Freemasonry

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Contents
Articles
Freemasonry 1 20 20 28 33 34 38 40 42 44 46 46 48 55 56 58 59 61 64 66 72 72 78 81 85 88 90 95 105 106 108

History of Freemasonry
History of Freemasonry Masonic manuscripts Ahiman Rezon Regular Masonic jurisdictions Lodge Mother Kilwinning United Grand Lodge of England Prince Hall Freemasonry Hiram Abiff

Organization of Freemasonry
Masonic Lodge Masonic Lodge Officers Grand Lodge Masonic Landmarks Square and Compasses Research Lodge Freemasonry and women Elizabeth Aldworth Co-Freemasonry

Masonic Bodies
Masonic bodies Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine York Rite Royal Arch Masonry Cryptic Masonry Knights Templar Scottish Rite Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry Order of Mark Master Masons Holy Royal Arch

Order of the Eastern Star Order of the Amaranth DeMolay International Job's Daughters International International Order of the Rainbow for Girls

111 114 116 124 127 131 131 137 141 143 144 146 148 148 153 161 163 165 169 172

Famous Masons
Prince Hall Albert Pike James Anderson Albert Mackey Robert Macoy Rob Morris

Other views of Freemasonry
Anti-Masonry Christianity and Freemasonry Humanum Genus Taxil hoax William Morgan Anti-Masonic Party Propaganda Due

References
Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 179 183

Article Licenses
License 185

Freemasonry

1

Freemasonry
Freemasonry is a fraternal organisation that arose from obscure origins in the late 16th to early 17th century. Freemasonry now exists in various forms all over the world, with a membership estimated at around six million, including approximately 150,000 in Scotland and Ireland, over a quarter of a million under the jurisdiction of the United Grand Lodge of England[1] and just under two million in the United States.[2] The fraternity is administratively organised into independent Grand Lodges or sometimes Orients, each of which governs its own jurisdiction, which consists of subordinate (or constituent) Lodges. The various Grand Lodges recognise each other, or not, based upon adherence to landmarks (a Grand Lodge will usually deem other Grand Lodges who share common landmarks to be regular, and those that do not to be "irregular" or "clandestine").

The Masonic Square and Compasses. (Found with or without the letter G)

There are also appendant bodies, which are organisations related to the main branch of Freemasonry, but with their own independent administration. Freemasonry uses the metaphors of operative stonemasons' tools and implements, against the allegorical backdrop of the building of King Solomon's Temple, to convey what has been described by both Masons and critics as "a system of morality veiled in allegory and illustrated by symbols."[3] [4]

History
The origins and early development of Freemasonry are a matter of some debate and conjecture. A poem known as the "Regius Manuscript" has been dated to approximately 1390 and is the oldest known Masonic text.[5] There is evidence to suggest that there were Masonic lodges in existence in Scotland as early as the late 16th century[6] (for example the Lodge at Kilwinning, Scotland, has records that date to the late 16th century, and is mentioned in the Second Schaw Statutes (1599) which specified that "ye warden of ye lug of Kilwynning [...] tak tryall of ye airt of memorie and science yrof, of everie fellowe of craft and everie prenteiss according to ayr of yr vocations").[7] There are clear references to the existence of lodges in England by the mid-17th century.[8] The first Grand Lodge, the Grand Lodge of England (GLE), was founded on 24 June 1717, when four existing London Lodges met for a joint dinner. This rapidly expanded into a regulatory body, which most Goose and Gridiron, where the Grand Lodge of English Lodges joined. However, a few lodges resented some of the England was founded modernisations that GLE endorsed, such as the creation of the Third Degree, and formed a rival Grand Lodge on 17 July 1751, which they called the "Antient Grand Lodge of England". The two competing Grand Lodges vied for supremacy – the "Moderns" (GLE) and the "Antients" (or "Ancients") – until they united on 25 November 1813 to form the United Grand Lodge of England (UGLE).[9]

Freemasonry The Grand Lodge of Ireland and The Grand Lodge of Scotland were formed in 1725 and 1736 respectively. Freemasonry was exported to the British Colonies in North America by the 1730s – with both the "Antients" and the "Moderns" (as well as the Grand Lodges of Ireland and Scotland) chartering offspring, or "daughter", Lodges, and organising various Provincial Grand Lodges. After the American Revolution, independent U.S. Grand Lodges formed themselves within each State. Some thought was briefly given to organising an over-arching "Grand Lodge of the United States", with George Washington (who was a member of a Virginian lodge) as the first Grand Master, but the idea was short-lived. The various State Grand Lodges did not wish to diminish their own authority by agreeing to such a body.[10] Although there are no real differences in the Freemasonry practiced by lodges chartered by the Antients or the Moderns, the remnants of this division can still be seen in the names of most Lodges, F.& A.M. being Free and Accepted Masons and A.F.& A.M. being Antient Free and Accepted Masons. The oldest jurisdiction on the continent of Europe, the Grand Orient de France (GOdF), was founded in 1728. However, most English-speaking jurisdictions cut formal relations with the GOdF around 1877 – when the GOdF removed the requirement that its members have a belief in a Deity, thereby accepting atheists. The Grande Loge Nationale Française (GLNF)[11] is currently the only French Grand Lodge that is in regular amity with the UGLE and its many concordant jurisdictions worldwide. Due to the above history, Freemasonry is often said to consist of two branches not in mutual regular amity:

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• the UGLE and concordant tradition of jurisdictions (mostly termed Grand Lodges) in amity, and • the GOdF, European Continental, tradition of jurisdictions (often termed Grand Orients) in amity. In most Latin countries, the GOdF-style of European Continental Freemasonry predominates, although in most of these Latin countries there are also Grand Lodges that are in regular amity with the UGLE and the worldwide community of Grand Lodges that share regular "fraternal relations" with the UGLE. The rest of the world, accounting for the bulk of Freemasonry, tends to follow more closely to the UGLE style, although minor variations exist.

View of room at the Masonic Hall, Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk, England, early 20th century

Freemasonry

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Organisational structure
Grand Lodges and Grand Orients are independent and sovereign bodies that govern Masonry in a given country, state, or geographical area (termed a jurisdiction).[12] There is no single overarching governing body that presides over worldwide Freemasonry; connections between different jurisdictions depend solely on mutual recognition.[13]

Regularity
Regularity is a constitutional mechanism whereby Grand Lodges or Grand Orients give one another mutual recognition. This recognition allows formal interaction at the Grand Lodge level, and gives individual Freemasons the opportunity to attend Lodge meetings in other recognised jurisdictions. Conversely, regularity proscribes interaction with Lodges that are irregular. A Mason who visits an irregular Lodge may have his membership suspended for a time, or he may be expelled. For this reason, all Grand Lodges maintain lists of other jurisdictions and lodges they consider regular.[14]

Freemasons Hall, London, home of the United Grand Lodge of England.

Grand Lodges and Grand Orients that afford mutual recognition and allow intervisitation are said to be in amity. As far as the UGLE is concerned, regularity is predicated upon adherence to a number of fundamental principals (known as Landmarks), set down in the UGLE Constitution and the Constitutions of those Grand Lodges with which they are in amity. Even within this definition there are some variations with the quantity and content of the Landmarks from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Other Masonic groups organise differently.[15] Each of the two major branches of Freemasonry considers the Lodges within its branch to be "regular" and those in the other branch to be "irregular". As the UGLE branch is significantly larger, however, the various Grand Lodges and Grand Orients in amity with UGLE are commonly referred to as being "regular" (or "Mainstream") Masonry, while those Grand Lodges and Grand Orients in amity with GOdF are commonly referred to "liberal" or "irregular" Masonry. (The issue is complicated by the fact that the usage of "Lodge" versus "Orient" alone is not an indicator of which branch a body belongs to, and thus not an indication of regularity). The term "irregular" is also universally applied to various self created bodies that call themselves "Masonic" but are not recognised by either of the main branches.

Masonic Lodge
A Lodge (often termed a Private Lodge or Constituent Lodge in Masonic constitutions) is the basic organisational unit of Freemasonry. Every new Lodge must have a Warrant or Charter issued by a Grand Lodge, authorising it to meet and work. Except for the very few "time immemorial" Lodges pre-dating the formation of a Grand Lodge, masons who meet as a Lodge without displaying this document (for example, in prisoner-of-war camps) are deemed "Clandestine" and irregular. A Lodge must hold regular meetings at a fixed place and published dates. It will elect, initiate and promote its members and officers; it will build up and manage its property and assets, including its minutes and records; and it may own, occupy or share its premises. Like any organisation, it will have formal business to manage its meetings and proceedings, annual general meetings and committees, charity funds, correspondence and reports, membership and subscriptions, accounts and tax returns, special events and catering, and so forth. The balance of activities is individual to each Lodge, and under their common constitutions and forms of procedure, Lodges evolve very distinctive traditions.

Freemasonry A man can only be initiated, or made a Mason, in a Lodge, of which he may often remain a subscribing member for life. A Master Mason can generally visit any Lodge meeting under any jurisdiction in amity with his own, and as well as the formal meeting, a Lodge may well offer hospitality. A visitor should first check the regularity of that Lodge, and must be able to satisfy that Lodge of his own regularity; and he may be refused admission if adjudged likely to disrupt the harmony of the Lodge. If he wishes to visit the same Lodge repeatedly, he may be expected to join it and pay a subscription. Most Lodges consist of Freemasons living or working within a given town or neighbourhood. Other Lodges are composed of Masons with a particular shared interest, profession or background. Shared schools, universities, military units, Masonic appointments or degrees, arts, professions and hobbies have all been the qualifications for such Lodges. In some Lodges, the foundation and name may now be only of historic interest, as over time the membership evolves beyond that envisaged by its "founding brethren"; in others, the membership remains exclusive. There are also specialist Lodges of Research, with membership drawn from Master Masons only, with interests in Masonic Research (of history, philosophy, etc.). Lodges of Research are fully warranted but, generally, do not initiate new candidates. Lodges of Instruction in UGLE may be warranted by any ordinary Lodge for the learning and rehearsal of Masonic Ritual. Freemasons correctly meet as a Lodge, not in a Lodge, the word This plaque commemorates a 'formal' fraternal visit by "Lodge" referring more to the people assembled than the place of NIRMAS, the Masonic association for members of the assembly. However, in common usage, Masonic premises are Royal Australian Navy, that originally stated at the often referred to as "Lodges". Masonic buildings are also Apprentice Training Base, HMAS Nirimba, hence the name. The plaque is styled after the ship's badge for the sometimes called "Temples" ("of Philosophy and the Arts"). In Navy. The visit was to Lodge Gundagai United, No.25. many countries, Masonic Centre or Hall has replaced Temple to avoid arousing prejudice and suspicion. Several different Lodges, as well as other Masonic or non-Masonic organisations, often use the same premises at different times. According to Masonic tradition, medieval European stonemasons would meet, eat, and shelter outside working hours in a Lodge on the southern side of a building site, where the sun warms the stones during the day. The social Festive Board (or Social Board)[16] part of the meeting is thus sometimes called the South.[17] Early Lodges often met in a tavern or any other convenient fixed place with a private room.

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Lodge Officers
Every Masonic Lodge elects certain officers to execute the necessary functions of the lodge's work. The Worshipful Master (essentially the lodge President) is always an elected officer. Most jurisdictions will also elect the Senior and Junior Wardens (Vice Presidents), the Secretary and the Treasurer. All lodges will have a Tyler, or Tiler, (who guards the door to the lodge room while the lodge is in session), sometimes elected and sometimes appointed by the Master. In addition to these elected officers, lodges will have various appointed officers – such as Deacons, Stewards, and a Chaplain (appointed to lead a non-denominational prayer at the convocation of meetings or activities – often, but not necessarily, a clergyman). The specific offices and their functions vary between jurisdictions. Many offices are replicated at the Provincial and Grand Lodge levels with the addition of the word 'Grand' somewhere in the title. For example, where every lodge has a 'Junior Warden', Grand Lodges have a 'Grand Junior

Freemasonry Warden' (or sometimes 'Junior Grand Warden'). Additionally, there are a number of offices that exist only at the Grand Lodge level.[18]

5

Prince Hall Freemasonry
Prince Hall Freemasonry derives from historical events in the early United States that led to a tradition of separate, predominantly African-American Freemasonry in North America. In 1775, an African-American named Prince Hall[19] was initiated into an Irish Constitution military Lodge then in Boston, Massachusetts, along with fourteen other African-Americans, all of whom were free-born. When the military Lodge left North America, those fifteen men were given the authority to meet as a Lodge, form Processions on the days of the Saints John, and conduct Masonic funerals, but not to confer degrees, nor to do other Masonic work. In 1784, these individuals applied for, and obtained, a Lodge Warrant from the Premier Grand Lodge of England (GLE) and formed African Lodge, Number 459. When the UGLE was formed in 1813, all U.S.-based Lodges were stricken from their rolls – due largely to the War of 1812. Thus, separated from both UGLE and any concordantly recognised U.S. Grand Lodge, African Lodge re-titled itself as the African Lodge, Number 1 – and became a de facto "Grand Lodge" (this Lodge is not to be confused with the various Grand Lodges on the Continent of Africa). As with the rest of U.S. Freemasonry, Prince Hall Freemasonry soon grew and organised on a Grand Lodge system for each state. Widespread segregation in 19th- and early 20th-century North America made it difficult for African-Americans to join Lodges outside of Prince Hall jurisdictions – and impossible for inter-jurisdiction recognition between the parallel U.S. Masonic authorities. Prince Hall Masonry has always been regular in all respects except constitutional separation, and this separation has diminished in recent years. At present, Prince Hall Grand Lodges are recognised by some UGLE Concordant Grand Lodges and not by others, but they appear to be working toward full recognition, with UGLE granting at least some degree of recognition.[20] There are a growing number of both Prince Hall Lodges and non-Prince Hall Lodges that have ethnically diverse membership.

Other degrees, orders and bodies
There is no degree in Freemasonry higher than that of Master Mason, the Third Degree.[21] There are, however, a number of organisations that require being a Master Mason as a prerequisite for membership.[22] These bodies have no authority over the Craft.[21] These orders or degrees may be described as additional or appendant, and often provide a further perspective on some of the allegorical, moral and philosophical content of Freemasonry. Appendant bodies are administered separately from Craft Grand Lodges but are styled Masonic since every member must be a Mason. However, Craft Masonic jurisdictions vary in their relationships with such bodies, if a relationship exists at all. The Articles of Union of the "Modern" and "Antient" craft Grand Lodges (into UGLE in 1813) limited recognition to certain degrees, such as the Royal Arch and the "chivalric degrees", but there were and are many other degrees that have been worked since before the Union. Some bodies are not universally considered to be appendant bodies, but rather separate organisations that happen to require prior Masonic affiliation for membership. Some of these organisations have additional requirements, such as religious adherence (e.g., requiring members to profess Trinitarian Christian beliefs) or membership of other bodies. Quite apart from these, there are organisations that are often thought of as being related to Freemasonry, but which have no formal or informal connections with Freemasonry. These include such organisations as the Orange Order, which originated in Ireland, the Knights of Pythias, or the Independent Order of Odd Fellows.[23]

Freemasonry

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Principles and activities
While Freemasonry has often been called a "secret society", Freemasons themselves argue that it is more correct to say that it is an esoteric society, in that certain aspects are private.[21] The most common phrasing is that Freemasonry has, in the 21st century, become less a secret society and more of a "society with secrets".[24] The private aspects of modern Freemasonry are the modes of recognition amongst members and particular elements within the ritual.[25] Despite the organisation's great diversity, Freemasonry's central preoccupations remain charitable work within a local or wider community, moral uprightness (in most cases requiring a belief in a supreme being) as well as the development and maintenance of fraternal friendship, as James Anderson's Constitutions originally urged amongst brethren.

Ritual, symbolism, and morality
Masons conduct their meetings using a ritualised format. There is no single Masonic ritual, and each jurisdiction is free to set (or not set) its own ritual. However, there are similarities that exist among jurisdictions. For example, all Masonic ritual makes use of the architectural symbolism of the tools of the medieval operative stonemason. Freemasons, as speculative masons (meaning philosophical building rather than actual building), use this symbolism to teach moral and ethical lessons of the principles of "Brotherly Love, Relief, and Truth;" or as related in France, "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity". Two of the principal symbolic tools always found in a Lodge are the square and compasses. Some Lodges and rituals explain these tools as lessons in conduct: for example, that Masons should "square their actions by the square of virtue" and to learn to "circumscribe their desires and keep their passions within due bounds toward all mankind". However, as Freemasonry is non-dogmatic, there is no general interpretation for these tools (or any Masonic emblem) that is used by Freemasonry as a whole.[26] These moral lessons are communicated in performance of allegorical ritual. A candidate progresses through degrees[21] gaining knowledge and understanding of himself, his relationship with others and his relationship with the Supreme Being (per his own interpretation). While the philosophical aspects of Freemasonry tend to be discussed in Lodges of Instruction or Research, and sometimes informal groups, Freemasons, and others, frequently publish, with varying degrees of competence, studies that are available to the public. Any mason may speculate on the symbols and purpose of Freemasonry, and indeed all masons are required to some extent to speculate on masonic meaning as a condition of advancing through the degrees. There is no one accepted meaning, and no one person "speaks" for the whole of Freemasonry.[27]
The Square and Compasses carved into stone

Some lodges make use of tracing boards. These are painted or printed illustrations depicting the various symbolic emblems of Freemasonry. They can be used as teaching aids during the lectures that follow each of the three Degrees, when an experienced member explains the various concepts of Freemasonry to new members. They can also be used by experienced members as self-reminders of the concepts they learned as they went through their initiations.

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The Supreme Being and the Volume of Sacred Law
Candidates for regular Freemasonry are required to declare a belief in a Supreme Being.[28] However, the candidate is not asked to expand on, or explain, his interpretation of Supreme Being. The discussion of politics and religion is forbidden within a Masonic Lodge, in part so a Mason will not be placed in the situation of having to justify his personal interpretation.[29] Thus, reference to the Supreme Being can mean the Christian Trinity to a Christian Mason, Allah to a Muslim Mason, Para Brahman to a Hindu Mason, etc. While most Freemasons would take the view that the term Supreme Being equates to God, others may hold a more complex or philosophical interpretation of the term. In the ritual, the Supreme Being is referred to as the Great Architect of the Universe, which alludes to the use of architectural symbolism within Freemasonry.[30] [31] A Volume of the Sacred Law is always displayed in an open Lodge in those jurisdictions which require a belief in the Supreme Being. In English-speaking countries, this is frequently the King James Version of the Bible or another standard translation; there is no such thing as an exclusive "Masonic Bible".[32] Furthermore, a candidate is given his choice of religious text for his Obligation, according to his beliefs. UGLE alludes to similarities to legal practice in the UK, and to a common source with other oath taking processes.[33] [34] [35] [36] In Lodges with a membership of mixed religions it is common to find more than one sacred text displayed. In lodges that follow the Continental tradition other texts may be used, including texts that are non-religious in nature.

Degrees
The three degrees of Craft or Blue Lodge Freemasonry are those of: 1. Entered Apprentice – the degree of an Initiate, which makes one a Freemason; 2. Fellow Craft – an intermediate degree, involved with learning; 3. Master Mason – the "third degree", a necessity for participation in most aspects of Masonry. The degrees represent stages of personal development. No Freemason is told that there is only one meaning to the allegories; as a Freemason works through the degrees and studies their lessons, he interprets them for himself, his personal interpretation being bounded only by the Constitution within which he works.[32] A common symbolic structure and universal archetypes provide a means for each Freemason to come to his own answers to life's important philosophical questions. There is no degree of Craft Freemasonry higher than that of Master In the 19th century, certificates such as this were Mason.[21] Although some Masonic bodies and orders have further commonly issued to Masons to show that they degrees named with higher numbers, these degrees may be considered had taken the three degrees of Craft Masonry in a to be supplements to the Master Mason degree rather than promotions regular lodge from it.[22] An example is the Scottish Rite, conferring degrees numbered from 4° up to 33°.[37] It is essential to be a Master Mason in order to qualify for these further degrees. They are administered on a parallel system to Craft or Blue Lodge Freemasonry; within each organisation there is a system of offices, which confer rank within that degree or order alone. In some jurisdictions, especially those in continental Europe, Freemasons working through the degrees may be asked to prepare papers on related philosophical topics, and present these papers in open Lodge. There is an enormous bibliography of Masonic papers, magazines and publications ranging from fanciful abstractions which construct spiritual and moral lessons of varying value, through practical handbooks on organisation, management and ritual

Freemasonry performance, to serious historical and philosophical papers entitled to academic respect.

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Signs, grips and words
Freemasons use signs (gestures), grips or tokens (handshakes) and words to gain admission to meetings and identify legitimate visitors.[38] From the early 18th century onwards, many exposés have been written claiming to reveal these signs, grips and passwords to the uninitiated. A classic response was deliberately to transpose certain words in the ritual, so as to catch out anyone relying on the exposé. However, since each Grand Lodge is free to create its own rituals, the signs, grips and passwords can and do differ from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.[26] Furthermore, Grand Lodges can and do change their rituals periodically, updating the language used, adding or omitting sections.[39] Therefore, any exposé can only be valid for a particular jurisdiction at a particular time, and is always difficult for an outsider to verify. Today, an unknown visitor may be required to produce a certificate, dues card or other documentation of membership in addition to demonstrating knowledge of the signs, grips and passwords.

Obligations
Obligations are those elements of ritual in which a candidate swears to abide by the rules of the fraternity, to keep the "secrets of Freemasonry" (which are the various signs, tokens and words associated with recognition in each degree), and to act towards others in accordance with Masonic tradition and law.[25] In regular jurisdictions these obligations are sworn on the aforementioned Volume of the Sacred Law and in the witness of the Supreme Being and often with assurance that it is of the candidate's own free will. Details of the obligations vary; some versions are published[25] while others are privately printed in books of coded text. Still other jurisdictions rely on oral transmission of ritual, and thus have no ritual books at all.[40] Moreover, not all printed rituals are authentic – Léo Taxil's exposure, for example, is a proven hoax, while Duncan's Masonic Monitor (created, in part, by merging elements of several rituals then in use) was never adopted by any regular jurisdiction. Whilst no single obligation is representative of Freemasonry as a whole, a number of common themes appear when considering a range of potential texts. Content which may appear in at least one of the three obligations includes: the candidate promises to act in a manner befitting a member of civilised society, promises to obey the law of his Supreme Being, promises to obey the law of his sovereign state, promises to attend his lodge if he is able, promises not to wrong, cheat nor defraud the Lodge or the brethren, and promises aid or charity to a member of the human family, brethren and their families in times of need if it can be done without causing financial harm to himself or his dependents.[25] [41] [42] The obligations are historically known amongst various sources critical of Freemasonry for their so-called "bloody penalties",[43] an allusion to the apparent physical penalties associated with each degree. This leads to some descriptions of the Obligations as "Oaths". The corresponding text, with regard to the penalties, does not appear in authoritative, endorsed sources,[25] following a decision "that all references to physical penalties be omitted from the obligations taken by Candidates in the three Degrees and by a Master Elect at his Installation but retained elsewhere in the respective ceremonies".[44] The penalties are interpreted symbolically, and are not applied in actuality by a Lodge or by any other body of Masonry. The descriptive nature of the penalties alludes to how the candidate should feel about himself should he knowingly violate his obligation.[45] Modern actual penalties may include suspension, expulsion or reprimand.

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Landmarks
The Landmarks of Masonry are defined as ancient and unchangeable principles; standards by which the regularity of Lodges and Grand Lodges are judged. Each Grand Lodge is self-governing and no single authority exists over the whole of Freemasonry. The interpretation of these principles therefore can and does vary, leading to controversies of recognition. The concept of Masonic Landmarks appears in Masonic regulations as early as 1723, and seems to be adopted from the regulations of operative masonic guilds. In 1858, Albert G. Mackey attempted to set down 25 Landmarks.[46] In 1863, George Oliver published a Freemason's Treasury in which he listed 40 Landmarks. A number of American Grand Lodges have attempted the task of enumerating the Landmarks; numbers differing from West Virginia (7) and New Jersey (10) to Nevada (39) and Kentucky (54).[47]

Charitable effort
The fraternity is widely involved in charity and community service activities. In contemporary times, money is collected only from the membership, and is to be devoted to charitable purposes. Freemasonry worldwide disburses substantial charitable amounts to non-Masonic charities, locally, nationally and internationally.[48] [49] In earlier centuries, however, charitable funds were collected more on the basis of a Provident or Friendly Society, and there were elaborate regulations to determine a petitioner's eligibility for consideration for charity, according to strictly Masonic criteria. Some examples of Masonic charities include: • Homes[50] that provide sheltered housing or nursing care. • Education with both educational grants[51] or schools such as the Royal Masonic School (UK)[52] which are open to all and not limited to the families of Freemasons. • Medical assistance.[53] • Masonic Child Identification Programs (CHIP). In addition to these, there are thousands of philanthropic organisations around the world created by Freemasons. The Masonic Service Association,[54] the Masonic Medical Research Laboratory,[55] and the Shriners Hospitals for Children[56] are especially notable charitable endeavours that Masons have founded and continue to support both intellectually and monetarily.

Membership requirements
Contrary to common misconception, joining Freemasonry is not by invitation only. In fact, in many jurisdictions, the brothers of the lodge are not allowed to ask potential candidates to join (in these jurisdictions, the brethren must wait for the potential candidate to inquire). Other jurisdictions allow for varying degrees of solicitation. However the initial introduction is made, the official process of becoming a Mason begins when a candidate for Freemasonry formally petitions a lodge. The brethren will then investigate the candidate, to Freemasonry initiation. 18th century assure themselves of his good character, and hold a secret ballot election (often using an old fashioned ballot box). The number of adverse votes needed to reject a candidate varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction (in some, one "black ball" is enough to reject, in others up to three are required).

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General requirements
Generally, to be accepted for initiation as a regular Freemason, a candidate must:[21] • Be a man who comes of his own free will. • Believe in a Supreme Being (the form of which is left to open interpretation by the candidate). • Be at least the minimum age (from 18–25 years old depending on the jurisdiction. In some jurisdictions the son of a Mason, known as a "Lewis", may join at an earlier age than others). • Be of good morals, and of good reputation. • Be of sound mind and body (Lodges had in the past denied membership to a man because of a physical disability; however, now, if a potential candidate says a disability will not cause problems, it will not be held against him). • Be free-born (or "born free", i.e., not born a slave or bondsman).[57] As with the previous, this is entirely an historical holdover, and can be interpreted in the same manner as it is in the context of being entitled to write a will. Some jurisdictions have removed this requirement. • Be capable of furnishing character references, as well as one or two references from current Masons, depending on jurisdiction. Some Grand Lodges in the United States have an additional residence requirement, candidates being expected to have lived within the jurisdiction for a certain period of time, typically six months.[58]

Membership and religion
Freemasonry explicitly and openly states that it is neither a religion nor a substitute for one. "There is no separate Masonic God", nor a separate proper name for a deity in any branch of Freemasonry.[28] [59] Regular Freemasonry requires that its candidates believe in a Supreme Being, but the interpretation of this term is subject to the conscience of the candidate. Consequently, Freemasonry accepts men from a range of faiths, including (but not limited to) Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and Sikhism. As a result, Freemasonry uses Volume of the Sacred Law (VSL) as a generic term for a religious book. As UGLE-based Freemasonry also requires that a VSL be present on the Altar, many Lodges have multiple VSLs available, and a candidate can be obligated on his book of choice. Since the early 19th century, in the irregular Continental European tradition (meaning irregular to those Grand Lodges in amity with the United Grand Lodge of England), a very broad interpretation has been given to a non-dogmatic Supreme Being; in the tradition of Baruch Spinoza and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe – or views of The Ultimate Cosmic Oneness – along with Western atheistic idealism and agnosticism. The form of Freemasonry most common in Scandinavia, known as the Swedish Rite, on the other hand, accepts only Christians.

Freemasonry and women
Since the adoption of Anderson's constitution in 1723, it has been accepted as fact by regular Masons that only men can be made Masons. Most Grand Lodges do not admit women because they believe it would violate the ancient Landmarks. While a few women, such as Elizabeth Aldworth, were initiated into British speculative lodges prior to 1723,[60] officially regular Freemasonry remains exclusive to men. While women cannot join regular lodges, there are (mainly within the borders of the United States) many female orders associated with regular Freemasonry and its appendant bodies, such as the Order of the Eastern Star, the Order of the Amaranth, the White Shrine of Jerusalem, the Social Order of Beauceant and the Daughters of the Nile. These have their own rituals and traditions, but are founded on the Masonic model. In the French context, women in the 18th and 19th centuries had been admitted into what were known as "adoption lodges" in which they could participate in ritual life. However, men clearly saw this type of adoption Freemasonry as distinct from their exclusively male variety. From the late 19th century onward, mixed gender lodges have met in France.

Freemasonry In addition, there are many non-mainstream Masonic bodies that do admit both men and women or are exclusively for women. Co-Freemasonry admits both men and women,[61] but it is held to be irregular because it admits women. The systematic admission of women into International Co-Freemasonry began in France in 1882. In more recent times, women have created and maintained separate Lodges, working the same rituals as the all male regular lodges. These Female Masons have founded lodges around the world, and these Lodges continue to gain membership for example the International Masonic Order "DELPHI". [62] DELPHI was founded in 1926, and was restructured in 1996, under the name "Delphi International Freemasonic Order". The first Mixed Lodge was founded in 1926, under the aegis of The International Mixed Freemasonic Order " Le Droit Humain ", that resides in Paris. In 1996, the General Assembly of the Order unanimously voted its re-establishment under the separate name of "DELPHI". Today, it exists and functions by law as an independent and self-governing entity, it follows the Great Freemasonic Constitution of 1786, according to the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. The main events that shaped the history of the "Delphi International Freemasonic Order" are as follows: 1926: Foundation of the first Lodge in Athens under the name "Athina". 1964: Foundation of the first Greek Freemasonic Federation. 1984: Foundation of the second Greek Freemasonic Federation. 1994: Foundation of Mixed Freemasonry in Bulgaria, Romania and Moldavia. 1996: Foundation of the "Delphi International Freemasonic Order", with its seat in Athens. 1996: Foundation of the "Great Mixed Grand Lodge of Greece". 2000: Foundation of the "Grand Council of Perfection of Greece". 2001: Member of "CLIPSAS" 2001: Founding member of the "Mediterranean Freemasonic Union". 2003: Foundation of Mixed Freemasonry in the U.S.A.

11

Opposition to and criticism of Freemasonry
Anti-Masonry (alternatively called Anti-Freemasonry) has been defined as "opposition to Freemasonry".[63] [64] However, there is no homogeneous anti-Masonic movement. Anti-Masonry consists of widely differing criticisms from diverse (and often incompatible) groups who are hostile to Freemasonry in some form. Critics have included religious groups, political groups, and conspiracy theorists. There have been many disclosures and exposés dating as far back as the 18th century. These often lack context,[65] may be outdated for various reasons,[39] or could be outright hoaxes on the part of the author, as in the case of the Taxil hoax.[66] These hoaxes and exposés have often become the basis for criticism of Masonry, often religious or political in nature (usually by totalitarian dictatorial regimes,[67] but also arising in the historical Anti-Masonic Party in the United States), or are based on suspicion of corrupt conspiracy of some form. The political opposition that arose after the "Morgan Affair" in 1826 gave rise to the term "Anti-Masonry", which is still in use today, both by Masons in referring to their critics and as a self-descriptor by the critics themselves.[68]

Religious opposition
Freemasonry has attracted criticism from theocratic states and organised religions for supposed competition with religion, or supposed heterodoxy within the Fraternity itself, and has long been the target of conspiracy theories, which see it as an occult and evil power.[69] Christianity and Freemasonry Although members of various faiths cite objections, certain Christian denominations have had high profile negative attitudes to Masonry, banning or discouraging their members from being Freemasons. The denomination with the longest history of objection to Freemasonry is the Roman Catholic Church. The objections raised by the Roman Catholic Church are based on the allegation that Masonry teaches a naturalistic

Freemasonry deistic religion which is in conflict with Church doctrine.[70] A number of Papal pronouncements have been issued against Freemasonry. The first was Pope Clement XII's In Eminenti, 28 April 1738; the most recent was Pope Leo XIII's Ab Apostolici, 15 October 1890. The 1917 Code of Canon Law explicitly declared that joining Freemasonry entailed automatic excommunication.[71] The 1917 Code of Canon Law also forbade books friendly to Freemasonry. In 1983, the Church issued a new Code of Canon Law. Unlike its predecessor, it did not explicitly name Masonic orders among the secret societies it condemns. It states in part: "A person who joins an association which plots against the Church is to be punished with a just penalty; one who promotes or takes office in such an association is to be punished with an interdict." This omission caused both Catholics and Freemasons to believe that the ban on Catholics becoming Freemasons may have been lifted, especially after the perceived liberalisation of Vatican II.[72] However, the matter was clarified when Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (later Pope Benedict XVI), as the Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, issued Quaesitum est, which states: "... the Church’s negative judgment in regard to Masonic association remains unchanged since their principles have always been considered irreconcilable with the doctrine of the Church and therefore membership in them remains forbidden. The faithful who enroll in Masonic associations are in a state of grave sin and may not receive Holy Communion." Thus, from a Catholic perspective, there is still a ban on Catholics joining Masonic Lodges. For its part, Freemasonry has never objected to Catholics joining their fraternity. Those Grand Lodges in amity with UGLE deny the Church's claims and state that they explicitly adhere to the principle that "Freemasonry is not a religion, nor a substitute for religion."[28] In contrast to Catholic allegations of rationalism and naturalism, Protestant objections are more likely to be based on allegations of mysticism, occultism, and even Satanism.[73] Masonic scholar Albert Pike is often quoted (in some cases misquoted) by Protestant anti-Masons as an authority for the position of Masonry on these issues. However, Pike, although undoubtedly learned, was not a spokesman for Freemasonry and was controversial among Freemasons in general, representing his personal opinion only, and furthermore an opinion grounded in the attitudes and understandings of late 19th century Southern Freemasonry of the USA alone. Indeed his book carries in the preface a form of disclaimer from his own Grand Lodge. No one voice has ever spoken for the whole of Freemasonry.[74] Free Methodist Church founder B.T. Roberts was a vocal opponent of Freemasonry in the mid 19th century. Roberts opposed the society on moral grounds and stated, "The god of the lodge is not the God of the Bible." Roberts believed Freemasonry was a "mystery" or "alternate" religion and encouraged his church not to support ministers who were Freemasons. Freedom from secret societies is one of the "frees" the Free Methodist Church was founded upon.[75] Since the founding of Freemasonry, many Bishops of the Church of England have been Freemasons, such as Archbishop Geoffrey Fisher.[76] In the past, few members of the Church of England would have seen any incongruity in concurrently adhering to Anglican Christianity and practicing Freemasonry. In recent decades, however, reservations about Freemasonry have increased within Anglicanism, perhaps due to the increasing prominence of the evangelical wing of the church. The current Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Rowan Williams, appears to harbour some reservations about Masonic ritual, whilst being anxious to avoid causing offence to Freemasons inside and outside the Church of England. In 2003 he felt it necessary to apologise to British Freemasons after he said that their beliefs were incompatible with Christianity and that he had barred the appointment of Freemasons to senior posts in his diocese when he was Bishop of Monmouth.[77] In 1933, the Orthodox Church of Greece officially declared that being a Freemason constitutes an act of apostasy and thus, until he repents, the person involved with Freemasonry cannot partake of the Eucharist. This has been generally affirmed throughout the whole Orthodox Church. The Orthodox critique of Freemasonry agrees with both the Roman Catholic and Protestant versions: "Freemasonry cannot be at all compatible with Christianity as far as it is a secret organization, acting and teaching in mystery and secret and deifying rationalism."[78] Regular Freemasonry has traditionally not responded to these claims, beyond the often repeated statement that those Grand Lodges in amity with UGLE explicitly adhere to the principle that "Freemasonry is not a religion, nor a

12

Freemasonry substitute for religion. There is no separate 'Masonic deity', and there is no separate proper name for a deity in Freemasonry".[28] In recent years, however, this has begun to change. Many Masonic websites and publications address these criticisms specifically. Islam and Freemasonry Many Islamic anti-Masonic arguments are closely tied to both Anti-Semitism and Anti-Zionism, though other criticisms are made such as linking Freemasonry to Dajjal.[79] Some Muslim anti-Masons argue that Freemasonry promotes the interests of the Jews around the world and that one of its aims is to rebuild the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem after destroying the Al-Aqsa Mosque.[80] In article 28 of its Covenant, Hamas states that Freemasonry, Rotary, and other similar groups "work in the interest of Zionism and according to its instructions ..."[81] Many countries with a significant Muslim population do not allow Masonic establishments within their jurisdictions. However, countries such as Turkey and Morocco have established Grand Lodges,[82] while in countries such as Malaysia[83] and Lebanon[84] there are District Grand Lodges operating under a warrant from an established Grand Lodge. In Pakistan in 1972 Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, then Prime Minister of Pakistan, placed a ban on Freemasonry and confiscated all the literature. The lodges were then disbanded. Masonic lodges existed in Iraq as early as 1919, when the first lodge under the UGLE was opened in Basra, and later on when the country was under British Mandate just after the First World War. However the position changed in July 1958 following the Revolution, with the abolition of the Monarchy and Iraq being declared a republic, under General Qasim. The licences permitting lodges to meet were rescinded and later laws were introduced banning any further meetings. This position was later reinforced under Saddam Hussein, the death penalty was "prescribed" for those who "promote or acclaim Zionist principles, including freemasonry, or who associate [themselves] with Zionist organisations."[85] With the fall of the Hussein government in 2003, a number of Lodges have begun to meet on military bases within Iraq. These lodges primarily cater to British and American military units, but a few have initiated Iraqis. Several Grand Lodges have expressed a desire to charter Lodges with completely Iraqi membership in the near future.

13

Political opposition
Regular Freemasonry has in its core ritual a formal obligation: to be quiet and peaceable citizens, true to the lawful government of the country in which they live, and not to countenance disloyalty or rebellion.[32] A Freemason makes a further obligation, before being made Master of his Lodge, to pay a proper respect to the civil magistrates.[32] The words may be varied across Grand Lodges, but the sense in the obligation taken is always there. Nevertheless, much of the political opposition to Freemasonry is based upon the idea that Masonry will foment (or sometimes prevent) rebellion. In 1799 English Freemasonry almost came to a halt due to Parliamentary proclamation. In the wake of the French Revolution, the Unlawful Societies Act, 1799 banned any meetings of groups that required their members to take an oath or obligation.[86] The Grand Masters of both the Moderns and the Antients Grand Lodges called on the Prime Minister William Pitt (who was not a Freemason) and explained to him that Freemasonry was a supporter of the law and lawfully constituted authority and was much involved in charitable work. As a result Freemasonry was specifically exempted from the terms of the Act, provided that each Private Lodge's Secretary placed with the local "Clerk of the Peace" a list of the members of his Lodge once a year.[86] This continued until 1967 when the obligation of the provision was rescinded by Parliament.[86] Freemasonry in the United States faced political pressure following the disappearance of William Morgan in 1826. Reports of the "Morgan Affair", together with opposition to Jacksonian democracy (Andrew Jackson was a prominent Mason) helped fuel an Anti-Masonic movement, culminating in the formation of a short lived Anti-Masonic Party which fielded candidates for the Presidential elections of 1828 and 1832. In Italy, Freemasonry has become linked to a scandal concerning the Propaganda Due Lodge (aka P2). This Lodge was Chartered by the Grande Oriente d'Italia in 1877, as a Lodge for visiting Masons unable to attend their own

Freemasonry lodges. Under Licio Gelli’s leadership, in the late 1970s, the P2 Lodge became involved in the financial scandals that nearly bankrupted the Vatican Bank. However, by this time the lodge was operating independently and irregularly; as the Grand Orient had revoked its charter in 1976.[87] By 1982 the scandal became public knowledge and Gelli was formally expelled from Freemasonry. Conspiracy theorists have long associated Freemasonry with the New World Order and the Illuminati, and state that Freemasonry as an organisation is either bent on world domination or already secretly in control of world politics. Historically, Freemasonry has attracted criticism – and suppression – from both the politically extreme right (e.g. Nazi Germany)[88] [89] and the extreme left (e.g. the former Communist states in Eastern Europe).[67] The Fraternity has encountered both applause for supposedly founding, and opposition for supposedly thwarting, liberal democracy (such as the United States of America). Even in modern democracies, Freemasonry is sometimes viewed with distrust.[90] In the UK, Masons working in the justice system, such as judges and police officers, were from 1999 to 2009 required to disclose their membership.[91] While a parliamentary inquiry found that there has been no evidence of wrongdoing, it was felt that any potential loyalties Masons might have, based on their vows to support fellow Masons, should be transparent to the public.[90] [91] [92] The policy of requiring a declaration of masonic membership of applicants for judicial office (judges and magistrates) was ended in 2009 by Justice Secretary Jack Straw, (who had initiated the requirement in the 1990s). Straw stated that the rule was considered disproportionate, since no impropriety or malpractice had been shown as a result of judges being Freemasons.[93] The rescinding of the rule did not change the disclosure requirements for Police officers. Freemasonry is both successful and controversial in France; membership is rising, but reporting in the popular media is often negative.[90] In some countries anti-Masonry is often related to anti-Semitism and anti-Zionism. For example, In 1980, the Iraqi legal and penal code was changed by Saddam Hussein's ruling Ba'ath Party, making it a felony to "promote or acclaim Zionist principles, including Freemasonry, or who associate [themselves] with Zionist organisations."[94] Professor Andrew Prescott of the University of Sheffield writes: "Since at least the time of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, anti-semitism has gone hand in hand with anti-masonry, so it is not surprising that allegations that 11 September was a Zionist plot have been accompanied by suggestions that the attacks were inspired by a masonic world order."[95] The Holocaust The preserved records of the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (the Reich Security Main Office) show the persecution of Freemasons.[96] RSHA Amt VII (Written Records) was overseen by Professor Franz Six and was responsible for "ideological" tasks, by which was meant the creation of anti-Semitic and anti-Masonic propaganda. While the number is not accurately known, it is estimated that between 80,000 and 200,000 Freemasons were killed under the Nazi regime. Masonic concentration camp inmates were graded as political prisoners and wore an inverted red triangle.[97]

14

Freemasonry

15

The small blue forget-me-not flower was first used by the Grand Lodge Zur Sonne, in 1926, as a Masonic emblem at the annual convention in Bremen, Germany. In 1938 the forget-me-not badge – made by the same factory as the Masonic badge – was chosen for the annual Nazi Party Winterhilfswerk, a Nazi charitable organisation which collected money so that other state funds could be freed up and used for rearmament. This coincidence enabled Freemasons to wear the forget-me-not badge as a secret sign of membership.[98] [99] [100] After World War II, the forget-me-not[101] flower was again used as a Masonic emblem at the first Annual Convention of the United Grand Lodges of Germany in 1948. The badge is now worn in the coat lapel by Freemasons around the world to remember all those that have suffered in the name of Freemasonry, especially those during the Nazi era.[101] [102]

Forget-me-not

Notes
[1] "Frequently Asked Questions" (http:/ / www. ugle. org. uk/ what-is-masonry/ frequently-asked-questions/ / ). United Grand Lodge of England. . Retrieved 2009-09-28. [2] Hodapp, Christopher. Freemasons for Dummies. Indianapolis: Wiley, 2005. p. 52. [3] Gruber, Hermann (1910-10-01). "Masonry (Freemasonry)" (http:/ / www. newadvent. org/ cathen/ 09771a. htm). In Remy Lafort, Censor. The Catholic encyclopedia: an international work of reference on the constitution, doctrine, discipline, and history of the Catholic Church. IX. New York: Robert Appleton Company. OCLC 1017058. . Retrieved 2009-09-28. [4] Masonic Service Association - Short Talk Bulletin (http:/ / www. la-mason. com/ stb53. htm) as reprinted on the website of the Grand Lodge of Louisiana. [5] "The Regius Manuscript" (http:/ / www. masonicsites. org/ blue/ regius1. htm). Masonicsites.org. . [6] Stevenson, David (November 1988). The Origins of Freemasonry: Scotland's Century 1590-1710. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521353267. OCLC 17546610. [7] Second Schaw Statutes (http:/ / www. southchurch. mesh4us. org. uk/ pdf/ important/ secondschawstatute. pdf), 1599. [8] Coil, Henry Wilson (1961). William M. Brown, William L. Cummings, Harold Van Buren Voorhes. ed. Coil's Masonic Encyclopedia (Revised and Updated by Allen E. Roberts, 1995 ed.). Richmond, Va: Macoy Pub. & Masonic Supply Co.. ISBN 9780880530545. [9] S. Brent Morris (2006). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Freemasonry. Alpha/Penguin Books. p. 27. ISBN 1-59257-490-4. [10] Bullock, Steven C.; Institute of Early American History and Culture (Williamsburg, Va.) (1996). Revolutionary brotherhood: Freemasonry and the transformation of the American social order, 1730-1840. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 9780807847503. OCLC 33334015. [11] "GLNF: Grande Loge Nationale Francaise" (http:/ / www. glnf. asso. fr/ ) (in French). Grande Loge Nationale Francaise (GLNF). . Retrieved 2006-02-06. [12] "Constitution" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070222082444/ http:/ / www. grandlodge-nc. org/ education/ code/ 000. html). Grand Lodge of North Carolina. 2007. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. grandlodge-nc. org/ education/ code/ 000. html) on 2007-02-22. . Retrieved 2007-04-09. See Preamble. [13] "Form letter to request mutual recognition" (http:/ / bessel. org/ dcrecreq. htm). Grand Lodge FAAM (Free And Accepted Masons) of Washington, D.C. (the District of Columbia), Committee on Masonic Recognition. . Retrieved 2007-04-09. Example letter to request recognition. [14] Campbell, Donald G.; Committee on Ritual. "The Master Mason; Irregular and Clandestine Lodges" (http:/ / mastersjewel. com/ masons/ mm/ MM07. htm) (excerpt). Handbook for Candidate's Coaches. Grand Lodge F.&A.M. of California. . Retrieved 2007-05-08. "The solution of the problem [of irregular Masonry] lies in the publication furnished every California lodge. Entitled "List of Regular Lodges Masonic", it is issued by the Grand Lodge of California to its constituent lodges, with the admonition that this book is to be kept in each lodge for reference in receiving visitors and on applications for affiliation. There may well be an old copy which you can use, for it is re-issued every year." [15] "Report From The United Grand Lodge of England: Prince Hall Masonry and the Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Massachusetts" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071008145111/ http:/ / www. phylaxis. org/ bogusmasonry/ regularitypha. htm) (Annex A: Regularity). Joseph A. Walkes Jr. Commission on Bogus Masonic Practices, Phylaxis Society. 2006-10-03. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. phylaxis. org/ bogusmasonry/ regularitypha. htm) on 2007-10-08. . Retrieved 2007-04-07. [16] Bourne, W.J. (1997). "The Festive Board" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20060506034646/ http:/ / myweb. tiscali. co. uk/ godolphin. lodge/ html/ festive_board. html) (abridged portion). Godolphin Lodge No. 7790. Archived from the original (http:/ / myweb. tiscali. co. uk/ godolphin. lodge/ html/ festive_board. html) on 2006-05-06. . Retrieved 2007-04-09.

