintained resin beds can last for many years before replacement is needed. Ion exchange resins are classified as: 1. whose exchangeable ions are negatively charged Ion exchange resins are widely used in different separation. Removes some minerals. Ans: The ion exchange process percolates water through bead-like spherical resin materials (ionexchange resins). Iron fouling. Benefits of an Activated Carbon Filter 1. mercury. Filters all water coming into your home 3. They are also used to control volatile organic emissions from production processes. Organic contamination from the resin. Cat-ion exchangers. thus the process is called ion exchange. Very little energy is required. Write down the types of ion exchange resin. The trapping of ions takes place only with simultaneous releasing of other ions. The advantages of ion exchange processes are the Calcium sulphate fouling. Bacterial contamination and Chlorine contamination. chemicals and sediment Remember Me in Your Prayers Page 10 .Q33: What is ion-exchange? Define resin. uses and advantages and disadvantages of ion exchange resin. fabricated from an organic polymer substrate. Ans: Carbon bed filters are widely used in the chemical processing industry to recover low-concentration chemicals from dilute gas streams. Adsorption of organic matter. Q34: What is carbon bed filters? Write down the uses and advantages and disadvantages of carbon adsorption. The advantages of ion exchange processes are the very low running costs. The material has highly developed structure of pores on the surface of which is sites with easily trapped and released ions. resin is soluble in alcohol. which have positively charged mobile ions available for exchange. Anion exchangers. Resin is a natural or synthetic compound which begins in a highly viscous state and hardens with treatment. usually white or yellowish. They are used to remove residual sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride. Ions in the water are exchanged for other ions fixed to the beads. and decontamination processes. and semi volatile organics like dioxins and furans from exhaust-gas streams. purification. An ion exchange resin is an insoluble matrix (or support structure) normally in the form of small (1-2 mm diameter) beads. Typically.

4. Fabric colors do not fade 6. increasing the water hardness. Removes odors 5. Improved tastes in foods and drinks . Can generate carbon fines. Remember Me in Your Prayers Page 11 . Activated carbon can not be economically regenerated in the field (once it has reached its adsorption capacity. typically after 1-5 years. The bed is also backwashed frequently to remove captured particles. the bed is replaced with fresh carbon).the true taste comes through Disadvantages: The main disadvantage of carbon bed filters is that they may become a breeding ground for bacteria thriving in an environment without chlorine (which is typically adsorbed in the upper part of the bed) and with plenty of nutrients. Therefore carbon filters are usually periodically sanitized with hot water to contain microbial growth. It is recommended to use acid-washed activated carbon for water purification because the mineral resident in the charcoal may lead to leaching of the metal oxide.