Freemasonry
[17] Mackey, Albert Gallatin (2004). "South". Lexicon of Freemasonry. New York: Barnes & Noble. p. 445. ISBN 0760760039. OCLC 58654158. "...but when [the sun] reaches the south, the hour is high twelve, and we are summoned to refreshment." [18] Hodapp, Christopher. Freemasons for Dummies. Indianapolis: Wiley, 2005. pp. 97-104. [19] Johnson, Lawrence (1996). "Who is Prince Hall? And other well known Prince Hall Masons" (http:/ / www. mindspring. com/ ~johnsonx/ whoisph. htm). . Retrieved 2005-11-14. [20] Bessel, Paul M.. "Prince Hall Masonry Recognition details: Historical Maps" (http:/ / bessel. org/ masrec/ phamapshistorical. htm). . Retrieved 2005-11-14. [21] United Grand Lodge of England (2005) [1815]. "Aims and Relationships of the Craft" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070115223551/ http:/ / www. grandlodge-england. org/ pdf/ cr-rule-update2-141205. pdf) (pdf). Constitutions of the Antient Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons. London: Freemason's Hall. pp. x–xii. OCLC 18976592. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. grandlodge-england. org/ pdf/ cr-rule-update2-141205. pdf) on 2007-01-15. . Retrieved 2007-05-08. [22] Jackson, Keith B. (1980). Beyond the Craft. London: Lewis Masonic. ISBN 9780853181187. OCLC 16542250. [23] Q&A: Other organisations (http:/ / www. ugle. org. uk/ masonry/ YQA-other-orgs. htm) on the UGLE webpage. [24] "Freemasonry Revealed: The Secrets of Freemasonry" (http:/ / www. grandlodge-nc. org/ freemasonryrevealed/ secrets. htm). Grand Lodge of North Carolina. 1997. . Retrieved 2006-06-12. [25] Freemasons. Emulation Lodge of Improvement (London, England) (1991). Emulation Ritual. London: Lewis Masonic. ISBN 9780853181873. OCLC 40357899. [26] Gilkes, Peter (July 2004). "Masonic ritual: Spoilt for choice" (http:/ / www. mqmagazine. co. uk/ issue-10/ p-61. php). Masonic Quarterly Magazine (10). . Retrieved 2007-05-07. [27] Hodapp, Christopher; Freemasons for Dummies p. 15. [28] "Is Freemasonry a religion?" (http:/ / www. grandlodge-england. org/ masonry/ A2L-religion. htm). United Grand Lodge of England. 2002. . Retrieved 2007-05-08. [29] Becoming a Mason - To become one, ask one: What is Freemasonry? (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070609110514/ http:/ / www. nhgrandlodge. org/ ___Becoming_a_Mason/ body____becoming_a_mason. html). Retrieved 10 June 2007. [30] William K. Bissey (Spring 1997). "G.A.O.T.U." (http:/ / srjarchives. tripod. com/ 1997-08/ Bissey. htm). The Indiana Freemason. . [31] S. Brent Morris (2006). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Freemasonry. Alpha/Penguin Books. p. 212. ISBN 1-59257-490-4. [32] "The United Grand Lodge of England — Home Page" (http:/ / www. grandlodge-england. org/ index. htm). United Grand Lodge of England. 2002. . Retrieved 2006-02-23. [33] "UK Government information on Courts system" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20061013151242/ http:/ / www. cjsonline. gov. uk/ defendant/ walkthrough/ the_trial/ faqs/ index. html). Criminal Justice System for England and Wales. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. cjsonline. gov. uk/ defendant/ walkthrough/ the_trial/ faqs/ index. html#2642) on 2006-10-13. . Retrieved 2006-03-08. [34] "What promises do Freemasons take?" (http:/ / www. grandlodge-england. org/ masonry/ A2L-promises. htm). United Grand Lodge of England. 2002. . Retrieved 2007-05-08. [35] Jacob, Margaret C. (2005). The origins of freemasonry: facts & fictions. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 9780812239010. OCLC 61478025. [36] Trueman, Chris. "Feudalism" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20060421024923/ http:/ / www. historylearningsite. co. uk/ feudal. htm). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. historylearningsite. co. uk/ feudal. htm) on 2006-04-21. . Retrieved 2006-03-08. "They had to swear an oath of loyalty to William... a sworn oath on the Bible was a very important thing and one which few men would dare to break as it would condemn them to Hell." [37] "Scottish Rite Freemasonry — Ritual and Degrees." (http:/ / www. supremecouncil. org/ index. tpl?& ng_view=18). Scottish Rite Freemasonry, Northern Jurisdiction – United States of America. . Retrieved 2007-05-08. [38] Hodapp, Christopher. Freemasons for Dummies. Indianapolis: Wiley, 2005. p. 18 and p. 25. [39] John J. Robinson, A Pilgrim's Path, M. Evans and Co., Inc. New York, p.129 [40] Bessel, Paul M. (2006-11-29). "Printed Rituals" (http:/ / bessel. org/ writrits. htm). . Retrieved 2007-03-15. [41] Cohoughlyn-Burroughs, Charles E. (2004) [1996]. Bristol Masonic Ritual: The Oldest and Most Unique Craft Ritual Used in England. Kila, Mont.: Kessinger. ISBN 9781417915668. OCLC 78368255. [42] Craft Ritual. Privately published. 1990. [43] "One is made to swear secrecy to the point that bloody penalties of death are involved." Testimony of Duane Washum, Past Worshipful Master (http:/ / www. ephesians5-11. org/ washum. htm), ephesians5-11 (http:/ / www. ephesians5-11. org/ ) [44] Freemasons. Emulation Lodge of Improvement. Emulation Ritual (http:/ / web. mit. edu/ dryfoo/ Masonry/ Misc/ emu-pref. html) (8th ed.). London, England: Lewis Masonic. Preface. . Retrieved 2007-07-08. [45] Firestone, Roger (2001-12-01). "Difficult Questions About Freemasonry" (http:/ / web. mit. edu/ dryfoo/ www/ Masonry/ Questions/ difficult. html). . Retrieved 2007-07-08. [46] Mackey, Albert G. (October 1858). "Landmarks of Freemasonry" (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ grandlodge/ landmarks. html). American Quarterly Review of Freemasonry and its kindred sciences ii: 230. ISSN 0741-790X. OCLC 1480641. . Retrieved 2007-04-09. (Transcribed by Eugene Goldman, 10 September 1998.) [47] Botelho, Michael A. (February 2002). "Masonic Landmarks" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070502051433/ http:/ / www. srmason-sj. org/ web/ journal-files/ Issues/ Feb02/ botelho. htm). The Scottish Rite Journal. ISSN 1076-8572. OCLC 21360724. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. srmason-sj. org/ web/ journal-files/ Issues/ Feb02/ botelho. htm) on 2007-05-02. . Retrieved 2007-05-08.

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Freemasonry
[48] UGL (http:/ / www. ugle. org. uk/ charity/ intro. htm) [49] "Masonic Charity" (http:/ / www. freemasons-freemasonry. com/ masonic_charity. html). Freemasons-freemasonry.com. . Retrieved 2011-01-15. [50] "Royal Masonic Benevolent Institute" (http:/ / www. rmbi. org. uk/ ). . Retrieved 2007-05-08. [51] "Royal Masonic Trust for Girls and Boys" (http:/ / www. rmtgb. org/ ). . Retrieved 2007-05-08. [52] "Royal Masonic School for Girls" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070427131329/ http:/ / www. royalmasonic. herts. sch. uk/ pages/ default. asp). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. royalmasonic. herts. sch. uk/ pages/ default. asp) on 2007-04-27. . Retrieved 2007-05-08. [53] "New Masonic Samaritan Fund" (http:/ / www. nmsf. org). . Retrieved 2007-05-08. [54] Masonic Service Association (http:/ / www. msana. com/ ). [55] Welcome to the Masonic Medical Research Laboratory (http:/ / www. mmrl. edu/ ). [56] Shriners - Welcome (http:/ / www. shrinershq. org/ ). [57] Robinson, John J. (1989). Born in Blood: The Lost Secrets of Freemasonry. New York: Evans. p. 56. ISBN 9780871316028. OCLC 20419501. "... by the late fifteenth century virtually every man in England was free." Robinson also states that the presence of the requirement meant that Freemasonry was organisationally much older than the 1717 founding of the Premier Grand Lodge of England. [58] "Become a Mason: Requirements" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070806171141/ http:/ / ilmason. org/ requirements. html). Grand Lodge of Illinois, Ancient Free & Accepted Masons. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. ilmason. org/ requirements. html) on 2007-08-06. . Retrieved 2007-05-08. [59] Smart, Earnest (April 2005). "Faith and Freemasonry" (http:/ / www. mqmagazine. co. uk/ issue-13/ p-46. php). Masonic Quarterly Magazine (13). . Retrieved 2007-05-07. [60] The Hon. Miss St. Leger and Freemasonry (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ aqc/ aldworth. html), by Edward Conder, Ars Quatuor Coronatorum vol viii (1895) pp. 16-23, 53-6. vol. xviii (1905) p. 46, and reprinted on the website of the Grand Lodge of BC&Y. [61] co-masonry.org (http:/ / www. co-masonry. org/ Site/ English/ ) Official site. [62] http:/ / delphiorder. org/ [63] Anti-Masonry - Oxford English Dictionary (Compact Edition), Oxford University Press, 1979, p.369 [64] Antimasonry - Definition of Antimasonry by Webster Dictionary (http:/ / www. webster-dictionary. net/ d. aspx?w=Antimasonry) [65] Morris, S. Brent (2006). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Freemasonry. New York: Alpha Books. pp. 85 (also discussed in chapters 13 and 16). ISBN 9781592574902. OCLC 68042376. [66] de Hoyos, Arturo; S. Brent Morris (2002-08-18). "Leo Taxil Hoax — Bibliography" (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ anti-masonry/ taxilhoax. html). Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. . Retrieved 2007-07-07. Lists many books which perpetuate Masonic ritual hoaxes. [67] " The New Catholic Encyclopedia (1967) (http:/ / www. trosch. org/ bks/ freemasonry. html) Soviet Russia outlawed Masonry in 1922. Freemasonry does not exist today in the Soviet Union, China, or other Communist states. Postwar revivals of Freemasonry in Czechoslovakia and Hungary were suppressed in 1950. [68] infoplease.com (http:/ / dictionary. infoplease. com/ anti-mason) definition of "anti-mason". [69] Morris, S. Brent; The Complete Idiot's Guide to Freemasonry, Alpha books, 2006, p,204. [70] Cardinal Law, Bernard (1985-04-19). "Letter of 19 April 1985 to U.S. Bishops Concerning Masonry" (http:/ / www. catholicculture. org/ library/ view. cfm?recnum=5285). CatholicCulture.org. . Retrieved 2007-07-09. [71] Canon 2335, 1917 Code of Canon Law from "Canon Law regarding Freemasonry, 1917-1983" (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ anti-masonry/ canon. html). Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. . [72] McInvale, Reid (1991). "Roman Catholic Church Law Regarding Freemasonry" (http:/ / www. io. com/ ~janebm/ churchlaw. html). Transactions of Texas Lodge of Research 27: 86–97. OCLC 47204246. . [73] Jack Chick. "The Curse of Baphomet" (http:/ / www. chick. com/ reading/ tracts/ 0093/ 0093_01. asp). . Retrieved 2007-09-29. [74] Pike, Albert; T. W. Hugo; Scottish Rite (Masonic order). Supreme Council of the Thirty-Third Degree for the Southern Jurisdiction (1950) [1871]. Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry. Washington, DC: House of the Temple. OCLC 12870276. "In preparing this work [Pike] has been about equally Author and Compiler. (p. iii.) ... The teachings of these Readings are not sacramental, so far as they go beyond the realm of Morality into those of other domains of Thought and Truth. The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite uses the word "Dogma" in its true sense of doctrine, or teaching; and is not dogmatic in the odious sense of that term. Everyone is entirely free to reject and dissent from whatsoever herein may seem to him to be untrue or unsound (p. iv)" [75] Snyder, Howard (2006). Populist Saints. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. [76] Beresiner, Yasha (July 2006). "Archbishop Fisher – A Godly man and a Brother" (http:/ / www. mqmagazine. co. uk/ issue-18/ p-07. php?PHPSESSID=c59cd231db419873a6a6). Masonic Quarterly Magazine (18). . Retrieved 2007-05-07. [77] Hastings, Chris; Elizabeth Day (2003-04-20). "Rowan Williams apologises to Freemasons" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071123132655/ http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ main. jhtml?xml=/ news/ 2003/ 04/ 20/ nmason20. xml& sSheet=/ news/ 2003/ 04/ 20/ ixhome. html). The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ main. jhtml?xml=/ news/ 2003/ 04/ 20/ nmason20. xml& sSheet=/ news/ 2003/ 04/ 20/ ixhome. html) on 2007-11-23. . Retrieved 2007-07-09. [78] "Freemasonry: Official Statement of the Church of Greece (1933)" (http:/ / www. orthodoxinfo. com/ ecumenism/ masonry. aspx). Orthodoxinfo.com. 1933-10-12. . Retrieved 2011-01-15. [79] Prescott, Andrew. The Study of Freemasonry as a New Academic Discipline (http:/ / www. freemasons-freemasonry. com/ prescott03. html). pp. 13–14. . Retrieved 2008-12-18.

17

Freemasonry
[80] "Can a Muslim be a freemason?" (http:/ / www. islamonline. net/ servlet/ Satellite?cid=1119503547288& pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar/ FatwaE/ FatwaEAskTheScholar) (asp). Islamonline.com. . Retrieved 2007-05-08. [81] "Hamas Covenant 1988" (http:/ / avalon. law. yale. edu/ 20th_century/ hamas. asp). Avalon.law.yale.edu. 1988-08-18. . Retrieved 2011-01-15. [82] Leyiktez, Celil. "Freemasonry in the Islamic World" (http:/ / www. freemasons-freemasonry. com/ layiktez1. html). Retrieved 2 October 2007. [83] DGLME.org - The District Grand Lodge of the Middle East (http:/ / www. dglme. org/ contacts/ contacts. aspx) [84] Districts Online | Grand Lodge F. & A. M. State of New York (http:/ / www. nymasons. org/ cms/ districtsonline). [85] "Saddam to be formally charged". Washington Times. 1 July 2004. [86] "The United Grand Lodge of England — Two Grand Lodges" (http:/ / www. grandlodge-england. org/ ugle/ the-history-of-grand-lodge-1. htm). United Grand Lodge of England. 2002. . Retrieved 2006-03-08. [87] King, Edward L. (2007). "P2 Lodge" (http:/ / www. masonicinfo. com/ p2_lodge. htm). . Retrieved 2006-10-31. [88] Wilkenson, James; H. Stuart Hughes (1995). Contemporary Europe: A History. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall. p. 237. ISBN 9780132918404. OCLC 31009810. [89] Zierer, Otto (1976). Concise History of Great Nations: History of Germany. New York: Leon Amiel Publisher. p. 104. ISBN 9780814806739. OCLC 3250405. [90] Hodapp, Christopher. Freemasons for Dummies. Indianapolis: Wiley, 2005. p. 86. [91] Bright, Martin (2005-06-12). MPs told to declare links to Masons (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ politics/ 2005/ jun/ 12/ uk. freedomofinformation1), The Guardian [92] Cusick, James (1996-12-27). Police want judges and MPs to reveal Masonic links too (http:/ / www. independent. co. uk/ news/ police-want-judges-and-mps-to-reveal-masonic-links-too-1316095. html), The Independent [93] Sparrow, Andrew (5 November 2009). "Jack Straw scraps rule saying judges must declare if they are masons" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ politics/ blog/ 2009/ nov/ 05/ jack-straw-judges-masons). guardian.co.uk. . Retrieved 7 November 2009. [94] Sands, David R (2004-07-01). "Saddam to be formally charged" (http:/ / washingtontimes. com/ world/ 20040701-120129-6565r. htm). The Washington Times. . Retrieved 2006-06-18. [95] Prescott, pp. 13-14, 30, 33. [96] "World War II Documents showing the persecution of Freemasonry" (http:/ / mill-valley. freemasonry. biz/ persecution. htm). Mill Valley Lodge #356. . Retrieved 2006-05-21. [97] Katz. "Jews and Freemasons in Europe". In Israel Gutman. The Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. p. vol. 2, p. 531. ISBN 9780028971667 OCLC 20594356. [98] "Das Vergißmeinnicht-Abzeichen und die Freimaurerei, Die wahre Geschichte" (http:/ / www. internetloge. de/ arst/ forgetd. htm) (in German). Internetloge.de. . Retrieved 2006-07-08. [99] Bernheim, Alain (2004-09-10). "The Blue Forget-Me-Not": Another Side Of The Story" (http:/ / www. freemasons-freemasonry. com/ bernheim3. html). Pietre-Stones Review of Freemasonry. . Retrieved 2006-07-08. [100] Francke, Karl Heinz; Ernst-Günther Geppert (1974) (in German). Die Freimaurer-Logen Deutschlands und deren Grosslogen 1737-1972 (Second rev. ed.). Bayreuth: Quatuor Coronati.Also in: Francke, Karl Heinz; Ernst-Günther Geppert (1988) (in German). Die Freimaurer-Logen Deutschlands und deren Grosslogen 1737 - 1985 : Matrikel und Stammbuch; Nachschlagewerk über 248 Jahre Geschichte der Freimaurerei in Deutschland. Bayreuth: Quatuor Coronati. ISBN 9783925749056. OCLC 75446479. [101] "Das Vergissmeinnicht The Forget-Me-Not: The True Story Behind This Beloved Emblem of the Craft in Germany" (http:/ / www. galenlodge. co. uk/ forgetmenot. htm). Galen Lodge, No. 2394. 2001-02-08. . Retrieved 2006-02-06. [102] "About the... Forget-Me-Not" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20060209084239/ http:/ / mastermason. com/ monlou522/ forget~me~not. html). Monitor Lousbury Lodge, No. 522. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. mastermason. com/ monlou522/ forget~me~not. html) on 2006-02-09. . Retrieved 2006-03-04.

18

External links
• Freemasonry (http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/FRA_GAE/FREEMASONRY.html) article from the 1911 (11th Ed.) Encyclopedia Britannica. • Web of Hiram (http://www.brad.ac.uk/webofhiram/) at the University of Bradford. A database of donated Masonic material. • Masonic Books Online (http://www.freemasons-freemasonry.com/masonic_books_online.html) of the Pietre-Stones Review of Freemasonry • The Constitutions of the Free-Masons (http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/libraryscience/25/) (1734), James Anderson, Benjamin Franklin, Paul Royster. Hosted by the Libraries at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln • The Mysteries of Free Masonry (http://www.gutenberg.org/files/18136/18136-h/18136-h.htm), by William Morgan, from Project Gutenberg

Freemasonry • A Legislative Investigation Into Masonry (1832) (http://www.archive.org/details/alegislativeinv00hallgoog) at the Internet Archive, OCLC 1560509 • The United Grand Lodge of England's Library and Museum of Freemasonry (http://www.ugle.org.uk/ library-and-museum/), London • The Centre for Research into Freemasonry (http://freemasonry.dept.shef.ac.uk/) at the University of Sheffield, UK • A Page About Freemasonry (http://MasonryPage.org/) the world's oldest Masonic website. • Articles on Judaism and Freemasonry (http://www.oztorah.com/category/freemasonry/) • International Masonic Order "DELPHI" (http://delphiorder.org/) • The Phoenixmasonry Masonic Museum and Library (http://phoenixmasonry.org/)

19

20

History of Freemasonry
History of Freemasonry
The history of Freemasonry studies the development, evolution and events of the fraternal organization known as Freemasonry. This history is generally separated into two time periods: before and after the formation of the Grand Lodge of England in 1717. Before this time, the facts and origins of Freemasonry are not absolutely known and are therefore frequently explained by theories or legends. After the formation of the Grand Lodge of England, the history of Freemasonry is extremely well documented and can be traced through the creation of hundreds of Grand Lodges that spread rapidly worldwide. In recent years professional historians have added an entirely new dimension by studying the impact of Freemasonry on the history of Europe and America in the 18th century[1]

From origin to 18th century Freemasonry
Origin theories of speculative freemasonry
In its ritual context, Freemasonry employs an allegorical foundation myth: the foundation of the fraternity by the builders of King Solomon’s Temple. Beyond myth, there is a distinct absence of documentation as to Freemasonry’s origins, which has led to a great deal of speculation among historians and pseudo-historians alike, both from within and from outside the fraternity. Hundreds of books have been written on the subject. Much of the content of these books is highly speculative, and the precise origins of Freemasonry may very well be permanently lost to history. Some believe the scant evidence that is available points to the origins of Freemasonry as a fraternity that simply evolved out of the lodges of operative stonemasons of the Middle Ages. Others have disputed whether stone masons were ever organized formally into guilds, and have criticized the suggestion that Freemasonry evolved out of such organizations as a trite myth, stemming merely from the fact that the fraternity uses stone masonry as the core allegory for the organization of its symbolism. In any event, the matter of the origins of Freemasonry continues to puzzle and mystify historians. The origin of Freemasonry has variously been attributed to: King Solomon and the construction of the Temple in Jerusalem,[2] Euclid or Pythagoras, Moses, the Essenes, the Culdees, the Druids, the Gypsies, or the Rosicrucians,[2] not to mention the intellectual descendants of Noah.[3] Some of the more popular theories include Freemasonry being an offshoot of the ancient mystery schools,[4] [5] or that it is an institutional outgrowth of the medieval guilds of stonemasons,[6] [7] or that it is a direct descendant of the Knights Templar.[3] [8] There are other lesser-known theories, such as: • The construction of the Rosslyn Chapel in Scotland (1440–1490) provided the interface between the Knights Templar and Freemasonry. Accordingly, the First Degree and Mark Masonry was introduced by William Sinclair, the alleged first Grand Master and founder of Freemasonry.[9] • Freemasonry is the intellectual descendant of the Roman Collegia.[10] • Freemasonry is the intellectual descendant of the Comacine masters.[11] • Freemasonry had its beginnings particularly in the German Steinmetzen, or the French Compagnonage.[2] • Freemasonry was created by Francis Bacon, Oliver Cromwell, or the Stuart pretenders to the British Crown.[2] • Freemasonry was a result of Sir Christopher Wren and the rebuilding of St. Paul's Cathedral.[2]

History of Freemasonry

21

Name origins
The medieval stonemasons were sometimes known as "freemasons."[12] Historians have suggested several origins of the term: • From the French term franc Maçon, a mason working in a Lodge that has been granted a franchise by the Church to work on Church property and free from taxation or regulation by the King or the local Municipality.[13] • From the French frère Maçon literally meaning "brother Mason" • From Free Men, that is they were not serfs or indentured, and free to travel from one work location to another. • From working in "freestone," a type of quarry stone, and they were therefore Freestone Masons.[14]

From historical foundation to 1717
The early development of Freemasonry has two distinct growth periods:[15] • Stage 1. Operative Freemasonry — associated with the craft guilds. Ritual elements are simple and there is no evidence beyond a rudimentary philosophical outlook. • Stage 2. Freemasonry of the late 16th century and into the 17th century. Surviving Scottish Lodge records, as early as the 1630s, show a gentrification process — a transition from Operative to Speculative Freemasonry — evidenced by increasing non-operative notable gentleman within the membership.[16] Virtually no records of English lodges survive prior to the speculative, Grand Lodge period of 1717 onwards. The purely speculative ritual and lectures of William Preston (1742–1818) demonstrate an increasing use of a ritual infusion of Enlightenment philosophy.[17] A credible historical source asserting the antiquity of Freemasonry is The Halliwell Manuscript, or Regius Poem — believed to date from ca. 1390. This makes reference to several concepts and phrases similar to those found in Freemasonry.[18] The manuscript itself seems to be an elaboration on an earlier document, to which it refers. There is also the Cooke Manuscript, an undated manuscript constitution from the mid-15th century, the oldest of the Gothic Constitutions.[19] The first statutory use of the word 'Freemason' in England appears in the Statutes of the Realm enacted in 1495 under Henry VI, although the archaic term "frank mason" had been used fifty years earlier. Prior to that, the earliest use of the term "ffre Masons" was in a 1376 reference to the "Company of ffre Masons," one of the numerous craft guilds of London.[20] By 1583, the date of the Grand Lodge manuscript,[18] the documentary evidence begins to grow. The Schaw Statutes of 1598–99 are the source used to declare the precedence of Lodge Mother Kilwinning in Kilwinning, Ayrshire, Scotland over Lodge of Edinburgh (Mary's Chapel) in Edinburgh. These are described as Head and Principal respectively. As a side note, following a dispute over numbering at the formation of the Grand Lodge of Scotland (GLS) — Kilwinning is numbered as Lodge Mother Kilwinning Number 0 (pronounced 'Nothing'), GLS. Quite soon thereafter, a charter was granted to Sir William St. Clair (later Sinclair) of Roslin (Rosslyn), allowing him to purchase jurisdiction over a number of lodges in Edinburgh and environs.[18] This may be the basis of the Templar myth surrounding Rosslyn Chapel. The Regius Poem and Cooke manuscript, about 1390 and 1410 respectively, are written in the dialects of the west and southwest of England, and may have been written for the school of masonry associated with Salisbury Cathedral. Early operative Freemasons, unlike virtually all Europeans except the Clergy, were Free — not bound to the land on which they were born. The various skills required in building complex stone structures, especially churches and cathedrals, allowed skilled masons to travel and find work at will. They were lodged in a temporary structure — either attached to, or near, the main stone building.[21] In this lodge, they ate, slept and received their work assignments from the master of the work. To maintain the freedom they enjoyed required exclusivity of skills, and thus, as an apprentice was trained, his instructor attached moral values to the tools of the trade, binding him to his fellows of the craft.

History of Freemasonry Freemasonry's transition from a craft guild of operative, working stonemasons into a fraternity of speculative, accepted, gentleman Freemasons began in Scottish lodges during the early 17th century. The earliest record of a lodge accepting a non-operative member occurs in the records of the Lodge of Edinburgh (Mary's Chapel), 8 June 1600, where it is shown that John Boswell, Laird of Aucheinleck, was present at a meeting. The first record of the initiation of a non-operative mason in a lodge is contained in the minutes of the Lodge of Edinburgh (Mary's Chapel) for 3 July 1634, when the Right Honourable Lord Alexander was admitted a Fellowcraft.[14] The first record of the Initiation of a non-operative on English soil, was in 1641 when Sir Robert Moray was admitted to the Lodge of Edinburgh (Mary's Chapel) at Newcastle. From the early 17th century references are found to Freemasonry in personal diaries and journals. Elias Ashmole (1617–1692) was made a Mason in 1646 and notes attending several Masonic meetings. There appears to be a general spread of the Craft, between Ashmole's account and 1717, when four English Lodges meeting in London Taverns joined together and founded the Grand Lodge of London (now known as the United Grand Lodge of England). They had held meetings, respectively, at the Cheshire Cheese Tavern, the Apple-Tree Tavern, the Crown Ale-House near Drury Lane, the Goose and Gridiron in St. Paul's Churchyard, and the Rummer and Grapes Tavern in Westminster.[18] With the foundation of this first Grand Lodge, Freemasonry shifted from being an obscure, relatively private, institution into the public eye. The years following saw new Grand Lodges open throughout Europe. How much of this growth was the spreading of Freemasonry itself, and how much was due to the public organization of pre-existing private Lodges, is uncertain.

22

Creation of the First Grand Lodge in London
English Masonic historians place great importance on 24 June 1717 (St. John the Baptist's day) when four London lodges came together at the Goose and Gridiron Ale House in St Paul’s churchyard and formed what they called The Grand Lodge of England. Although Freemasonry had existed in England since at least the mid-17th century and in Scotland since The Schaw Statutes were enacted in 1598 and 1599, the establishment of a permanent Grand Lodge in London in 1717 is traditionally considered the formation of organized Freemasonry in its modern sense.

Anderson's Constitutions
In 1723, James Anderson wrote and published The Constitutions of the Free-Masons, For the Use of the Lodges in London and Westminster. This work was reprinted in Philadelphia in 1734 by Benjamin Franklin, who was that year elected Grand Master of the Masons of Pennsylvania. In addition to clarifying the rules by which the fraternity was to be governed, Anderson's Constitution contained a History of Freemasonry which claimed that the Craft was very ancient. He traced the fraternity's history from the Medieval guilds of operative stone masons through various Roman and Greek builders and mathematicians, all the way back to biblical roots. Almost as soon as it was published, more knowledgeable historians began to pick apart Anderson's tale, noting its glaring errors. For example: Anderson states that there was an assembly of Masons at York in A.D. 926, where the English King Athelstan granted them a charter — yet York was under Danish control at that time. Anderson also has Pythagoras living in Egypt at the time of the building of King Solomon's Temple, hundreds of years before he was born. It is now recognised that Dr. Anderson's Story of the Craft is based on mythical tales and legendary traditions, and is quite untrustworthy.[22] However, Anderson's claim that Freemasonry dates back to ancient times continues to be repeated to this day.

History of Freemasonry

23

Creation of the Third Degree
Sometime after 1725, a third degree, the Master Mason's degree, began to be worked in London lodges. Its origins are unknown. While it may be older than its recorded appearance indicates, it does not appear in the records of any lodge until April 1727 (its actual conferral does not appear in the records of any lodge until March 1729). Exposures of Masonic ritual, which began to appear in 1723, refer to only two degrees until the publication of Samuel Pritchard's "Masonry Dissected" in 1730, which contained the work for all three degrees.[23] The Master Mason's degree was not official until the Grand Lodge adopted Anderson's revised Constitutions of 1738.[24]

The "Antients" and "Moderns" Grand Lodges
Throughout the early years of the new Grand Lodge there were many lodges that never affiliated with the new Grand Lodge. These unaffiliated Masons and their Lodges were referred to as "Old Masons," or "St. John Masons, and "St. John Lodges".[25] In 1725 a lodge in York founded the rival "Grand Lodge of All England" as a protest against the growing influence of the Grand Lodge of England in London. During the 1730s and 1740s antipathy increased between the London based Grand Lodge of England (hereafter referred to as the Premier Grand Lodge) and the Grand Lodges of Ireland and Scotland. Irish and Scots Masons visiting and living in London considered the Premier Grand Lodge to have considerably deviated from the ancient practices of the Craft. As a result, these Masons felt a stronger kinship with the unaffiliated London Lodges. The aristocratic nature of the Premier Grand Lodge and its members alienated other Masons of the City causing them also to identify with the unaffiliated Lodges.[26] On 17 July 1751, representatives of five Lodges gathered at the Turk's Head Tavern, in Greek Street, Soho, London — forming a rival Grand Lodge — The Most Antient and Honourable Society of Free and Accepted Masons. They believed that they practiced a more ancient and therefore purer form of Masonry, and called their Grand Lodge The Antients' Grand Lodge. They called those affiliated to the Premier Grand Lodge, by the pejorative epithet The Moderns. These two unofficial names stuck.[27] Laurence Dermott wrote a new constitution for the Ancients, the Ahiman Rezon as an alternative for the Constitution of the Moderns. An illustration of how deep the division was between the two factions is the case of Benjamin Franklin who was a member of a Moderns' Lodge in Philadelphia. During his stay in France, he became Master of the Lodge Les Neuf Sœurs in 1779, and was re-elected in 1780. Upon returning from France it transpired that his Lodge had changed to (and had received a new warrant from) the Antients Grand Lodge; no longer recognizing him and declining to give him "Masonic Honours" at his funeral.[28] For many years, "The Great Masonic Schism" was a name applied to the sixty-two year division of English Freemasonry into two separate Grand Lodges. Some even attempted to attribute the division to the changes in passwords made in 1738–39 by the Premier Grand Lodge. Masonic historian Robert F. Gould in his "History of Freemasonry (1885) referred to the Antients Grand Lodge as "schismatics". However, Henry Sadler, Librarian of the UGLE, demonstrated in his 1887 book "Masonic Facts and Fictions" that the Antients Grand Lodge was formed in 1751 primarily by Irish Masons living and working in London, never affiliated with the older Grand Lodge. 72 of the first 100 names on the roll of the new Antients' Grand Lodge were Irish. In 1776, the Grand Secretary of the Moderns' Grand Lodge referred to them as "the Irish Faction (Ye Antient Masons, as they call themselves)". And so the myth of a "Great Masonic Schism" in English Masonry was laid to rest.[29]

History of Freemasonry

24

Early Freemasonry in the United States (1733–1799)
In 1733, Henry Price, the Provincial Grand Master over all of North America for the London Grand Lodge, granted a charter to a group of Boston Freemasons. This lodge was later named St. John's Lodge and was the first duly constituted lodge in America.[30]

Role of Freemasonry in 18th century Enlightenment
There is some debate among scholars as to the role of Freemasonry in the 18th century Age of Enlightenment. Some see Freemasonry as playing a significant role, influencing enlightenment thinking, promoting the ideals of the Enlightenment, and helping to diffuse these values across Britain and France and other places.[31] Others disagree, arguing that Freemasonry played little if any role in the Enlightenment.[32] [33]

19th Century Freemasonry
The Union of 1813
The Premier Grand Lodge of England and the Antient Grand Lodge of England were amalgamated into the United Grand Lodge of England (UGLE) on 27 December 1813 (day of Saint John the Evangelist), by twenty-one articles of "The Articles of Union" — specifying the agreements made regarding the various points of contention. A special lodge, The Lodge of Promulgation, was established by the Moderns in 1809 to promulgate the ancient landmarks of the Order, as well as instructing and negotiating with the members of the two factions to include the discontinuation of any innovations or changes introduced by the Moderns. The Union largely confirmed the Ancients' forms and ceremonies, and therefore considerably revised the Moderns' rituals. One of the most important changes was the reference in Article Two to the Royal Arch Degree as included in the, third, Master Masons' Degree — a practice that had always been peculiar to the Ancients lodges.[26] Following the union in 1813, a Lodge of Reconciliation (1813–1816) was established to complete the rationalisation of the ritual into a form acceptable to both parties forming the newly constituted United Grand Lodge. In 1823 a Emulation Lodge of Improvement was established. Upon the union of Antients and Moderns, the UGLE also created a new Constitution, based on the Constitution of Anderson of the Moderns and the Ahiman Rezon of the Antients. Both the Ancients and the Moderns had daughter Lodges throughout the world, and because many of those Lodges still exist, there is a great deal of variety in the ritual used today, even between UGLE-recognized jurisdictions in amity. Most Private Lodges conduct themselves in accordance with a single Rite.

The Morgan Affair and Decline in American Freemasonry (1826–c.1850)
In 1826, William Morgan disappeared from Batavia, New York, after threatening to expose Freemasonry's secrets, causing some to claim that he had been murdered by Masons. What exactly occurred has never been conclusively proven. However, Morgan's disappearance — and the minimal punishment received by his kidnappers — sparked a series of protests against Freemasons throughout the United States, especially in New York and neighboring states. Under the leadership of Thurlow Weed, an anti-Masonic and anti-Andrew Jackson (Jackson was a Mason) movement grew to become the political party and made the ballot for the presidency in 1828, while gaining the support of such notable politicians as William H. Seward. Its influence was such that other Jackson rivals, including John Quincy Adams, denounced the Masons. In 1847, Adams wrote a widely distributed book titled "Letters on the Masonic Institution" that was highly critical of the Masons. In 1832, the party fielded William Wirt as its presidential candidate. This was rather ironic because he was, in fact, a Freemason, and even gave a speech at the Anti-Masonic convention defending the organization. The party only received seven electoral votes. Three years later, the party had disbanded in every state save Pennsylvania, as other issues such as slavery had become the focus of national attention.

History of Freemasonry

25

American Freemasons during the Civil War
The fortunes of American Freemasonry declined sharply following the Morgan Affair, only to rebound as the force of the Anti-Masonic movement sputtered out in the mid 1830s. By the late 1850s, masonry in America was the subject of renewed popular interest and lodge membership, which had bottomed out during the anti-Masonic period began to rise. By the time of the American Civil War, U.S. freemasonry tripled its membership from 66,000 to 200,000 members in over 5000 lodges nationwide. This surge in membership helps explain, at least in part, the many stories of Masonic fraternization during the American Civil War, which include accounts of Masonic soldiers and sailors rescuing enemy combatants who identified themselves as members of the fraternity. Masonic incidents are also recorded involving Freemasons burying their own with Masonic formalities during battle, as well as aid and special treatment given to Masonic POWs.[34]

Freemasons and the Paris Commune
During the 19th Century, French Freemasonry became increasingly involved in politics. According to Ernest Belfort Bax, Freemasons were responsible for the last serious attempt at conciliation between Versailles and the Commune on April 21, 1870. They were received coldly by Adolphe Thiers, who assured them that, though Paris was given over to destruction and slaughter, the law should be enforced, and he kept his word. A few days after they decided, in a public meeting, to plant their banner on the ramparts and throw in their lot with the Commune. On the 29th, accordingly, 10,000 of the brethren met (55 lodges being represented), and marched to the Hôtel de Ville, headed by the Grand Masters in full insignia and the banners of the lodges. Amongst them the new banner of Vincennes was conspicuous, bearing the inscription in red letters on a white ground, “Love one another.” A balloon was then sent up, which let fall at intervals, outside Paris, a manifesto of the Freemasons. The procession then wended its way through the boulevards and the Champs Elysées to the Arc de Triomphe, where the banners were planted at various points along the ramparts. On seeing the white flag on the Porte Maillot the Versaillese ceased firing, and the commander, himself a Freemason, received a deputation of brethren, and suggested a final appeal to Versailles, which was agreed to. The “chief of the executive,” of course, hardly listened to the envoys, and declined to further discuss the question of peace with anyone. This last formal challenge having been made and rejected, the Freemasons definitely took their stand as combatants for the Commune.[35]

The great schism of 1877
A great schism in Freemasonry occurred in the years following 1877, when the Grand Orient de France (GOdF) started unreservedly accepting atheists, and recognized Women's Masonry and Co-Masonry. The United Grand Lodge of England (UGLE) deemed this to be irregular and a violation of the ancient landmarks of the Fraternity. UGLE withdrew its recognition of GOdF. The majority of Grand Lodges around the world, especially those in the English speaking world, followed UGLE's lead. However, a minority, mostly in Europe and South America chose to follow GOdF's example. Thus Freemasonry was split between the Anglo-American concept of Freemasonry and the Continental concept of Freemasonry. Adding to the tensions between these to systems, French Masons tended to be more willing to discuss religion and politics in their Lodges; unlike the English who banned such discussions outright.[36] The schism between the two branches was occasionally, (unofficially or partially) breached, especially during the First World War when American Masons overseas wished to visit French Lodges.[36]

History of Freemasonry Background to the schism As to religious requirements, the oldest constitution found in Freemasonry — Anderson's Constitutions of the Free-Masons, 1723 — says that a Mason "will never be a stupid Atheist nor an irreligious Libertine" if he "rightly understands the Art". The only religious requirement was "that Religion in which all Men agree, leaving their particular Opinions to themselves".[37] In 1815, the newly amalgamated UGLE modified Anderson's constitutions to include: "Let a man's religion or mode of worship be what it may, he is not excluded from the Order, provided he believes in the glorious Architect of Heaven and Earth, and practices the sacred duties of morality." In 1849, France (GOdF) followed the English (UGLE) lead by adopting the "Supreme Being" requirement, but pressure from Latin countries produced by 1875, the alternative phrase "Creative Principle". This was ultimately not enough for the GOdF, and in 1877 it re-adopted the original Anderson document of 1723. They also created an alternative ritual that made no direct reference to any deity, with the attribute of the Great Architect of the Universe.[38] This new Rite did not replace the older ones, but was added as an alternative, as Continental European jurisdictions, generally, tend not to restrict themselves to a single Rite — offering a menu of Rites, from which their lodges may choose.

26

Taxil hoax
Between the years 1885 and 1897, Léo Taxil maintained a hoax against both Freemasonry and the Roman Catholic Church, by making increasingly outlandish claims regarding Freemasonry. On 19 April 1897, Taxil called a press conference at which he claimed he would introduce the "author" of his books to the press. He instead announced that his revelations about the Freemasons were fictitious. Nevertheless, the material is still used on some anti-Masonic websites today.

20th Century Freemasonry
Freemasonry under Totalitarian Regimes (1900– current)
Many twentieth century totalitarian regimes, both Fascist and Communist have treated Freemasonry as a potential source of opposition due to its secret nature and international connections (not to mention its promotion of religious and political tolerance through its symbolism). It has been alleged by Masonic scholars that the language used by the totalitarian regimes is similar to that used by some modern critics of Freemasonry.

Notes
[1] Steven C. Bullock, "Initiating the enlightenment?: recent scholarship on European freemasonry," Eighteenth-Century Life, Volume 20, Number 1, February 1996, pp. 80-92 [2] Coil, Henry W. (1967). Freemasonry Through Six Centuries. 2 vols., Vol. I, pg. 6. Richmond, Va: Macoy Publ. Co. [3] The History of Freemasonry by Albert G. Mackey, Gramercy Books, 1996. [4] Knight, Christopher, and Robert Lomas. The Hiram Key: Pharaohs, Freemasons and the Discovery of the Secret Scrolls of Christ. London, 1997. [5] Redding, Moses W. The Illustrated History of Freemasonry. New York: Redding and Co., 1910. pp. 19–60. Reprinted 2004 by Lushena Books. ISBN 1930097719. [6] Stevenson, David. The Origins of Freemasonry: Scotland's Century, 1590–1710. Cambridge, 1990. [7] Stewart, Trevor. English Speculative Freemasonry: Some Possible Origins, Themes and Developments. The Prestonian Lecture for 2004 in Ars Quatuor Coronatum 2004 London, 2005. [8] Hodapp, Christopher L. "A crash course in Templar history" from Freemasons for Dummies. Indianapolis: Wiley Publishing, 2005. pp. 203–208. sec. [9] Christopher Knight and Robert Lomas. The Hiram Key. London, 1996. [10] Freemasonry and the Roman Collegia by H.L. Haywood, The Builder, 1923 — Freemasonry and the Roman Collegia (http:/ / www. freemasons-freemasonry. com/ collegia. html)

History of Freemasonry
[11] Freemasonry and the Comacine masters by H.L. Haywood, The Builder, 1923 — Freemasonry and the Comacine Masters (http:/ / www. freemasons-freemasonry. com/ comacine. html) [12] Ridley, Jasper. "The Freemasons." New York. Arcade Publishing. 2001. p. 3. [13] Naudon, Paul (1991). Les Origins de la Franc-Maçonnerie: Le Sacré et le Métier. Paris: Éditions Dervy. [14] Coil, Henry W. (1961). Article: "Free-Mason; Freemason," pp. 272–273. Coil's Masonic Encyclopedia (ref. ed. 1996). Richmond, Va: Macoy Publ. Co. [15] English Speculative Freemasonry: Some Possible Origins, Themes and Developments. The Prestonian Lecture for 2004 in Ars Quatuor Coronatum 2004 by Trevor Stewart, pub London 2005 [16] Stevenson, David (1988). The Origins of Freemasonry: Scotland's Century 1590–1710. Cambridge University Press. [17] Articles (http:/ / www. cornerstonesociety. com/ Insight/ Articles/ articles. html) [18] The United Grand Lodge of England — Home Page (http:/ / www. grandlodge-england. org/ ) [19] Coil, Henry Wilson; "Gothic Constitutions," pp. 292–297; Coil's Masonic Encyclopedia; publ. 1961, 1996, Richmond Va. [20] Coil, Henry Wilson; "Free-Mason," pg. 272; and "Masons Company of London," pg. 410; Coil's Masonic Encyclopedia; publ. 1961,1996, Richmond Va. [21] The History Channel, Mysteries of the Freemasons: America, video documentary, August 1, 2006. [22] Paper read before the Manchester Association for Masonic Research in May 1924 by Bro. Heiron, author of Ancient Freemasonry and the Dundee Lodge No.18 1722–1920) [23] Samuel Pritchard, "Masonry Dissected" (1730), in D. Knoop, G.P. Jones & D. Hamer, The Early Masonic Catechisms (Manchester University Press, 1963). [24] Coil, Henry W. (1961). Article: "Degrees; 17. Master Mason," pp. 195–196. Coil's Masonic Encyclopedia. (rev. ed. 1996). Richmond, Va: Macoy Publ. & Masonic Supply Co. Inc. [25] Coil, Henry W. (1961). Two articles: "England, Grand Lodge of, According to the Old Institutions," pp. 237–240; and "Saints John," pp. 589–590. Coil's Masonic Encyclopedia. (rev. ed. 1996). Richmond, Va: Macoy Publ. & Masonic Supply Co. Inc. [26] Jones, Bernard E. (1950). Freemasons' Guide and Compendium, (rev. ed. 1956) London: Harrap Ltd. [27] Batham, Cyril N. (1981). "The Grand Lodge of England According to the Old Institutions, otherwise known as The Grand Lodge of the Antients." The Collected Prestonian Lectures, 1975–1987, Vol. Three. London (1988): Lewis Masonic. [28] Revolutionary Brotherhood, by Steven C. Bullock, University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 1996 [29] Coil, Henry W. (1961) Article: "England, Grand Lodge of, According to the Old Institutions," pp. 237–240. Coil's Masonic Encyclopedia. (rev. ed. 1996). Richmond, Va: Macoy Publ. & Masonic Supply Co. Inc. [30] American Freemasons: Three Centuries of Building Communities Mark A. Tabbert, New York University Press, New York: 2005, pp. 33–47. [31] Margaret C. Jacob’s seminal work on Enlightenment freemasonry, Margaret C. Jacob, Living the Enlightenment: Free masonry and Politics in Eighteenth-Century Europe (Oxford University Press, 1991) p. 49. [32] Robert R. Palmer, The Age of the Democratic Revolution: The struggle (1970) p. 53 [33] Neil L. York, "Freemasons and the American Revolution," The Historian Volume: 55. Issue: 2. 1993, pp 315+. [34] Michael Halleran. The Better Angels of Our Nature: Freemasonry in the American Civil War (Univ. of Alabama Press, 2010), 38, 90, 106, 136. [35] The Paris Commune — IX. The Freemasons, the Committee of Public Safety, and Rossel, byE. Belfort Bax. Found at www.marxists.org (http:/ / www. marxists. org/ archive/ bax/ 1894/ commune/ ch09. htm). [36] see Masonic U.S. Recognition of French Grand Lodges in the 20th century (http:/ / bessel. org/ masrec/ france. htm), Paul M. Bessel. Accessed November 14, 2005 [37] Anderson's Constitutions (http:/ / www. 2be1ask1. com/ library/ anderson. html), accessed November 14, 2005. [38] "On 10 September 1878, the Grand Orient, moreover, decreed to expunge from the Rituals and the lodge proceedings all allusions to religious dogmas as the symbols of the Grand Architect, the Bible, etc. These measures called out solemn protests from nearly all the Anglo-American and German organs and led to a rupture between the Anglo-American Grand Lodges and the Grand Orient of France. As many freethinking Masons both in America and in Europe sympathize in this struggle with the French, a world-wide breach resulted." from Masonry (Freemasonry) from the Catholic Encyclopedia (http:/ / www. newadvent. org/ cathen/ 09771a. htm)

27

History of Freemasonry

28

Bibliography
• • • • • Daniel, James W. Masonic Networks and Connections (2007) Harland-Jacobs, Jessica L. Builders of Empire: Freemasonry and British Imperialism, 1717-1927 (2009) Hoffman, Stefan-Ludwig The Politics of Sociability: Freemasonry and German Civil Society, 1840-1918 (2008) MacNulty, W. Kirk Freemasonry: Symbols, Secrets, Significance (2008) Mehigan, Tim; de Burgh, Helene. "'Aufklärung', freemasonry, the public sphere and the question of Enlightenment," Journal of European Studies, March 2008, Vol. 38 Issue 1, pp 5–25. downplays role of Freemasonry in the Enlightenment • Mirala, Petri. Freemasonry in Ulster, 1733-1813: A Social and Political History of the Masonic Brotherhood in the North of Ireland (2007)

External links
• The Constitutions of the Free-Masons (http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/libraryscience/25/) written by James Anderson and published "For the Use of the Lodges" in 1723 in London, and in 1734 by Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia. Contains a mythical-biblical-historical account of the order, as well as "charges" and general regulations for members and lodges. • The Web of Hiram at Bradford University (http://www.bradford.ac.uk/webofhiram/), an electronic database of the Masonic material held in many of the University's Special Collections • Freemasons history of Freemasonry (http://www.freemasons-freemasonry.com/history.html) found on the Pietre-Stones Review of Freemasonry website

Masonic manuscripts
There are a number of masonic manuscripts that are historically important in the development of Freemasonry.

The Halliwell Manuscript, or Regius Poem
The Halliwell Manuscript, also known as the Regius Poem, is the first known Masonic text. It consists of 64 written pages in poetic form. The poem begins by evoking Euclid and his invention of geometry in ancient Egypt and then the spreading of the art of geometry in "divers lands." This is followed by fifteen points for the master concerning both moral behaviour (do not harbour thieves, do not take bribes, attend church regularly, etc.) and the operation of work on a building site (do not make your masons labour at night, teach apprentices properly, do not take on jobs that you cannot do etc.). There are then fifteen points for craftsmen which follow a similar pattern. The general consensus on the age of the document dates its writing to between the late 14th century and the middle of the 15th century, and from internal evidence its author appears to have been a West of England clergyman. The manuscript was recorded in various personal inventories as it changed hands until it came into possession of the Royal Library, which was donated to the British Museum in 1757 by King George II to form the nucleus of the present British Library.

Masonic manuscripts

29 During this time, the document was generally described as a poem of moral duties. The significance of the document as relating to Freemasonry was not realized until it was featured in an article on Freemasonry by James Halliwell in 1840.

"Fyftene artyculus þey þer sow3ton, and fyftene poyntys þer þey wro3ton." —Regius MS, ca. 1390.

The text of the document states that Freemasonry was brought to England during the reign of King Athelstan from 924 to 939. The manuscript is presently held by the British Library in the Royal Manuscript Collection, catalogue reference 17 A. I.

The Matthew Cooke Manuscript
The Matthew Cooke Manuscript is the oldest of a class of about one hundred early documents known as Freemasonry's Gothic Constitutions, and the second oldest known manuscript in Masonic history.[1] Typically, the Gothic Constitutions included an invocation, a mythical legend of ancient Masonry, a list of charges and regulations for Masons, and an oath or obligation.[2] The manuscript was published by R. Spencer, London, in 1861 and it was edited by Mr. Matthew Cooke—hence the name. In the British Museum's catalogue it is listed as "Additional M.S. 23,198", and has been dated by Hughan at 1450 or thereabouts, an estimate in which most of the specialists have concurred. Dr. Begemann believed the document to have been "compiled and written in the southeastern portion of the western Midlands, say, in Gloucestershire or Oxfordshire, possibly also in southeast Worcestershire or southwest Warwickshire. The 'Book of Charges' which forms the second part of the document is certainly of the 14th century, the historical or first part, of quite the beginning of the 15th." (A.Q.C. IX, page 18) It is a copy of parts of two older manuscripts which have not survived, as is indicated by a break in the text and the repetition of a portion.[3] The Cooke manuscript was most certainly in the hands of Mr. George Payne, when in his second term as Grand Master in 1720 he compiled the "General Regulations," and which Anderson included in his own version of the "Constitutions" published in 1723. Anderson himself evidently made use of lines 901-960 of the manuscript. The Lodge Quatuor Coronati reprinted the manuscript in facsimile in Vol. II of its Antigrapha in 1890, and included therewith a Commentary by George William Speth.[4]

Les Statuts de Ratisbonne
The Statuts de Ratisbonne (1498) mark the transition of operative into speculative freemasonry in France.[5]

The Kirkwall Scroll
The Kirkwall scroll is a manuscript of uncertain origin which depicts several masonic devices. It hangs on the west wall of the temple of Lodge Kirkwall Kilwinning No. 38(2) in Orkney. It is commonly claimed to be the floor cloth recorded as having been given to the lodge by Bro. William Graeme in 1785. Various legends link the scroll to the Knights Templar and location of the Holy Grail. These claims, however, have been challenged by Robert L.D. Cooper in his book "The Rosslyn Hoax?"[6] . Cooper presents evidence arguing that the scroll was made by William Graeme, or under his direction, and he dates it to the latter part of the 18th century on the basis of a detailed analysis of its symbolism.

Masonic manuscripts

30

The Constitutions of the Moderns
The Constitutions of the Free-Masons was a constitution written for the Premier Grand Lodge of England, to standardize the rituals and practices of Freemasonry among lodges of London and Westminster operating under that Grand Lodge. Obviously, it was not meant to apply to other lodges in other parts of England, Scotland and Ireland. The first and second edition were written by Rev. James Anderson in 1723 and 1738.

History
Anderson's Constitutions were based on the old masonic manuscripts (also called "Gothic Constitutions") and on the General Regulations which had been compiled first by George Payne in 1720.[7] The full title of the 1723 edition was The Constitutions of the Free-Masons, Containing the History, Charges, Regulations, &c. of that most Ancient and Right Worshipful Fraternity, For the Use of the Lodges.[8] When in 1738, the Grand Lodge changed its name from Grand Lodge of London and Westminster into the Grand Lodge of England, the Constitution was rewritten by Anderson. The title of the second, rewritten, edition of 1738 was The New Book of Constitutions of the Antient and Honourable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons, Containing Their History, Charges, Regulations, &c. Collected and Digested By Order of the Grand Lodge from their old Records, faithful Traditions and Lodge-Books, For the Use of the Lodges.[9] The 1723 edition of the Constitutions was edited and reprinted by Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia in 1734 (online pdf edition) [10], becoming the first Masonic book printed in America. A new edition of the Constitutions was published in 1754, by John Entick. He reverted to the Charges as drawn up in 1723 into which, especially in the first Charge, Anderson had introduced various modifications in the 1738 edition. It is this edition of the Charges which forms the basis of the Ancient Charges to be found today in the Constitutions of the United Grand Lodge of England, with only small verbal modifications, except with regards to the first Charge on God and religion.[11]

The Constitutions of 1723
The first section of the Constitution, on religion, stating that Masons can be of any faith and that they need only adhere to the Religion in which all Men agree, comes very close to the concept of a Natural Religion, a popular idea during the Enlightenment. • I - Of GOD and RELIGION. • A Mason is obliged by his Tenure, to obey the moral law; and if he rightly understands the Art, he will never be a stupid Atheist nor an irreligious Libertine. But though in ancient times Masons were charged in every country to be of the religion of that country or nation, whatever it was, yet it is now thought more expedient only to oblige them to that religion in which all men agree, leaving their particular Opinions to themselves: that is, to be Good men and True, or Men of Honour and Honesty, by whatever Denomination or Persuasion they may be distinguished; whereby Masonry becomes the Centre of Union and the Means of conciliating true Friendship among persons that must have remained at a perpetual distance. • II - Of the CIVIL MAGISTRATES, supreme and subordinate. • III - Of LODGES. • IV - Of MASTERS, Wardens, Fellows and Apprentices. • V - Of the Management of the CRAFT in working. • VI - Of BEHAVIOR, viz.:

Masonic manuscripts • • • • • • 1. In the Lodge while constituted. 2. After the Lodge is over and the Brethren not gone. 3. When Brethren meet without Strangers, but not in a Lodge. 4. In Presence of Strangers not Masons. 5. At Home and in the Neighborhood. 6. Toward a strange Brother.

31

The Constitutions of 1738
The section on religion of 1738 refers to the Seven Laws of Noah, which are a list of seven moral imperatives which, according to the Talmud, were given by God to Noah as a binding set of laws for all mankind.[12] • I - Of GOD and RELIGION. • A Mason is obliged by his tenure to observe the moral law as a true Noachide; and if he rightly understands the Craft, he will never be a stupid Atheist nor an irreligious Libertine, nor act against conscience. In ancient Times, the Christian Masons were charged to comply with the Christian usages of each country where they traveled or worked; being found in all nations, even of divers religions. They are generally charged to adhere to that religion in which all men agree (leaving each brother to his own particular opinions); that is, to be good men and true, men of honor and honesty, by whatever names, religions, or persuasions they may be distinguished; for they all agree in the three great articles of Noah, enough to preserve the cement of the lodge. Thus Masonry is the Center of Union, and the happy means of conciliating persons that otherwise must have remained at a perpetual distance.

The Constitutions of the Antients
The Book of Constitutions, or Ahiman Rezon, of the Grand Lodge of England According to the Old Institutions, also known as the Antient Grand Lodge of England or the Grand Lodge of the Antients, was first published in 1754. Its author, Laurence Dermott, was Grand Secretary of the Antient Grand Lodge from 1752 to 1771. The full name of the first edition was Ahiman Rezon; or a Help to a Brother; showing the Excellency of Secrecy, and the first cause or motive of the Institution of Masonry; The Principles of the Craft; and the benefits from a Strict Observance thereof, etc., etc.; Also the Old and New Regulations; etc. To which is added the greatest collection of Masons' Songs, etc. A second edition was published in 1764, and subsequent editions in 1778, 1787, 1800, 1801, 1807, and 1813. The second edition was reprinted in Philadelphia in 1855 by Leon Hyneman. Dermott borrowed heavily from the Constitutions of the Grand Lodge of Ireland which had been published in 1751. The first Charge in the Ahiman Rezon reads as follows: • CHARGE I. Concerning GOD and Religion. • A Mason is obliged by his Tenure to believe firmly in the true Worship of the eternal God, as well as in all those sacred Records which the Dignitaries and Fathers of the Church have compiled and published for the Use of all good Men: So that no one who rightly understands the Art, can possibly tread in the irreligious Paths of the unhappy Libertine, or be induced to follow the arrogant Professors of Atheism or Deism; neither is he to be stained with the gross Errors of blind Superstition, but may have the Liberty of embracing what Faith he shall think proper, provided at all Times he pays a due Reverence to his Creator, and by the World deals with Honour and Honesty ever making that golden Precept the Standard-Rule of his Actions, which engages, To do unto all Man as he would they should do unto him: For the Craft, instead of entering into idle and unnecessary Disputes concerning the Different Opinions and Persuasions of Men, admits into the Fraternity all that are good and true; whereby it hath brought about the Means of Reconciliation amongst Persons, who, without that Assistance, would have remained at perpetual Variance.

Masonic manuscripts

32

The Constitutions of the United Grand Lodge of England
When the United Grand Lodge of England was created with the union of the Ancients and Moderns, a new version of the Constitutions was drafted. It was a synthesis of the Constitution of Anderson of the Moderns and the Ahiman Rezon of the Ancients. • I - Of GOD and RELIGION. • A Mason is obliged, by his tenure, to obey the moral law; and if he rightly understand the art he will never be a stupid atheist nor an irreligious libertine. He, of all men, should best understand that God seeth not as man seeth; for man looketh at the outward appearance, but God looketh to the heart. A Mason is, therefore, particularly bound never to act against the dictates of his conscience. Let a man's religion or mode of worship be what it may, he is not excluded from the order provided he believe in the glorious architect of heaven and earth, and practise the sacred duties of morality.

References
[1] "The Matthew Cooke Manuscript with translation" (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ texts/ cooke. html). Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon A.F. & A.M.. . Retrieved February 6, 2006. [2] Coil, Henry Wilson; "Gothic Constitutions", pp. 292-297; Coil's Masonic Encyclopedia; publ. 1961, 1996, Macoy Publ. Co., Richmond Va. [3] Coil, Henry Wilson; "Cooke Manuscript," pg. 154; Coil's Masonic Encyclopedia; publ. 1961, 1996, Macoy Publ. Co., Richmond Va. [4] "The Old Charges" (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ history/ old_charges. html) [5] Les Statuts de Ratisbonne (http:/ / www. fm-europe. org/ fr/ spip. php?article19) [6] Cooper RLD The Rosslyn Hoax?, Viewing Rosslyn Chapel from a new perspective; Lewis Masonic 2007 ISBN(10)O 85318 281 7 [7] General Regulations (http:/ / www. internetloge. de/ arst/ regula. htm) [8] Anderson's Constitutions of 1723, Masonic Service Association, ISBN 0766100731 [9] Anderson, James, Anderson's Constitutions of 1738, ISBN 0766133613 [10] http:/ / digitalcommons. unl. edu/ libraryscience/ 25/ [11] Book of Constitutions (http:/ / www. ugle. org. uk/ pdf/ index. htm) [12] The Noachide Faith in Masonic Sources (http:/ / www. public-action. com/ x/ nh-freemasontracbrd/ )

Source
• Bro. H. L. Haywood (1923). "The old charges of Freemasonry" (http://freemasonry.bcy.ca/history/ old_charges.html). The Builder. Retrieved February 6, 2006. • "Some literary contexts of the Regius and Cooke MSS"; Andrew Prescott; in "The Canonbury Papers, Volume 2: Freemasonry in Music and Literature"; 2005; CMRC;UK • "The Documentary Early History of the Masonic Fraternity"; Henry Leonard Stillson; Kessinger Publishing

External links
• Halliwell Manuscript, with translation (http://freemasonry.bcy.ca/texts/regius.html) • The Kirkwall Scroll at Lodge No 38' Kirkwall Kilwinning (http://www.lodgecraigellachie.co.uk/Masonica/ Kirkwall/Kirkwall.htm) • The Constitutions of the Free-Masons (http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/libraryscience/25/) (Philadelphia, 1734) online edition (pdf)

Ahiman Rezon

33

Ahiman Rezon
The Book of Constitutions of this Grand Lodge or Ahiman Rezon was a constitution written by Laurence Dermott for the Antient Grand Lodge of England which was formed in 1751. The formation of the Antient Grand Lodge brought together lodges and Masons who, believing themselves to be part of an older, original Masonic tradition, had chosen not to ally themselves with the previously formed Moderns Grand Lodge of 1717. The title Ahiman Rezon has been often said to be Hebrew and variously mean "to help a brother", "will of selected brethren", "The secrets of prepared brethren", "Royal Builders" and "Brother Secretary". As a matter of fact the two words are not Hebrew and mean nothing in the Hebrew language. The reason why Laurence Dermott used it, and what it meant to him, is still a mystery.

History
The first edition of the Ahiman Rezon was published in 1756, a second one in 1764. By the union of Antients and Moderns in 1813, eight editions had been published. The original edition, written by Laurence Dermott, Grand Secretary of the Antient Grand Lodge, contains a parody of the histories of Freemasonry such as that in Anderson's 'Constitutions', in which Dermott resolves to write a history of the Craft by purchasing all the previous histories and then throwing them 'under the table'. He then describes a fabled meeting with four 'sojourners from Jerusalem' who were present at the building of Solomon's temple, making them at least two thousand years old, whose 'memories' were possibly failing them. This satire continues the tradition of the Scald Miserable Masons who staged mock processions and disrupted the Grand Lodge's annual procession. The satire also pays reference to the stones used in the temple including 'sardine' and 'beryl', clearly not real precious jewels. Dermott's political purpose in writing the Ahiman Rezon is revealed in his short history of famous leaders of the ancient world who were of 'mean extraction, that is poor, such as Tamerlane the son of a herdsman, and on the cover which shows the arms of the Worshipful Company of Masons as well as those of the Freemasons, possibly in an attempt to re-connect Freemasonry to its operative and artisan roots.

Ahiman Rezon of 1756
"Concerning God and Religion A Mason is obliged by his Tenure to believe firmly in the true Worship of the eternal God, as well as in all those sacred Records which the Dignitaries and Fathers of the Church have compiled and published for the Use of all good Men: So that no one who rightly understands the Art, can possibly tread in the irreligious Paths of the unhappy Libertine, or be induced to follow the arrogant Professors of Atheism or Deism; neither is he to be stained with the gross Errors of blind Superstition, but may have the Liberty of embracing what Faith he shall think proper, provided at all Times he pays a due Reverence to his Creator, and by the World deals with Honour and Honesty ever making that golden Precept the Standard-Rule of his Actions, which engages, To do unto all Man as he would they should do unto him: For the Craft, instead of entering into idle and unnecessary Disputes concerning the Different Opinions and Persuasions of Men, admits into the Fraternity all that are good and true."

Ahiman Rezon

34

Source
• Ahiman Rezon [1] • Ahiman Rezon [2] • Antients [3]

References
[1] http:/ / www. freemasons-freemasonry. com/ Ahiman_Rezon. html [2] http:/ / www. glnb. ca/ books/ Ahiman_Rezon. html [3] http:/ / tracingboard. com/ antients. htm

Regular Masonic jurisdictions
This article deals with organization in Craft or Blue Lodge Freemasonry. See the appropriate article for information on organization in appendant Masonic bodies such as York Rite and Scottish Rite. Regularity is the process by which individual Grand Lodges recognise one another for the purposes of allowing formal interaction at the Grand Lodge level and visitation by members of other jurisdictions.

Regularity and its origins
History
The Masonic Square and Compasses. Found with or There are a number of groupings of Masonic jurisdictions which without the ‘G’ consider themselves regular, and recognise others as regular, yet consider others to be irregular. There is no globally centralised Masonic organisational system, and therefore the criteria for regularity are not consistent across all Grand Lodges.

Antients and Moderns The first issue on regularity arose when in 1753 a rival group of Freemasons, which called themselves Antients, formed a rival Grand Lodge to the Premier Grand Lodge of England, the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of England, according to the Old Constitutions.[1] In 1756 Laurence Dermott (1720-1791) wrote a Constitution for the Antients, the Ahiman Rezon. Freemasons were known either as the Free and Accepted Masons (Moderns, Geomatic or Gentleman masons, Hanoverian), or Ancient Free and Accepted Masons (Antients or Athol Masons, Jacobite). Antients and Moderns did not recognize each other as freemasons. The conflict would last until 1813. On 27 December 1813 (day of Saint John the Evangelist), the Act of Union united the two Grand Lodges of Freemasons (Moderns and Antients), and formed the United Grand Lodge of England, which ended this conflict.

Regular Masonic jurisdictions GAOTU In 1813, upon the union of Antients and Moderns, the UGLE had created a new Constitution, based on the Constitution of Anderson of the Moderns and the Ahiman Rezon of the Antients, which required acceptance of the Great Architect of the Universe. The Grand Orient de France (GOdF) initially adapted its Constitution in order to comply. In 1877, however, on a proposal of the Protestant priest Frédéric Desmons at the convention of the GOdF, they removed references to the Great Architect of the Universe (GAOTU) from their Constitution.[2] The members of the convention saw their decision as a way to return to the original Constitution of James Anderson of 1723. The first two sentences of the constitution of the GOdF (in English translation) had been: "Its principles of Freemasonry are the existence of God, the immortality of the soul, and human solidarity. It considers liberty of conscience as an inherent right of each man and excludes no one because of his beliefs." These became: "Its principles are liberty of conscience and human solidarity. It excludes no one because of his beliefs.[3] This decision led to a schism between the Grand Orient de France and the United Grand Lodge of England (UGLE).[4] Since the great schism of 1877 freemasonry is divided in two branches, Continental style Freemasonry and Anglo Freemasonry. These two branches are not in mutual regular amity, since most English style lodges consider Continental style lodges to be irregular.[5] The Grand Orient de France (Grand Orients) and the United Grand Lodge of England (Grand Lodges) are the basic models for each variety of freemasonry.

35

Present
Home Grand Lodges -related jurisdictions The largest collection of mutually recognised Grand Lodges derives its regularity from one or more of the Home Grand Lodges (United Grand Lodge of England (UGLE), Grand Lodge of Scotland (GLoS) and Grand Lodge of Ireland (GLoI)) based on criteria known as "Basic Principles for Grand Lodge Recognition" which together they codified and published on 4 September 1929 (although not new - they had been developed and refined over at least the preceeding 150 years)[6] : • Regularity of origin is established by a duly recognised Grand Lodge or three or more regularly constituted Lodges. • A belief in the Great Architect of the Universe and his revealed will shall be an essential qualification for membership. • That all Initiates shall take their Obligation on or in full view of the open Volume of the Sacred Law, by which is meant the revelation from above which is binding on the conscience of the particular individual who is being initiated. • That the membership of the Grand Lodge and individual Lodges shall be composed entirely of men; and that each Grand Lodge shall have no Masonic intercourse of any kind with mixed Lodges or bodies which admit women to membership. • That the Grand Lodge shall have sovereign jurisdiction over Lodges under its control, i.e. that it shall be a responsible, independent, self-governing organisation, with sole and undisputed authority over the Craft or Symbolic degrees (Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft and Master Mason) within its Jurisdiction; and shall not in any way be subject to, or divide such authority with, a Supreme Council or any other power claiming any control or supervision over those degrees. • That the three Great Lights of Freemasonry (namely, the Volume of the Sacred Law, the Square, and the Compasses) shall always be exhibited when the Grand Lodge or its subordinate Lodges are at work, the chief of these being the Volume of the Sacred Law. • That the discussion of religion and politics within the Lodge shall be strictly prohibited.

Regular Masonic jurisdictions • That the principles of the Antient Landmarks, customs and usages of the Craft be strictly observed.[7] The first attempt to codify the governance of Masonry was by James Anderson in his Constitutions [8], published in 1723, and which contain a number of basic principles. Dr. Albert Mackey built on this in 1856, when he identified 25 Landmarks or characteristics of Masonry which have been widely adopted in America. UGLE considers itself to be the most ancient Grand Lodge in continuous existence as it was founded in 1717 by four pre-existent lodges, and no record exists of any earlier Lodge organisation styling itself as a national Grand Lodge. Three of the four original lodges still exist, namely UGLE lodges No 2, No 4, and No 12. Unusually, they function without the normal warrant, and also have some internal offices and regulations which differ slightly from UGLE constitutions. As they pre-date the foundation of the oldest grand lodge, and as their actual date of foundation is (in each case) unknown, these three lodges are referred to as being "time immemorial" lodges. Since 1717 other grand lodges have been founded, and the majority have sought recognition by UGLE, hence it has become the 'benchmark' of masonic regularity. "Continental" style jurisdictions The Continental style Grand Lodges and Grand Orients have created several organizations in order to organize their international relations, such as CLIPSAS, the International Secretariat of the Masonic Adogmatic Powers, and the International Masonic Union Catena. Other bodies predicate their assessment of regularity on the 8th decree of Anderson's Constitution; a Lodge is regular if it works in conformity to the rules of its granted constitutional patent. Grand Lodges certify regularity to their recognized Member Lodges and Grand Lodges with patents.

36

European Union
Belgium Several Grand Lodges are active in Belgium. The Regular Grand Loge of Belgium (R.G.L.B.) is currently the only Belgian Grand Lodge which is recognised as regular by UGLE and its concordant jurisdictions. The oldest Grand Lodge of Belgium, the Grand Orient of Belgium (G.O.B.) lost is recognition by the UGLE in the 19th century when it decided to remove the requirement for Masons to have a belief in a Supreme Being. In an attempt to regain recognition by the UGLE, five lodges from the GOB founded the Grand Lodge of Belgium (G.L.B.) in 1959. When in 1979 the G.L.B. also lost its recognition by UGLE, nine lodges founded the Regular Grand Loge of Belgium on 15 June 1979. England "Regular Freemasonry", when this term is not further defined, usually refers to the United Grand Lodge of England and its recognized jurisdictions. Since UGLE is considered to be not only the oldest, but also the largest grouping of lodges, UGLE recognition (or the lack thereof) is generally the barometer by which a jurisdiction is deemed regular. UGLE provides a list of recognised Grand Lodges on its website.[9] France There are no less than 12 national Grand Lodges operating in France. The Grande Loge Nationale Française (GLNF)[10] is currently the only French Grand Lodge that is recognised as regular by UGLE and its concordant jurisdictions. The Grand Orient de France (GOdF) was recognised by most Grand Lodges in the world until the middle of the 19th century, when the GOdF recognised an irregular and "unrecognised" Masonic organisation in Louisiana. [11] [12] This caused several US Grand Lodges to withdraw recognition from the GOdF. The final breaking point, however, came about due to a decision by the GOdF in 1877 to remove the requirement for Masons to have a belief in a Supreme Being. UGLE and most other Anglo-Saxon Grand Lodges suspended all relations with, and recognition of, the Grand Orient de France as a result. Slovakia In Slovakia is a Grand Lodge that called Veľká lóža Slovenska (Great Lodge of Slovakia) [13].

Regular Masonic jurisdictions

37

United States
In the United States each state has a Grand Lodge that supervises the lodges within that state and is sovereign and independent within that jurisdiction. The Grand Lodge of Masons in Massachusetts [14] was the first of these, founded in 1733, and also the third Grand Lodge ever formed around the world after England and Ireland. These are commonly referred to as the "regular" or "mainstream" Grand Lodges. There is no national Grand Lodge. All regular Grand Lodges in the US are in mutual amity with each other and with UGLE. In addition, most States also have a sovereign and independent Prince Hall Grand Lodge that is or was predominantly African-American. For many years the mainstream Grand Lodges did not recognize Prince Hall Freemasonry and considered them irregular. Within the last 20 years this situation has changed and today most mainstream Grand Lodges have come to recognize their Prince Hall counterparts and vice-versa. The few exceptions are in the former Confederate states (except Virginia, North Carolina, and Texas), as well as Kentucky and West Virginia,[15] where the mainstream Grand Lodges do not yet recognize their Prince Hall counterparts. Due to a 19th century argument and a resulting schism, not all Prince Hall Grand Lodges recognize each other, and generally the mainstream Grand Lodges have followed the lead of their Prince Hall counterparts when it comes to recognizing Prince Hall Grand Lodges in other states. UGLE has also granted recognition to Prince Hall Grand Lodges where they are recognised by their mainstream counterparts. Thus, in most of the States of the US, there are currently two recognized Grand Lodges, each recognizing the other but maintaining independence and sovereignty over their subordinate lodges. This condition (the presence of two recognized Grand Lodges in one geographical area) is uncommon. Traditionally recognition has been granted under the concept of "Exclusive Jurisdiction", meaning that only one Grand Lodge is recognized within any given Jurisdiction. Throughout the US there are also numerous bodies that claim to be Masonic Lodges and Grand Lodges, but which are not recognized as such by UGLE, the mainstream Grand Lodges, nor their Prince Hall counterparts. These are deemed to be irregular.

References
[1] Ancients and Moderns (http:/ / www. mastermason. org/ BrotherGene/ education/ ancients_and_moderns. htm) [2] Address to the 2002 California Masonic Symposium (http:/ / www. calodges. org/ no406/ FRANC-OR. HTM) [3] The Grand Orient of France and the three great lights (http:/ / www. masonicworld. com/ education/ files/ artmay01/ grande_lodge_of_france. htm) [4] W.Bro. Alain Bernheim 33° - The history of the present Grand Lodge of France revisited (http:/ / www. freemasons-freemasonry. com/ bernheim10. html) [5] Address to the 2002 California Masonic Symposium (http:/ / www. calodges. org/ no406/ FRANC-OR. HTM) [6] http:/ / www. ugle. org. uk/ static/ news/ european-speech. htm [7] Regular Freemasonry, UGLE (http:/ / www. grandlodge-england. org/ masonry/ regular-freemasonry-and-public-affairs. htm) Accessed 17 June 2006 [8] http:/ / digitalcommons. unl. edu/ cgi/ viewcontent. cgi?article=1028& context=libraryscience [9] The United Grand Lodge of England - Home Page (http:/ / www. grandlodge-england. org/ provinces/ olodges/ olodges. htm) [10] Website of the Grande Loge Nationale Francaise (http:/ / www. grandelogenationalefrancaise. com/ ), accessed 27 February 2006, no English version. [11] The Early Years of the Grand Consistory of Louisiana (1811-1815) (http:/ / www. scottishrite. org/ web/ heredom-files/ volume8/ early-years-of-grand-consistory. htm) [12] "U.S. Recognition of French Grand Lodges in the 1900s" (http:/ / bessel. org/ masrec/ france. htm) published in Heredom: The Transactions of the Scottish Rite Research Society -- volume 5, 1996, pages 221-244. [13] http:/ / www. vls. sk/ [14] http:/ / www. massfreemasonry. org/ [15] "Prince Hall Recognition Map" (http:/ / bessel. org/ masrec/ phamap. htm). Accessed 14 March 2007.

Regular Masonic jurisdictions

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External links
• Regularity and Recognition (http://www.freemasons-freemasonry.com/popefr.html) by Tony Pope, editor of the Australian & New Zealand Masonic Research Council's publications.

Lodge Mother Kilwinning
Lodge Mother Kilwinning is a Masonic Lodge in Kilwinning, Scotland under the auspices of the Grand Lodge of Scotland. It is number 0 on the Roll, and is reputed to be the oldest Lodge not only in Scotland, but the world. It is thus styled The Mother Lodge of Scotland attributing its origins to the 12th Century, and is often called Mother Kilwinning.[1]

History
Legend has it that Kilwinning Abbey was built by stonemasons who had travelled from Europe and established a lodge there.. In 1599 William Schaw introduced the Second Schaw Statutes which specified that "ye warden of ye lug of Kilwynning" to "tak tryall of ye airt of memorie and science yrof, of everie fellowe of craft and everie prenteiss according to ayr of yr vocations".[2] As early as the reign of James II, the lodge at Kilwinning was granting warrants for the formation of lodges elsewhere in Building in which Kilwinning Lodge meets Scotland such as, for example, Canongate Kilwinning, Greenock Kilwinning, and Cumberland Kilwinning. In 1736, the Grand Lodge of Scotland was organised and the Kilwinning lodge was one of its constituent lodges. That same year, it petitioned to be recognized as the oldest lodge in Scotland. However, as has happened so many times over Freemasonry's long history, the lodge's original records had been lost and the claim could not be proven. The petition was therefore rejected, wherefore Kilwinning seceded and again acted as a grand lodge, organising lodges in Scotland and on the continent, as well as in Virginia and Ireland. In 1807 Kilwinning "came once more into the bosom of the Grand Loge, bringing with her all of her daughter Lodges."[3]

Provincial Grand Lodge of Kilwinning
Tradition demanded that whoever held the Mastery of the Mother Lodge would also be Provincial Grand Master of Ayrshire. As a result, many members transferred from other Lodges to Kilwinning. In 1983 this was changed; Mother Kilwinning was removed from the Province of Ayrshire and became subordinate to the Provincial Grand Lodge of Kilwinning. In consequence, the Lodge sends a representative to the Grand Lodge of Scotland to act as Grand Bible Bearer.

Lodge Mother Kilwinning

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Degrees
The lodge awards the three degrees of Craft Freemasonry, namely: • Entered Apprentice • Fellowcraft • Master Mason In keeping with the Scottish tradition the lodge also awards the Mark Degree which, whilst a completion of the Fellowcraft, is awarded after the Master Mason degree.

Mother Lodge Museum
The Mother Lodge Museum features Masonic artefacts and regalia, including medals, seals, decorative items, photographs and documents.[4] Visits must be arranged ahead, and visitors can also tour the historic Lodge building.

References
[1] Tailby, S.R.; Young, Hugh (1944), A brief history of Lodge Mother Kilwinning No. 0. (http:/ / web. mit. edu/ dryfoo/ www/ Masonry/ Reports/ kilw. html), , retrieved 2007-03-30 [2] Second Schaw Statutes (http:/ / www. southchurch. mesh4us. org. uk/ pdf/ important/ secondschawstatute. pdf), 1599 [3] Albert G. Mackey, Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, Vol. 1. The Masonic History Company, Chicago: 1946. [4] Mother Lodge Museum, Kilwinning Heritage (http:/ / www. kilwinning. org/ motherlodge/ museum. htm)

External links
• Official website (http://http://www.mk0.com/)

United Grand Lodge of England

40

United Grand Lodge of England
UGLElogo.png Arms of the United Grand Lodge of England United Grand Lodge of England Established Jurisdiction Location 1717 England London

 England
Website ugle.org.uk

[1]

The United Grand Lodge of England (UGLE) is the main governing body of freemasonry within England and Wales and in other, predominantly ex-British Empire and Commonwealth countries outside the United Kingdom. It is the oldest Grand Lodge in the world, deriving its origin from 1717.[2] Together with the Grand Lodge of Ireland and the Grand Lodge of Scotland they are often referred to, by their members, as “the home Grand Lodges" or "the Home Constitutions".

History
On 24 June 1717, four London lodges came together at the Goose and Gridiron Ale House, St Paul’s Churchyard and formed themselves into a Grand Lodge for the purposes of an annual dinner.[2] Anthony Sayer was elected as the first Grand Master, in 1718 succeeded by George Payne. In 1721, under the Duke of Freemasons' Hall, London, the headquarters of The Montagu as Grand Master, the Grand Lodge established itself as a UGLE. regulatory body over the craft in England and began meeting on a quarterly basis. Prior to 1717 there was evidence of Freemasons entering in both England and Scotland with the earliest being in Scotland.[2] Thomas Thynne, 2nd Viscount Weymouth, was Grand Master in 1735-36.[3] The City of London Corporation has erected a Blue Plaque near the location of the original Inn. The Constitutions of Masonry[4] were published, by James Anderson, in 1723 for the purposes of regulating the craft and establishing the authority for Lodges to meet. The creation of Lodges followed the development of the Empire with the three home Grand Lodges warranting Lodges around the world, including the Americas, India and Africa, from the 1730s. Throughout the early years of the new Grand Lodge there were any number of Masons and lodges that never affiliated with the new Grand Lodge. These unaffiliated Masons and their Lodges were referred to as "Old Masons," or "St. John Masons, and "St. John Lodges".[5] During the 1730s and 1740s antipathy increased between the London Grand Lodge and the Grand Lodges of Ireland and Scotland. Irish and Scots Masons visiting and living in London considered the London Grand Lodge to have considerably deviated from the ancient practices of the Craft. As a result, these Masons felt a stronger kinship with the unaffiliated London Lodges. The aristocratic nature of the London Grand Lodge and its members alienated other Masons of the City causing them also to identify with the unaffiliated Lodges.[6]

United Grand Lodge of England On 17 July 1751, representatives of five Lodges gathered at the Turk's Head Tavern, in Greek Street, Soho, London forming a rival Grand Lodge - "The Grand Lodge of England According to the Old Institutions". They believed that they practiced a more ancient and therefore purer form of Masonry, and called their Grand Lodge The Ancients' Grand Lodge. They called those affiliated to the Premier Grand Lodge, by the pejorative epithet The Moderns. These two unofficial names stuck.[7] An illustration of how deep the division was between the two factions is the case of Benjamin Franklin who was a member of a Moderns' Lodge in Philadelphia. Upon returning from France, it transpired that his Lodge had changed to (and had received a new warrant from) the Ancients Grand Lodge; no longer recognizing him and declining to give him "Masonic Honours" at his funeral.[8] In 1809 the two Grand Lodges appointed Commissioners to negotiate an equable Union. Over a period of four years the articles of Union were negotiated and agreed and a ritual developed reconciling those worked by the two Grand Lodges. On 27 December 1813 a ceremony was held at Freemasons' Hall, London forming the United Grand Lodge of England with HRH the Duke of Sussex (younger son of King George III) as the Grand Master. The combined ritual was termed the Emulation Ritual and adopted as a standard ritual by UGLE, although other rituals continue to be used in many lodges.

41

Current position
Today, the United Grand Lodge of England or Grand Lodge is organised into a number of subordinate lodges. The Provincial Grand Lodges are approximately equivalent to the historic counties of England. These form the local administration of the organisation. In London it is known as a Metropolitan Grand Lodge. Overseas jurisdictions that are controlled by Grand Lodge are organised into District Grand Lodges. There are a small number of lodges that are ungrouped and are administered directly from Grand Lodge.

Grand Masters
• • • • • • • • • • Prince Augustus, Duke of Sussex (1813–1843) Thomas Dundas, 2nd Earl of Zetland (1844–1870) George Robinson, 3rd Earl de Grey and 2nd Earl of Ripon (1st Marquess of Ripon from 1871) (1870–1874) Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (1874–1901) Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (1901–1939) Prince George, Duke of Kent (1939–1942) Henry Lascelles, 6th Earl of Harewood (1942–1947) Edward Cavendish, 10th Duke of Devonshire (1947–1950) Lawrence Lumley, 11th Earl of Scarbrough (1951–1967) Prince Edward, Duke of Kent (1968–present)

United Grand Lodge of England

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Notes
[1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. ugle. org. uk "UGLE" (http:/ / www. ugle. org. uk/ static/ ugle/ the-history-of-grand-lodge. htm). . Retrieved 2010-05-31. Thomas Thynne, 2nd Viscount Weymouth (http:/ / www. thepeerage. com/ p2412. htm#i24113), thepeerage.com "Anderson's Constitutions" (http:/ / www. 2be1ask1. com/ library/ anderson. html). . Retrieved 2010-05-31., "Introduction to Anderson Constitution of 1723, By bro. Lionel Vibert" (http:/ / www. themasonictrowel. com/ Articles/ Manuscripts/ manuscripts/ anderson_intro. htm). . Retrieved 2010-05-31. Coil, Henry W. (1961). Two articles: "England, Grand Lodge of, According to the Old Institutions," pp. 237-240; and "Saints John," pp. 589-590. Coil's Masonic Encyclopedia. (rev. ed. 1996). Richmond, Va: Macoy Publ. & Masonic Supply Co. Inc. Jones, Bernard E. (1950). Freemasons' Guide and Compendium, (rev. ed. 1956) London: Harrap Ltd. Batham, Cyril N. (1981). "The Grand Lodge of England According to the Old Institutions, otherwise known as The Grand Lodge of the Antients." The Collected Prestonian Lectures, 1975-1987, Vol. Three. London (1988): Lewis Masonic. Revolutionary Brotherhood, by Steven C. Bullock, Univ. N. Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 1996

[5] [6] [7] [8]

Prince Hall Freemasonry
Prince Hall Freemasonry derives from historical events which led to a tradition of separate, predominantly African-American, Freemasonic fraternal organization in North America. It is considered regular by the United Grand Lodge of England.[1]

History
On March 6, 1775, an African American named Prince Hall was made a Master Mason in Irish Constitution Military Lodge No. 441, along with fourteen other African Americans: Cyrus Johnston, Bueston Slinger, Prince Rees, John Canton, Peter Freeman, Benjamin Tiler, Duff Ruform, Thomas Santerson, Prince Rayden, Cato Speain, Boston Smith, Peter Best, Forten Horward, and Richard Titley, all of whom apparently were free by birth. When the Military Lodge left the area, the African Americans were given the authority to meet as a Lodge, form Processions on the days of the Saints John, and conduct Masonic funerals, but not to confer degrees nor to do other Masonic work. These individuals applied for and obtained a Warrant for Charter from the Grand Lodge of England in 1784 and formed African Lodge #459. Despite being stricken from the rolls (like all American Grand Lodges were after the 1813 merger of the Antients and the Moderns), the Lodge restyled itself as African Lodge #1 (not to be confused with the Prince Hall's grave in Copp's Hill Burying various Grand Lodges on the Continent of Africa), and separated itself Ground, Boston. from United Grand Lodge of England-recognized Masonry. This led to a tradition of separate, predominantly African American jurisdictions in North America, which are known collectively as Prince Hall Freemasonry. Widespread racism and segregation in North America made it impossible for African Americans to join many mainstream lodges, and many mainstream Grand Lodges in North America refused to recognize as legitimate the Prince Hall Lodges and Prince Hall Masons in their territory. For many years both Prince Hall and "mainstream" Grand Lodges have had integrated membership, though in some Southern states this has been policy but not practice. Today, Prince Hall Lodges are recognized by the Grand Lodge of England (UGLE) as well as the great majority of state Grand Lodges in the US and many international Grand Lodges. While no Grand Lodge of any kind is universally recognized, at present, Prince Hall Masonry is recognized by some UGLE-recognized Grand Lodges and not by others, but appears to be working its way toward further

Prince Hall Freemasonry recognition.[2] According to data compiled in 2008, 41 out of the 51 mainstream US Grand Lodges recognize Prince Hall Grand Lodges.[3]

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Notable members
There are many notable Masons who were affiliated with Prince Hall originated Grand Lodges. Among the first Grand Masters, Prince Hall African Lodge #459: • Prince Hall, Boston, Massachusetts, Grand Master 1791-1807 • Nero Prince, Boston, Massachusetts, Grand Master 1808 • George Middleton, Boston, Massachusetts, Grand Master 1809-1810. Commander, Bucks of America, a unit of black soldiers during the American Revolution. The unit received a flag from Governor John Hancock for its faithful service. Middleton was also a founder of the African Benevolent Society. • Peter Lew, Dracut, Massachusetts, Grand Master 1811-1816, son of Barzillai Lew • Sampson H. Moody, Grand Master 1817-1825 • John T. Hilton, Grand Master 1826-1827 • Walker Lewis, Lowell, Massachusetts, Grand Master 1829-1830 • Thomas Dalton, Boston, Massachusetts, Grand Master 1831-1832, son-in-law of Barzillai Lew

References
[1] (http:/ / bessel. org/ masrec/ phaugle. htm) "Report From The United Grand Lodge of England Prince Hall Masonry and the Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Massachusetts"] Accessed March 26, 2008. [2] "Who is Prince Hall?" (http:/ / www. mindspring. com/ ~johnsonx/ whoisph. htm), accessed on 9 February 2006. [3] "Prince Hall Masonry Recognition details: Map of U.S. Recognition Status" (http:/ / bessel. org/ masrec/ phamap. htm). Bessel.org. 2008-10-25. . Retrieved 2008-11-02.

• Roundtree, Alton G., and Paul M. Bessel (2006).  Out of the Shadows: Prince Hall Freemasonry in America, 200 Years of Endurance.  Forestville MD: KLR Publishing

External links
• Prince Hall Freemasonry (http://freemasonry.bcy.ca/prince_hall/) • Prince Hall Freemasonry, Phylaxis Society (http://www.freemasonry.org/phylaxis/prince_hall.htm) • Prince Hall Revisited (http://www.freemasons-freemasonry.com/popefr.html) by Tony Pope, editor of the Australian & New Zealand Masonic Research Council's publications. • The Black Heritage Trail The George Middleton House Boston African-American National Historic Site (http:// www.nps.gov/boaf/georgemiddleton.htm) • Museum of Afro-American History website George Middleton house and has photo of Bucks of America flag-for reference only} (http://www.afroammuseum.org/site2.htm) • Some Famous Prince Hall Freemasons (http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http://www.geocities.com/ TimesSquare/1914/famous.html&date=2009-10-25+11:23:12) • Famous Prince Hall Freemasons (http://www.phaohio.org/mwphgloh/likfm.html)

Hiram Abiff

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Hiram Abiff
Hiram Abiff (other spellings "Hurum"[1] , "Abif"[2] [3] , and "Huram-Abi"[4] ) is a character who figures prominently in an allegorical[5] play that is presented during the third degree of Craft Freemasonry. In this play, Hiram is presented as being the chief architect of King Solomon's Temple, who is murdered by three ruffians during an unsuccessful attempt to force him to divulge the Master Masons' secret password.[6] It is explained in the lecture that follows this play that the story is a lesson in fidelity to one's word, and in the brevity of life. Numerous scholars, both Masonic and non-Masonic, have speculated that the character may have been based upon one or more Hirams that appear in the Bible.[7]

Hirams in the Bible
The name "Hiram Abiff" does not appear as such in the Bible, but there are three references to people named Hiram that are present: • Hiram, King of Tyre, is credited in 2 Samuel 5:11 and 1 Kings 5:1-10 for having sent building materials and men for the original construction of the Temple in Jerusalem; the Masonic drama separate character named "Hiram, King of Tyre" is not likely an alias of "Hiram Abiff" as the former is clearly a king and the latter clearly a master craftsman, but they are often confused.[8] • In 1 Kings 7:13–14, Hiram is described as the son of a widow from the tribe of Naphtali who was the son of a Tyrian bronze worker, contracted by Solomon to cast the bronze furnishings and ornate decorations for the new temple. From this reference, Freemasons often refer to Hiram (with the added Abiff) as "the widow's son." Hiram lived or at least temporarily worked in clay banks (1 Kings 7:46-47) in the plain of the Jordan between Succoth and Zarethan/Zeredathah. • Hiram (often spelled Huram[1] ), a craftsman of great skill sent from Tyre. 2 Chronicles 2:13-14 relates a formal request from King Solomon of Jerusalem to King Hiram I of Tyre, for workers and for materials to build a new temple; King Hiram responds "And now I have sent a skillful man, endowed with understanding, Huram my master craftsman (the son of a woman of the daughters of Dan, and his father was a man of Tyre), skilled to work in gold and silver, bronze and iron, stone and wood, purple and blue, fine linen and crimson, and to make any engraving and to accomplish any plan which may be given to him, with your skillful men and with the skillful men of my lord David your father."[9] In the original Hebrew version of 2 Chronicles 2:13, the phrase translated above as "Huram my master craftsman" is "ḤWRM 'BY" Ḥiram 'abi.[10] Note that the translation "Hiram my master craftsman" occurs only in the New King James Version. In other versions, "abi" is translated most often as "father", sometimes "master," or else "Hiram Abi" is left untranslated as a proper name.[10] Peake's Commentary on the Bible, referring to Chronicles II-13, simply states "Huram-abi: RSV correctly reads this as the full name," and the English Standard Version gives the same translation "Huram-Abi" rather than "Huram my master...". Some say that the word "Abiff" may have arisen by misunderstanding Hebrew ‫וׅבָא‬ 'āvīw = "his father".

Hiram Abiff

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Other accounts of a Biblical Hiram
Flavius Josephus in his Antiquities of the Jews (Chapter 3:76) refers to Hiram as an Artificer. "Now Solomon sent for an artificer out of Tyre, whose name was Hiram: he was by birth of the tribe of Naphtali, on his mother's side (for she was of that tribe); but his father was Ur, of the stock of the Israelites."

Other theories
According to authors Robert Lomas and Christopher Knight, Hiram Abiff would have been Egyptian king Seqenenre Tao II, who met an extremely similar death.[2] This idea is dismissed by most Masonic scholars. In his book The Sufis, the Afghan scholar Idries Shah suggested that Mansur al-Hallaj might have been the origin of the character Hiram Abiff in the Freemasonic Master Mason ritual. The link, he believes, was through the Sufi sect Al-Banna ("The Builders") who built the Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. This fraternity could have influenced some early masonic guilds which borrowed heavily from the Oriental architecture in the creation of the Gothic style.

Notes
[1] "Huram" in the following translations: King James Version, American Standard Version, Bible in Basic English, Darby, Noah Webster, World English, Young's Literal. Source: (http:/ / www. hebrewoldtestament. com/ B14C002. htm#V13) [2] Lomas, Robert and Chris Knight. The Hiram Key. Arrow Books LTD, 1997 [3] http:/ / yorkrite. com/ degrees/ #2 [4] http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=2%20Chronicles%202& version=NIV [5] Emulation Lodge Of Improvement (2007). Emulation Ritual. London: Lewis Masonic. ISBN 0-8531-8244-2. [6] Samuel Pritchard, "Masonry Dissected" (1730), in D. Knoop, G.P. Jones & D. Hamer, The Early Masonic Catechisms, Manchester University Press, 1963. [7] * Hiram Abiff and the ever-dying gods (http:/ / www. oztorah. com/ 2010/ 01/ hiram-abiff-the-ever-dying-gods/ ) - Discovery Lodge of Research, Sydney [8] 1 Kings 5 & 7:13-46 http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=1%20Kings%205,7:13-46& version=NIV and 2 Chronicles 2:1-14 & 4:11-16 http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=2%20Chronicles%202:1-14,4:11-16& version=NIV [9] 2 Chronicles 2:13-14, New King James Version - From BibleGateway.com (http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?book_id=14& chapter=2& version=50) [10] (http:/ / www. hebrewoldtestament. com/ B14C002. htm#V13)

Additional References
• de Hoyos, Arturo; Morris, S. Brent (2004). Freemasonry in Context: History, Ritual, Controversy. Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books. ISBN 0-7391-0781-X. • Strong, James (1990). Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible. Thomas Nelson Publishers. ISBN 0-8407-6750-1.

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Organization of Freemasonry
Masonic Lodge
This article is about the Masonic term for a membership group. For buildings named Masonic Lodge, see Masonic Lodge (disambiguation) A Masonic Lodge, often termed a Private Lodge or Constituent Lodge in Books of Constitutions, is the basic organisation of Freemasonry. Every new Lodge must be warranted or chartered by a Grand Lodge, but is subject to its direction only in enforcing the published Constitution of the jurisdiction. By exception the three surviving lodges that formed the world's first known Grand Lodge in London (today called the United Grand Lodge of England) have the unique privilege to operate as time immemorial i.e. without such warrant; only one other lodge operates without a warrant - this is the Grand Stewards' Lodge in London, although it is not also entitled to the "time immemorial" title.[1] A Freemason is generally entitled to visit any Lodge, in any jurisdiction (i.e. under any Grand Lodge) in amity with his own. In some jurisdictions this privilege is restricted to Master Masons (that is, Freemasons who have attained the Order's third degree). He is first usually required to check, and certify, the regularity of the relationship of the Lodge - and be able to satisfy that Lodge of his regularity of membership. Freemasons gather together as a Lodge to work the three basic Degrees of Entered Apprentice, Fellowcraft and Master Mason.

Types
Freemasons meet as a Lodge not in a Lodge, although Masonic premises may be called Lodges, as well as Temples ("of Philosophy and the Arts"). In many countries Masonic Centre or Hall has now replaced these terms to avoid arousing prejudice and suspicion. Several different Lodges, or other Masonic organisations, often use the same premises at different times. Blue Lodges, Craft Lodges or Ancient Craft Lodges refer to the lodges that work the first three Masonic degrees, rather than the appendant Masonic orders such as York Rite and Scottish Rite. The term "Craft Lodge" is used in Great Britain. The Blue Lodge is said to refer to the traditional colour of regalia in Lodges derived from English or Irish Freemasonry. Although the term was originally frowned upon, it has gained widespread and mainstream usage in America in recent times.[2] Research Lodges have the purpose of furthering Masonic scholarship. Quatuor Coronati Lodge is an example of a Research Lodge; it has a strictly limited membership and receives visitors and papers from all over the world. Many jurisdictions have well-established Research Lodges, which usually meet less frequently than Blue Lodges and do not confer degrees. In Great Britain, a Lodge of Instruction may be associated with a Lodge, but is not constituted separately. The Lodge of Instruction provides the Officers and those who wish to become Officers an opportunity to rehearse ritual under the guidance of an experienced brother; there may also be lectures around the ritual and the symbolism in the lodge within a Lodge of Instruction, in order to develop the knowledge and understanding of the membership. In some jurisdictions in the United States, the Lodge of Instruction serves as a warranted lodge for candidate instruction in other aspects of Freemasonry besides ritual rehearsal, as well as hosting a speaker on topics both Masonic and non-Masonic. In Great Britain, the term Mother Lodge is used to identify the particular Lodge where the individual was first "made a Mason" (i.e. received his Entered Apprentice degree). 'Mother Lodge' may also refer to a Lodge which sponsors the creation of a new Lodge, the Daughter Lodge, to be warranted under the jurisdiction of the same Grand

Masonic Lodge Lodge; specific procedures pertaining to this vary throughout history and in different jurisdictions. Lodge Mother Kilwinning No 0 in the Grand Lodge of Scotland is known as the Mother Lodge of Scotland, having been referred to in the Schaw Statutes of 1598 and 1599, and having itself warranted other Lodges at a time when it did not subscribe to a Grand Lodge.

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Organization
Lodges are governed by national, state or provincial authorities, usually called Grand Lodges or Grand Orients, whose published constitutions define the structure of freemasonry under their authority, and which appoint Grand Officers from their senior masons. Provincial Grand Lodges (which in England generally correspond to historic counties) exercise an intermediate authority, and also appoint Provincial Grand Officers. Different Grand Lodges and their regions show subtleties of tradition and variation in the degrees and practice; for example under the Grand Lodge of Scotland, the Mark Degree (which is unrecognised by the United Grand Lodge of England, but has a separate Mark Grand Lodge) is integrated into "The Craft" as a completion of the second degree. In any case, Grand Lodges have limited jurisdiction over their member Lodges, and where there is no prescribed ritual Lodges may thus have considerable freedom of practice. Despite these minor differences, fraternal relations exist between Lodges of corresponding degrees under different Grand Lodges.

Membership
After a Lodge elects or approves a candidate in accordance with the requirements of its Grand Lodge, it will decide whether to give the candidate each degree in order. Generally speaking those who have only received the Entered Apprentice degree are considered Freemasons, but hold limited privileges until they attain the Master Mason degree; under UGLE only a Master Mason will receive a Grand Lodge certificate, which may be demanded by any other Lodge he wishes to visit. Master Masons are considered full lifetime members of the Lodge where they received their degrees, unless they are "dropped from the rolls" due to violations such as non-payment of dues, or if they resign, usually for personal reasons or to join another Lodge in those jurisdictions where multiple membership is not permitted. A Mason may be expelled from his Lodge and Freemasonry in general if convicted of particularly serious violations of Civil or Masonic law. A Master Mason "in good standing" (i.e. whose dues are current and who is not subject to Masonic investigation or discipline) may join another regular Lodge; he need not take his degrees again, but may be expected to serve the new Lodge in office. If a Master Mason is dropped from the rolls for non-payment of dues, under most circumstances he may be immediately reinstated in good standing simply by paying his current dues as well as any back dues owed, although in many jurisdictions there is a requirement to ballot for re-admission. Many Grand Lodges permit Master Masons to be "plural affiliates," or members of more than one Lodge simultaneously. In some jurisdictions plural affiliates are prohibited from serving as an elected officer of more than one Lodge at any given time. These rules are different for Freemasons of the Entered Apprentice and Fellowcraft Degrees. In some Grand Lodges an Entered Apprentice or Fellowcraft may not receive a demit, but may join another Lodge with the intent of earning the Master Mason Degree with the consent of his original Lodge.

Masonic Lodge

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Officers
The names, roles and numbers of Lodge officers vary widely from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. In most cases, there is an equivalent office in the Grand Lodge of the given jurisdiction, with the addition of the prefix 'Grand' to the title in question. There are certain 'progressive' offices through which members move by a process of effective promotion, but also other more permanent offices, usually held by experienced members.

References
[1] ...the premier Grand Lodge was established on 24 June 1717, St John’s Day, when a feast was held at the Goose and Gridiron Ale House in St Paul’s Churchyard.

The four Lodges involved met at the Goose and Gridiron, the Crown Ale House in Parkers Lane (near the present building in Great Queen Street), The Apple Tree Tavern in Charles Street, Covent Garden and the Runner and Grapes Tavern in Channel Row, Westminster. Three still survive and are now known as Lodge of Antiquity No 2, Fortitude and Old Cumberland Lodge No 12 (originally No 3) and Royal Somerset House and Inverness Lodge No IV. These are known as “time immemorial lodges” the only lodges within the English constitution, with this distinction. They, together with Grand Stewards’ Lodge, have the ability to operate without a warrant. "Introduction" (http://grandstewards.org/History.aspx). .
[2] Mackey's Encyclopedia of Freemasonry (http:/ / www. freemasons-freemasonry. com/ encyclopedia_freemasonry. html)

Masonic Lodge Officers
This article relates to mainstream Craft Freemasonry, sometimes known as Blue Lodge Freemasonry. Every Masonic Lodge elects or appoints Masonic Lodge Officers to execute the necessary functions of the lodge's life and work. The precise list of such offices may vary between the jurisdictions of different Grand Lodges, although certain factors are common to all, and others are usual in most. All of the lodges in a given nation, state, or region are united under the authority of a Grand Lodge sovereign to its own jurisdiction. Most of the lodge offices listed below have equivalent offices in the Grand Lodge, but with the addition of the word "Grand" somewhere in the title. For example, every lodge has an officer called the "Junior Warden", whilst the Grand Lodge has a "Grand Junior Warden" (sometimes "Junior Grand Warden"). A very small number of offices may exist only at the Grand Lodge level - such offices are included at the end of this article. There are few universal rules common to all Grand Lodge jurisdictions of Freemasonry (see Masonic Landmarks for accepted universal principles of regular Freemasonry). However, the structure of the progressive offices is very nearly universal. While the precise hierarchy or order of various officers within the "line" of officers may vary, the usual progression is for a lodge officer to spend either one or two years in each position, advancing through "the chairs", until he elected as Worshipful Master. In addition, there are some offices that are traditionally not considered to be part of the "line", and which may be held by the same brother for many years, or be held by Past Masters.

Masonic Lodge Officers

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Offices common to all Masonic jurisdictions
Worshipful Master
The senior officer of a Masonic Lodge is the Master, normally addressed and referred to as the "Worshipful Master" (in Scotland, and in Lodges under the Scottish Constitution, the "Right Worshipful Master"). The Worshipful Master sits in the East of the lodge room, directs all of the business of his lodge, and is vested with considerable powers without further reference to the members. He also presides over ritual and ceremonies. The office of Worshipful Master is the highest honor to which a lodge may appoint any of its members. The office is filled by election, generally by means of a secret ballot. However, in most lodges the progression is such that the post will almost always be filled by the previous year's Senior Warden. It should be noted that the honorific Worshipful does not imply that the Master is worshiped. Rather, use of the word implies its original meaning, "to give respect", similar to calling a judge "Your Honor" or a mayor "Honorable". In fact, mayors and judges in parts of England are still called "Worshipful" or "Your Worship." French Masons use the word Vénérable as the honorific for their Masters. At the conclusion of his term of office, a Worshipful Master becomes known as a Past Master. The duties and privileges of Past Masters vary from lodge to lodge and jurisdiction to jurisdiction. For example, in some jurisdictions Past Masters are considered voting members of the Grand Lodge, while in others they are not. In most jurisdictions, a Past Master continues to be addressed with the honorific "Worshipful" (as in "Worshipful Brother Smith"), however there are a few jurisdictions where this honorific is used exclusively for sitting Masters. The corresponding grand rank is Grand Master. The Grand Master may preside over his Grand Lodge when it is in session, and also has certain rights in every lodge under his jurisdiction. Grand Masters are usually addressed as "Most Worshipful".

Senior Warden
The Senior Warden (sometimes known as First Warden) is the second of the three principal officers of a lodge, and is the Master's principal deputy. Under some constitutions, if the Worshipful Master is absent then the Senior Warden presides at meetings as "acting Master", and may act for the Master in all matters of lodge business. Under other constitutions, including Grand Lodge of England and Grand Lodge of Ireland, only sitting Masters or Past Masters may preside as "acting Master", and so the Senior Warden cannot fulfill this role unless he is also a Past Master. In many lodges it is presumed that the Senior Warden will become the next Worshipful Master.

Junior Warden
The third of the principal officers is the Junior Warden (or Second Warden). The Junior Warden is charged with the supervision of the Lodge while it is in recess for meals or other social purposes. In some jurisdictions the Junior Warden has a particular responsibility for ensuring that visiting Masons are in possession of the necessary credentials. In others, this is the job of the Tyler. In some jurisdictions the Junior Warden presides if both the Master and the Senior Warden are absent. The Wardens are regular officers of the Lodge, meaning that the positions must be filled.

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Treasurer
The role of the Treasurer is to keep the accounts, collect annual dues from the members, pay bills, and forward annual dues to the Grand Lodge. The annual presentation of accounts is an important measure of the lodge's continuing viability, whilst the efficient collection of annual subscriptions is vitally important, as any lapse in payment (deliberate or unintentional) can lead to a member losing voting rights, being denied the opportunity to visit other lodges, and finally even being debarred or excluded from his own lodge. It is common for the Treasurer to be an experienced Past Master, but this is not required.

Secretary
The Secretary's official duties include issuing the summons (a formal notice of an impending meeting, with time, date and agenda), recording meeting minutes, completing statistical returns to the Grand Lodge, and advising the Worshipful Master on matters of procedure. Many individual lodge bylaws add to these duties by mandating, for example, that the Secretary serve on specific committees. Although any member may hold the office of Secretary, it is typically held by an experienced Past Master.

Deacons
A Deacon is a junior officer in the lodge. In most jurisdictions, a lodge has two Deacons, styled Senior Deacon and Junior Deacon (though First Deacon and Second Deacon are sometimes encountered as an alternative.) The principal duties of the Senior Deacon are to conduct candidates around the Lodge and speak for them during certain ceremonies, to assist the Worshipful Master as needed and to carry messages between the Master and the Senior Warden. The office of Junior Deacon is similar in many respects to that of Senior Deacon. The principal duties of the Junior Deacon are to assist the Senior Warden, and carry messages between the two Wardens. In some jurisdictions he is also responsible for guarding the inside of the main door of the lodge and ensuring that the lodge is "tyled" (in other jurisdictions this duty is given to the Inner Guard or Inside Sentinel or Pursuivant).

Stewards
Stewards fulfill a number of junior assistant roles. There is considerable variance, even within the same jurisdiction, as to the precise roles played by Stewards. Some of their common duties could include the following: • Stewards are often tasked with an understudy role to fill the position of the Senior Deacon or Junior Deacons, in their absence. • When a degree ceremony is performed, one or more Steward(s) may be required to assist the two Deacons in conducting the candidates around the temple. • Stewards have a traditional role in many jurisdictions of serving wine during any meal served after the lodge meeting. This is often extended to a general supervision and planning of catering and refreshments. Some jurisdictions specify that each lodge has two Stewards, known as the 'Senior Steward' and 'Junior Steward'. Other jurisdictions put no limit on the number of Stewards who may be appointed, and in this respect the office is unique. The Worshipful Master may appoint any number of Stewards, according to the size and requirements of his lodge. These additional stewards are commonly given the title of 'Associate Steward.' Although newer members usually fill the office of Steward, in some lodges it is traditional for a Past Master to be appointed to supervise the work of the Stewards.

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Tyler
Main article at Tyler (Masonic). The 'Tyler' is sometimes known as the 'Outer Guard' of the lodge. His duty is to guard the door (from the outside), with a drawn sword, and ensure that only those who are duly qualified manage to gain entry into the lodge meeting. In some jurisdictions, he also prepares candidates for their admission. The Tyler is traditionally responsible for preparing the lodge room before the meeting, and for storing and maintaining the regalia after the meeting, In some Jurisdictions the Tyler is a Past Master of the Lodge while in others he may be an employed brother from another lodge.

Officers found in some jurisdictions and not in others
There are many officers that are found in some jurisdictions and not in others. Depending on the jurisdiction, some are "progressive" others are not. The more common ones include:

Inner Guard or Inside Sentinel
The office of 'Inner Guard' (or Inside Sentinel) is common to UK lodges, but is rare in American lodges. This position is commonly assigned to a fairly junior member, as it provides an opportunity for him to observe ceremonies and learn. The task of guarding the door is shared with the 'Tyler' (see above). The Inner Guard is on the inside of the door, and in some jurisdictions is armed with a poignard, or short dagger. In those jurisdictions which do not appoint an Inner Guard (and even in some that do), this duty is given to the Junior Deacon (see above).

Chaplain
In most Masonic jurisdictions, each lodge will have a 'Chaplain'. The principal duty of the Chaplain is to lead prayer before and after the lodge meeting, and to say grace while the lodge is at dinner. In many lodges this position is filled by a clergyman (an ordained minister, priest, rabbi, imam, etc.) who is a brother of the lodge. However, it is not required that the Chaplain be a clergyman, as prayers are non-denominational. In some lodges the tradition is for the immediate Past Master to act as Chaplain.

Director of Ceremonies / Ritualist
The title 'Director of Ceremonies' is used in the United Grand Lodge of England and its subordinate lodges, as well as in many other jurisdictions. However, other titles found in other jurisdictions include, 'Lecturer', and 'Ritualist'. Whatever the title, this officer is responsible for the smooth flowing of ceremonial and ritual and may hold rehearsals. He may be responsible for prompting other officers who forget their lines. In some jurisdictions, he directs proceedings during the installation of a new Worshipful Master. He is also responsible for forming processions and introducing visitors, except in those jurisdictions which appoint a 'Marshal' for these latter purposes (see below).

Masonic Lodge Officers

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Marshal
The office of 'Marshal' is quite common in the United States, but not in other countries. In some jurisdictions where it is found, the title is simply an alternative for 'Director of Ceremonies' (see above). However, there are jurisdictions in which the office is distinct from any other, in which cases the duties of the office revolve around the organisation of processions and ensuring the correct precedence and etiquette in formal proceedings, including the introduction of visitors to the lodge. This is distinct (in such jurisdictions) from the role of the Director of Ceremonies in supervising the ritual of the lodge's degree ceremonies.

Masters of Ceremony
The offices of 'Senior and Junior Masters of Ceremony' appear in some jurisdictions. Their primary duty is to prepare candidates prior to each of the three degrees. They also help conduct the candidates during the degree conferrals. In some jurisdictions, the Masters of Ceremony are responsible for answering alarms at the preparing room, examination room or outer doors.

Almoner
The 'Almoner' (sometimes called the 'Caring Officer') is responsible for the well-being of lodge members and their families. He remains in contact with members who are unwell, and also maintains a discreet presence in the lives of widows of former members, so that the lodge may readily assist them should they find themselves in any particular need. Of necessity the Almoner must be well versed in local and national Masonic charities and the scope of their charitable work, so as to offer advice to those who might qualify for such assistance. In some jurisdictions, these duties are handled by a committee (under various titles).

Organist / Director of Music
The 'Organist' or 'Director of Music' provides musical accompaniment to lodge proceedings, although there is no set form. Many lodge rooms are equipped with a pipe organ or electronic organ, and in others, there is provision for a wider range of instruments. In other places the Director of Music operates recorded or digital music systems, such as at the Grand Lodge of Austria in Vienna.

Additional (less common) Offices
There are certain offices which exist only in particular lodges, or only in the lodges of one particular jurisdiction. As far as possible, the following list seeks to record all such offices that are either reasonably widespread, or else have been made notable by some other means, such as being held by famous people.

Orator
In some jurisdictions there is a strong tradition of Masonic research and education, and the presentation of papers by members is as common as degree ceremonies or other business. In such cases the 'Orator' may present papers, or be responsible for their presentation by others. The Orator may also be called upon to present a paper to celebrate milestones in the life of the lodge. The term Grand Orator refers to a similar office within Grand Lodges.

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Historian
Most lodges have a senior member who holds a particular interest in the lodge's history. In some jurisdictions, this interest may lead to appointment to formal office as the lodge's 'Historian'. The office involves the archiving of documents and artifacts, and the publishing and updating of historical information.

Charity Steward
All lodges are charged with maintaining an appropriate level of charitable giving to good causes. In some jurisdictions the office of 'Charity Steward' exists. He is responsible for encouraging the members to give generously, as well as leading discussions about the appropriate recipients of the lodge's charitable donations.

Poet Laureate
This particular office is believed to be unique to one Scottish lodge, the 'Lodge Canongate Kilwinning' No 2. In 1787 the lodge appointed Robert Burns as 'Poet Laureate'[1] , an investiture later immortalised in a painting by Stewart Watson[2] , the original of which hangs in the Grand Lodge of Scotland building in Edinburgh. The painting incorporates a certain amount of artistic license, which may possibly extend to the presence of Burns himself, for although he was certainly a member of the Lodge, it is not clear that he was present at the meeting at which he was appointed Poet Laureate. Many years later (in 1905), the office of Poet Laureate in this lodge was awarded to Rudyard Kipling, who was made an honorary member for that purpose. There is no known Grand equivalent to this office in any other jurisdiction.

Offices generally found only at Grand Lodge level
The offices in a Grand Lodge are generally derived from the corresponding offices in its subordinate lodges. However, there are certain offices that must necessarily be filled in Grand Lodges, but have no private lodge equivalent. These are outlined below.

Deputy Grand Master
In some jurisdictions, a Deputy Grand Master serves as the Grand Master's assistant, and is given the authority to act in the Grand Master's name in his absence. In England, under the jurisdiction of the United Grand Lodge of England, should the Grand Master be a member of the Royal family, a Pro Grand Master is elected to officiate as Grand Master in his absence on Royal duties.

Grand Chancellor
The Grand Chancellor is responsible for external relations and formal interaction with the Grand Lodges of other jurisdictions. The United Grand Lodge of England changed its constitution in 2007 to allow for the appointment of a Grand Chancellor for the first time. Only a few jurisdictions have Grand Chancellors. In most jurisdictions, the Grand Secretary fulfills these duties. The Royal Somerset House and Inverness Lodge No 4, in England, is a rare example of a lodge that appoints a Chancellor as one of its officers. It appears that when the office was created in the nineteenth century it was intended to be similar to the role of Chaplain[3] . However when revived in the early twentieth century, the role was more directed towards external relations. By the late twentieth century it appears that it had become customary for the office to be awarded to the longest serving member of the Lodge.

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Grand Registrar
In some jurisdictions a 'Grand Registrar' is appointed to be the principal legal officer of a Grand Lodge. The role is generally held by a qualified lawyer or judge. In other jurisdictions, there is no official title given to the holders of these duties.

Grand Superintendent of Works
When this office exists, the 'Grand Superintendent of Works' is a Grand Lodge officer responsible for the Grand Lodge building, and as such, the office is usually awarded to a qualified architect or builder. Responsibility for individual Lodge buildings usually falls to a committee.

Grand Sword Bearer
Many Grand Masters are preceded in formal processions by a ceremonial sword. In such cases a 'Grand Sword Bearer' is appointed to carry the sword.

Grand Standard Bearer or Grand Banner Bearer
Many Grand Masters or Grand Lodges have an official standard which is carried behind the Grand Master in formal processions. In such cases a 'Grand Standard Bearer' or 'Grand Banner Bearer' is appointed.

Grand Pursuivant
It is the Grand Pursuivant's duty to announce all applicants for admission into the Grand Lodge by their names and Masonic titles; to take charge of the jewels and regalia of the Grand Lodge; to attend all communications of the Grand Lodge, and to perform such other duties as may be required by the Grand Master or presiding officer.

External links
• www.youtube.com [4] Video "The start of the Lodge Consecration Ceremony - Re-enactment of the Re-consecration of North Australia Lodge. 150 year Celebration. Excerpt from "In The Dark" (Working Title) documentary on modern freemasonry. The Grand Director Of Ceremonies prepares the table."

References
[1] Burns Masonic biographical site (http:/ / www. worldburnsclub. com/ expert/ burns_freemason. htm) [2] The National Burns Collection (http:/ / www. burnsscotland. com/ 000-000-338-993-C) website with an image of the Watson painting may be found here. [3] A W Oxford, 'An introduction to the history of the Royal Somerset House & Inverness Lodge', published by Bernard Quaritch Ltd, 1928, page 245. [4] http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=GtBT5gthmA8& feature=related

Grand Lodge

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Grand Lodge
A Grand Lodge, or "Grand Orient", is the usual governing body of "Craft", or "Blue Lodge", Freemasonry in a particular jurisdiction. The first Masonic Grand Lodge was established in England in 1717 as the Premier Grand Lodge of England.[1] The head of a Grand Lodge is called the Grand Master, and the other officers of the Grand Lodge prefix "Grand" to the titles of Lodge officers. Some Grand Lodges have established Provincial Grand Lodges as an organisational layer between themselves and member Lodges. There is no central body to oversee all of the Grand Lodges in the world, and therefore, individual Grand Lodge policies and practices can and do vary, though they have a similar basic framework in common. The lack of a central authority means that Grand Lodges are held together simply by fellowship with one another. This tends to negate many of the New World Order conspiracy theories leveled against Masonry as a whole.

Jurisdictions
Grand Lodge jurisdictions are typically based on areas of civil government, with a separate Grand Lodge governing Masonic lodges within a particular National or State boundary. Each Grand Lodge functions independently of any other Grand Lodge, setting its own rules and rituals, and determining which other Grand Lodges to recognize. When two Grand Lodges recognize each other they are said to be "in Amity". "Amity" means that the two Grand Lodges recognize each other as being legitimate, and will allow Masons under one Grand Lodge to visit lodges of the other. A Grand Lodge that is not "in amity with" (or recognised by) another Grand Lodge will not permit its members to visit Lodges in the second Grand Lodge's jurisdiction. The cause of a lack of amity is usually due to a perceived or actual violation of one of the Landmarks of Freemasonry.[2] Furthermore, with some exceptions, especially regarding US Grand Lodges' recognition of Grand Lodges in South America, any Grand Lodge not recognised by the United Grand Lodge of England (UGLE) is also not recognised by any Grand Lodge in amity with UGLE. The largest Grand Orient in the Continental Masonic form is the Grand Orient de France. While the United Grand Lodge of England, the Grand Lodge of Ireland and the Grand Lodge of Scotland each govern Freemasonry within their respective countries, Continental European countries typically have more than one Grand Lodge per country. Historically, the United States had recognised one Grand Lodge per state, independent of the Grand Lodge of any other state. Today, most have two: a "mainstream" Grand Lodge and a Prince Hall Grand Lodge. All of the "mainstream" Grand Lodges in the United States of America are recognised by each other, and most recognise each other's Prince Hall counterparts. Prince Hall Masonry, which was formed while Masonry in the United States was effectively segregated, has a predominantly black membership. Various philosophical and technical reasons historically prevented US "mainstream" Grand Lodges from recognising or acknowledging Prince Hall Grand Lodges as regular bodies operating in accordance with the Landmarks of Freemasonry. Originally having one Grand Lodge for the whole United States, separate Prince Hall Grand Lodges now operate in most US states and jurisdictions. Many PHGLs also sponsor and govern Prince Hall Lodges abroad, principally on or near US military bases. Since the early 1990s onward, most, but not all, US Grand Lodges and Prince Hall Grand Lodges began to extend mutual recognition and promote visitations and fellowship between their members.

Grand Lodge

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Other bodies
Other organisations which only accept Master Masons, such as Scottish Rite and the Shriners, have their own governing bodies, not called Grand Lodges, which are not directly accountable to the Grand Lodge in the jurisdiction in which they operate. Other Masonically-affiliated orders, such as the OES and DeMolay, are also independent. However, these organisations' governing bodies, as a rule, defer to their Grand Lodges as the essential authority over Masonry in their regions.

References
[1] Morris, S. Brent. Complete Idiot's Guide to Freemasonry. New York: Alpha, 2006. p. 9 [2] Bundy, Harry W. "Determining Recognition" (http:/ / www. phoenixmasonry. org/ determining_recognition. htm) Phoenixmasonry.org. From Proceedings of the Seventh Rocky Mountain Masonic Conference, Rocky Mountain Consistory No. 2, Denver, Colorado on July 11, 1958.

Masonic Landmarks
Masonic Landmarks are a set of principles that many Freemasons claim to be "both ancient and unchangeable precepts of Masonry". Issues of the "regularity" of a Freemasonic Lodge, Grand Lodge or Grand Orient are judged in the context of the Landmarks. Because each Grand Lodge is self-governing, with no single body exercising authority over the whole of Freemasonry, the interpretations of these principles can and do vary, leading to controversies of recognition. Different Masonic jurisdictions have different Landmarks.

Origins
According to Percy Jantz, the Masonic term Landmark is biblical in origin. He cites the Book of Proverbs 22:28: "Remove not the ancient landmark which thy fathers have set", referring to stone pillars set to mark boundaries of land. He further quotes a Jewish law: "Thou shalt not remove thy neighbors' landmark, which they of old time have set in thine inheritance" to emphasize how these Landmarks designate inheritance.[1] Mark Tabbert believes that the actual rules and regulations laid down in the early masonic landmarks are derived from the charges of medieval stonemasons.[2]

History
According to the General Regulations published by the Premier Grand Lodge of England in 1723 "Every Annual Grand Lodge has an inherent power and Authority to make new Regulations or to alter these, for the real benefits of this Ancient Fraternity; provided always that the old Land-Marks be carefully preserved." However, these landmarks were not defined in any manner. The first attempt at this was in Jurisprudence of Freemasonry 1856 by Dr. Albert Mackey. He laid down three requisite characteristics: 1. notional immemorial antiquity 2. universality 3. absolute "irrevocability" He claimed there were 25 in all, and they could not be changed. However subsequent writers have differed greatly as regards what they consider the Landmarks to be. In 1863, George Oliver published the Freemason's Treasury in which he listed 40 Landmarks. In the last century, several American Grand Lodges attempted to enumerate the Landmarks, ranging from West Virginia (7) and New Jersey (10) to Nevada (39) and Kentucky (54).[3] Joseph Fort Newton, in The Builders, offers a simple definition of the Landmarks as: "The fatherhood of God, the brotherhood of man, the moral law, the Golden Rule, and the hope of life everlasting." Roscoe Pound subscribed to six landmarks:

Masonic Landmarks 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Belief in a Supreme Being Belief in the immortality of the soul A "book of sacred law" as an indispensable part of the "furniture" (or furnishings) of the Lodge The legend of the Third Degree The secrets of Freemasonry: The modes of recognition and the symbolic ritual of the Lodge That a Mason be a man, freeborn, and of lawful age.

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In the 1950s the Commission on Information for Recognition of the Conference of Grand Masters of Masons in North America upheld three "ancient Landmarks"[4] : 1. Monotheism — An unalterable and continuing belief in God. 2. The Volume of The Sacred Law — an essential part of the furniture of the Lodge. 3. Prohibition of the discussion of Religion and Politics.

Quotations

The first great duty, not only of every lodge, but of every Mason, is to see that the landmarks of the Order shall never be impaired.

Albert Mackey, The Principles of Masonic Law [5]

References
[1] The Landmarks of Freemasonry (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ texts/ landmarks. html) [2] Mark A. Tabbert, American Freemasons: Three Centuries of Building Communities. National Heritage Museum, Lexington, MA: 2005, ISBN 0-8147-8292-2, p.109. [3] Masonic Landmarks (http:/ / www. srmason-sj. org/ web/ journal-files/ Issues/ Feb02/ botelho. htm), by Bro. Michael A. Botelho. Accessed 7 February 2006. [4] Standards adopted for use by The Commission for Information for Recognition of the Conference of Grand Masters of Masons in North America in the 1950's (http:/ / bessel. org/ masrec/ recstand. htm) accessed 30th July 2006. [5] http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ files/ 12186/ 12186-h/ 12186-h. htm

External links
• Landmarks and Old Charges (http://www.freemasons-freemasonry.com/doron.html)

Square and Compasses

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Square and Compasses
The Square and Compasses (or, more correctly, a square and a set of compasses joined together) is the single most identifiable symbol of Freemasonry. Both the square and compasses are architect's tools and are used in Masonic ritual as emblems to teach symbolic lessons. Some Lodges and rituals explain these symbols as lessons in conduct: for example, that Masons should "square their actions by the square of virtue" and learn to "circumscribe their desires and keep their passions within due bounds toward all mankind". However, as Freemasonry is non-dogmatic, there is no general interpretation for these symbols (or any Masonic symbol) that is used by Freemasonry as a whole.[1] As measuring instruments, the tools represent judgment and discernment.

With a "G"
In English speaking jurisdictions the Square and Compasses are often depicted with the letter "G" in the center. The letter is interpreted to represent different words jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Among the most widely accepted interpretations are that: [G] stands for God, and is to remind Masons that God is at the center of Freemasonry. In this context it can also stand for Great Architect of the Universe (a reference to God). In a different context, the letter stands for Geometry, described as being "the noblest of the sciences", and "the superstructure upon which Freemasonry is founded."

Carved into a foundation stone in England

References
[1] Gilkes, Peter (July 2004). "Masonic ritual: Spoilt for choice" (http:/ / www. mqmagazine. co. uk/ issue-10/ p-61. php). Masonic Quarterly Magazine (10). . Retrieved 2007-05-07.

Additional references
• Curl, James Stevens (1991). The Art and Architecture of Freemasonry. New York: Overlook Press.

Research Lodge

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Research Lodge
A Research Lodge is a Masonic lodge that is devoted to Masonic research. It is a lodge, and as such has a charter from some Grand Lodge. However, it does not confer degrees, and restricts membership to Master Masons of some jurisdiction in amity with the jurisdiction that the research lodge is in.[1] Related to research Lodges are Masonic research societies, which serve the same purpose but function fundamentally differently. There are Research Lodges in most countries where Freemasonry exists. The oldest research lodge is Quatuor Coronati #2076, founded in 1886 under the jurisdiction of the United Grand Lodge of England. It accepts members from all over the world through its Correspondence Circle.[2] A book of transactions called Ars Quatuor Coronatorum (which includes the papers given in the lodge) has been published every year since 1886. Most Research Lodges have some type of Transactions, Proceedings, or even just a newsletter that is published regularly.

America
• The American Lodge of Research is the oldest research lodge in the United States, having been founded in 1931. It is chartered under the Grand Lodge of New York, and meets in the City of New York. It has counted amongst its Fellows such noted persons as Harold Van Buren Voorhis, Jan Sibelius, and Roscoe Pound.[3] • District of Columbia holds residence to David A. McWilliams, Sr. Research and Education Lodge, F&AM Prince Hall Affiliated. Working under the Prince Hall Jurisdiction of the District of Columbia, it is dedicated to the conduct of research and education about Freemasonry in general and Prince Hall Freemasonry, in particular, so it can illumine the Masonic Fraternity and be better agents of change and service in their communities. [4] • Kentucky has two research lodges: the Ted Adams Lodge of Research in Paintsville and the William O. Ware Lodge of Research in Covington. • Mississippi Lodge of Research, No. 640 - charter issued by the Grand Lodge of Mississippi. • New Jersey Lodge of Masonic Research and Education, No. 1786 - warrant issued by the Grand Lodge of New Jersey. • Southern California Research Lodge - chartered under the Grand Lodge of California, the SCRL publishes a monthly newsletter and has an "Entered Apprentice's Program" to encourage new Masons to get interested in scholarly research.[5] • Massachusetts Chapter of Research - notable in that it is chartered under a York Rite Holy Royal Arch Chapter, and not a Grand Lodge, and tends to focus on Chapter-specific research. • Thomas Smith Webb Chapter of Research No. 1798, chartered under the Grand Council of New York in 2002, devotes its studies to Royal Arch Chapter related issues. [6] • Pennsylvania Lodge of Research [7] • El Camino Research Lodge[8] • Texas Lodge of Research [9] • Anniversary Lodge of Research #175 - New Hampshire.[10] • Iowa Research Lodge #2[11] • Civil War Lodge of Research #1865 - Research is specifically on Freemasonry during the American Civil War[12]

Research Lodge

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Australia
• Discovery Lodge of Research No. 971[13] , Chartered under the United Grand Lodge of New South Wales & Australian Capital Territory in 1968. • South Australian Lodge of Research No. 216[14] , Chartered under the Grand Lodge of Antient Free & Accepted Masons of South Australia & Northern Territory in 1965. • The Western Australian Lodge of Research No. 277 Chartered under the Grand Lodge of Antient Free & Accepted Masons of Western Australia

Ireland
• Lodge of Research, No. CC [15]

Japan
• Tokyo Lodge of Research

Russia
• Lodge of Research "Quator Quoronati" No.8("Четверо Коронованных") Moscow [16] • Lodge of Research "Quator Quoronati" United Grand Lodge Of Russia [17] ("Исследовательская Достопочтенная ложа "Четверо Коронованных") [18]

Sweden
• Research and Education Lodge No 6 Aurora Borealis, Swedish Masonic Camp[19]

Turkey
• Mimar Sinan Lodge

United Kingdom
• Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 2076 • Veritatem Sequere Lodge No. 9615, Hertfordshire[20]

References
[1] Rush, Max. "What is SCRL?" (http:/ / www. calodges. org/ scrl/ rush/ index. htm) Accessed May 15, 2008. [2] Quatuor Coronatorum Correspondence Circle website (http:/ / www. quatuorcoronati. org) [3] American Lodge of Research Website (http:/ / www. americanlodgeofresearch. org/ ) [4] Research and Education Lodge, F&AM - PHA (http:/ / www. mwphgldc. com/ research/ ) [5] SCRL Homepage (http:/ / www. calodges. org/ scrl/ ) [6] Thomas Smith Webb Chapter of Research Website (http:/ / sites. google. com/ site/ tsw1798/ home/ ) [7] The Pennsylvania Lodge Of Research (http:/ / www. pagrandlodge. org/ programs/ lodgeofresearch/ index. html) [8] El Camino Research Lodge, San Jose, California (http:/ / www. calodges. org/ ecrl/ ) [9] Texas Lodge of Research, AF&AM (http:/ / www. texaslodgeofresearch. org/ ) [10] Anniversary Lodge of Research (http:/ / www. anniversarylodge. org/ ) [11] Research Lodge No.2 (http:/ / www. yorkrite. com/ ia/ lodge2/ ) [12] Civil War Research (http:/ / www. bessel. org/ cwlr/ ) [13] The Discovery Lodge of Research No. 971 (http:/ / www. discoverylodge. org/ ) [14] South Australian Lodge of Research No. 216 (http:/ / salor216. blogspot. com/ ) [15] (http:/ / www. irish-freemasonry. org. uk/ ) Lodge of Research, No. CC Website [16] (http:/ / www. freemasonry. ru/ quatorquoronati)

Research Lodge
[17] http:/ / www. mason. ru [18] http:/ / mason. ru/ ovlr. php?s=1& second=67& third=27& fourth=8& slide=1 [19] "Research and Education Lodge No 6 Aurora Borealis" (http:/ / www. frimurarelagret. se/ en-research-lodge-6. html). Swedish Masonic Camp. . Retrieved August 30 2009. [20] (http:/ / www. pgmherts. org/ node/ 251) Veritatem Sequere Lodge on the Provincial Grand Lodge of Hertfordshire website

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External links
• List of Research Lodges (http://www.bessel.org/resldgs.htm) • Mississippi Lodge of Research (http://www.mslodgeofresearch.org)

Freemasonry and women
The subject of women and Freemasonry is complex and without an easy explanation. Traditionally, only men can be made Freemasons in Regular Freemasonry.[1] Many Grand Lodges do not admit women because they believe it would break the ancient Masonic Landmarks. However, there are many non-mainstream Masonic bodies that do admit both men and women or exclusively women. Furthermore, there are many female orders associated with regular Freemasonry, such as the Order of the Eastern Star, the Order of the Amaranth, the White Shrine of Jerusalem, the Social Order of Beauceant and the Daughters of the Nile.

Recognition
The United Grand Lodge of England (UGLE), and others concordant in that regular tradition, do not formally recognize any Masonic body that accepts women. The UGLE has stated since 1998 that two English women's jurisdictions are regular in practice (The Order of Women Freemasons and The Honourable Fraternity of Ancient Freemasons), except for their inclusion of women, and has indicated that, while not formally recognized, these bodies may be regarded as part of Freemasonry, when describing Freemasonry in general. In North America, neither "mainstream" Freemasonry nor Prince Hall Freemasonry accept women, but rather have associated separate bodies, which are "Masonic" in character, but not Masonic in their content.

Honourable Fraternity of Ancient Freemasons
The history of the Honourable Fraternity of Ancient Freemasons in particular cannot be described without reference to the history of the Women’s movement in Masonry in general. Quoted from a pamphlet published in 1988 by Enid Scott, a former Assistant Grand Master of the Order, entitled "Women in Freemasonry:" "It was in 1902 that the first lodge of Co-Masons was formed in London and that importation from France soon snowballed. But within a few years some of its members became uneasy regarding the course being taken by the governing body in Paris. They felt that their ancient forms were in jeopardy and a departure from their traditional style was taking place; history was being repeated, for it was a similar state that had arisen in regular Freemasonry in the mid-18th century. Various members resigned from the Order and formed themselves into a Society from which was to emerge the Honourable Fraternity of Antient Masonry, but still as an association for men and women. On 5 June 1908 a Grand Lodge was formed with a Reverend Brother as Grand Master. He was the first and only male Grand Master and held that office for four years before retiring through ill health. His successor commenced the continuing line of female Grand Masters. Approximately ten years later it was decided to restrict admission to women only but to allow existing male members to remain. Within a very short period the title was changed to the Order of Women Freemasons but the form of address as ‘Brother’ remained, the term ‘Sister’ having been discontinued soon after the formation in 1908 as it was deemed unfitting for members of a universal Brotherhood of Freemasons. It is also of some interest to note that history was repeated again , in that the Royal Arch became the subject of a division in their ranks, rather on the lines of the Antients and Moderns years before the Union in 1813. A

Freemasonry and women group of its members wished to include the Royal Arch in the system but failed to obtain authority from their Grand Lodge , which caused them to secede and form the first Lodge of yet another Order - The Honourable Fraternity of Ancient Freemasons, two Grand Lodges running in parallel was almost a carbon copy performance, but in this case the time for a Union, similar to that which took place in 1813, is yet to come." The Honourable Fraternity of Ancient Freemasons was founded in 1913 and the first Grand Master was Mrs Elizabeth Boswell-Reid who held that Office from 1913 to 1933 ; she was succeeded by her daughter Mrs Seton Challen.

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Justification for exclusion
Mainstream Masonic Grand Lodges justify the exclusion of women from Freemasonry for several reasons. The structure and traditions of modern day Freemasonry is based from the operative medieval stonemasons of Europe. These operative masonic guilds did not allow women to join, because of the culture of the time. Many Grand Lodges are of the opinion that altering this structure would completely change Freemasonry. Furthermore, mainstream Grand Lodges adhere to the masonic landmarks laid out in the early 18th century, which are considered unchangeable. One of these landmarks specifies that a woman is not to be made a mason.[1] Finally, in many jurisdictions masons swear "not to be present at the making of a woman a Mason" in their obligations.[2] Many masons believe that regardless of their opinions of women in masonry, they cannot break their obligation.

Female Masons in Regular Masonic Bodies
There have been a few reported cases of a woman joining a regular masonic lodge. These cases are exceptions and are debated by masonic historians.

Elizabeth Aldworth
One account of a woman being admitted to Freemasonry in the 18th century is the case of Elizabeth Aldworth (born St Leger), who is reported to have surreptitiously viewed the proceedings of a Lodge meeting held at Doneraile House, the private house of her father, first Viscount Doneraile, a resident of Doneraile, County Cork, Ireland. Upon discovering the breach of their secrecy, the Lodge resolved to admit and obligate her, and thereafter she proudly appeared in public in Masonic clothing.[3] In the early part of the 18th century, it was quite customary for Lodges to be held in private houses. This Lodge was duly warranted as Lodge number 150 on the register of the Grand Lodge of Ireland.

Women as Operative Masons
It is not generally known, but researchers have shown that records do exist which confirm that women were in fact operative masons, and even presided over Lodges of Operative Masons. The Regius Manuscript, dating from about 1390, is the oldest manuscript yet discovered relating to Masonry. Two extracts are of particular interest: Yn that onest craft to be parfytte; And so uchon schulle techyn othur, And love together as sister and brother In that honest craft to be perfect; And so each one shall teach the other, And love together as sister and brother. Articulus decimus. The thenthe artycul ys for to knowe, Amongst the craft, to hye and lowe, There schal no mayster supplante other, But be togeder as systur and brother, Yn that curyus craft, alle and som, That longuth to a maystur mason. Tenth article. The tenth article is for to know, Among the craft, to high and low, There shall no master supplant another, But be together as sister and brother, In this curious craft, all and some, that belongeth to a master mason.

Freemasonry and women However, it should be noted that not everyone agrees with these interpretations of the Regius Manuscript. The following examples were recorded by Enid Scott in her pamphlet, "Women and Freemasonry:" It is on record that a woman mason was responsible for the carving of the porch on the tower of Strasbourg Cathedral. It was begun in 1277 by the Architect, Erwin of Steinbach, and his daughter Sabina, who was a skilful mason, executed this part of the work herself In the records of Corpus Christi Guild at York, it is noted in 1408 that an apprentice had to swear to obey "the Master, or Dame, or any other Freemason." Women members were recorded in the Masons’ Company in the 17th century as being non-operative. Of course at this time ‘non-operative’ meant not being engaged in the physical work, but acting in the capacity of accepting orders for assignments, and not what we would now refer to as ‘speculative masonry’. Such women were called ‘Dames’ to distinguish them from Master Masons. Margaret Wild, a mason’s widow, was such a one and was made a member of the Masons’ Company in 1663 A minute dated 16th April 1683, from the Lodge of Edinburgh refers to agreement that a widow may, with the assistance of a competent freeman, receive the benefit of any orders which may be offered her by customers of her late husband, such freeman being prohibited from taking any share of the profits from such assignments. One day later on 17th April, the records of St Mary's Chapel Lodge give an instance of the legality of a female occupying the position of 'Dame' or 'Mistress in a masonic sense. But it was only to a very limited extent that widows of master masons could benefit by the privilege. From the manuscripts which make up the Old Charges, the York MS no 4(Grand Lodge of York) dated 1693 refers to the "Apprentice charge" and instructs that, "One of the elders taking the Booke and hee or shee that is to be made mason, shall lay their hands thereon, and the charge shall be given". Of course this has been disputed by some masonic historians who claim that the "shee" is a mistranslation of "they", but others including the Rev. A. F. A. Woodford, accept it as evidence of the admission of females into masonic fellowship, especially as many of the other guilds at this time were comprised of women as well as men. The Masons’ Court Book records the names of two widows in 1696. In 1713-14, we find the unusual instance of Mary Bannister, the daughter of a Barking barber, being appointed to a mason for a term of seven years, the fee of five shillings having been paid to the Company. Several instances of male apprentices being assigned to work under female masters during the period 1713-1715 appear in the records of the "Worshipful Company of Masons" in MS 5984 of the Guildhall Library in London. It should be remembered that all these instances occurred before the formation of the first Grand Lodge in London in 1717. In 1723 the Rev. James Anderson was given the task of issuing a set of Constitutions, which were revised in 1738, when he introduced the idea that women were prohibited from becoming masons

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Co-Freemasonry
The systematic admission of women into International Co-Freemasonry began in France in 1882 with the initiation of Maria Deraismes into the Loge Libre Penseurs (Freethinkers Lodge), under the Grande Loge Symbolique de France. In 1893, along with activist Georges Martin, Maria Deraismes oversaw the initiation of sixteen women into the first Lodge in the world to have both men and women as members, from inception, creating the jurisdiction Le Droit Humain (LDH). Again, these are regarded by "Regular" Freemasonry as irregular bodies. Le Droit Humain and a number of other "irregular" masonic organisations have a presence in North America which are open to women either in an androgynous or wholly feminine manner. These orders work similar rituals to regular Freemasonry and their work contains similar moral and philosophical content to regular freemasonry. In the Netherlands, there is a completely separate, although Masonically allied, sorority for women, the Order of Weavers (OOW), which uses symbols from weaving rather than stonemasonry.

Freemasonry and women The rite of adoption for female lodges originated in France. The Grand Orient of France and other Masonic bodies in the Continental European tradition fully recognize Co-Freemasonry and women's Freemasonry.

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Notes
[1] Anderson, James (1734) [1723]. Paul Royster. ed. The Constitutions of the Free-Masons (http:/ / digitalcommons. unl. edu/ cgi/ viewcontent. cgi?article=1028& context=libraryscience) (Philadelphia ed.). Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Benjamin Franklin. p. 49. . Retrieved 2009-02-12. "The Persons admitted Members of a Lodge must be good and true Men, free-born, and of mature and discreet Age, no Bondmen, no Women, no immoral or scandalous Men, but of good Report." [2] masonicingo.com page on women (http:/ / www. masonicinfo. com/ women. htm) accessed Aug 15, 2006 [3] The Hon. Miss St Leger and Freemasonry (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ aqc/ aldworth. html) Ars Quatuor Coronatorum vol viii (1895) pp. 16-23, 53-6. vol. xviii (1905) pp. 46

External links
• The Compass and Square: For Women Only (1916) (http://www.archive.org/details/ compasssquarefor00hendrich) by Harriet L. Montgomery Henderson (of the Women's Order of Esoteric Masonry)

Elizabeth Aldworth
Elizabeth Aldworth (1695-1773), known as "the Lady Freemason", was born the Hon. Elizabeth St. Leger, daughter of Viscount Doneraile of Doneraile Court, County Cork, Ireland. She was married in 1713 to Richard Aldworth, Esq. From a narrative published by the family in 1811 it appears that, upon secretly observing the first two degrees of a lodge at labour in her father's home, she was discovered and, after discussion, initiated in the Entered Apprentice and Fellow Craft Degree. The initiation was in 1712 to Lodge No44 at Doneraile Court. A champion of Freemasonry, Aldworth died in 1773. While generally looked upon as an "irregular" Freemason by the Masonic community, Mrs. Aldworth has long been observed and even championed in some cases by some lodges, especially those practising a Co-Masonic policy toward their members. Aldworth's regalia is on display at the Masonic Hall, 27 Tuckey Street, Cork City, Ireland where a large portion of the Masonic artefacts in the Dining Room are set aside in her honour. In use in the Lodge room to date is the chair with overhead canopy Aldworth is reputed to have used in Masonic Tenure.

Elizabeth Aldworth

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Further reading
• The Hon. Miss St. Leger and Freemasonry. Ars Quatuor Coronatorum vol viii (1895) pp. 16-23, 53-6. vol. xviii (1905) pp. 46

External links
• The Hon. Miss St. Leger and Freemasonry By Bro. Edward Conder. [1]

Elizabeth Aldworth.

1775 Burial in Saint Finbarre's Cathedral

References
[1] http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ aqc/ aldworth. html

Co-Freemasonry

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Co-Freemasonry
Co-Freemasonry is a form of Freemasonry which admits both men and women. It began in France in the 1880s with the forming of Le Droit Humain, and is now an international movement represented by several Co-Masonic administrations throughout the world. Most Male-Only Masonic Lodges, partucularly those in the US, do not admit women, and do not officially recognise Co-Freemasonry, holding it to be irregular or clandestine.

International Order of Mixed Freemasonry — Le Droit Humain
The International Order of Mixed Freemasonry Le Droit Humain was founded in France in the late nineteenth century, during a period of strong feminist and women's suffrage campaigning. It was the first Co-Masonic Order, and also the first truly international Masonic Order. Today it has members from over 60 countries worldwide.
The Square and Compasses. The symbols employed in Co-Freemasonry are mostly identical with those in other orders of Freemasonry.

French Masonry had long attempted to include women, the Grand Orient de France having allowed Rites of Adoption as early as 1774,[1] [2] by which Lodges could "adopt" sisters, wives and daughters of Freemasons, imparting to them the mysteries of several degrees.[3] In 1879, following differences among members of the Supreme Council of France, twelve lodges withdrew from the Grand Orient de France and founded the Grande Loge Symbolique de France. One of these Lodges, Les Libres Penseurs (The Free Thinkers) in Pecq, reserved in its charter the right to initiate women as Freemasons, proclaiming the essential equality of man and woman. On January 14, 1882, Maria Deraismes, a well-known humanitarian, feminist author, lecturer and politician, was initiated into Les Libres Penseurs. The Right Worshipful Master, Bro. Houbron, 18°, justified this act as having the highest interests of humanity at heart, and as being a perfectly logical application of the principle of 'A Free Mason in a Free Lodge'. The Lodge was soon suspended for this "impropriety". In 1890 the Lodge La Jerusalem Écossaise, also of the Grande Loge Symbolique de France, petitioned other Lodges for the establishment of a new order of Freemasonry that would accept both men and women. This time La Jerusalem Lodge did not propose to initiate women itself, but to create a new order working in parallel. The main proponent of this was Dr. Georges Martin, a French senator, advocate of equal rights for women, and also a member of Les Libres Penseurs. On March 14, 1893, Deraismes, Martin and several other male Freemasons founded La Respectable Loge, Le Droit Humain, Maçonnerie Mixte (Worshipful Lodge, Human Rights, Co-Masonry) in Paris. They initiated, passed and raised sixteen prominent French women.
Maria Deraismes, co-founder of Co-Freemasonry, Le Droit Humain.

Co-Freemasonry

67 Shortly after, on April 4 of the same year, the first Grand Lodge of Co-Freemasonry was established, the Grande Loge Symbolique Écossaise Mixte de France (Grand Lodge of Mixed Scottish Rite Freemasonry of France), which would later become known as the International Order of Co-Freemasonry "Le Droit Humain". This was a radical departure from most other forms of Freemasonry, for not only did the new order not require belief in a Supreme Being (the Grand Orient de France had discarded this requirement in 1877) — it opened its doors to all of humanity who were "... just, upright and free, of mature age, sound judgment and strict morals."

Georges Martin, co-founder of Co-Freemasonry, Le Droit Humain.

The Eastern Federation
Several prominent members of the Theosophical Society joined Co-Freemasonry, including Annie Besant, George Arundale, Charles W. Leadbeater, C. Jinarajadasa and Henry Steele Olcott. Henceforth, wherever they took Theosophy, they also introduced Co-Freemasonry. The Order of Universal Co-Freemasonry in Great Britain and the British Dependencies was founded by Annie Besant and officers of the Supreme Council of the French Maçonnerie Mixte (known today as The International Order of Co-Freemasonry, Le Droit Humain) on September 26, 1902, with the consecration of Lodge Human Duty No. 6 in London. Besant remained head of the Order until her death in 1933. The English working, influenced by the Theosophy of its leading members, restored certain Masonic practices not required in the French working, notably that its members hold a belief in God or a Supreme Being. The permission received from France to reinstate this in the English workings is known as the 'Annie Besant Concord', and in 1904 Annie Besant wearing 33° Masonic regalia. a new English ritual was printed, which firmly established this requirement as central to the work. The revised ritual was called the 'Dharma Ritual', also known as the 'Besant-Leadbeater' and more recently as the 'Lauderdale' working. The Dharma Ritual also attempted to restore prominence to esoteric and mystical aspects that its Theosophically-minded authors felt were the heart of Freemasonry, so that it became foremostly a spiritual organisation; Co-Freemasonry of this Order was therefore sometimes called "Occult Freemasonry".

Co-Freemasonry

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The Honorable Order of American Co-Masonry
In 1903 the first Co-Masonic Lodge in the USA was instituted under Le Droit Humain by the French professor Antoine Muzzarelli in New York. He founded the first Alpha Lodge in Charleroi, Pennsylvania and more than 50 others within four years before his untimely death 1908. In November of that year, delegates of twenty-four of these Lodges founded the American Federation of Human Rights in St. Louis. By 1924, nearly 100 Lodges had been started under the guidance of Louis Goaziou, President, Most Puissant Grand Commander and Representative of the Supreme Council in Paris.

Disaffected of Lodges from Le Droit Humain
Between the mid-1990s and early 2000s a large number of lodges defected from Le Droit Humain, which they charged with infringing upon their constitutional rights. On 2 January 2001 Le Droit Humain formally expelled four senior members of the British Federation over these disagreements. Following these expulsions, about 70 members resigned. From these was formed the Grand Lodge of Freemasonry for Men and Women. This body no longer uses to term "Co-Masonry". Members call themselves "Freemasons" instead. The disaffection of the British Lodges was the latest in the past two decades. This process began in North America in 1994 when "Le Droit Humain" withdrew recognition of the American Federation of Human Rights (see below) and incorporated another American Federation, chartered in Deleware. The Eastern Order of International Co-Freemasonry formed later, as did a few other smaller orders. Other lodges, including those in Australia and South Africa and some US lodges, opted to remain affiliated with the Supreme Council of the International Order of Mixed Freemasonry Le Droit Humain, and continue to exist as the British, Australian, and American Federations of the order, governed by the Representative of the Supreme Council in France, known as the Most Puissant Grand Commander, who holds the 33rd and highest degree of the Order.

The American Federation of Human Rights / American Co-Masonry
In December 1993, when demands from the Supreme Council in Paris conflicted with the International Constitution and the National Constitution of the American Federation of Le Droit Humain, which mandated independence in internal affairs and adherence to United States law, a large part of the membership decided to withdraw from Le Droit Humain. On April 11, 1994, the Supreme Council of American Co-Masonry, The American Federation of Human Rights, was reformed by members of the Grand Inspector General of the Thirty-third Degree. Also known as American Co-Masonry, this now-independent obedience, which has its headquarters in Larkspur, Colorado, has since become the largest Co-Masonic organization in the United States.

The Eastern Order of International Co-Freemasonry
In 2001, following growing concerns over erosions to the Annie Besant Concord by the administration in Paris, many member lodges of the Eastern Federation resigned from Le Droit Humain, severing all ties, and reconstituted new governing bodies. Lodges in India, New Zealand, parts of the US, Brazil, Argentina, Costa Rica, Puerto Rico and Spain reformed as the Eastern Order of International Co-Freemasonry; lodges in the UK reformed as the Grand Lodge of Freemasonry for Men and Women.[4] [5]

Co-Freemasonry

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The Grand Lodge of Ancient, Accepted and Esoteric Freemasons
The Grand Lodge of Ancient, Accepted and Esoteric Freemasons is a virtual Grand Lodge for men and women operating over the internet. The Ancient, Accepted & Esoteric Freemasons was initially chartered by the Grand Orient de France on May 14 1928. On November 17 1976 Grandmaster Juliet Ashley established the Sovereign and Independent Grand Lodge of Ancient, Accepted and Esoteric Freemasons as an independent Masonic organization. This order's name was changed to "International Sovereign and Independent Grand Lodge of Ancient, Accepted and Esoteric Freemasons" at its annual meeting in Washington, D.C. on June 22 1977. At that meeting the Grand Lodge also established Acacia Lodge #1 A:. A:. & E:. F:. as the first Lodge of Master Masons under the new jurisdiction. From 1992 the Grand Lodge ceased to operate within a physical temple, and from 2003 they began rewriting the rituals for self-initiation and lodge initiation using one or more initiating officers. They have offered internet initiations for Entered Apprentices since 2004.[6] The order confers Entered Apprentice, Fellowcraft and Master Mason degrees, as well as York Rite and Scottish Rite degrees and several other advanced rites. Degrees are practiced in their regular and ancient form, and are accompanied by esoteric teachings.

The Co-Freemasonic Order of The Blazing Star
The Co-Freemasonic Order of the Blazing Star is an independent order of freemasonry based in the South West of England that admits men and women equally. It sees its main emphasis as cultivating the spiritual and esoteric aspects of freemasonry, and offers a true initiatory system of training and development of the 33 degrees of ‘The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite’ for the benefit of humanity and the world. It currently operates an ancient Irish working in the craft degrees. In November 1997 a group of senior masons formed an independent Supreme Council to revitalise and regenerate masonic ritual and practice with an explicit emphasis on the symbolic, esoteric and spiritual teachings, initiatory training, and the ‘inner’ workings forming the basis of the ritual work. To distinguish the new order from other masonic bodies, the name ‘Order of the Blazing Star’ was taken. The Blazing Star is a universal symbol, and is found in most masonic rituals. The principals, rituals and traditions are still based on those of the Grand Scottish Constitutions of 1786, revised and agreed by the national Supreme Councils of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite at Lausanne in 1876. In May 2007 the Supreme Council decided the name of the order should more closely reflect its heritage and work and thus ‘The Co-Freemasonic Order of the Blazing Star’ was established.

Recognition of Co-Freemasonry by other Freemasons
Co-Freemasonry is not formally recognised by any of the larger Male-Only Masonic Grand Lodges in the US inasmuch as intervisitation or other Masonic interaction is not permitted. A Landmark of Freemasonry agreed by the 50 largest masculine Grand Lodges in the US is that the initiation of women is forbidden and members take a binding obligation not to countenance the initiation of women. Very few masculine Grand Lodges outside the US maintain either as a "Landmark". Most notably, the United Grand Lodge of England has no such prohibition. Certain Grand Lodges of Co-Freemasonry, those under Le Droit Humain, also follow the lead of the Grand Orient de France in removing references to the Supreme Being from their rituals and initiating atheists; this is a further point of separation from typical Masonic Lodges which hold belief in a Supreme Being to be a Landmark requirement. Notwithstanding the prohibition of interaction in a ritual context, the United Grand Lodge of England (UGLE), the oldest of the Grand Lodges, whilst not recognising Co-Freemasonry, states that it does hold informal discussions from time to time with Women's and Co-Masonic Grand Lodges on issues of mutual concern, and that

Co-Freemasonry Brethren are therefore free to explain to non-Masons, if asked, that Freemasonry is not confined to men (even though this Grand Lodge does not itself admit women).[7] The Grand Orient de France did not initiate women for many years, but it does now and it recognizes Masonic bodies that do. Thus, it allows visitation by women from those bodies.[8]

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External links
Co-Masonic Organisations
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The International Order of Co-Freemasonry Le Droit Humain [9] The International Order of Co-Freemasonry Le Droit Humain — British Federation [10] The Internation Order of Co-Freemasonry Le Droit Humain - American Federation [11] International Order 'Le Droit Humain' Australian Federation [12] The International Order of Co-Freemasonry Le Droit Humain - South African Federation [13] The Eastern Order of International Co-Freemasonry [14] International Masonic Order "Delphi" [15] The Honorable Order of American Co-Masonry / American Federation of Human Rights [16] Grand Lodge of Freemasonry for Men and Women [17] The Grand Lodge of Ancient, Accepted and Esoteric Freemasons [18] Lithos Confederation of Lodges (Belgium) [19] The Co-Freemasonic Order of The Blazing Star [20] Gemischte Großloge der Schweiz (GGLS) (Switzerland) [21] Mixed Freemasonry in Israel [22] Grande Loja Tradicional de Portugal (Great Traditional Lodge of Portugal) [23] Grande Oriente Maçónico de Portugal (Masonic Great Orient Portugal) [24]

Women's-only Masonic Organisations
• Women's Lodges in the USA chartered by the Women's Grand Lodge of Belgium [25] • Grand Loge Féminine de France [26] • The Honourable Fraternity of Ancient Freemasons [27]

References
[1] Huffmire, Casey R. Women and Freemasonry in France and Germany (http:/ / sophie. byu. edu/ sophiejournal/ New/ Huffmire-format. pdf). Retrieved 2006-10-24. [2] Mackey, A. C. Adoniramite Freemasonry, Encyclopedia of Freemasonry and its Kindred Sciences (http:/ / www. standrew518. co. uk/ ENCYC/ MacEncA1. htm). Retrieved 2006-07-13 [3] Mackey, A. C. Eastern Star, Order of the, Encyclopedia of Freemasonry and its Kindred Sciences (http:/ / users. 1st. net/ fischer/ MacEncE1. HTM). Retrieved 2006-07-13 [4] The Grand Lodge of Freemasonry for Men and Women, Great Britain (http:/ / www. grandlodge. org. uk). Retrieved 2006-11-30. [5] A Grand Conclave (http:/ / www. grandlodge. org. uk/ press release1. htm), from The Grand Lodge of Freemasonry for Men and Women, Great Britain. Retrieved 2006-11-30. [6] History of the Ancient, Accepted and Esoteric Freemasons (http:/ / esotericfreemason. com/ candidate/ history2. html) Retrieved 2007-09-15. [7] What About Women in Freemasonry? (http:/ / www. masonicinfo. com/ women. htm) - last accessed 2006-02-12. The UGLE have also advertised Freemasonry for Women (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20001210172300/ http:/ / london-lodges. org/ forwomen. html) on their old london-lodges.org website. [8] "Where it can be found" section of the history of the Grand Orient de France (http:/ / www. godf. org/ foreign/ uk/ histoire_uk_03. html). Retrieved 2006-05-17. [9] http:/ / www. droit-humain. org/ [10] http:/ / www. droit-humain. org/ uk/ index. html [11] http:/ / www. comasonic. org [12] http:/ / www. australianco-masonry. netfirms. com/

Co-Freemasonry
[13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] http:/ / www. droit-humain. org/ southafrica/ http:/ / comasonic. net/ http:/ / www. delphiorder. org/ eng/ index. htm http:/ / www. co-masonry. org/ http:/ / www. grandlodge. org. uk/ http:/ / esotericfreemason. com/ https:/ / www. lithoscl. org/ http:/ / www. cfobs. org. uk/ http:/ / www. masonic. ch/ GLMS/ index. htm http:/ / en. freemason. org. il/ http:/ / www. gltp. pt/ http:/ / gompt. org/ http:/ / www. womenfreemasonsusa. com/ index. html http:/ / www. glff. org/ http:/ / www. hfaf. org/

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• Mackey's Encyclopedia of Freemasonry — Co-Masonry (http://www.phoenixmasonry.org/ mackeys_encyclopedia/c.htm). Retrieved 2006-07-02. • Mackey's Encyclopedia of Freemasonry — Women (http://www.phoenixmasonry.org/mackeys_encyclopedia/ w.htm). Retrieved 2006-07-02. • The Builder, November 1920 (http://www.phoenixmasonry.org/the_builder_1920_november.htm), containing the article Woman and Freemasonry by Dudley Wright. Retrieved 2006-07-02. • The Builder, August 1921 (http://www.phoenixmasonry.org/the_builder_1920_november.htm), containing the article Co-Masonry by Joseph H. Fussell. Retrieved 2006-07-02. • History of the Ancient, Accepted and Esoteric Freemasons (http://esotericfreemason.com/candidate/history2. html) Retrieved 2007-09-15. • Freemasonry for Women (http://www.luckymojo.com/comasonry.html) by Catherine Yronwode. Retrieved 2006-07-02.

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Masonic Bodies
Masonic bodies
The fraternity of Freemasonry, also known as "Free and Accepted Masons," is organized by private groups of members variously known in English as lodges, chapters, councils, commanderies, consistories, etc., which can be collectively referred to as "Masonic bodies". The basic Masonic body is the Masonic Lodge, which alone can make a Mason, and confers the first three degrees in Masonry, being those of Entered Apprentice, Fellowcraft, and Master Mason.[1] Whilst there is no degree in Freemasonry higher than that of Master Mason, the degree of the Holy Royal Arch is of great antiquity, and has a special importance in many masonic systems, including those of all three of the oldest 'Constitutions' (masonic authorities), namely the Grand Lodges of England, Scotland, and Ireland, in all of which it is considered (by varying constitutional definitions) to be the completion of the mainstream masonic structure, [2] [3] and there are also a number of related organisations which have as a prerequisite to joining that one be a Master Mason, such as the Scottish Rite, the York Rite, and a large number of 'stand-alone' Orders and Degrees.[4] Additionally, there are also organizations affiliated with Freemasonry that admit both Master Masons and non-Masons who have some relation to a Master Mason, such as the Order of the Eastern Star, International Order of Job's Daughters (Job's Daughters International) and the Order of the Amaranth. Still other affiliated organizations like the Order of DeMolay and the International Order of the Rainbow for Girls admit non-Masons and have no requirement that an applicant be related to a Master Mason. A number of terms, such as "appendant," "affiliated," "concordant," or "in amity" are used, sometimes interchangeably, to describe these bodies.

History
Until the first two decades of the 18th century, Freemasonry in the British Isles seems to have consisted of only one degree, although there have survived some references to symbolic elements that now appear in both the second and third degrees. Following the introduction of the second and third degrees in the 1720s, the premier Grand Lodge of England, formed in 1717, frowned on anything beyond the first three degrees, viz. the Entered Apprentice, Fellowcraft and Master Mason. However, the Antient Grand Lodge of England, formed in 1751, claiming to be of an older tradition, with strong ties to the Freemasonry of Ireland and Scotland, allowed a wider range of more elaborate rituals to be worked. The Ancients believed, rightly or wrongly, that their possession of the Royal Arch Degree gave them the older, more complete tradition, and they derisively called the Masons of the premier Grand Lodge "the Moderns." When the two Grand Lodges merged in 1813, Article Two of the Articles of Union agreed that "pure ancient Masonry consists of three degrees, and no more," although by semantic wordplay that agreement included the "Supreme Order of the Holy Royal Arch" and allowed some "chivalric degrees" [5] The period from 1740 to 1813 saw a host of Masonic rites, orders and degrees emerge. These new rituals enlarged the scope of Masonry and encompassed many elaborations, some of which included elements which had previously been practiced within the craft. Many rites proved to be transient and died out (some being no more than a written record without evidence of having been practiced), but some proved more resilient and survived.

Masonic bodies

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Recognition
Different Masonic jurisdictions vary in their relationships with appendant bodies, if any. Some offer formal recognition, while others consider them wholly outside of Freemasonry. This leads to some such bodies not being universally considered as appendant bodies, but rather separate organizations that happen to require Masonic affiliation for membership.

Membership
Each Masonic body sets its own Membership requirements, which vary greatly. Many of these, especially those that actually confer additional Masonic degrees and orders, limit membership to Master Masons only. Others require the candidate to either be a Master Mason or have a familial relationship to one. Some require the candidate to be a Trinitarian Christian, which is more religiously specific than Craft Masonry, which accepts candidates of any faith as long as they declare a belief in a Supreme Being. Others require prior membership of other groups, or having held specific office in a group. Membership is sometimes open, and sometimes invitational. In the United States, the York and Scottish Rites make petitions available to all Master Masons but reserve the right to reject petitioners, while other groups like Priories of Knights of the York Cross of Honor require that a petitioner have presided over the four York Rite bodies (lodge, chapter, council and commandery), and others like the Knight Masons require that one be asked to join by a current member.

Rites, Orders and Degrees
England
In England after the degrees of craft freemasonry there are a large number of separately administered degrees and orders open only to craft freemasons, of which the following are some of the most popular: • The Holy Royal Arch. Under the English Constitution, the Royal Arch degree is conferred only by Royal Arch Chapters (which are each attached to a Craft Lodge) under the governance of the Supreme Grand Chapter, which has many officers in common with the United Grand Lodge of England (UGLE). The Holy Royal Arch is the only degree formally recognised by the UGLE as part of "pure, antient Freemasonry" along with the three degrees of Craft Freemasonry, and membership is widespread. Other orders and degrees are however referred to and acknowledged by the Grand Master, and all their members are necessarily masons subject to UGLE. Two principal groups of degrees each administered from their own offices are: • The Order of Mark Master Masons. Under the English Constitution this degree is only conferred in independent Mark Masters' Lodges; some of which are also warranted to hold Royal Ark Mariners Lodges. • The Ancient and Accepted Rite (colloquially called "The Rose Croix"). In England, this Rite has no reference to Scotland. Although it is derived from the Supreme Council, Southern Jurisdiction of the U.S.A., the Mother Supreme Council of the World, and the names of its degrees are the same, it has different requirements for membership and the progression through its degrees is much more restricted. Amongst many others are • The United Religious, Military and Masonic Orders of the Temple and of St John of Jerusalem, Palestine, Rhodes and Malta, colloquially known as the Knights Templar or the KT; the degree of Knight of Malta is associated with the KT. • The Masonic and Military Order of the Red Cross of Constantine and the Orders of the Holy Sepulchre and of St John the Evangelist, colloquially known as the Red Cross of Constantine. (This is an entirely different order from the Illustrious Order of the Red Cross in the U.S. Knight Templar system.)

Masonic bodies • • • • Order of the Secret Monitor Royal and Select Masters colloquially known as "the cryptic degrees". The Allied Masonic Degrees Holy Royal Arch Knight Templar Priests

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United States
In the United States there are two main Masonic appendant bodies: • The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, which is further subdivided into four bodies. • The York Rite (sometimes called "The American Rite"), which, aside from the craft lodge, comprises four separate and distinct bodies: the Royal Arch Chapter (Capitular Masonry), the Council of Royal & Select Masters (Cryptic Masonry), the Commandery of the Knights Templar, and the York Rite College. The York Rite also includes Priories of Knights of the York Cross of Honor.

Canada
In Canada there are two main Masonic appendant bodies: • The York Rite, being the older of the two, which, aside from the craft lodge, comprises four separate and distinct bodies: the Royal Arch Chapter (Capitular Masonry), the Council of Royal & Select Masters (Cryptic Masonry), the Commandery of the Knights Templar, and the York Rite College. The York Rite also includes Priories of Knights of the York Cross of Honor. (Editorial Note: Need somone to confirm finer points of these details.) • The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, which is further subdivided into three bodies.

Ireland
In Ireland, after the Craft degrees conferred under the authority of the Grand Lodge of Ireland there are a number of degrees and orders that are administered separately and are open to Master Masons either by petition or by invitation. • The Royal Arch in Ireland is unique, and regarded widely as being the oldest Royal Arch working in the world. Members of Royal Arch in England, Scotland or America would notice a great many differences in the theme of the degree from what they are used to. Royal Arch Chapters in Ireland also work the Mark Master Mason degree, which a Mason must obtain before being made as a Royal Arch Companion. Irish Royal Arch chapters operate under the Supreme Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Ireland and both the Mark Master Masons and Royal Arch degrees are recognised by Grand Lodge as being part of "pure, ancient Freemasonry." • The Knight Mason degrees make up the last part of "Universal" Irish Freemasonry. They are open to any member of the Craft and Royal Arch. They are frequently known in other constitutions as the Red Cross Degrees, namely, Knight of the Sword (formally Red Cross of Babylon or Red Cross of Daniel), Knight of the East (formally Jordan Pass), and Knight of the East and West (formally Royal Order). These degrees had previously been administered by Knights Templar Preceptories and some Royal Arch Chapters. In 1923 the Grand Council of Knight Masons was established to support and preserve the Degrees and the Councils that confer them. Irish Knight Masonry is now a worldwide masonic body and is continuing to grow. The Red Cross Degrees practiced under the Grand Council of Knight Masons are conferred in the correct chronological order and are given in far greater detail than any similar body anywhere else in the world. In other jurisdictions, it is invitational. Invitational Degrees • The Military Order of the Temple, often known as the Masonic Knights Templar, confers Templar and Malta degrees. Membership of the Order of the Temple is strictly invitational. • The Ancient and Accepted Rite of Ireland has strict requirements for membership. It is by invitation only and membership of Knight Templar is required. The degree structure is extremely close to the more famous Scottish Rite in America; however, as in the Ancient and Accepted Rite in England, progression through each individual

Masonic bodies degree is strictly by invitation only.

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Northern Europe
In northern Europe Freemasonry exists mostly in the form of the Swedish Rite.

France
The French Rite is strong in France, Luxembourg, Greece, Brazil, and formerly Louisiana.[6]

Other Orders and Degrees
The following affiliated and/or appendant bodies confer Masonic degrees. Those who petition or are invited to membership must be at least Master Masons, although each body may have additional qualifications for membership: • Allied Masonic Degrees. In the U.S., councils of the A.M.D. exemplify twelve Masonic degrees. In Canada, councils exemplify nine degrees in addition to the installation ceremony. In England, councils confer only five degrees. • Royal Ark Mariners. In the U.S., it is part of the Allied Masonic Degrees. In England, separate lodges of Royal Ark Mariners are administered by the Mark Lodges under the Mark Grand Lodge. See Mark Master Lodge. In Canada, the degree is associated with the Cryptic Rite. • The Order of the Secret Monitor. In the U.S., the degree is exemplified as a part of the Allied Masonic Degrees. In England, separate conclaves of the Order confer three degrees.[7] • The Red Branch of Eri and The Order of Eri. In the U.S. and Canada, it is part of the Allied Masonic Degrees. In England, the Order of Eri consists of three degrees. • Ye Antient Order of Noble Corks. A part of the Allied Masonic Degrees. In England, and in some other countries, it is conferred separately. • The Knight Masons. Councils of Knight Masons confer what are sometimes known as the three Green Degrees: Knight of the Sword, Knight of the East, Knight of the East and West. In the U.S., the Grand Council of Knight Masons of the U.S.A. charters councils in amity with the Grand Council of Knight Masons which is based in Dublin, Ireland and is the Grand Council for all Irish Knight Masonry across the rest of the globe.[8] • Royal Order of Scotland. The Grand Lodge of the Royal Order at Edinburgh, Scotland, controls approx. 85 Provincial Grand Lodges around the world, and confers two degrees. • Chevaliers Bienfaisants de la Cite Sainte. (CBCS, or Knights Beneficent of the Holy City) (The Reformed Scottish Rite) Great Priories of the Order are exclusive, invitational bodies which confer four degrees. • The Rite of Baldwyn at Bristol. Practiced only in the city of Bristol, UK, the camp confers five degrees. • The Holy Royal Arch Knights Templar Priests. A rite of 33 degrees, of which only the last degree is conferred in full form in "tabernacles." • Societas Rosicruciana. Colleges confer nine degrees, or "grades."[9] • Order of St. Thomas of Acon. A commemorative chivalric order. Organized in "chapels."[10] • The Order of the Worshipful Society of Free Masons, Rough Masons, Wallers, Slaters, Paviors, Plaisterers and Bricklayers. Colloquially known as "The Operatives" and formed of seven degrees or "grades."[11] • The Hermetic Order of Gnosis. Known as H.O.GN, organised in "Temples", confers two degrees, and is ruled by a council of seven. This Order is by invitation only. • The August Order of Light. Temples of the Order confer three degrees. In England only.[12] • The Masonic Order of Athelstan. The Order is invitational, organised in "courts."[13]

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Some Other Affiliated Bodies
The following affiliated and/or appendant bodies admit Masons only, but confer no Masonic degrees or orders: • Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, (A.A.O.N.M.S.). Shriners, as they are known colloquially, meet in Shrine "temples," and are well-known for their maroon fezzes, lavish parades, and sponsorship of children's hospitals. • Royal Order of Jesters (R.O.J.) Colloquially known as "Jesters," local "courts" are limited to thirteen initiates yearly. Initiation, by invitation and unanimous ballot, is limited to members in good standing of the Shrine; see above.[14] • Mystic Order of Veiled Prophets of the Enchanted Realm. Colloquially known as "The Grotto;" members wear black fezzes. • National Sojourners. An American patriotic organization for Master Masons who served as officers, warrant officers, or senior non-commissioned Officers in the U.S. Armed Forces. • Heroes of '76. An American patriotic side order of the National Sojourners; see above. • Tall Cedars of Lebanon. • Order of the Sword of Bunker Hill. An American patriotic side order, focusing on Revolutionary War heroism, open to Master Masons in good standing only. • Order of Quetzalcoatl. Colloquially known as "The Q", a group mostly in the West and Southwest of the US. The following affiliated organizations admit both Masons and non-Masons: • Order of the Eastern Star. Membership is limited to Master Masons and their close female relatives. The Chapter is run by the women; the Master Mason is just there to help open the Chapter. The female relatives are wife, sister, daughter, niece, and various grands, step relatives and in-laws[15] Masons who are members of lodges under the United Grand Lodge of England are prohibited from joining this quasi-Masonic organization. • Order of the Amaranth. An American androgynous order for Master Masons and their female relatives. • Social Order of the Beauceant (S.O.O.B.). An American androgynous order for Knights Templar, their wives and widows. • White Shrine of Jerusalem. An American androgynous order for Master Masons and their female relatives. • Daughters of the Nile. Membership is limited to wives of Nobles of the Mystic Shrine. • Scottish Amaranthine Order is a Scottish androgynous order for Master Masons and their female relatives.

Youth Organizations
A number of Masonic-affiliated youth organizations exist, mainly in North America, which are collectively referred to as Masonic Youth Organizations. • DeMolay International is the most common. Young men from 12 to 21 are eligible. • Order of Boy Builders, formerly folded into DeMolay, now apparently revived in Kentucky. • A.J.E.F., Asociacion de Jovenes Esperanza de la Fraternidad, for boys aged 14 to 21, active in México, the United States, and Latin America. • Knights of Pythagoras, for boys aged 8 to 18; sponsored by the Prince Hall Masons.[16] [17] • International Order of the Rainbow for Girls. Young ladies from 11 to 20 are eligible. Rainbow, though not active in all of the United States, is active in Australia, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the Philippines. • Job's Daughters. Young ladies from 10 to 20, who are daughters of Master Masons or daughters of a majority Job's Daughter, are eligible. The "Jobies" have Bethels in Australia, Brazil, Canada, the Philippines, as well as in many states of United States.[18] • Order of the Constellation of the Junior Stars, for girls, a junior affiliate of the Order of the Eastern Star. • Gleaners are the Youth Department of the Order of the Eastern Star Prince Hall Affiliated. The local units are Branches; the members range in age from 8 to 18.[19]

Masonic bodies • Girls of the Golden Court, for girls 12 to 18, sponsored by the Order of the Golden Chain, and apparently centered in New Jersey. • Organization of Triangles, confined to New York State, for girls and young women aged 10 to 21.[20] • A.P.J., Ação Paramaçônica Juvenil, for boys and girls, aged 7 to 21, active only in Brazil, its country of origin. It was founded by Brazilian freemason Adison do Amaral on April 15, 1983.[21]

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References
[1] Coil, Henry Wilson; "Degrees," pp. 165-168; Coil's Masonic Encyclopedia; 1961, 1996, Macoy Publ. Co., Richmond, Va. ISBN-0-88053-054-5 [2] http:/ / www. grandlodge-england. org/ pdf/ cr-rule-update2-141205. pdf Aims and Relationships of the Craft [3] In the United Kingdom, Article II of the 1813 Articles of Union between the "Antients" and "Moderns" declared that the Holy Royal Arch degree is the completion of the Master Mason degree. http:/ / www. freemasons-freemasonry. com/ england_grand_lodge. html [4] Jackson, Keith B. Beyond the Craft: The Indispensable Guide to Masonic Orders Practised in England and Wales, 2005. ISBN 0-85318-248-5 [5] Coil, Henry Wilson; "England, Grand Lodges, Union of 1813," pp. 241-242; Coil's Masonic Encyclopedia; 1961, 1996, Macoy Publ. Co., Richmond Va. [6] http:/ / www. masonicdictionary. com/ rites. html][http://www.themasonictrowel.com/Articles/Symbolism/rituals_files/rituals_7_doors_to_freemasonry.htm [7] http:/ / www. orderofthesecretmonitor. org. uk [8] Grand Council of Knight Masons (http:/ / www. irish-freemasons. org/ Pages_KM/ KM_Introduction_Page. html) [9] http:/ / www. sria. info [10] http:/ / www. orderofstthomasofacon. org [11] http:/ / www. operatives. org. uk [12] http:/ / www. the-order-of-light. org. uk [13] http:/ / www. athelstan. org. uk [14] http:/ / iroj. org [15] http:/ / www. easternstar. org [16] http:/ / www. okpdc. org/ ?q=node/ 12 [17] http:/ / home. att. net/ ~district30/ kop. html [18] http:/ / www. iojd. org [19] http:/ / home. att. net/ ~district30/ gleaners. html [20] http:/ / www. nytriangle. org [21] http:/ / www. godf. org. br/ lojas/ apj/ index. htm

Website (http:/ / www. royalarchmasons. on. ca/ ) Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of Canada in The Provice of Ontario Website (http://www.knightstemplar.ca/) The Sovereign Great Priory (SGP)in Canada

Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine

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Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine
The Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, also commonly known as Shriners and abbreviated A.A.O.N.M.S., established in 1870, is an appendant body to Freemasonry, based in the United States. The organization is best-known for the Shriners Hospitals for Children they administer and the red fezzes that members wear. The organization is headquartered in Tampa, Florida.[1] Shriners International describes itself as a fraternity based on fun, fellowship and the Masonic principles of brotherly love, relief, and truth. There are approximately 340,000 members from 193 temples (chapters) in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, Republic of Panama, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Europe and Australia.

Logo of the Shriners of North America

History
In 1870, there were several thousand Masons in Manhattan, many of whom lunched at the Knickerbocker Cottage at a special table on the second floor. There, the idea of a new fraternity for Masons stressing fun and fellowship was discussed. Dr. Walter M. Fleming, M.D., and William J. Florence took the idea seriously enough to act upon it. Florence, a world-renowned actor, while on tour in Marseilles, was invited to a party given by an Arabian diplomat. The entertainment was something in the nature of an elaborately staged musical comedy. At its conclusion, the guests became members of a secret society. Florence took copious notes and drawings at his initial viewing and on two other occasions, once in Algiers and once in Cairo. When he returned to New York in 1870, he showed his material to Fleming.[2] Fleming took the ideas supplied by Florence and converted them into what would become the "Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine (A.A.O.N.M.S.)". Fleming created the ritual, emblem and costumes. Florence and Fleming were initiated August 13, 1870, and initiated 11 other men on June 16, 1871.[3] The group adopted a Middle Eastern theme and soon established Temples meeting in Mosques (though the term Temple has now generally been replaced by Shrine Auditorium or Shrine Center). The first Temple established was Mecca Temple (now known as Mecca Shriners), established at the New York City Masonic Hall on September 26, 1872. Fleming was the first Potentate.[4]
William J. Florence

Walter Millard Fleming

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In 1875, there were only 43 Shriners in the organization. In an effort to spur membership, at the June 6, 1876 meeting of Mecca Temple, the Imperial Grand Council of the Ancient Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine for North America was created. Fleming was elected the first Imperial Potentate. After some other reworking, by 1878 there were 425 members in 13 temples in eight states, and by 1888, there were 7,210 members in 48 temples in the United States and Canada. By the Imperial Session held in Washington, D.C. in 1900, there were 55,000 members and 82 Temples.[5] Shriners often participate in local parades, sometimes as rather elaborate units: miniature vehicles in themes (all sports cars; all miniature 18-wheeler trucks; all fire engines, and so on), an "Oriental Band" dressed in cartoonish versions of Middle Eastern dress; pipe bands, drummers, motorcycle units, Drum and Bugle Corps, and even traditional brass bands.

Shrine Peace Memorial at CNE grounds in Toronto

Membership
Despite its theme, the Shrine is in no way connected to Islam. It is a men's Shrine Peace Memorial Plaque at CNE fraternity rather than a religion or religious group. Its only religious grounds in Toronto requirement is indirect: all Shriners must be Masons, and petitioners to Freemasonry must profess a belief in a Supreme Being. To further minimize confusion with religion, the use of the word "Temple" to describe Shriners' buildings has been replaced by "Shrine Center," although individual local chapters are still called "Temples." Until 2000, before being eligible for membership in the Shrine, a person had to complete either the Scottish Rite or York Rite degrees of Masonry,[6] but now any Master Mason can join.[7]

Architecture
Some of the earliest Shrine Centers often chose a Moorish Revival style for their Temples. Architecturally notable Shriners Temples include the New York City Center, now used as a concert hall, Newark Symphony Hall, The Landmark Theater (formerly The Mosque) in Richmond, Virginia, the Tripoli Shrine Temple in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, the Helena Civic Center (Montana) (formerly the Algeria Shrine Temple), and the Fox Theatre (Atlanta, Georgia) which was jointly built between the Atlanta Shriners and William Fox.

Shriners Hospitals for Children
The Shrine's charitable arm is the Shriners Hospitals for Children, a network of twenty-two hospitals in the United States, Mexico and Canada. It was originally formed to treat young victims of polio, but as that disease was controlled, they broadened their scope. They now deal with orthopedic care, burn treatment, cleft lip and palate care and spinal cord injury rehabilitation. All treatment offered at Shriner's Hospitals for Children is offered without any financial obligation to patients and their families, and there is no requirement for religion, race, or relationship to a Shriner. Patients must be under the age of eighteen and treatable.[8] In 2008, Shriners Hospitals had a total budget of $826 million and in 2007 they approved 39,454 new patient applications, attended to the needs of 125,125 patients.[8]

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Other events
The Shriners are committed to community service and have been instrumental in countless public projects throughout their domain. They also host the annual East-West Shrine Game which is a college football all-star game. Shriners also hold the Justin Timberlake Shriners Hospitals for Children Open, a golf tournament which is held in Las Vegas. Once a year, the fraternity meets for the Imperial Council Session in a major North American city. It is not uncommon for these conventions to have 20,000 participants or more, which generates significant revenue for the local economy. Many Shrine Centers also hold a yearly Shrine Circus as a fundraiser.

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Home page (http:/ / www. shrinershq. org/ Shrine/ )." Shriners International. Retrieved on March 12, 2010. Shriners of North America. A Short History: Shriners of North America and Shriners Hospitals. September 2004 edition. pp. 3–4. Shriners of North America. A Short History: Shriners of North America and Shriners Hospitals. September 2004 edition. p.5. Shriners of North America. A Short History: Shriners of North America and Shriners Hospitals. September 2004 edition. p. 6. Shriners of North America. A Short History: Shriners of North America and Shriners Hospitals. September 2004 edition. p. 8.

[6] "Abd El Kader's Masonic Friends" (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ mem/ archive-free/ pdf?_r=1& res=9401E6D71431E433A25754C0A9609C94629FD7CF& oref=slogin) (PDF). The New York Times: p. 8. 1883-06-07. . Retrieved 2008-02-25. [7] "Be A Shriner Now" (http:/ / www. shrinershq. org/ shrine/ membership/ ). Shriners International. Accessed March 12, 2010. [8] "Shriners Hospitals for Children About Us" (http:/ / www. shrinershq. org/ Hospitals/ Main/ About). Shriners Hospitals. . Retrieved 2010-08-18.

External links
• • • • • • • • • Shriners of North America - Official Homepage (http://www.shrinershq.org/) Shriners Hospitals for Children - Official Homepage (http://www.shrinershq.org/Hospitals/Main/) The Shrine Circus (http://www.shrine-circus.com/) Justin Timberlake Shriners Hospital for Children Open (http://www.jtshrinersopen.com/) Shriners Australia (http://www.shrinersaustralia.com) (English) Shriners of British Columbia & Yukon (http://www.shriners.bc.ca/) Shriners Fantasy Show Canada (http://www.shrinefantasyshow.com/) (English) Shriners Club Excelsior zu Wien (http://www.shriners.at) (German & English) Be a Shriner Now (http://www.beashrinernow.com)

York Rite

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York Rite
The York Rite or American Rite is one of several Rites of the worldwide fraternity known as Freemasonry. A Rite is a series of progressive degrees that are conferred by various Masonic organizations or bodies, each of which operates under the control of its own central authority. The York Rite specifically is a collection of separate Masonic Bodies and associated Degrees that would otherwise operate independently. The three primary bodies in the York Rite are the Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, Council of Royal & Select Masters or Council of Cryptic Masons, and the Knights Templar, each of which are governed independently but are all considered to be a part of the York Rite. There are also other organizations that are considered to be directly associated with the York Rite, or require York Rite membership to join such as the York Rite Sovereign College but in general the York Rite is considered to be made up of the aforementioned three. The Rite's name is derived from the city of York, where, according to a Masonic legend, the first meetings of Masons in England took place, although only the lectures of the York Rite Sovereign College make reference to that legend. The York Rite is one of the appendant bodies of Freemasonry that a Master Mason may join to further his knowledge of Freemasonry. But the York Rite is not found as a single system world wide, and outside of the York Rite there are often significant differences in ritual, as well as organization. However in most cases provided that the Grand Body in question regards the parent "Craft" jurisdiction as regular, each distinct Order has recognised fraternal inter-relations with the respective Grand Body within the York system.

York Rite Bodies
Since the York Rite is actually a grouping of separate organizations joined in order, each body operates with relative autonomy. And though they are referred to as one rite it is common for individuals to be member of some bodies and not others. For example in many jurisdictions Cryptic Masonry can be skipped allowing the person to be a member of just the Royal Arch and Knights Templar. It is also common for non-Christians to join only the Royal Arch and Council of Royal & Select Masters as the Knights Templar require members to be of the Christian faith. But no matter what the Royal Arch is always required and membership in that body must be kept in order to maintain membership in the other two bodies. Details on the individual bodies are as follows:

Royal Arch Masonry
Royal Arch Masonry is the first order a Master Mason joins in the York Rite. The Chapter works the following degrees: • The Mark Master Mason degree is in some respects an extension of the Fellow Crafts' second degree. In some jurisdictions the degree is conferred in a Fellow Craft Lodge, that is, the second degree of the Blue Lodge. • The Past Master (Virtual) degree is conferred because of the traditional requirement that only Past Masters of a Blue Lodge may be admitted to Holy Royal Arch. Because there are so many applicants for this degree, Virtual Past Master is required to qualify them for it. Much of the work is the same given to install the Worshipful Master of a Blue Lodge. There is no such requirement or procedure outside the USA.

The Triple Tau. (Grand Emblem of Royal Arch Masonry)

• In the Most Excellent Master degree the building of King Solomon's Temple, which figures so prominently in Blue Lodge, has been completed. In England the degree is conferred by Cryptic Councils, along with three other degrees below.

York Rite • The Royal Arch Mason (or Holy Royal Arch) degree is said by many to be the most beautiful degree in all of Freemasonry. Following a convocation of the Supreme Grand Chapter in England on November 10, 2004, there are currently significant ritual differences between what is worked in England and that worked in the USA. Fraternal inter-relations remain as before. Freemasons who reach this degree may continue to Cryptic Masonry or go straight to Knights Templar (where permitted—requirements vary in different jurisdictions).

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Cryptic Masonry
Membership in the Council of Royal & Select Masters or the Council of Cryptic Masons is not required for membership in the Knights Templar in some jurisdictions, so it can be skipped. In others it is required. It is called Cryptic Masonry or the Cryptic Rite because a crypt or underground room figures prominently in the degrees. • Royal Master • Select Master • Super Excellent Master In some councils, a Most Excellent Master degree is offered between Select Master and Super Excellent Master, and some jurisdictions do not have the Super Excellent Master degree.
One variation of the Royal & Select Masters' Emblem, of which there are many.

Knights Templar
The Knights Templar is the final order joined in the York Rite. Unlike other Masonic bodies which only require a belief in a Supreme Being regardless of religion, membership in the Knights Templar is open only to Christian Masons who have completed their Royal Arch and in some jurisdictions their Cryptic Degrees.[1] This body is modeled off of the historical Knights Templar in hopes to carry on the spirit of their organization. Throughout history it has been claimed that Freemasonry itself was founded by the Knights Templar or that the Knights Templar took refuge in Freemasonry after their persecution. The Grand Encampment of the United States acknowledges the existence of these theories but states that there is no proof to justify such claims.[2] A local Knights Templar division is called a Commandery and operates under a state level Grand Commandery as well as The Grand Encampment of the United States. This is unique among Masonic bodies as most report to the state level alone. The Knights Templar confer three orders, and one passing order as opposed to the standard degree system found elsewhere in Freemasonry: • The Illustrious Order of the Red Cross • The Passing Order of St. Paul, (or the Mediterranean Pass) • The Order of the Knights of Malta (or simply Order of Malta) • The Order of the Temple

A crowned Passion Cross laid upon the Cross pattée inscribed with "In Hoc Signo Vinces" resting upon crossed swords is often used in to represent the Knights Templar

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Equivalent Independent Bodies
Mark Man and Mark Master
• England, India, and parts of Europe and Australasia - The Mark degree is conferred in a separately warranted Lodge of Mark Master Masons. The candidate for Advancement is required to be a Master Mason. A further degree is conferred by a Mark Lodge which is not present in the York Rite, that of Royal Ark Mariner. In the USA, this degree forms part of the Allied Masonic Degrees. In Canada, the Royal Ark Mariner degree is conferred by a Council of Royal and Select Masters. • Scotland - The Mark degree is conferred in a Craft lodge and is seen as the completion of the Fellow Craft Degree, but the candidate for Advancement is required to be a Master Mason. The Mark may alternatively, and The keystone, the symbol of a Mark exceptionally, be conferred in a Holy Royal Arch Chapter as a prerequisite Master Mason. for Exaltation to the HRA. If a Candidate has already received his Mark Degree in his Craft Lodge, then his initiation into the Chapter is preceded by a short ceremony of Affiliation to the Mark Lodge associated ("moored") to that Chapter.

Holy Royal Arch
The Holy Royal Arch is affiliated to many different constitutions worldwide, many of which place different emphasis on the order. • England, Europe and Australasia - A Holy Royal Arch Chapter is required to be sponsored by a Craft Lodge and bears the same number (and in almost all cases the same name); however, the HRA is a separate Order from Craft Freemasonry. Supreme Grand Royal Arch Chapter is governed from the headquarters of the United Grand Lodge of England, but the administration remains distinct though many officers of the Grand Lodge hold the equivalent office in the Grand Chapter. In these countries the Order of the Royal Arch consists of a single 'Royal Arch' degree, although there are three related ceremonies, one for the installation into each of the three Principals' chairs. As a compromise, at the union of two rival Grand Lodges in 1813 (one of which considered the Royal Arch a 'Fourth Degree', whilst the other almost totally ignored it) English A Holy Royal Arch Chapter Freemasonry recognised the Royal Arch as part of "pure, ancient masonry", but stated that it was not an additional degree, but merely the "completion of the third degree". However, this was merely a compromise position, and one which was in opposition to normal masonic practice, and consequently on 10 November 2004 (after much deliberation by a special working party) the Grand Chapter (at its regular meeting in London) overturned this compromise position, and declared the Royal Arch to be a separate degree in its own right, albeit the natural progression from the third degree. Words in the ritual which propounded the earlier compromise position were removed, by mandatory regulation. • Ireland - The Royal Arch degree under the Irish Constitution is unique, and while perfectly regular and recognised, it bares little resemblance to the same degree in the sister Constitutions of England and Scotland. The Royal Arch Degree under the Irish Constitution contains a legend concerning the first Temple, not the second.

York Rite The elaborate "Passing of the Veils" ceremony is essential to the Royal Arch Degree in the Irish system and after it is completed it is followed immediately by the Royal Arch degree itself, containing the story of the restoration of Solomon's Temple under King Josiah. The three presiding officers of a Royal Arch Chapter are called the Excellent King, High Priest and Chief Scribe, (not First, Second and Third Principal). Irish Royal Arch Chapters are also permitted to meet as Lodges of Mark Master Masons, and they are governed by the Supreme Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Ireland. • Scotland - The degree is conferred in a Royal Arch Chapter which is within a wholly different administrative structure (the Supreme Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Scotland). Due to a difference in ritual, Royal Arch Masons exalted in England may not attend Scottish Royal Arch Chapters without completing the Scottish exaltation ceremony. Before receiving the Holy Royal Arch Degree the Candidate must first have the Mark Degree and the Excellent Masters Degree. However, those Exalted in Scotland may attend Chapter in England, or indeed any Chapter, provided it be in Amity.

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Council of Royal & Select Masters
The Cryptic Council confers the four degrees identified above. Candidates are required to be members of a Royal Arch Chapter and a Mark Master Mason.

Knights Templar
Officially known as The United Religious, Military and Masonic Orders of the Temple and of St John of Jerusalem, Palestine, Rhodes and Malta, this order is colloquially known as the Knights Templar. Local bodies of Knights Templar are known as Preceptories; local bodies of Knights of St Paul are known as Chapters; local bodies of Knights of Malta are known as Priories; all operate under a Grand or Great Priory, often with an intermediate level of Provincial Priories. Although some jurisdictions maintain a separate Great Priory of the Temple and Great Priory of Malta (as, for example, in England), the Grand Master and other officers of both Great Priories hold simultaneous equal office in both bodies. Three degrees are administered in this system: • The Degree of Knight Templar (Order of the Temple) • The Degree of Knight of St. Paul (incorporating the Mediterranean Pass) • The Degree of Knight of Malta (Order of Malta)

The Cross pattée, a symbol commonly associated with both the historic and modern Knights Templar.

Membership is by invitation and candidates are required to be Master Masons, holders of the degree of the Holy Royal Arch and to sign a declaration that they profess the Doctrine of the Holy and Undivided Trinity.

References
[1] http:/ / www. knightstemplar. org/ faq1. html#member [Knights Templar FAQ - How to Become a Knight Templar] [2] http:/ / www. knightstemplar. org/ faq1. html#origin [Knights Templar FAQ], accessed January 10, 2007.

External links
• yorkrite.org (http://www.yorkrite.org/) • Grand Encampment of Knights Templar of the United States of America (http://www.knightstemplar.org/) • The Web of Hiram at Bradford University (http://www.bradford.ac.uk/webofhiram/)

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Royal Arch Masonry
Royal Arch Masonry is the term used to denote the first part of the York Rite system of Masonic degrees. Royal Arch Masons meet as a Chapter, and the Chapter confers four degrees: Mark Master Mason, Past Master, Most Excellent Master, and Royal Arch Mason.

Organization
Chapter level
A Chapter is in many ways the same as a Lodge; it has officers and a ritual degree system, which in this case consists of four degrees: Mark Master Mason, Past Master (in some jurisdictions the degree is named Virtual Past Master, to The Triple Tau. distinguish those who have taken this degree in a Royal Arch (Grand Emblem of Royal Arch Masonry) Chapter from those who were installed as a Worshipful Master in a lodge), Most Excellent Master, and Royal Arch Mason. However, unlike Lodges, the titles of the Officers change depending on the degree being conferred:
Mark Master Mason Master Senior Warden Junior Warden Senior Deacon Junior Deacon Master Overseer Senior Overseer Junior Overseer Marshal Tyler Secretary Treasurer (Virtual) Past Master Master Senior Warden Junior Warden Senior Deacon Junior Deacon none none none Marshal Tyler Secretary Treasurer Most Excellent Master Master Senior Warden none Senior Deacon Junior Deacon none none none Marshal Tyler Secretary Treasurer Royal Arch Mason High Priest King Scribe Principal Sojourner Royal Arch Captain Master of the Third Veil Master of the Second Veil Master of the First Veil Captain of the Host Sentinel Secretary Treasurer

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Regional level
Every US State has its own Grand Chapter, which performs the same administrative functions for its subordinate Chapters as a Grand Lodge does for its subordinate Lodges. In other countries there are either national or state Grand Chapters. The Chapter also has its own equivalents of Grand Lodge Officers, modified from the titles of the officers of a Royal Arch Chapter: • • • • • • • • • • • • Grand High Priest Deputy Grand High Priest Grand King Grand Scribe Grand Treasurer Grand Secretary Grand Chaplain Grand Captain of the Host Grand Principal Sojourner Grand Royal Arch Captain Grand Master of the Third Veil Grand Master of the Second Veil

• Grand Master of the First Veil • Grand Sentinel In jurisdictions that have them, there are also District Deputy Grand High Priests appointed by the Grand High Priest to oversee the districts of the jurisdiction as the representative of the Grand High Priest. Grand Representatives are appointed to keep in contact with their counterparts in other jurisdictions. Grand Chapters also contribute to specific charities which differ from state to state.

General Grand Chapter
Many of the Grand Chapters around the world (notable exceptions include: Massachusetts, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia)[1] are members of an umbrella group called the General Grand Chapter, founded October 24, 1797.[2] It publishes a quarterly magazine called Royal Arch Mason and supports the ABLEKids Foundation.[3] The History of General Grand Chapter In 1797, a group of Masons met in Hartford to try to establish some sort of governing body for degrees that were largely conferred in the New England states, which became the Grand Chapter of the Northern States, and later was broken down into the state-by-state Grand Chapter system.[4] This body later became the General Grand Chapter, Royal Arch Masons International.[2]

Development of the Royal Arch Degrees
The actual founding of Royal Arch Masonry is unknown. Until 1797, Lodges performed the Chapter degrees, as well as some others that are now more familiarly part of the Knights Templar degrees, such as Order of the Red Cross and the Knights Templar degree.[5] Fredericksburg Lodge in Virginia lists a conferral of the Royal Arch degree on December 22, 1753.[6] There are Chapters noted as giving certain degrees as far back as 1769 in Massachusetts (St. Andrew's Royal Arch Chapter, Boston, MA, then known as Royall Arch Lodge), where the first Knights Templar degree was also conferred.[7] Through a report compiled by the Committee on History and Research appointed by the Grand Chapter of Massachusetts in 1953 and 1954, it was found that St. Andrew's Royal Arch Chapter was the oldest constituted

Royal Arch Masonry Chapter in the Western Hemisphere, having been officially constituted April 9, 1769, though the records implied that the Chapter had been working prior to that date, and perhaps as early as 1762. The report also states that it is unknown whether the Fredericksburg lodge in Virginia conferred only the Royal Arch degree or the entire series of degrees.[8] The April 30, 1793 minutes of St. Andrew's Royal Arch Chapter state that the so-called Excellent degree may have become the Past Master Degree, and that a similar degree by that name was conferred in 1790 by King Cyrus Chapter in Newburyport, MA. There was also a "Super Excellent" degree that simply disappeared from the St. Andrew's minutes after December 21, 1797, and it was postulated that it may have become the Most Excellent Master degree, first noted in the same minutes on February 21, 1798.[9] The Past Master Degree was already in existence by 1797, and appears in a few monitors of the era: it is one of the four degrees in the Webb Monitor (1797) and appears in Jeremy Cross' monitor in 1826.[10] The Most Excellent Master Degree is considered American in origin,[11] although it has been postulated by Denslow and Turnbull that it was merely a rearrangement of preexisting material.[12] They state that the first mention of it by name is when it was conferred on William S. Davis on August 28, 1769 in St. Andrew's Royal Arch Lodge, and that the degrees came from lodges originating from the Irish Constitution.[13] Similarities between this degree and material in the 19° in the Early Grand Rite of Scotland are also enumerated upon, and they conclude that the degree is from that Rite.[14] As for the Royal Arch Degree, Turnbull and Denslow contend that "It is the most widely known and talked about degree in the Masonic system" because it had been part of the third degree until the formation of the United Grand Lodge of England.[15] However, its age can only be guessed at, and the first working of it was at the aforementioned Fredericksburg, Virginia.[16] Denslow and Turnbull also quote earlier Masonic historian Robert Freke Gould's assertion from documentation that the Royal Arch existed in Youghal (in County Cork, Ireland), some time prior to 1743. Dr. Fifield D'Assigny also wrote of it in Ireland in 1744.[17]

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Royal Arch Masonry in Canada
Royal Arch Masonry in Canada, differs slightly from that explained above from an American perspective. In Canada it tends to have stronger historical ties to the UK than to the USA, and in Canada unlike in the USA, the historical link to the monarchy remains. However it should be noted that recent changes to the Holy Royal Arch Degree in the UK, did not necessarily occur in Canada. In most Chapters in Canada the Past Master degree is not worked, there are only a few exceptions. The degree of the Holy Royal Arch is considered the "completion of the Master Mason's degree" in Lodge - a phrase inherited from England, but which was officially abandoned in England in 2004. The Officer's titles listed above may differ slightly, and of course the history is different, and more intertwined with that of the British Empire from which it largely grew, there are Chapters that received their charters from the Scottish Grand Chapter and therefore differ in respects.

References
[1] Ambassadors (http:/ / www. yorkrite. com/ chapter/ ambassadors. html). General Grand Chapter Royal Arch Masons International. Accessed 15 August 2008. [2] General Grand Chapter, Royal Arch Masons International (http:/ / www. yorkrite. com/ chapter/ ) Accessed 15 August 2008. [3] GGCHAPTER'S RARA (http:/ / www. yorkrite. com/ chapter/ ggrara. html). Accessed 15 August 2008. [4] Denslow, Ray and Everett C. Turnbull. History of Royal Arch Masonry Part One. Kessinger. ISBN 1417950048. p. 244. [5] Denslow, Ray and Everett C. Turnbull. History of Royal Arch Masonry Part One. Kessinger. ISBN 1417950048. pp. 3-4. [6] Denslow, Ray and Everett C. Turnbull. History of Royal Arch Masonry Part One. Kessinger. ISBN 1417950048. pp 194-5. [7] Karg, Barb, and John C. Young. 101 Things You Didn't Know About The Freemasons: Rites, Rituals, and the Ripper-All You Need to Know About This Secret Society!. Adams Media, 2007. ISBN 978-1598693195 p. 91. [8] Denslow, Ray and Everett C. Turnbull. History of Royal Arch Masonry Part One. Kessinger. ISBN 1417950048. pp. 195-99. [9] Denslow, Ray and Everett C. Turnbull. History of Royal Arch Masonry Part One. Kessinger. ISBN 1417950048. pp. 199-200. [10] Denslow, Ray and Everett C. Turnbull. History of Royal Arch Masonry Part One. Kessinger. ISBN 1417950048. pp. 93-94.

Royal Arch Masonry
[11] "Most Excellent Master Degree" (http:/ / www. monroeram. org/ Chapter1MEM. htm). Monroe Chapter No. 1, R.A.M. Accessed September 2, 2008. [12] Denslow, Ray and Everett C. Turnbull. History of Royal Arch Masonry Part One. Kessinger. ISBN 1417950048. p. 115. "There has existed, in the Americas, a belief that the degree was fabricated by Webb, Hanmer, and other early American ritualists...but the substance of the degree can be located in other degrees which were being conferred at about the same time it was introduced into this country." [13] Denslow, Ray and Everett C. Turnbull. History of Royal Arch Masonry Part One. Kessinger. ISBN 1417950048. p. 116. [14] Denslow, Ray and Everett C. Turnbull. History of Royal Arch Masonry Part One. Kessinger. ISBN 1417950048. p. 116-19. [15] Denslow, Ray and Everett C. Turnbull. History of Royal Arch Masonry Part One. Kessinger. ISBN 1417950048. p. 124. [16] Denslow, Ray and Everett C. Turnbull. History of Royal Arch Masonry Part One. Kessinger. ISBN 1417950048. p. 125. [17] Denslow, Ray and Everett C. Turnbull. History of Royal Arch Masonry Part One. Kessinger. ISBN 1417950048. p. 127-129.

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External links
Informative video entitled Fervency & Zeal (http:/ / jointheroyalarch. com), published by the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons in the Province of Ontario.

Cryptic Masonry
Cryptic Masonry is the term used to denote the second part of the York Rite system of Masonic degrees, and the last found within the Rite that deals specifically with the Hiramic Legend. The body itself is known as either the Council of Royal & Select Masters or Council of Cryptic Masons depending on the jurisdiction. Members of his body meet as a Council, and the Council confers three degrees: Royal Master, Select Master, and Super Excellent Master.

Organization
Council level
A Council is in many ways the same as a Lodge; it has The Royal & Select Masters' Emblem. officers and a ritual degree system, which in this case consists (Found with or without the sword) of three degrees: Royal Master, Select Master, and Super Excellent Master. The various positions in the lodge are modeled directly after Craft Masonry and though the names are often different the duties are effectively the same.
Craft Masonry Worshipful Master Senior Warden Junior Warden Treasurer Secretary Chaplain Senior Deacon Junior Deacon Senior Steward Cryptic Masonry Thrice Illustrious Master Deputy Master Principal Conductor of the Work Treasurer Recorder Chaplain Captain of the Guard Conductor of the Council Senior Steward

Cryptic Masonry

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Junior Steward Associate Steward(s) Marshal Tyler Junior Steward Associate Steward(s) Marshal Sentinel

Regional level
Every US State has its own Grand Council, which performs the same administrative functions for its subordinate Council as a Grand Lodge does for its subordinate Lodges. In other countries there are either national or state Grand Councils. The Council also has its own equivalents of Grand Lodge Officers, modified from the titles of the officers of a Council: • • • • • • • • • • Most Illustrious Grand Master Right Illustrious Deputy Grand Master Right Illustrious Grand Principal Conductor of the Work Right Illustrious Grand Treasurer Right Illustrious Grand Recorder Right Illustrious Grand Chaplain Right Illustrious Grand Captain of the Guard Right Illustrious Conductor of the Grand Council Right Illustrious Grand Marshal Right Illustrious Grand Sentinel

In jurisdictions that have them, there are also District Deputy Most Illustrious Grand Masters appointed by the Most Illustrious Grand Master to oversee the districts of the jurisdiction as the representative of the Most Illustrious Grand Master. Grand Representatives are appointed to keep in contact with their counterparts in other jurisdictions. Grand Councils also contribute to specific charities which differ from state to state.

General Grand Council
Many of the Grand Councils around the world are members of an umbrella group called General Grand Council of Cryptic Masons International, founded August 25, 1880.[1] It publishes a quarterly magazine called The Cryptic Freemason and supports the Cryptic Masons Medical Research Foundation, Inc.[2]

History and Development of the Cryptic Degrees
The degrees of Royal and Select Master were not originally combined into one system, each having been conferred by separate parties and initially controlled by separate Councils. As near as may be determined from conflicting claims, the Select degree is the oldest of the Rite. It was customary to confer the Royal degree on Master Masons prior to the Royal Arch, and the Select degree after exaltation to the sublime degree. This accounts for the fact that control of the Cryptic degrees vacillated back and forth in many jurisdictions, even after the formation of Grand Councils. To this date, the Royal and Select degrees are controlled by Grand Chapter in Virginia and West Virginia, and conferred by subordinate Chapters in those jurisdictions. The Royal degree appears to have been developed primarily in New York under direction of Thomas Lownds, whereas the Select was vigorously promulgated by Philip Eckel in Baltimore. It is claimed by Eckel that a Grand Council of Select Masters was formed in Baltimore in 1792, while it is definitely known that a Grand Council of Royal Masters (Columbian No. 1) was organized in 1810 in New York. It remained for Jeremy Cross to combine the two degrees under one system, which occurred about 1818, and this pattern was adopted in most jurisdictions as the degrees became dispersed beyond the eastern seaboard.

Cryptic Masonry The degree of Super Excellent Master is not allied to the other two degrees of the Cryptic Rite, so far as its teachings and traditions are concerned. The records of St. Andrews Chapter in Boston indicate that a degree of this name was conferred during the latter part of the eighteenth century. The earliest positive reference to the Super Excellent in connection to the Cryptic Rite is December 22, 1817, when a "Lodge" of Super Excellent Masters was organized by Columbian Council of Royal Masters in New York. The incidents, teachings, and ritualistic format of the Super Excellent degree bear no resemblance in any former degrees so named, which appears to justify the claim that it is American in origin. This degree has been, and to some extent still is, a rather controversial subject. It is conferred as one of the regular Cryptic Rite degrees in some jurisdictions, whereas the others confer it as an honorary degree only; in some instances, separate Grand Councils of Super Excellent Masters have been formed.

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References
• yorkrite.org [3] • General Grand Council of Cryptic Masons International [4]
[1] [2] [3] [4] General Grand Council of Cryptic Masons International (http:/ / www. ggccmi. org/ ) Accessed 03 May 2010. Cryptic Masons Medical Research Site (http:/ / www. cmmrf. org/ ). Accessed 03 May 2010. http:/ / www. yorkrite. org/ http:/ / www. ggccmi. org/

Knights Templar
This page is about a Masonic organization. For the medieval Knights Templar, see Knights Templar. The full title of this Order is The United Religious, Military and Masonic Orders of the Temple and of St John of Jerusalem, Palestine, Rhodes and Malta, and it is an international philanthropic chivalric order affiliated with Freemasonry. The word "United" in this title indicates that more than one historical tradition and more than one actual Order are jointly controlled within this system. The individual Orders 'united' within this system are principally the Knights of the Temple (Knights Templar), and the Knights of Malta, together with the Knights of St Paul. Within the York Rite system a fourth constituent element is the Order of the Red Cross.

Administration
The Knights Templar exists as an independent organization or forms part of the York Rite. Though the independent and York Rite versions share many similarities there are key differences which are described below.

A cross and crown laid upon a cross pattée inscribed with "In Hoc Signo Vinces" resting upon downward pointing swords in saltire is often used to represent the Knights Templar. (The various symbols used allude to the orders of the body, though the cross and crown is often used alone as well.)

Knights Templar as a part of the York Rite
The Knights Templar is the final order joined in the York Rite, and the only one not to deal with the Hiramic Legend. Unlike other Masonic bodies, which only require a belief in a Supreme Being regardless of religious affiliation, membership of the Knights Templar is open only to Freemasons who profess a belief in the Christian religion. They must have completed their Royal Arch (and in some jurisdictions also their Cryptic) degrees.[1]

Knights Templar This body is modeled on the historical Knights Templar and hopes to carry on the spirit of their organization. Throughout history it has been claimed that Freemasonry itself was founded by the Knights Templar or that the Knights Templar took refuge in Freemasonry after their persecution. The Grand Encampment of the United States acknowledges the existence of these theories, but states that there is no proof to justify such claims.[2] A local Knights Templar unit is called a Commandery and operates under a state level Grand Commandery as well as The Grand Encampment of the United States. This is unique among American Masonic bodies, as most report to the state level alone. The Knights Templar as a part of the York Rite confer three orders, and one passing order, as opposed to the standard degree system found elsewhere in Freemasonry: • • • • The Illustrious Order of the Red Cross The Passing Order of St. Paul, (or Mediterranean Pass) The Order of the Knights of Malta (or simply Order of Malta) The Order of the Temple

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Knights Templar as an Independent Body
When operating outside of the York Rite membership is by invitation and candidates are required to be Master Masons, holders of the degree of the Holy Royal Arch and to sign a declaration that they profess the Doctrine of the Holy and Undivided Trinity. In some Australian States, the requirement of being a Royal Arch Mason no longer applies. Local bodies of Knights Templar are known as Preceptories; local bodies of Knights of St Paul are known as Chapters; local bodies of Knights of Malta are known as Priories; all operate under a Grand or Great Priory, often with an intermediate level of Provincial Priories. Although some jurisdictions maintain a separate Great Priory of the Temple and Great Priory of Malta (as, for example, in England), the Grand Master and other officers of both Great Priories hold simultaneous equal office in both bodies. Three degrees are administered in this system: • The Degree of Knight Templar (Order of the Temple) • The Degree of Knight of St. Paul (incorporating the Mediterranean Pass) • The Degree of Knight of Malta (Order of Malta)

The Degrees or Orders
The Degree of Knight of the Temple (Order of the Temple)
The original medieval Order of Knights Templar was established after the First Crusade, and existed from approximately 1118 to 1312. There is no known historical evidence to link the medieval Knights Templar and Masonic Templarism, nor do the Masonic Knights Templar organizations claim any such direct link to the original medieval Templar organization.[3] Though it has been said that its affiliation with Masonry is based on texts that indicate persecuted Templars found refuge within the safety of Freemasonry, the order itself states that "there is no proof of direct connection between the ancient order and the modern order known today as the Knights Templar."[4] The official motto of the Knights Templar is In Hoc Signo Vinces, the rendition in Latin of the Greek phrase "εν τούτῳ νίκα", en toutōi nika, meaning "in this [sign] you will conquer".

The Cross pattée, symbol of the Order of the Temple in the independent body and Illustrious Order of the Red Cross.

The Knight Templar degree is associated with elaborate regalia (costume) the precise detail of which varies between nations. The ritual draws upon the traditions of medieval Knights Templar, using them to impart moral instruction consistent with the biblical teachings of the Christian tradition.

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The Cross and Crown, symbol of the Order of the Temple as found in the York Rite.

The Degree of Knight of Malta (Order of Malta)
This degree is universally associated with the Masonic Knights Templar. In the York Rite system it is conferred before the Templar Degree; in the 'stand-alone' tradition it is conferred subsequently to the Templar Degree. It is known by varying degrees of formality as the Order of Malta, or the Order of Knights of Malta, or the Ancient and Masonic Order of St John of Jerusalem, Palestine, Rhodes, and Malta. In practice this last and fullest version of the name tends to be reserved to letterheads, rituals, and formal documents.

The Maltese Cross, symbol

of the Order of Malta. The ceremony for conferring the degree (which is always worked in full) contains a mixture of masonic tradition, historical accounts of the Order of St John, moral teaching, and the communication of modes of recognition between members. A series of banners is employed in the ceremony, each representing one of the great battles of the historic medieval Order of St John, whose story is the basis of the moral teachings of the degree.

The Degree of Knight of St Paul (Order of St Paul)
This degree is conferred as a prerequisite to becoming a Knight of Malta, in both the York Rite and independent 'stand-alone' versions of Knight Templar Freemasonry. The "Preliminary Declarations" of the Order of Malta ritual in England state of a candidate for the Order of Malta: "He must also have received the Degree of Knight of St Paul, including the Mediterranean Pass". The exact status of the 'Mediterranean Pass' has at times led to confusion as to whether this is the 'stub' of a separate degree. The English ritual book clarified this in its 1989 edition (and subsequent editions) by stating: "The Mediterranean Pass is one of the secrets of the Degree of Knight of St Paul".[5]

This degree is close to being a true 'side degree', in that a small group (usually three) of members of the degree take the candidate "to one side" (i.e. apart on his own) and simply communicate the secrets of the degree to him, without actually working the ceremonial ritual of the degree. The only respect in which the degree fails to meet the definition of a true 'side degree' is that a Chapter of the Order is formally opened and closed by the presiding officer, on either side of the secrets being communicated.

Two downward pointing swords in saltire, symbol of the Order of St Paul.

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The Illustrious Order of the Red Cross (Order of the Red Cross)
Unique to the York Rite, the Illustrious Order of the Red Cross continues or reverts to the period of the Royal Arch Degree when the Israelites were returning from Babylon to Jerusalem to rebuild the Temple. Zerubbabel, their leader prevails upon King Darius to restore the Holy Vessels to the new Temple. They had been carried away by the Babylonian armies when the first Temple was destroyed. In presenting his plea before the King, the companion gives a powerful testimony to the almighty force of Truth. The ritual places the candidate in the role of Zerubbabel and follows him through his journey to King Darius and his role in the Immemorial Discussion, as found in the apocryphal book, 1 Esdras. The purpose is to bridge the gap between Royal Arch Masonry, and the Chivalric Orders as well the Old Testament and the New Testament. The Illustrious Order of the Red Cross teaches the lessons of the triumph of truth. It should not be confused with the Masonic Order known as the Red Cross of Constantine.

Templar traditions
Despite Freemasonry's general disclaimer that no one Masonic organization claims a direct heritage to the medieval Knights Templar, certain degrees and orders are obviously patterned after the medieval Order. These are best described as "commemorative orders" or degrees. Nevertheless, in spite of the fraternity's official disclaimers, some Masons, non-Masons and even anti-Masons insist that certain Masonic rites or degrees originally had direct Templar influence. • American Masonic youth organizations such as the Order of DeMolay for young men are named after the last Grand Master Templar Jacques de Molay who was executed in the final suppression of the Templar order in the early 14th century. • The Knight of Rose-Croix Degree in the "Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite", and honorary Orders like the Royal Order of Scotland are interpreted as evidence of a historical Templar-Masonic connection, though there is no factual basis for this belief. • Rosslyn Chapel near Edinburgh has been suggested to be strong link between the Knights Templar and Freemasons due to reliefs combining Templar and Freemason symbolism. Rosslyn Chapel was indeed founded by William De St Clair.[6] • Legends in certain degrees pertain to the involvement of Knights Under the command of Sir John De Bermingham, First and Last Earl of Louth [7] aiding the excommunicated 14th Century Scottish King Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Bannockburn; however this is based on 18th century romance and is not supported by any evidence. This story is the basis for the degrees in the Royal Order of Scotland an invitational Masonic honorary organization. • Templar connections have also been suggested through the Earls of Rosslyn (St. Clair, or Sinclair) a family with well documented connections with Scottish Freemasonry, one being a Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Scotland. • Many other old and new organizations are called "Knights Templar". However, organizations like the Order of the Solar Temple, Militi Templi Scotia,or the Sovereign Military Order of the Temple of Jerusalem are in no way related to Masonic Knights Templar, and share no relationship in either history, hierarchy, nor ritual.

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References
• • • • • • The History Channel, Decoding the Past: The Templar Code, 2005, video documentary The History Channel, Mysteries of the Freemasons, 2006 video documentary Stephen Dafoe, The Compasses and the Cross, 2008. ISBN 0-85318-298-1 Christopher L. Hodapp and Alice Von Kannon, The Templar Code For Dummies, 2007. ISBN 0-470-12765-1 Sean Martin, The Knights Templar: History & Myths, 2005. ISBN 1-56025-645-1 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/magazine/7050713.stm

Notes
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. knightstemplar. org/ faq1. html#member [Knights Templar FAQ - How to Become a Knight Templar] http:/ / www. knightstemplar. org/ faq1. html#origin [Knights Templar FAQ], accessed January 10, 2007. Knights Templar FAQ/INFO (http:/ / www. knightstemplar. org/ faq1. html) Accessed 14 August 2007 http:/ / www. knightstemplar. org/ faq1. html#origin [Knights Templar FAQ - Origin] Great Priory Ritual No 2, The Ancient & Masonic Order of St John of Jerusalem, Palestine, Rhodes, and Malta (published 1989, London), page 3. [6] National Geographic, The Fake Bible Part 1: The Knights Templar. Video Documentary [7] http:/ / www. loyno. edu/ history/ journal/ 1988-9/ nolan. htm

External links
Masonic Knights Templar organizations
• • • • • Grand Encampment of Knights Templar of the United States of America (http://www.knightstemplar.org) Sovereign Great Priory of the Knights Templar of Canada (http://www.knightstemplar.ca) Knights Templar Eye Foundation (http://knightstemplar.org/ktef/) Order of the Temple - Great Priory of Scotland (http://www.greatprioryofscotland.com) The Web of Hiram (http://www.brad.ac.uk/webofhiram/?section=masonic_knights_templar) Section on The Royal Exalted Religious and Military Order of Masonic Knights Templar of England and Wales at Bradford University

Scottish Rite

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Scottish Rite
The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry (the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction in the United States often omits the and), commonly known as simply the Scottish Rite, is one of several Rites of the worldwide fraternity known as Freemasonry. A Rite is a series of progressive degrees that are conferred by various Masonic organizations or bodies, each of which operates under the control of its own central authority. In the Scottish Rite the central authority is called a Supreme Council. The thirty-three degrees of the Scottish Rite are conferred by several controlling bodies. The first of these is the Craft Lodge which confers the Entered Apprentice, Fellowcraft, and Master Mason degrees. Craft lodges operate under the authority of Grand Lodges, not the Scottish Rite. Although most lodges throughout the English-speaking world do not confer the Scottish Rite versions of the first three degrees, there are a handful of lodges in New Orleans and in several other major cities that have traditionally conferred the Scottish Rite version of these degrees.[1] [2]

The Double headed eagle. (The symbol most commonly associated with the Scottish Rite)

The Scottish Rite is one of the appendant bodies of Freemasonry that a Master Mason may join for further exposure to the principles of Freemasonry. In England and some other countries, while the Scottish Rite is not accorded official recognition by the Grand Lodge, there is no prohibition against a Freemason electing to join it. In the United States, however, the Scottish Rite is officially recognized by Grand Lodges as an extension of the degrees of Freemasonry. The Scottish Rite builds upon the ethical teachings and philosophy offered in the craft lodge, or Blue Lodge, through dramatic presentation of the individual degrees.

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History
There are records of lodges conferring the degree of "Scots Master" or "Scotch Master" as early as 1733. A lodge at Temple Bar in London is the earliest such lodge on record. Other lodges include a lodge at Bath in 1735, and the French lodge, St. George de l'Observance No. 49 at Covent Garden in 1736. The references to these few occasions indicate that these were special meetings held for the purpose of performing unusual ceremonies, probably by visiting Freemasons.[3] The seed of the myth of Stuart Jacobite influence on the higher degrees may have been a careless and unsubstantiated remark made by John Noorthouk in the 1784 Book of Constitutions of the Premier Grand Lodge of London. It was stated, without support, that King Charles II (older brother and predecessor to James II) was made a Freemason in the Netherlands during the years of his exile (1649–60). However, there were no documented lodges of Freemasons on the continent during those years. The statement may have been made to flatter the fraternity by claiming membership for a previous monarch. This folly was then embellished upon by John Robison (1739–1805), a professor Scottish Rite jewellery 18º of Natural Philosophy at the University of Edinburgh, in an anti-Masonic work published in 1797. The lack of scholarship exhibited by him in that work caused the Encyclopædia Britannica to denounce it.[4] A German bookseller and Freemason, living in Paris, working under the assumed name of C. Lenning, embellished the story further in a manuscript titled "Encyclopedia of Freemasonry" probably written between 1822 and 1828 at Leipzig. This manuscript was later revised and published by another German Freemason named Friedrich Mossdorf (1757–1830).[5] Lenning stated that King James II of England, after his flight to France in 1688, resided at the Jesuit College of Clermont, where his followers fabricated certain degrees for the purpose of carrying out their political ends.[6] By the mid-19th century, the story had gained currency. The well-known English Masonic writer, Dr. George Oliver (1782–1867), in his "Historical Landmarks", 1846, carried the story forward and even claimed that King Charles II was active in his attendance at meetings—an obvious invention, for if it had been true, it would not have escaped the notice of the historians of the time. The story was then repeated by the French writers Jean-Baptiste Ragon (1771–1862) and Emmanuel Rebold, in their Masonic histories. Rebold's claim that the high degrees were created and practiced in Lodge Canongate Kilwinning [7] at Edinburgh are entirely false.[8] James II died in 1701 at the Palace of St. Germain en Laye, and was succeeded in his claims to the British throne by his son, James Francis Edward Stuart (1699–1766), the Chevalier St. George, better known as "the Old Pretender", but recognized as James III by the French King Louis XIV. He was succeeded in his claim by Charles Edward Stuart ("Bonnie Prince Charles"), also known as "the Young Pretender", whose ultimate defeat at the Battle of Culloden in 1746 effectively put an end to any serious hopes of the Stuarts regaining the British crowns. The natural confusion between the names of the Jesuit College of Clermont, and the short-lived Masonic Chapter of Clermont, a Masonic body that controlled a few high degrees during its brief existence, only served to add fuel to the myth of Stuart Jacobite influence in Freemasonry's high degrees. However, the College and the Chapter had nothing to do with each other. The Jesuit College was located at Clermont, whereas the Masonic Chapter was not. Rather, it was named "Clermont" in honor of the French Grand Master, the Comte de Clermont (Louis de Bourbon, Comte de Clermont) (1709–1771), and not because of any connection with the Jesuit College of Clermont.[9]

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Estienne Morin and his Rite of 25 Degrees
A French trader, by the name of Estienne Morin, had been involved in high degree Masonry in Bordeaux since 1744 and, in 1747, founded an "Ecossais" lodge (Scots Masters Lodge) in the city of Le Cap Français, on the north coast of the French colony of Saint-Domingue (now Haiti). Over the next decade, high degree Freemasonry continued to spread to the Western hemisphere as the high degree lodge at Bordeaux warranted or recognized seven Ecossais lodges there. In Paris in the year 1761, a Patent was issued to Estienne Morin, dated 27 August, creating him "Grand Inspector for all parts of the New World". This Patent was signed by officials of the Grand Lodge at Paris and appears Charter of the Rite of Perfection 25º to have originally granted him power over the craft lodges only, and not over the high, or "Ecossais", degree lodges. Later copies of this Patent appear to have been embellished, probably by Morin, to improve his position over the high degree lodges in the West Indies.[10] Early writers long believed that a "Rite of Perfection" consisting of 25 degrees, the highest being the "Sublime Prince of the Royal Secret", and being the predecessor of the Scottish Rite, had been formed in Paris by a high degree council calling itself "The Council of Emperors of the East and West". The title "Rite of Perfection" first appeared in the Preface to the "Grand Constitutions of 1786", the authority for which is now known to be faulty.[11] It is now generally accepted that this Rite of twenty-five degrees was compiled by Estienne Morin and is more properly called "The Rite of the Royal Secret", or "Morin's Rite".[12] However, it was known as "The Order of Prince of the Royal Secret" by the founders of the Scottish Rite, who mentioned it in their "Circular throughout the two Hemispheres"[13] or "Manifesto", issued on December 4, 1802.[14] Morin returned to the West Indies in 1762 or 1763, to Saint-Domingue, where, armed with his new Patent, he assumed powers to constitute lodges of all degrees, spreading the high degrees throughout the West Indies and North America. Morin stayed in Saint-Domingue until 1766 when he moved to Jamaica. At Kingston, Jamaica, in 1770, Morin created a "Grand Chapter" of his new Rite (the Grand Council of Jamaica). Morin died in 1771 and was buried in Kingston.[15]

Henry Andrew Francken and his Manuscripts
The one man who was most important in assisting Morin in spreading the degrees in the New World was a naturalized French subject of Dutch origin named Henry Andrew Francken. Morin appointed him Deputy Grand Inspector General as one of his first acts after returning to the West Indies. Francken worked closely with Morin and, in 1771, produced a manuscript book giving the rituals for the 15th through the 25th degrees. Francken produced at least two more similar manuscripts, one in 1783 and another about 1786. The second and third of these manuscripts included all the degrees from the 4th through the 25th.[16] A Loge de Parfaits d' Écosse was formed on 12 April 1764 at New Orleans, becoming the first high degree lodge on the North American continent. Its life, however, was short, as the Treaty of Paris (1763) ceded New Orleans to Spain, and the Catholic Spanish crown had been historically hostile to Freemasonry. Documented Masonic activity ceased for a time and did not return to New Orleans until the 1790s.[15] Francken traveled to New York in 1767 where he granted a Patent, dated 26 December 1767, for the formation of a Lodge of Perfection at Albany, which was called "Ineffable Lodge of Perfection". This marked the first time the Degrees of Perfection (the 4th through the 14th) were conferred in one of the thirteen British colonies. This Patent, and the early minutes of the Lodge, are still extant and are in the archives of Supreme Council, Northern Jurisdiction.[15] (The minutes of Ineffable Lodge of Perfection reveal that it ceased activity on December 5, 1774. It

Scottish Rite was revived by Giles Fonda Yates about 1820 or 1821, and came under authority of the Supreme Council, Southern Jurisdiction until 1827, when it was transferred to the Supreme Council, Northern Jurisdiction.) While in New York, Francken also communicated the degrees to Moses Michael Hays, a Jewish businessman, and appointed him a Deputy Inspector General. In 1781, Hays made eight Deputy Inspectors General, four of whom were later important in the establishment of Scottish Rite Freemasonry in South Carolina: Isaac Da Costa Sr., D.I.G. for South Carolina; Abraham Forst, D.I.G. for Virginia; Joseph M. Myers, D.I.G. for Maryland; and Barend M. Spitzer, D.I.G. for Georgia. Da Costa returned to Charleston, S.C., and established the "Sublime Grand Lodge of Perfection" in February 1783. After Da Costa's death in November 1783, Hays appointed Myers as Da Costa's successor. Joined by Forst and Spitzer, Myers created additional high degree bodies in Charleston and, by 1801, the Charleston bodies were the only extant bodies of the Rite in North America.[17]

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Birth of the Scottish Rite
Although most of the thirty-three degrees of the Scottish Rite existed in parts of previous degree systems,[18] the Scottish Rite did not come into being until the formation of the Mother Supreme Council at Charleston, South Carolina, in May 1801.They were known as The Eleven Gentlemen of Charleston , the Founding Fathers of the Scottish Rite . John Mitchell - Received a patent April 2, 1795, from Barend Moses Spitzer granting him authority as Deputy Inspector General to create a Lodge of Perfection and several Councils and Chapters wherever such Lodges or Chapters were needed. Born in Ireland in l741, he came to America at an early age, was Deputy Quartermaster General in the Continental Army, and the first Grand Commander of the Supreme Council. Frederick Dalcho - A physician. He served in the Army and for a while was stationed at Fort Johnson. He formed a partnership with Dr. Isaac Auld, another of the original members, in 1801. He was an outstanding orator and author. In 1807 he published the 1st Edition of Ahiman Rezon. He became an editor of the Charleston Courier, was a lay reader and deacon in the Episcopal Church and in 1818 was ordained a Priest. Alexander Francois Auguste de Grasse Tilly - A son of a French Admiral, and perhaps the most famously connected of all the original eleven. He was the youngest of the members and was named to become the Grand Commander of the West Indian Islands. He later moved to France and established the Supreme Council of France. Jean Baptiste Marie deLaHogue - He was a native of Paris and was a member of La Candeur Lodge in Charleston. Thomas Bartholemew Bowen- Was the first Grand Master of Ceremonies of the new Supreme Council. He was a Major in the Continental Army and a printer by trade. Abraham Alexander - Was one of the first Sovereign Grand Inspectors General. He was born in London in 1743, immigrated to Charleston in 1771. He was a very prominent Jew and had been described as "a Calligraphist of the first order", which may account for his election as the first Grand Secretary General. Emanuel de la Matta- A Sovereign Grand Inspector General. He was by trade a merchant and auctioneer. He was a member of Friendship Lodge and was reported to be quite devoted to the study of Jewish Literature and Masonic Study. Isaac Auld - An eminent physician, associated in medical practice with Dr. Dalcho. He was a rigid Congregationalist. Israel de Lieben - A Sovereign Grand Inspector General and the first Grand Treasurer General. He was born in Prague and emigrated to America upon reaching Majority age. He was known as "the liberal-headed Jew", who was "tolerant in his religious opinions and was considered to be intelligent, enterprising, liberal and generous. Moses Clava Levy - Was born in Krakow, Poland. He was a prosperous merchant, was generous and helpful to the unfortunate and devoted to his adopted city and country. James Moultrie - Was the only native South Carolinian among the original members. He was a Doctor of Medicine, and according to Albert Pike, "was one of the foremost Citizens of South Carolina". Isaac De Costa, one of the deputies commissioned to establish Morin's Rite of the Royal Secret in other countries, formed constituent bodies of the Rite in South Carolina in 1783, which eventually became, in 1801, The Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction. All regular Scottish Rite bodies today derive their heritage from this body.

Scottish Rite Subsequently, other Supreme Councils were formed in Saint-Domingue in 1802, in France in 1804, in Italy in 1805, and in Spain in 1811.[19] On May 1, 1813, an officer from the Supreme Council at Charleston initiated several New York Masons into the Thirty-third Degree and organized a Supreme Council for the "Northern Masonic District and Jurisdiction". On May 21, 1814 this Supreme Council reopened and proceeded to "nominate, elect, appoint, install and proclaim in due, legal and ample form" the elected officers "as forming the second Grand and Supreme Council...". Finally, the charter of this organization (written January 7, 1815) added, "We think the Ratification ought to be dated 21st day May 5815."[20] Officially, the Supreme Council, 33°, N.M.J. dates itself from May 15, 1867. This was the date of the "Union of 1867", when it merged with the competing Cerneau "Supreme Council" in New York. The current Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Northern Masonic Jurisdiction of the United States, was thus formed.[21]

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Albert Pike
Born in Boston, Massachusetts on December 29, 1809, Albert Pike is asserted within the Southern Jurisdiction as the man most responsible for the growth and success of the Scottish Rite from an obscure Masonic Rite in the mid-19th century to the international fraternity that it became. Pike received the 4th through the 32nd Degrees in March 1853 from Dr. Albert G. Mackey, in Charleston, S.C., and was appointed Deputy Inspector for Arkansas that same year. At this point, the degrees were in a rudimentary form, and often only included a brief history and legend of each degree as well as other brief details which usually lacked a workable ritual for their conferral. In 1855, the Supreme Council appointed a committee to prepare and The double-headed eagle on the cover of Morals compile rituals for the 4th through the 32nd Degrees. That committee and Dogma. was composed of Albert G. Mackey, John H. Honour, William S. Rockwell, Claude P. Samory, and Albert Pike. Of these five committee members, Pike did all the work of the committee. In 1857 Pike completed his first revision of the 4°-32° ritual, and printed 100 copies. This revision, which Mackey dubbed the "Magnum Opus" was never adopted by the Supreme Council. According to Arturo de Hoyos, the Scottish Rite's Grand Historian, the Magnum Opus became the basis for future ritual revisions.[22] In March 1858, Pike was elected a member of the Supreme Council for the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States, and in January 1859 he became its Grand Commander. The American Civil War interrupted his work on the Scottish Rite rituals. About 1870 he, and the Supreme Council, moved to Washington, DC, and in 1884 his revision of the rituals was complete. Scottish Rite Grand Archivist and Grand Historian de Hoyos[23] created the following chart of Pike's ritual revisions:

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Degrees 1°-3° 4°-14° 15°-16° 17°-18° 19°-30° 31°-32° 33°

When Revised 1872 1861, 1870, 1883 1861, 1870, 1882 1861, 1870 1867, 1879, 1883 1867, 1879, 1883 1857, 1867, 1868, 1880 (manuscripts only)

Pike also wrote lectures for all the degrees which were published in 1871 under the title Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry.[24]

Revisions after Pike
In 2000 the Southern Jurisdiction revised its ritual. The current ritual is based upon Pike's, but with some significant differences.

Organization
The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite in each country is governed by a Supreme Council. There is no international governing body — each Supreme Council in each country is sovereign unto itself in its own jurisdiction.

Scottish Rite building in Miami, Florida,USA

USA
In the United States of America there are two Supreme Councils: one in Washington, D.C. (which controls the Southern Jurisdiction), and one in Lexington, Massachusetts (which controls the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction). They each have particular characteristics that make them different. Southern Jurisdiction Based in Washington, D.C., the Southern Jurisdiction (often referred to as the "Mother Supreme Council of the World") was founded in Charleston, South Carolina in 1801. It oversees the Scottish Rite in 35 states, which are referred to as Orients, and local bodies, which are called Valleys.[25] [26] [27]

Scottish Rite Cathedral in Indianapolis, Indiana

In the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States, the Supreme Council consists of no more than 33 members, and is presided over by a Grand Commander. Other members of the Supreme Council are called "Sovereign Grand Inspectors General" (S.G.I.G.), and each is the head of the Rite in his respective Orient (or state). Other heads of the various Orients who are not members of the Supreme Council are called "Deputies of the Supreme Council."

Scottish Rite Northern Masonic Jurisdiction The Lexington, Massachusetts-based Northern Masonic Jurisdiction, formed in 1813, oversees the bodies in fifteen states: Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Wisconsin and Vermont. It uses only the term Valley.[28] Each Valley has up to four Scottish Rite bodies, and each body confers a set of degrees. In the Northern Jurisdiction, the Supreme Council consists of no more than 66 members. All members of the Supreme Council are designated Sovereign Grand Inspectors General, but the head of the Rite in each Valley of the Northern Jurisdiction is called a "Deputy of the Supreme Council."

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Degree Structure in the United States
Attainment of the third Masonic degree, that of a Master Mason, represents the attainment of the highest rank in all of Masonry. Additional degrees are sometimes referred to as appendant degrees, even where the degree numbering might imply a hierarchy. They represent a lateral movement in Masonic Education rather than an upward movement, and are degrees of instruction rather than rank. In 2000, the Southern Masonic Jurisdiction completed a revision of its ritual scripts. In 2004, the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction rewrote and reorganized its degrees.[29] Further changes have occurred in 2006.[30] The current titles of the degrees and their arrangement in the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States remains substantially unchanged from the beginning. The list of degrees for the Supreme Councils of Australia, England and Wales, and most other jurisdictions agrees with that of the Southern Jurisdiction of the U.S. However, the list of degrees for the Northern Jurisdiction of the United States is now somewhat different and is given in the table below. The list of degrees of the Supreme Council of Canada reflects a mixture of the two, with some unique titles as well:
Degree Number 4° 5° 6° 7° 8° 9° 10° 11° 12° 13° 14° 15° Elu of the Nine Elu of the Fifteen Elu of the Twelve Master Architect Royal Arch of Solomon Perfect Elu Knight of the East, or Knight of the Sword, or Knight of the Eagle Intimate Secretary Southern Jurisdiction Secret Master Perfect Master Master of the Brazen Serpent Provost and Judge Intendant of the Building Master of the Temple Master Elect [33] [31] Northern Jurisdiction Master Traveler [32]

Sublime Master Elected Grand Master Architect Master of the Ninth Arch Grand Elect Mason Knight of the East, or Knight of the Sword

16° 17° 18° 19° 20° Master of the Symbolic Lodge Knight Rose Croix

Prince of Jerusalem Knight of the East and West Knight of the Rose Croix de Heredom Council of Kadosh Grand Pontiff Master ad Vitam

Scottish Rite

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21° Noachite, or Prussian Knight Knight of the Royal Axe, or Prince of Libanus Patriarch Noachite

22°

Prince of Libanus

23° 24° 25° 26° Prince of the Tabernacle Knight of the Brazen Serpent Prince of Mercy, or Scottish Trinitarian Knight of the Sun, or Prince Adept Knight Commander of the Temple

Chief of the Tabernacle Brother of the Forest Master of Achievement Friend and Brother Eternal Knight of Jerusalem [34]

27°

28°

Knight of the Sun, or Prince Adept Knight of Saint Andrew Grand Inspector

29° 30°

Scottish Knight of Saint Andrew Knight Kadosh, or Knight of the White and Black Eagle Inspector Inquisitor Master of the Royal Secret

31° 32° 33°

Knight Aspirant Sublime Prince of the Royal Secret Inspector General

In the United States, members of the Scottish Rite can be elected to receive the 33° by the Supreme Council. It is conferred on members who have made major contributions to society or to Masonry in general. In the Southern Jurisdiction, a member who has been a 32° Scottish Rite Mason for 46 months or more is eligible to be elected to receive the "rank and decoration" of Knight Commander of the Court of Honour (K.C.C.H.) in recognition of outstanding service. After 46 months as a K.C.C.H. he is then eligible to be elected to the 33rd degree.[35] In the Northern Jurisdiction, there is only one 46-month requirement for eligibility to receive the 33rd degree, and while there is a Meritorious Service Award (as well as a Distinguished Service Award), they are not required intermediate steps towards the 33°. A recipient of the 33rd Degree is an honorary member of the Supreme Council and is therefore called an "Inspector General Honorary." However, those who are appointed Deputies of the Supreme Council that are later elected to membership on the Supreme Council are then designated "Sovereign Grand Inspectors General." In the Northern Jurisdiction a recipient of the 33rd Degree is an honorary member of the Supreme Council, and all members are referred to as a "Sovereign Grand Inspectors General."

Scottish Rite outside of the United States
UK
In England and Wales, whose Supreme Council was warranted by that of the Northern Jurisdiction of the USA (in 1845),[36] the Rite is known colloquially as the "Rose Croix" or more formally as "The Ancient and Accepted Rite for England and Wales and its Districts and Chapters Overseas" (continental European jurisdictions retain the "Écossais"). The only local bodies are Rose Croix Chapters; many degrees are conferred in name only, and degrees beyond the 18° are conferred only by the Supreme Council itself. In England, the candidate is perfected in the 18th degree with the preceding degrees awarded in name only. Continuing to the 30th degree is restricted to those who have served in the chair of the Chapter. Elevation beyond the 30th degree is as in Scotland.

Scottish Rite In Scotland, candidates are perfected in the 18th degree, with the preceding degrees awarded in name only. A minimum of a two-year interval is required before continuing to the 30th degree, again with the intervening degrees awarded by name only. Elevation beyond that is by invitation only, and numbers are severely restricted.

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Canada
In Canada, whose Supreme Council was warranted in 1874 by that of England and Wales, the Rite is known as Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. The council is called "Supreme Council 33° Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry of Canada".

Anti-Masonic Criticism of the Scottish Rite Rituals
In 1856 Albert Pike revised and re-issued the rituals for use in the Southern Jurisdiction, also illustrating his interpretations of his revised rituals in Morals and Dogma. These rituals and the interpretation of them contained in Morals and Dogma have been the focus of much of the criticism of Freemasonry as a whole, despite the factual inaccuracies of that criticism. Pike's final revision of the ritual is no longer in use in the Southern Jurisdiction. Rather, the Southern Jurisdiction ritual today is a ritual that has been revised many times by various ritual committees and other contributors. The Northern Jurisdiction and other Supreme Councils also use rituals that represent many similar revisions and additions.

External links
• • • • • Supreme Council 33°, Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite, Northern Masonic Jurisdiction [37] Supreme Council 33°, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, USA [38] Scottish Rite of Canada, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry in Canada [39] Supreme Council of the Ancient & Accepted Scottish Rite for Australia [40] http://www.scottishritecalifornia.org/founding_fathers.htm

Supported institutions
• Links to RiteCare Clinics [41] which provide diagnostic evaluation and treatment of speech and language disorders, as well as learning disabilities in the Southern Jurisdiction, USA • Masonic Learning Centers for Children, Inc. [42] which provide tutoring for children with dyslexia in the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction • Learning Centres for Children [43] in Canada • Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children, a pediatric orthopedic hospital in Dallas, Texas • Children's Healthcare of Atlanta at Scottish Rite [44]

Notes
[1] Germania Lodge #46, GL of Louisiana, USA (http:/ / www. germania46. org/ ) "The Lodge works in the Scottish Rite Symbolic ritual - one of only ten Lodges under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Louisiana which work in this historic ritual. The ten Scottish Rite Lodges comprise the 16th District of the Grand Lodge of Louisiana." [2] Grand Loge de France FAQ (http:/ / www. gldf. org/ rubrique. php3?id_rubrique=29) "Q:"What rite is worked at the Grand Lodge of France?" A:As mentioned above, and like most Grand Lodges in the world, the Grand Lodge of France mostly works the three Craft (Blue) degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite (A&ASR). However some Lodges work the Rectified Scottish Rite and some work Emulation, the latter in English." [3] Jackson, A.C.F. (1980). "Rose Croix: A History of the Ancient & Accepted Rite for England and Wales" (rev. ed. 1987). London: Lewis Masonic. [4] Coil, Henry W. (1961) Article: "Stuart Masonry", pp. 634–637; and Article: "Robison, John", pp. 569–570. Coil's Masonic Encyclopedia (rev. ed. 1996). Richmond, Va: Macoy Publ. Co. Inc. [5] Coil, Henry W. (1961) Article: "Lenning, C." pp. 377–378; and "Mossdorf, Friedrich", pg. 435. Coil's Masonic Encyclopedia (rev. ed. 1996). Richmond, Va: Macoy Publ. Co. Inc.

Scottish Rite
[6] Mackey, Albert G. (1909) Article: "Stuart Masonry" pp. 981–982. Encyclopedia of Freemasonry (rev. ed. 1946). Chicago, IL: Masonic History Co. [7] Tailby, S.R.; Young, Hugh (1944). "A BRIEF HISTORY OF LODGE MOTHER KILWINNING No. 0." (http:/ / web. mit. edu/ dryfoo/ www/ Masonry/ Reports/ kilw. html). . Retrieved 2007-03-30 [8] Coil, Henry W. (1961) Article: "Stuart Masonry", pp. 634–637. Coil's Masonic Encyclopedia (rev. ed. 1996). Richmond, Va: Macoy Publ. Co. Inc. [9] Coil, Henry W. (1961) Article: "Clermont, Chapter of", pg. 135. Coil's Masonic Encyclopedia (rev. ed. 1996). Richmond, Va: Macoy Publ. Co. Inc. [10] Jackson,, A.C.F. (1987) [1980]. Rose Croix: A History of the Ancient & Accepted Rite for England and Wales (rev. ed.). London: Lewis Masonic. pp. 31–45. [11] Jackson,, A.C.F. (1987) [1980]. Rose Croix: A History of the Ancient & Accepted Rite for England and Wales (rev. ed.). London: Lewis Masonic. pp. 75–84. [12] Jackson(1980) pg. 37 [13] Full text of Circular hosted on the website of the AASR Orient of South Carolina (http:/ / scscottishrite. org/ history/ dalchocircular. htm) [14] de Hoyos, Arturo, Scottish Rite Ritual, Monitor and Guide 2d ed. (Washington, D.C.: Supreme Council, 33°, S.J., 2009), pp. 937, 938. [15] Fox, William L. (1997). Lodge of the Double-Headed Eagle: Two centuries of Scottish Rite Freemasonry in America's Southern Jurisdiction. Univ. of Arkansas Press.. p. 16. [16] Jackson(1987) [17] Fox(1997) pp. 16–17 [18] de Hoyos, Arturo, "Development of the Scottish Rite Rituals", in Scottish Rite Ritual, Monitor and Guide 2d ed. (Washington, D.C.: Supreme Council, 33°, S.J., 2009), pp. 109-118. [19] Coil, Henry W. (1996) [1961]. "Scottish Rite Masonry". Coil's Masonic Encyclopedia. Macoy Publishing and Masonic Supply Co., Inc.. p. 614. [20] de Hoyos, Arturo, "Structure of the Scottish Rite" in Scottish Rite Ritual, Monitor and Guide 2d ed. (Washington, D.C.: Supreme Council, 33°, S.J., 2009), p. 106. [21] de Hoyos, Arturo, "The Union of 1867" in Heredom (Washington, D.C.: Scottish Rite Research Society, 1995), vol. 5:7-45. [22] de Hoyos, Arturo, Scottish Rite Ritual, Monitor and Guide 2d ed. (Washington, D.C.: Supreme Council, 33°, S.J., 2009), p. 114. [23] de Hoyos, Arturo, Scottish Rite Ritual, Monitor and Guide 2d ed. (Washington, D.C.: Supreme Council, 33°, S.J., 2009), p. 115. [24] Coil, Henry W. (1961). Article: "Pike, Albert" pp. 472–475. "Coil's Masonic Encyclopedia" (rev. ed. 1995) Richmond, Va: Macoy Publ. Co. Inc. [25] Bremerton Valley of the Scottish Rite (http:/ / www. bremertonvalleysr. org/ ) "Illustrious Brother James N. Reid, Jr., 33°, IGH, Personal Representative of the S.G.I.G. in the Orient of Washington" [26] Jacksonville Valley of the Scottish Rite (http:/ / www. aasrvalleyofjax. org/ ) " The Mission of Scottish Rite Freemasonry in the Orient of Florida" [27] "Allegiance" (http:/ / www. srtampa. org/ pages/ Aboutus. asp). Valley of Tampa. . Retrieved 2007-07-31. "The Bodies of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, sitting in the Valley of Tampa, Orient of Florida acknowledge and yield allegiance to the SUPREME COUNCIL (Mother Council of the World) of Inspectors General. Knights of Solomon of the Thirty-third and last degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry for the jurisdiction of the United States of America, whose seat is at the Grand Orient of Charleston, in the State of South Carolina, now sitting at Washington. D.C...." [28] Member Valleys (http:/ / www. supremecouncil. org/ memberValleys/ ) [29] Freemasons for Dummies, Christopher Hodapp, ISBN 0-7645-9796-5, Hungry Minds Inc, U.S., 2005. pp. 224-225 [30] The Northern Light Magazine, November 2006; p. 6 "Ritual Changes." [31] A Bridge to Light, by Rex R. Hutchens; publ. 1995; 2nd Ed., 4th Printing, 2001; by The Supreme Council, 33°, Ancient & Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, So. Jurisdiction, U.S.A.; see also de Hoyos, Arturo, "Structure of the Scottish Rite" in Scottish Rite Ritual, Monitor and Guide 2d ed. (Washington, D.C.: Supreme Council, 33°, S.J., 2009), pp. 119-26. [32] Freemasons for Dummies, Christopher Hodapp, ISBN 0-7645-9796-5, Hungry Minds Inc, U.S., 2005. pp. 226-227 [33] Formerly "Master Elect of Fifteen." The Northern Light Magazine, November 2006 [34] Formerly "Prince of Mercy." The Northern Light Magazine, November 2006 [35] "The Distinctive Regalia of the Scottish Rite" (http:/ / www. srmason-sj. org/ council/ journal/ oct01/ normand. html) by Pete Normand, "The Scottish Rite Journal", October 2001, retrieved 9 April 2006 [36] Bedfordshire Freemasonry website: Rose Croix Masonry, accessed 05 Oct 06 (http:/ / www. beds-freemasonry. org. uk/ rose_croix_masonry. htm) [37] http:/ / www. supremecouncil. org/ [38] http:/ / scottishrite. org/ [39] http:/ / www. scottishritemasons-can. org/ [40] http:/ / www. scottishrite. org. au/ [41] http:/ / www. scottishrite. org/ what/ phil/ rc-directory. html [42] http:/ / www. childrenslearningcenters. org/ home. html [43] http:/ / www. learningcentresforchildren. ca/

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Scottish Rite
[44] http:/ / www. choa. org/

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Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry
Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, or simply Morals and Dogma, is a book of esoteric philosophy published by the Supreme Council, Thirty Third Degree, of the Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction of the United States. It was written by Albert Pike and first published in 1872. There have been several subsequent editions. While now out of print, copies are still widely available.

Contents
The book is composed of Pike's ruminations and essays on the Degrees of the Scottish Rite, from the 1st to the 32nd. It is intended as a guidebook for people entering the Scottish Rite, and explains Pike's understanding of the symbolism and allegory in the degrees he wrote. However, it is a truly imposing tome. There are 861 pages of text and a 218 page index; the book itself is over two inches thick. There are thirty-two chapters, each discussing the philosophical symbolism of a degree of Freemasonry in extensive detail. In the Preface to the 1950 Edition, the editors wrote about Pike thus:

The Double Headed Eagle emblem of the Scottish Rite, from the cover of Morals and Dogma.

In preparing this work, the Grand Commander has been about equally Author and Compiler; since he has extracted quite half of its contents from the works of the best writers and most philosophic or eloquent thinkers. Perhaps it would have been better and more acceptable if he had extracted more and written less.

The preface goes on to say:

Everyone is entirely free to reject and dissent from whatsoever herein may seem to him to be untrue or unsound.

Though it discusses the minutiae of Masonic ritual at length, it is written so as not to reveal the Masonic secrets. Ritual motions and objects are named and elaborated upon, but not described. Even so, in some older editions, the title page of the book declares in large, bold letters: ESOTERIC BOOK, FOR SCOTTISH RITE USE ONLY; TO BE RETURNED UPON WITHDRAWAL OR DEATH OF RECIPIENT. A copy of Morals and Dogma was given to every new member of the Southern Jurisdiction until 1974, when it was deemed "too advanced to be helpful to the new Scottish Rite member." It was initially replaced by Clausen's Commentaries on Morals and Dogma, written by Henry Clausen, 33°, Sovereign Grand Commander, and later by A Bridge To Light, by Rex Hutchens, 33°, G∴C∴, which is the book a new initiate into the Scottish Rite in the Southern Jurisdiction receives today.

Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry Since the Northern Jurisdiction did not adopt Pike's rituals, they never presented initiates with Morals and Dogma, or any of these subsequent commentaries.

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External links
• Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry [1] at Project Gutenberg

References
[1] http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ etext/ 19447

Order of Mark Master Masons
The Order of Mark Master Masons is an appendant order of Freemasonry that exists in some Masonic jurisdictions, and confers the degrees of Mark Man and Mark Master.[1]

Administrative structure
The administration of this degree varies greatly from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, though in all jurisdictions, the candidate for advancement is required to be a Master Mason to be eligible for this degree. In Europe, Asia and Australia the Mark Degree is conferred in separately warranted Lodges under the Grand Lodge of Mark Master Masons. • In England and Wales, the governing body is The Grand Lodge of Mark Master Masons of England and Wales and its Districts and Lodges Overseas, which also controls the Royal Ark Mariner degree; conferred in separately warranted Royal Ark Mariner Lodges.

The keystone, the symbol of a Mark Master Mason.

• In Ireland, the degree of Mark Master Mason is required to join a Royal Arch Chapter. A Royal Arch Chapter meets as a Mark Lodge, confers the Mark Degree on a candidate making him eligible become a Royal Arch Mason as a subsequent meeting. The Mark Lodge and the Royal Arch Chapter share the same Warrent in the Irish system. • In Scotland, the Mark Degree is conferred in a Craft lodge and is seen as completion of the Fellowcraft degree. The degree may alternatively, and exceptionally, be conferred in a Holy Royal Arch Chapter as a prerequisite for exaltation to the HRA. • In Western Australia, the Mark Master's Degree is conferred in a Royal Arch Chapter operating under the Supreme Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Western Australia, and is conferred as part of the process of Exaltation to the Holy Royal Arch Degree. The Degree may also be conferred upon candidates in a Lodge formed under the Scottish Constitution, by warrant from the Grand Lodge of Scotland. • In Queensland, Australia the Mark Master's Degree can be conferred by a Royal Arch Chapter under the Supreme Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Queensland or by a Mark Master Mason's lodge under the Grand Lodge of Mark Master Masons in Queensland. His entry into the Chapter is preceded by a short ceremony of Mark Lodge Affiliation, if the candidate has already been advanced into the Mark degree. • In New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory under the United Grand Lodge the Mark Man ceremony is not treated as a degree and is conferred in a warranted craft lodge with the Mark Master degree conferred in a

Order of Mark Master Masons Warranted Mark Master lodge. The Mark Man ceremony is commonly believed to be the contents of what was removed from the second degree to shorten it. • In North and South America, parts of Europe, Asia and Australia the Mark Master Mason degree is conferred as part of Royal Arch Masonry which is included in the York Rite.

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Allegorical legend
Similarly to Craft Freemasonry, the Mark Degree conveys moral and ethical lessons using a ritualised allegory based around the building of King Solomon's Temple. The events of the degree require the candidate to undertake the role of a Fellowcraft, thus the degree is seen as an extension of the Fellowcraft Degree and the philosophical lessons conveyed are appropriate to that stage in a candidate's Masonic development.

History
Following the Union of the Antients and Moderns Grand Lodges and the formation of the United Grand Lodge of England in 1813, the articles of union stated that there would be three Craft degrees only, including the Royal Arch, excluding the Mark degree. As Freemasonry spread around the globe in the 18th and 19th centuries, Mark Masonry became well established and now has a worldwide presence, with six daughter Grand Lodges and the degree being worked under alternative administrative structures elsewhere. In England, the current Mark Grand Master, HRH Prince Michael of Kent, is the younger brother of the Craft Grand Master, HRH Prince Edward, Duke of Kent. Christopher Knight and Robert Lomas argue in their 1996 book The Hiram Key that the construction of the Rosslyn Chapel in Scotland (1440-1490) provided the interface between the Knights Templar and Freemasonry. Accordingly, the first degree and Mark Masonry was introduced by William Sinclair, whom they allege was the first Grand Master and founder of Freemasonry.[2]

References
[1] Jackson, Keith B. Beyond the Craft. London: Lewis Masonic, 2005. ISBN 09780853182481 [2] Christopher Knight and Robert Lomas. The Hiram Key. London, 1996.

Holy Royal Arch

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Holy Royal Arch
The Holy Royal Arch is a degree of Freemasonry. It is present in all main masonic systems, though in some it is part of 'mainstream' Freemasonry, and in others it is an 'additional' degree. In the United States, Canada, Brazil, Israel, Mexico, Paraguay, and the Philippines, the Holy Royal Arch degree forms part of the York Rite system of additional degrees. In England, Scotland, Ireland, and most of Europe (including the masonically expanding states of eastern Europe)[1] it is a stand alone degree, but mainstream, being defined as part of "pure ancient Masonry"[2] [3] along with the three Craft degrees; a candidate for Exaltation into an English Holy Royal Arch Chapter is required to have been a Master Mason for four weeks or more.[4] In Scotland the candidate must also be a Mark Master Mason, a degree which can be conferred within the Chapter if required. Once exalted a candidate becomes a companion, with Royal Arch meetings being described as a convocation.

The Triple Tau. (Grand Emblem of Royal Arch Masonry)

The exact origins of the Holy Royal Arch are unknown except that it dates back to the mid 18th century.

History
The precise history of the Royal Arch is unclear, but from historical documentation it can be shown that Royal Arch existed in London, York and Dublin in the 1730s. At that time the degree was an appendage of the Master Mason's degree, but as with the Craft Freemasonry of the time, the Antients and Moderns held very different views on the Royal Arch. The Antients then regarded it as a fourth degree and conferred it as such together with various other degrees within their Lodges, maintaining that a Lodge Charter or Warrant empowered them to carry out any Masonic work. The Moderns, however, regarded it as being separate from Craft Freemasonry and as early as 1766 constituted the Grand and Royal Chapter of the Royal Arch of Jerusalem, parent of the present Supreme Grand Chapter.

The First Grand Chapter
Earliest records [5] indicate that HRA members of the premier Grand Lodge of England formed the first Grand Chapter by signing the Charter of Compact at its meeting on 22 July 1766. The Grand Chapter became The Excellent Grand and Royal Chapter of the Royal Arch of Jerusalem, the first Grand Chapter in the world.

Orders and Degrees
The Holy Royal Arch is affiliated to many different constitutions worldwide, many of which place different emphasis on the order. • England, Europe and Australasia: A Holy Royal Arch Chapter is required to be sponsored by a Craft Lodge and bears the same number (and in almost all cases the same name); however, the HRA is a separate Order from Craft Freemasonry. Supreme Grand Royal Arch Chapter is governed from the headquarters of the United Grand Lodge of England, but the administration remains distinct - though many officers of the Grand Lodge hold the equivalent office in the Grand Chapter. In these countries the Order of the Royal Arch consists of a single 'Royal

Holy Royal Arch Arch' degree, although there are three related ceremonies, one for the installation into each of the three Principals' chairs.[6] As a compromise, at the union of two rival Grand Lodges in 1813 (one of which considered the Royal Arch a 'Fourth Degree', whilst the other almost totally ignored it) English Freemasonry recognised the Royal Arch as part of "pure, ancient masonry", but stated that it was not an additional degree, but merely the "completion of the third degree". However, this was merely a compromise position, and one which was in opposition to normal masonic practice,[7] and consequently on 10 November 2004 (after much deliberation by a special working party) the Grand Chapter (at its regular meeting in London) overturned this compromise position, and declared the Royal Arch to be a separate degree in its own right, albeit the natural progression from the third degree, and the completion of "pure, ancient Masonry", which consists of the three 'Craft' degrees, and the Royal Arch. Words in the ritual which propounded the earlier compromise position were removed, by mandatory regulation.[8] The English system of Royal Arch Masonry is found in most European states (outside Scandinavia, which has a unique system), and is currently being introduced to many eastern European states, including Russia and Serbia. • Scotland: The degree is conferred in a Royal Arch Chapter which is within a wholly different administrative structure (the Supreme Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Scotland). Due to a difference in ritual, Royal Arch Masons exalted in England may not attend Scottish Royal Arch Chapters without completing the Scottish exaltation ceremony. Before receiving the Holy Royal Arch Degree the Candidate must first have the Mark Degree and the Excellent Masters Degree. However, those Exalted in Scotland may attend Chapter in England, or indeed any Chapter, provided it be in Amity. Although English Royal Arch masons may also hold the Mark Degree, it is not guaranteed; the Excellent Master Degree is not practised in England.

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Organisational Structure
Chapters are ruled over by three Principals, who conjointly rule the Chapter, sitting together in the east of the assembly. Chapters in England are grouped as either a Metropolitan area or Provinces (based on the old Counties), and Chapters overseas are grouped in Districts. Metropolitan, Provincial, and District Grand Chapters are ruled over by a Grand Superintendent who is appointed by the 'First Grand Principal' (see below) as his personal representative for the particular area. The Grand Superintendent is usually assisted by a Deputy, and always rules conjointly with a Second Provincial Grand Principal and a Third Provincial Grand Principal (the word 'Provincial' being replaced with the word 'Metropolitan' in a Metropolitan Area such as London, or the word 'District' in an overseas area controlled from England). The Supreme Grand Chapter is ruled over from London by three Grand Principals, with a Pro First Grand Principal when the First Grand Principal is a Royal Prince, as is currently the case.

Chapter Officers
In addition to the three Principals, who rule conjointly, a Holy Royal Arch Chapter has elected and appointed officers with individual responsibilities within the Chapter. Similar offices exist at the Supreme Grand Chapter (national) level, and also at the intermediate level (Metropolitan, Provincial, or District), with appropriate prefixes to the titles. • Zerubbabel - Prince of Jerusalem • Haggai - the Prophet • Joshua - the High Priest (a.k.a. Josiah in Bristol and Irish Chapters) • Scribe Ezra • Scribe Nehemiah • Treasurer • Director of Ceremonies

Holy Royal Arch • • • • • • • Principal Sojourner 1st Assistant Sojourner 2nd Assistant Sojourner Assistant Director of Ceremonies Organist Steward (there may be several Stewards) Janitor

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References
[1] See references to eastern European expansion of the Royal Arch here (http:/ / www. 2773. co. uk/ 2773/ News. html). [2] See this official web page (http:/ / www. grandchapter. org. uk/ royal-arch/ index. htm). [3] See the 'Preliminary Declaration' of the combined-volume "Grand Lodge Constitutions & Grand Chapter Regulations" for England and Wales. [4] (English) Supreme Grand Chapter of England (http:/ / www. grandchapter. org. uk/ royal-arch/ how-to-join. htm) How to Join Royal Arch [5] Supreme Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of England (http:/ / www. grandchapter. org. uk/ sgc/ fgc-history. htm) [6] In England the Royal Arch has four ceremonies: the exaltation ceremony to bring in new members and an installation ceremony for each of the three Principals - statement of ruling Grand Chapter on its official website here (http:/ / www. grandchapter. org. uk/ royal-arch/ index. htm). [7] No other Constitution has ever claimed that the 3rd Degree and the Royal Arch are two parts of a single whole; the English Grand Chapter eventually questioned its own reasoning, as stated by its Pro First Grand Principal in November 2003. His speech is reproduced in "Freemasonry Today" magazine, issue 27, Winter 2003. Text available online here (http:/ / www. freemasonrytoday. net/ 27/ p02. php?printnice=yes) almost half way down page, headed "Changes Proposed in Royal Arch". [8] There are many public-domain documents verifying these changes. This one (http:/ / www. pglel. co. uk/ Secretariat/ secretaries_scribee/ ra_rit_rev. pdf) is merely one example of many which demonstrate the requirement for removal of all references to the former compromise linking the Royal Arch with the Third Degree.

External links
• Website (http://www.grandchapter.org.uk/index.htm) Supreme Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of England • Website (http://www.royalarchmasons.on.ca/) Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of Canada in the Province of Ontario • Website (http://www.royalarchmasonsalberta.com/) Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of Alberta

Order of the Eastern Star

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Order of the Eastern Star
The Order of the Eastern Star is a fraternal organization that both men and women can join. It was established in 1850 by Rob Morris, a lawyer and educator from Boston, Massachusetts, who had been an official with the Freemasons. It is based on teachings from the Bible,[1] but is open to people of all theistic beliefs. It has approximately 10,000 chapters in twenty countries and approximately 500,000 members under its General Grand Chapter. Members of the Order are aged 18 and older; men must be Master Masons and women must have specific relationships with Masons. Originally, a woman would have to be the daughter, widow, wife, sister, or mother of a master Mason, but the Order now allows other relatives[2] as well as allowing Job's Daughters, Rainbow Girls, Members of the Organization of Triangle (NY only) and members of the Constellation of Junior Stars (NY only) to become members when they become of age.

General Grand Chapter logo

History
The Order was created by Rob Morris in 1850 when, while confined by illness, he set down the principles of the order in his Rosary of the Eastern Star. By 1855, he had organized a "Supreme Constellation" in New York, which chartered chapters throughout the United States. In 1866, Dr. Morris started working with Robert Macoy, and handed the Order over to him while Morris was traveling in the Holy Land. Macoy organized the current system of Chapters, and modified Dr. Morris' Rosary into a Ritual. On December 1, 1874, Queen Esther Chapter No. 1 became the first Prince Hall Affiliate chapter of the Order of the Eastern Star when it was established in Washington, D.C. by Thornton Andrew Jackson.[3] The "General Grand Chapter" was formed in Indianapolis, Indiana on November 6, 1876. Committees formed at that time created the Ritual of the Order of the Eastern Star in more or less its current form.[4]

Emblem and heroines
The emblem of the Order is a five-pointed star with the white ray of the star pointing downwards towards the manger. In the Chapter room, the downward-pointing white ray points to the West. The character-building lessons taught in the Order are stories inspired by Biblical figures: • • • • • Adah (Jephthah's daughter, from Judges) Ruth, the widow Esther, the wife Martha (sister of Lazarus, from the Gospel of John) Electa (the "elect lady", from II John), the mother

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Officers
There are 18 main officers in a full chapter: • Worthy Matron - presiding officer • Worthy Patron - a Master Mason who provides general supervision • Associate Matron - assumes the duties of the Worthy Matron in the absence of that officer • Associate Patron - assumes the duties of the Worthy Patron in the absence of that officer • Secretary- takes care of all correspondence and minutes • Treasurer- takes care of monies of the Chapter • Conductress - Leads visitors and initiations. • Associate Conductress - Assists with introductions and handles ballot box. • Chaplain - leads the Chapter in prayer • Marshal - presents the Flag and leads in all ceremonies • Organist- provides music for the meetings • Adah - Shares the lesson of Duty of Obedience to the will of God • Ruth - Shares the lesson of Honor and Justice • Esther - Shares the lesson of Loyalty to Family and Friends • Martha - Shares the lesson of Faith and Trust in God and Everlasting Life • Electa - Shares the lesson of Charity and Hospitality • Warder - Sits next to the door inside the meeting room, to make sure those that enter the chapter room are members of the Order. • Sentinel - Sits next to the door outside the chapter room, to make sure those that wish to enter are members of the Order. Traditionally, a woman who is elected Associate Conductress will the following year be elected to Conductress, then the next year Associate Matron, and the next year Worthy Matron. A man elected Associate Patron will usually the next year be elected Worthy Patron. Usually the woman who is elected to become Associate Matron will let it be known who she wishes to be her Associate Patron, so the next year they will both go to the East together as Worthy Matron and Worthy Patron. There is no male counterpart to the Conductress and Associate Conductress. Only women are allowed to be Matrons, Conductresses, and the Star Points (Adah, Ruth, etc.) and only men can be Patrons.
Eastern Star meeting room Officers representing the heroines of the order sit around the altar in the center of the chapter room.

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Headquarters
The General Grand Chapter headquarters, the International Temple, is located in the Dupont Circle neighborhood of Washington, D.C., in the former Perry Belmont Mansion. The mansion was built in 1909 for the purpose of entertaining the guests of Perry Belmont. This included Britain's Prince of Wales in 1919. General Grand Chapter purchased the building in 1935. The secretary of General Grand Chapter lives there while serving his or her term of office. The mansion features works of art from around the world, most of which were given as gifts from various international Eastern Star chapters.

Charities
The Order has a charitable foundation [5] and from 1986-2001 contributed $513,147 to Alzheimer's disease research, juvenile diabetes The International Temple in Washington, D.C. research, and juvenile asthma research. It also provides bursaries to students of theology and religious music, as well as other scholarships that differ by jurisdiction. In 2000 over $83,000 was donated. Many jurisdictions support a Masonic and/or Eastern Star retirement center or nursing home for older members; some homes are also open to the public. The Elizabeth Bentley OES Scholarship Fund was started in 1947.[6] [7]

Notable members
• • • • • Clara Barton[8] J. Howell Flournoy[9] Eva McGown[10] Lee Emmett Thomas[11] Laura Ingalls Wilder[12]

References
[1] "Installation Ceremony". Ritual of the Order of the Eastern Star. Washington, DC: General Grand Chapter, Order of the Eastern Star. 1995 [1889]. pp. 120–121. [2] "Eastern Star Membership" (http:/ / www. easternstar. org/ eligibility. html). General Grand Chapter. . Retrieved 2010-06-03. "These affiliations include: * Affiliated Master Masons in good standing, * the wives * daughters * legally adopted daughters * mothers * widows * sisters * half sisters * granddaughters * stepmothers * stepdaughters * stepsisters * daughters-in-law * grandmothers * great granddaughters * nieces * great nieces * mothers-in-law * sisters-in-law

and daughters of sisters or brothers of affiliated Master Masons in good standing, or if deceased were in good standing at the time of their death"

Eureka Masonic College, also known as The Little Red Schoolhouse. Birthplace of the Order of the Eastern Star

[3] Ayers, Jessie Mae (1992). "Origin and History of the Adoptive Rite Among Black Women" (http:/ / www. jabron. net/ oeshist. htm). Prince Hall Masonic Directory. Conference of Grand Masters, Prince Hall Masons. . Retrieved 2007-10-25. [4] "Rob Morris" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070928205954/ http:/ / www. oescal. org/ 2005/ 2005RobMorris. htm). Grand Chapter of California. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. oescal. org/ 2005/ 2005RobMorris. htm) on 2007-09-28. . Retrieved 2007-10-01. [5] http:/ / www. easternstar. org/ oescharities. htm

Order of the Eastern Star
[6] "Elizabeth Bentley Order Of The Eastern Star Scholarship Award" (http:/ / www. education. gov. yk. ca/ advanceded/ sfa/ scholarships/ elizabeth_bentley. html). Yukon, Canada. . Retrieved 2009-11-05. [7] "Eastern Star has enjoyed long history" (http:/ / www. bclocalnews. com/ lifestyles/ 67051602. html). Black Press. . Retrieved 2009-11-05. "The Eastern Star Bursary, later named the Elizabeth Bentley OES Scholarship Fund, was started in 1947." [8] Clara Barton, U.S. Nurse Masonic First Day Cover (http:/ / www. phoenixmasonry. org/ masonicmuseum/ clara_barton_fdc. htm)

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Order of the Eastern Star birthplace. Signage at the Little Red Schoolhouse

[9] "Sheriff 26 Years – J. H. Flournoy Dies," Shreveport Journal, December 14, 1966, p. 1 [10] http:/ / www. akpub. com/ akttt/ stmatts/ choirwindow. htm by Helen L. Atkinson at ALASKA INTERNET PUBLISHERS, INC [11] "Thomas, Lee Emmett" (http:/ / www. lahistory. org/ site37. php). Louisiana Historical Association, A Directory of Louisiana Biography (lahistory.org). . Retrieved December 29, 2010. [12] Big Muddy online publications (http:/ / www6. semo. edu/ universitypress/ bigmuddy/ NF/ Laura_Ingalls_Wilder. htm)

External links
• General Grand Chapter homepage (http://easternstar.org/) • New York Grand Chapter homepage (http://nyoes.org/) • Eastern Star Organizations (http://www.dmoz.org/Society/Organizations/Fraternal/Freemasonry/ Related_Organizations/Eastern_Star/) at the Open Directory Project

Order of the Amaranth
Order of the Amaranth is a Masonic-affiliated women's organization founded in 1873. As in the Order of the Eastern Star, members of the Order must be age 18 and older; men must be Master Masons; and women must be related to Masons as wives, mothers, daughters, widows, sisters, nieces, aunts, et cetera, or have been active members of the International Order of the Rainbow for Girls or Job's Daughters International for more than three years and be recommended by a Master Mason.[1] Amaranth was based on Queen Christina of Sweden's court. Christina had created the "Order of the Amarantha" for the ladies and knights of her court. In 1860, James B. Taylor of Newark, New Jersey drew upon this order to create a new fraternal society. In 1873, Robert Macoy organized Taylor's society into the Order of the Amaranth, part of a proposed Adoptive Rite of Masonry. Eastern Star was to be the first degree, and until 1921, Amaranth members were required to join Eastern Star first.[2] In the Order's teachings, the members are emphatically reminded of their duties to God, to their country and to their fellow beings. They are urged to portray, by precept and example, their belief in the "Golden Rule" and by conforming to the virtues inherent in TRUTH, FAITH, WISDOM and CHARITY they can prove to others the goodness promulgated by the Order.[3] Amaranth is organized into Courts, under Grand Courts at the State level. The primary body is called the Supreme Council (which has some subordinate Courts directly under it, as well). Women members of the Order are addressed as "Honored Lady", while men are referred to as "Sir Knight".

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Officers
The officers of a Court are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Royal Matron - presiding officer Royal Patron - enforces the rules of the order Associate Matron - assumes the duties of the Royal Matron in the absence of that officer Associate Patron - assumes the duties of the Royal Patron in the absence of that officer Secretary- takes care the courts business Treasurer- takes care of the courts money Conductress - leads candidates through the degree of the order Associate Conductress - assist the conductress Prelate - leads the Court in prayer Historian - keeps records of the court Marshal in the East - escorts the royal matron, displays the flag of the country Marshal in the West - assist the marshal in the east Musician - provides music for the meetings TruthFaith-

WisdomCharityStandard Bearer - displays the banner of the order Chairman of the Trustees - Revolving Committee a three year term, with a new trustee elected every year. 2 yr Trustee 3 yr Trustee Warder - Sits next to the door inside the meeting room, to make sure those that enter the court room are members of the Order. • Sentinel - Sits next to the door outside the court room, to make sure those that wish to enter are members of the Order. The Royal Matron, Royal Patron, Associate Matron, Associate Patron, Secretary, Treasurer, Conductress, Associate Conductress and the Trustees are elected by the members of the Court. All are elected annually with the exception of the Trustees, who serve three year terms. One Trustee is elected each year, with the senior Trustee serving as Chairman. The remaining officers are appointed each year by the Royal Matron-elect prior to installation. The elected officers - excluding Secretary, Treasurer and Trustees - are considered line officers and normally advance to the next office the following year: Associate Conductress becoming Conductress, Conductress becoming Associate Matron and so forth. These advancements are not automatic, however, and are subject to the affirmative vote of the members. The order's primary philanthropic project is the Amaranth Diabetes Foundation. Additional projects may be designated by individual Grand jurisdictions and/or the local courts. The flag of the appropriate country is prominently displayed at all meetings.

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References
[1] "The Order of the Amaranth" (http:/ / amaranth. org/ Newmembers. asp). Supreme Council, Order of the Amaranth. . Retrieved 2010-07-27. [2] "The Order of the Amaranth" (http:/ / www. amaranth. org/ NewHistory. asp). Supreme Council, Order of the Amaranth. . Retrieved 2007-07-31. [3] "The Purpose of the Order of Amaranth" (http:/ / www. amaranth. org/ NewPurpose. asp). Supreme Council, Order of the Amaranth. . Retrieved 2007-07-31.

External links
• Order of the Amaranth homepage (http://amaranth.org/)

DeMolay International
DeMolay International (also known as the Order of DeMolay), founded in Kansas City, Missouri in 1919, is an international youth organization for young men. DeMolay derives its name from Jacques De Molay, the last Grand Master of the Knights Templar. It is a Masonic-sponsored youth organization for boys ages 12–21. DeMolay was incorporated in the 1990s and is classified by the IRS as a 501(c)(3).

Overview
DeMolay is open for membership to young men between the ages of 12 to 21, and currently has about 18,000 members in the United States and Canada[1] and several thousand more world wide. It uses a model of mentoring; adult men and women called advisors, often past DeMolay members or fathers and mothers of DeMolays, mentor the active DeMolay members. An advisor is referred to as 'Dad Smith' instead of 'Mr. Smith', in respect of Frank S. Land and his fatherly role to the founding members. The mentoring focuses on the development of civic awareness, leadership skills and personal responsibility. Founded by a Freemason, DeMolay is closely modeled after Freemasonry. With the sponsorship of a Lodge, the chapter normally meets in a Masonic Lodge room. DeMolay is considered to be part of the Masonic Family, along with other youth groups such as Job's Daughters and the Rainbow Girls. Like the Rainbow Girls, a young man does not need to have a family tie or sponsor in a Masonic organization to join DeMolay. DeMolay has seven Cardinal Virtues, which are the sole structure of what its members follow. These Cardinal Virtues are: • • • • • • • Filial love (love between a parent and child) Reverence for sacred things Courtesy Comradeship Fidelity Cleanness Patriotism

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History
DeMolay was founded in 1919 by Frank S. Land, a successful businessman in Kansas City, Missouri. During World War I, Land had become concerned with the plight of boys who had lost their fathers in the conflict. He decided there was a need for an organization where they could associate with others of their age and learn responsibility and other important life skills. A fatherless boy named Louis Lower and eight of his friends became the first DeMolay members. Frank S. Land first met with Louis Lower in January 1919. The original founding date of the order was February 19, 1919. That was later changed to the official launching date of March 18, 1919 to commemorate the death of Jacques DeMolay. The organization is named after Jacques De Molay, a knight and crusader who was the 23rd and last Grand Master of the Knights Templar. He was taken prisoner by King Philip IV of France, who wanted to seize the Templars' wealth. De Molay was tortured repeatedly to force him to admit to charges of heresy. However, he later recanted his statements and declared both himself and his Order innocent. He was therefore executed by being burned at the stake. Members are encouraged to model their conduct after Jacques De Molay's example of loyalty and fidelity. The organization grew rapidly, and by the end of 1921, Land realized he had to devote full time to it. Interest developed in the Masonic fraternity, and official recognition and approval by Masonic groups began in many states. Today, many members of DeMolay go on to become Masons when they are of legal age. DeMolay continued its growth, initiating new members and instituting new chapters in every state of the USA. It then went international and now exists around the world, including chapters in Mexico, Canada, Australia, Germany, the Philippines, Portugal, Paraguay, Italy, Serbia, Japan, Aruba, Brazil, Panama, and Bolivia. There are also chapters which have no Supreme Council, including those in England and France.[1]

Original Members and Dad Land
The Order Of DeMolay originally had nine members. The crest of the order contains 10 rubies. Each represent one of the original nine or Dad Frank S. Land. A pearl denoted one of the original ten who was living. When one of the original founders died, that pearl was changed to a ruby. Today, all of the original founders have died and all pearls are rubies. Ivan M. Bentley - He lived in Louis Lower's neighborhood. Created a Chevalier in 1920. Died in an accident in 1921. His death made him the first ruby in the emblem. Louis G. Lower- The first DeMolay and the first Active DeMolay Legionnaire (LOH). Created a Chevalier in 1920. He was gunned down by an intoxicated security guard on July 18, 1943. He was the second of the original nine to die, became the second ruby. Dad Frank Land - The third ruby on the DeMolay crest was for Frank Land himself. Doctors diagnosed his disease as scleroderma. Doctors advised Land to slow down but he continued to work at his frenetic pace telling them, "My work must go on. DeMolay must go on." Although he had begun to show signs of fading, Frank Land's death on November 8, 1959 came as a shock, especially to his beloved organization. The fraternity successfully made the transition to new leadership but mourns his passing to this day. Every DeMolay around the world honors Dad Land's memory every year on November 8. Edmund Marshall- He lived next door to Elmer Dorsey. Created Chevalier in 1920. Graduated from University of Missouri. President of the Kansas City Board of Trade. He died on November 8, 1966 and became the fourth ruby. Clyde C. Stream - Cousin of Gorman McBride. He was a technical engineer with the Sagano Electric Company. Retired to Bradenton, Florida. He died on May 3, 1971 and became the fifth ruby. Gorman A. McBride- He lived in the neighborhood with Louis Lower. Second Obligated DeMolay. First Master Councilor of Mother Chapter. Created a Chevalier in 1920. Became an Active Member of the International Supreme

DeMolay International Council. Received the Founder's Cross from Dad Land, the only one of the original nine to do so. He was a lawyer by profession and was Director of Activities at ISC Headquarters in the 1960s. He died on November 10, 1973 and became the sixth ruby. Ralph Sewell - He lived in the home of Louis Lower and became the credit manager for H. D. Lee Mercantile Company, makers of Lee jeans. Mr. Sewell was a skilled pianist and organist. He died in July 1976 and became the seventh ruby. Elmer V. Dorsey - He lived just behind Louis Lower. He became a successful businessman and moved to Texas and became an Advisor to Richardson Chapter. He died in November 1979 and became the eighth ruby. William W. Steinhilber- He lived in the neighborhood with Louis Lower. Mr. Steinhilber became a successful stock and bond broker. He was captain of the first DeMolay baseball team. He died on October 28, 1992 and became the ninth ruby. Jerome Jacobson- He lived one block from Louis Lower. Mr. Jacobson graduated from University of Kansas, admitted to the Missouri Bar as a lawyer, and had an outstanding career in law and finance. He lived in Kansas City all his life. He died in May, 2002 and became the tenth and final ruby.

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Structural organization
A local DeMolay organization is known as a Chapter and is headed by the Master Councilor. The Master Councilor is elected by members of his Chapter and is usually among the older members of the group. The Master Councilor is assisted in his duties by a Senior Councilor and a Junior Councilor. The Senior Councilor is usually considered to be next in line as Master Councilor and Junior Councilor to follow, though two people can run against each other. The remaining officers of a Chapter, which are appointed, are done so by the Master Councilor, except for the Scribe, who is appointed by the Chapter's Advisory Council. Senior DeMolays (former members now 21 or older), Masons, or other adult mentors supervise the Chapter and are usually referred to by the moniker "Dad," a term harkening back to one of the first members, who thought of founder Frank Land as the father he never knew and called him "Dad Land." In recent years, women have also served as advisors for the group and are referred to as "Mom". Above the individual Chapter, the DeMolay organization has an officer structure at the state level. A State Master Councilor or Jurisdictional Master Councilor is the head of a statewide DeMolay organization. In countries outside of the United States, DeMolay may have a national level organization, headed by a "National Master Councilor". There are also other state or jurisdictional positions, based on the officers of a chapter, which vary for each jurisdiction. The lead advisor (always a Master Mason and a member of the Supreme Council) in a state, jurisdiction, or country, is called an Executive Officer and the lead advisor (always a Master Mason) internationally is known as a Grand Master who governs the International Supreme Council. There are also Active DeMolay officers at an international level as well; the International Master Councilor and International Congress Secretary are the heads of the International DeMolay Congress and serve on the Board of Directors. These officers are always past State Master Councilors. In some countries outside of the United States, the International Supreme Council of DeMolay has ceded control to an independent Supreme Council created to govern DeMolay in that country. Such a Supreme Council has its own Grand Master and officers. (Examples are Australia, Brazil, and the Philippines.)

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Chapter officers
DeMolay functions through a set of officers. Some are elected; some are appointed. The Master Councilor, Senior Councilor, Junior Councilor and Treasurer are always elected. All officers except where noted are appointed by the Master Councilor. The officers of a DeMolay Chapter are as follows:
Office Master Councilor Senior Councilor Junior Councilor Scribe Elected/Appointed Elected Duty Sits as Chair for Meetings, Official Representative of Chapter to outside persons and organizations.

Elected

Many times oversees degree,ceremony work and fund raising. Assists Master Councilor and takes charge in absence of Master Councilor Many times oversees membership, Assists other Councilors and takes Charge in absence of both Master and Senior Councilors Records minutes at meetings, files necessary paper work, sends and receives communications.

Elected

Appointed by Advisory Council Elected Appointed or Elected Appointed Appointed Appointed Appointed Appointed Appointed Appointed Appointed Appointed All Appointed

Treasurer Senior Deacon Junior Deacon Senior Steward Junior Steward Orator Sentinel Chaplain Marshal Standard Bearer Almoner Seven Preceptors Organist (Optional)

Manages Chapter Account Conducts candidates in initiation, Assists Councilors, Sometimes proceeds to Junior Councilor Communicates with Sentinel, assists Senior Deacon Keeps facilities clean and in order. Assists Senior Steward Presents ceremonies, Makes necessary announcements Verifies persons entering meetings, Keeps away disturbances Prayer Conducts necessary movement in meetings Oversees flags and proper presentation of such Collects alms for charities, and those sick or distressed Represent the seven Cardinal Virtues of DeMolay

Appointed

Provides Music

State/Jurisdictional Officers
The state or jurisdictional level officers are set up the same way as the local chapters with a State Master Councilor, State Senior Councilor, and State Junior Councilor all elected by DeMolay members throughout the state or jurisdiction. The other state officers are appointed by the Executive Officer or voted for by the other state officers. Sweetheart Some DeMolay chapters elect a "Chapter Sweetheart" to serve as the female representative of the chapter, although she is NOT an officer of the chapter. Her duties include attending chapter functions and acting as an ambassador of DeMolay. The "Sweetheart" must meet the age requirements of a particular jurisdiction or chapter, usually set at fourteen to twenty-one. She may be member of a neighboring Job's Daughters Bethel, Rainbow Assembly, Triangle, or Constellation, but that is not a set requirement.

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State, Jurisdictional, and International Congress
Each state or jurisdiction has a form of convention. Most jurisdictions have conventions once a year. Most jurisdictions conventions are called Conclave. In the convention, the members of the state or jurisdiction vote on the State Master Councilor and other elected positions. Also, the members vote on the activities that the state will do throughout the year. A major part of DeMolay is the leadership aspect of the Order. It allows the young men to have an opportunity for grown and development in a mature setting. During the International Congress, the two ranking state officers from each state or jurisdiction meet in conjunction with the International Supreme Council. The delegates elect the International Master Councilor and International Congress Secretary. Additionally, delegates discuss and vote on legislative items. Several years ago, the Congress Officers established the DeMolay International Congress Cabinet which has eight regionally-elected members. These members are charged with carrying out action items as directed by the Congress and are to assist the International Officers throughout the year.

Activities
DeMolays participate in a wide range of activities that may include: camping, holding dances with Rainbow Girls and Job's Daughters, playing basketball, football, baseball, soccer, tennis, paintball, or billiards, going canoeing and kayaking, and taking long distance trips. Both Chapters and individual DeMolays participate in competitions for the best performance of the various Ceremonies of the Order. Winners of local competitions, in ritual and sports, may compete for State Championships, and sometimes State winners compete at even higher levels. The Chapter collectively decides what events they enjoy, then plans them, and in many cases holds fund raisers to finance them.

Obligatory Days
DeMolays are required, unless extenuating circumstances, to participate in what are referred to as "Obligatory Days", where a chapter usually holds some sort of program in observance of such. The seven Obligatory Days are: Patriot's Day - A day in which chapters commemorate the country, founding fathers, and past and current military in recognition of patriotism, the last of the DeMolay Precepts. Such programs may include the singing of the Star Spangled Banner or playing of Taps, the Flag folding Ceremony, visiting a historical site or monument, hosting a program honoring veterans, or having a speaker elaborate on Patriotism. Occurs sometime in February. Devotional Day - A day to recognize the importance of God in our lives. Although DeMolay teaches no religious creed, members are encouraged to frequent places of worship. Chapters usually attend a church, synagogue, or temple together as a chapter, hold a bible study, or honor a pastor, deacon, or clergyman with gratitude. This is in respect to the second DeMolay Precept, Reverence for Sacred Things, to which a DeMolay learns tolerance of others' beliefs and things which they may hold sacred, as well as appreciating their own religious opinions. Occurs on or closest to March 18. Parent's Day - A day to honor Parents and the daily care and sacrifices they make for their son's well being. Events may be dinner where DeMolays cook and serve the parents, or the presentation of the Flower Talk, a heart-felt ceremony that points out how important mothers are. Occurs on a day between May 1 and June 21, usually around Mother's Day or Father's Day. My Government Day - A day to explain the government of the country, state, province or community in which the Chapter is located. Usual events may include having a congressman come and speak at a chapter, participate in an Independence Day activity, meeting with the Mayor or Governor, or visiting the capitol building. For example in the Texas jurisdiction, DeMolays gather at the capitol building in Austin, TX, and participate in mock legislature in the House and Senate Chambers. Occurs in July. Educational Day - A day to stop and appreciate the foundation of America's greatness, the public schools, and all education. Activities could include, reading to Elementary aged kids on a special night, collecting books for a local Library, or having a teacher give a message in recessed chapter. Occurs any time during the year.

DeMolay International Frank S. Land Memorial Day - A day to recognize and pay tribute to Dad Land and all the work he did for the founding of DeMolay. Chapters are encouraged to raise funds and donate them to a DeMolay Charity. Visiting Dad Land's grave site, presenting a copy of "Hi Dad!" to someone, or presenting the Dad Land Talk to the Chapter and guests, are common ways to observe this day. Occurs on or near November 8, the day Dad Land died. Day of Comfort - A day where every member of DeMolay should make an effort to visit the sick and carry words of comfort to those who are confined. The Almoner should be responsible for planning this observance. Events include collecting and donating items in a food drive, visiting a nursing home or hospital, or holding a seniors day, where demolays prepare a meal for the elderly. This day occurs between Thanksgiving and Christmas.

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Honors and awards
The Degree of Chevalier is the highest honor an active DeMolay can receive. It may also be granted to a Senior DeMolay. The degree is granted for outstanding DeMolay service and activity. To receive the honor, a DeMolay must be at least 17 years old on January 15 of the year nominated, have been a member for at least two years as of that date, be nominated by his chapter's Advisory Council, and have the approval of the Executive Officer of his jurisdiction, and of the of the Supreme Council. The Legion of Honor Degree is the highest honor conferred by the DeMolay Supreme Council. The award was approved in 1925 and first conferred upon Louis Lower. With amendment of the Supreme Council's statutes in 1985, the minimum age for nominees for the Legion of Honor was dropped from 20 to 25 as of January 15. The Supreme Council may confer the Legion of Honor upon a Senior DeMolay for outstanding leadership in some field of endeavor, for service to humanity, or for success in fraternal life, including adult service to the Order of DeMolay. The Supreme Council may also confer it upon a Freemason who was not a DeMolay, but who has performed unusual and meritorious service in behalf of the Order of DeMolay, or who has evidenced a spirit of cooperation and appreciation for the Order of DeMolay. The Representative DeMolay Award is the highest self-achievement award active and Senior DeMolays can earn. It's a self-assessment program where the member progresses toward goals set for him by himself. The member completes a detailed survey of his interests, achievements, general knowledge, and habits. Land said it was his dream that every DeMolay should be a Representative DeMolay. The "RD" program was first established in 1924, and for many years was a competition to select outstanding DeMolays. In 1935, the program was redesigned to fill a growing need for self-evaluation by every DeMolay.

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Order of Knighthood
The Order of Knighthood (KT) is an appended organization of older DeMolays. The Knighthood program is for active DeMolays between 17 and 21 years of age. A Knighthood Priory has its own ritual and officers, separate from the chapter system.[2] The official name of the Order is The Chivalric Knights of the Holy Order of the Fellow Soldiers of Jacques DeMolay. It is not an honorary degree or award, but a working body whose purpose is to extend fellowship and serve the Order of DeMolay. The Order of Knighthood made its debut in 1946, when Dad Land wrote the Knighthood ritual. This ritual was not exemplified before the Grand Council, now known as DeMolay International's Supreme Council, until 1947, as Dad Land held off on its implementation. Through the years, the Knights' activities have consisted of social and educational programs geared to older DeMolays, with a special emphasis on career planning and coed activities. The main functions of a Priory are to: • • • • Extend and assist the Order of DeMolay and its Chapters. Maintain the active interest of older DeMolays. Provide an interesting program for the Priory members. Above all to provide and maintain a proper example for all DeMolays.

Hall of Fame
Over the years, DeMolay has had many alumni who have gone on to achieve wide recognition outside of the organization. Some of them have been elected to the DeMolay Hall of Fame.[3] However, not all DeMolays who have received recognition have been inducted into the Hall of Fame; some can be found on other lists.[4] The following is a partial list of the members of the DeMolay Hall of Fame. The full list is available on the DeMolay International website.
Name Carl B. Albert Cecil D. Andrus Dates 1908–2000 Politician b. 1931 Politician Profession Speaker of the House (1971–77) Governor of Idaho (1971–77, 1987–95), U.S. Secretary of the Interior (1977–81) 37th Governor of Florida (1971–1979) Notes

Reubin O'Donovan b. 1928 Askew Walter "Red" Barber Mel Blanc Frank Borman

Politician

1908–1992 Sports Broadcaster

Recipient of Ford C. Frick Award from National Baseball Hall of Fame

1908–1989 Cartoon Voice Actor b. 1928 Astronaut

"Man of a Thousand Voices" Commander of Apollo 8, CEO of Eastern Airlines (1975–86), recipient of Congressional Space Medal of Honor Flew on Apollo-Soyuz, as well as 3 Space Shuttle missions Governor of South Carolina (1987–95)

Vance D. Brand Carroll A. Campbell, Jr. Curtis L. Carlson

b. 1931

Astronaut

1940–2005 Politician

1914–1999 Entrepreneur, Philanthropist

Founded The Carlson Companies in 1938 as The Gold Bond Trading Company

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Governor of Missouri (1991–2000) 42nd President of the United States

Mel Carnahan William "Bill" Clinton Gary Collins Walt Disney Lee S. Dreyfus Buddy Ebsen David Goodnow Paul Harvey Mark Hatfield Burl Ives Henry M. Jackson Brereton C. Jones

1934–2000 Politician b. 1946 Politician

b. 1938

Actor

Best known for Airport (1970) Creator of Mickey Mouse, Co-Founder of The Walt Disney Company Governor of Wisconsin (1979–83) Star of Barnaby Jones and The Beverly Hillbillies Former Anchor of CNN Headline News Recipient of Presidential Medal of Freedom Governor of Oregon (1959–67), U.S. Senator (1967–97) A Holly Jolly Christmas, narrator of Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer U.S. Senator (1953–83) Governor of Kentucky (1991–95)

1901–1966 Cartoonist and entrepreneur b. 1926 Educator and politician

1908–2003 Actor, singer, dancer b. 1940 Broadcast Journalist

1918–2009 ABC Radio broadcaster b. 1922 Politician

1909–1995 Folk singer and actor 1912–1983 Politician b. 1939 Politician

Harmon Killebrew b. 1936

Former professional baseball player Member of National Baseball Hall of Fame and businessman Former President of Rotary International Journalist, Media Executive Olympic Athlete, Politician Former President of ABC News Two-time Olympic Gold Medalist, U.S. Representative from California (1967–75) 6th Man to Walk on the Moon on Apollo 14 Former Head Coach at University of Nebraska, Member of College Football Hall of Fame U.S. Representative from Missouri (1941–49) U.S. Ambassador to Paraguay (1957–59), U.S. Ambassador to Costa Rica (1970–72) All-Time Major League Baseball Leader in hits with 4,256. Vietnam POW, Author of Five Years to Freedom

Richard King

b. 1938

Elmer Lower Bob Mathias

b. 1913 b. 1930

Edgar D. Mitchell Tom Osborne

b. 1930 b. 1937

Astronaut Athlete, Coach, Politician

Walter C. Ploeser

1907–1993 Businessman, Politician

Pete Rose James Nicholas Rowe

b. 1941

Baseball player

1938–1989 United States Army Colonel

Edward T. Schafer b. 1946

Politician

29th United States Secretary of Agriculture, Governor of North Dakota 1992–2000 Founder of Gold Seal Company Recipient of the Medal of Honor

Harold Schafer Lance P. Sijan Alex Spanos John Steinbeck

1912–2001 Philanthropist and businessman 1942–1968 United States Air Force Captain b. 1923 Owner of the San Diego Chargers

1902–1968 Pulitzer Prize-winning author and Nobel laureate 1906–1995 Newscaster

Wrote The Grapes of Wrath and Of Mice and Men

John Cameron Swayze Fran Tarkenton

b. 1940

Professional Football Player, Businessman, Entrepreneur

Member of Pro Football Hall of Fame, Member of College Football Hall of Fame Won Academy Award for Best Actor for True Grit in 1969 Speaker of the House (1987–89)

John Wayne James C. Wright, Jr.

1907–1979 Actor b. 1922 Politician

DeMolay International

124

References
[1] "Membership Statistics" (http:/ / www. demolay. org/ resources/ membershipstats/ ). DeMolay International. . Retrieved 2009-05-22. [2] "Appendent Orders: Knighthood Priories" (http:/ / www. demolay. org/ community/ appendent/ knighthood. php). DeMolay International. . Retrieved 2009-03-19. "The Knighthood program is for active DeMolays between 17 and 21 years of age who are organized into a subordinate unit known as a Priory with its own officers and ritual." [3] "DeMolay Hall of Fame" (http:/ / www. demolay. org/ aboutdemolay/ halloffame. php). . Retrieved 2008-06-30. [4] "Cherokee Chapter, DeMolay's list of famous DeMolays" (http:/ / suburban740. org/ demolayfamous. htm). .

External links
• DeMolay International's website (http://www.demolay.org/)

Job's Daughters International
Job's Daughters International is a Masonic-sponsored youth organization for girls and young women aged 10 to 20. The organization is commonly referred to as simply Job's Daughters, and sometimes abbreviated as JDI (or IOJD, referring to its longtime former name). Job's Daughters focuses on the Christian Bible but celebrates and welcomes many religions and cultures. The individual chapter is called a Bethel, and each is numbered sequentially, according to when they were instituted in their jurisdiction. They usually meet at a Masonic Lodge building and when they are in session they refer to the meeting place as the Bethel room.

History
The organization was founded as The Order of Job's Daughters by Ethel T. Wead Mick in Omaha, Nebraska, on October 20, 1920.[1] [2] The original age for membership was 13-18,[1] but has been changed several times over the years, most recently to age 10 in 2004. The purpose of the organization is to band together young girls who are related to a Master Mason, and strives to build character through moral and spiritual development. Goals include a greater reverence for God and the Holy Scriptures, as stated in the Job's Daughters Constitution, loyalty to one's country and that country's flag; and respect for parents, guardians, and elders. Job's Daughters is not a religion itself, and its members are not required to practice a particular religion. Members are required, however, to believe in a supreme being. Mother Mick was fond of the Book of Job, and took the name of the organization as a reference to the three daughters of Job.[3] The Book of Job, 42nd chapter, 15th verse says, "In all the land were no women found so fair as the Daughters of Job, and their father gave them inheritance among their brethren". She founded the Order with the assistance of her husband, Dr. William H. Mick, and several Freemasons and members of Eastern Star of Nebraska.[4] She dedicated the organization to the memory of her mother, Elizabeth D. Wead. In 1931 the name was changed to the International Order of Job's Daughters after a Bethel was instituted in Vancouver, British Columbia.[5]

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Overview
The presiding officer of the Bethel is the Honored Queen, elected by the members of her Bethel. This position is roughly analogous to Worshipful Master in a Masonic Lodge, and to the President of an association of any kind. The Honored Queen is assisted in her duties by a Senior Princess and a Junior Princess. The Senior Princess is usually considered to be next in line as Honored Queen. Girls who finish a term as Honored Queen use the title Past Honored Queen (abbreviated PHQ) within Job's Daughters, and usually receive a pin commemorating their service. The elected officers are referred to as the "line officers", or in some Bethels the "Elect Five" or "Top Five", of the Bethel, meaning that in general, a Daughter is elected sequentially from the lowest position (Marshal) to the highest position (Honored Queen).

Stations (Officers) of the Bethel and their respective duties
Elected • • • • Honored Queen - leads meetings, plans a term of 6 months, leads the Third Epoch of Initiation Senior Princess - leads the Second Epoch of Initiation Junior Princess - leads the First Epoch of Initiation Guide - assists in escorting guests, members and new initiates

• Marshal - assists in escorting guests, members and new initiates Appointed • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Senior Custodian - responsible for caring for Bethel properties Junior Custodian - responsible for caring for Bethel properties Recorder - takes minutes of each meeting and reads all communications Librarian - shares literature and information with the Bethel Chaplain - leads prayers during meetings Treasurer - manages money within the Bethel First Messenger - assist in Initiation Second Messenger - assist in Initiation Third Messenger - assist in Initiation Fourth Messenger - assist in Initiation Fifth Messenger - assist in Initiation Inner Guard - guards the inner door of the Bethel room Outer Guard - guards the outer door of the Bethel room Musician - leads songs and music, usually plays organ or piano Bethel Choir

Bethel Guardian Council
• • • • • • • • Bethel Guardian Associate Bethel Guardian Guardian Secretary Guardian Treasurer Guardian Director of Epochs Director of Music Director of Promotion Promoter of Sociability

• Director of Epochs • Director of Hospitality

Job's Daughters International • • • • Promoter of Good Will Promoter of Production Promoter of Fraternal Relations Custodian of Paraphernalia

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Other details
• A Grand Bethel Honored Queen or Jurisdictional Bethel Honored Queen is the head of the Grand or Jurisdictional Bethel for each jurisdiction. To serve as either Grand Bethel Honored Queen or Jurisdictional Bethel Honored Queen, a girl must be a Past Honored Queen, or in some jurisdictions, a PHQ or a Majority Member. A Grand Bethel is unique in each jurisdiction, so rules may vary vastly. The Supreme Bethel Honored Queen is the head of the Supreme Bethel, which is at the international level of the organization. To be selected as Supreme Bethel Honored Queen, a girl must be a Past Honored Queen of a Bethel and at least 16 years of age. • A Jurisdictional Miss Job's Daughter serves as the head and voice of the youth organization on the Grand or Jurisdictional level. She speaks on behalf of Job's Daughters to other Masonic Bodies to promote the organization. The selection of the Jurisdictional Miss Job's Daughter is by a Pageant held once a year that has competitions for ritual, interviews by a panel of judges, and a written test. The International Miss Job's Daughter serves on the international level and travels all over the world to speak on behalf of the organization. To be selected as International Miss Job's Daughter, a girl must be at least 16 years of age and compete at a pageant held during the Supreme Session. She is only eligible to compete once. • The Bethel Guardian and Council is the group of adults that helps advise and supervise the girls of the Bethel.[1] It is led by the Bethel Guardian, an adult female with a proper Masonic relationship, and the Associate Bethel Guardian, a Mason. They are joined by other adults filling the offices of Guardian Secretary, Guardian Treasurer, and either Guardian Director of Epochs or Guardian Director of Music. At the jurisdictional level a group of adults called the Grand Guardian Council or Jurisdictional Guardian Council oversees all of the Bethels in their state. • Members who reach the age of 20 or marry while members in good standing become Majority Members. Majority Members may still be active in the organization but are no longer allowed to hold an office or vote on business matters in the Bethel. Some jurisdictions allow Majority Members up to age 25 to hold an office in the Grand Bethel or Jurisdictional Bethel, which is composed of members from all over the jurisdiction. Young women who wish to remain active in Masonic activities may join Order of the Eastern Star or Order of the Amaranth upon reaching the age of 18. • The "Job's Daughter to Bee" or "JD2B" program gives Bethels a way to involve eight- and nine-year-old girls in the Bethels' public and social activities before the girls become full members at 10. • Current and former members of Job's Daughters sometimes refer to each other as "Jobies," and it is not uncommon to see communications between two members of the organization closed with the statement "Jobie Love" in place of a statement as "Sincerely." • Today, Bethels and Grand Bethels are active in Australia, Brazil, Canada, the Philippines and the United States. Within the United States, there are currently Bethels in 31 states.[6] Most states and provinces have a Grand Guardian Council but a few are under the direct supervision of the Supreme Guardian Council.

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127

References
[1] "Youth Order Trains Girls". Los Angeles Times. April 24, 1938. "...the Order of Job's Daughters was founded by Mrs. Ethel T. Wead Mick in the city of Omaha on October 20, 1920.... Constant supervision of all Bethel activities is a strict duty of the Bethel Guardian Council.... A petitioner must have reached her thirteenth birthday..." [2] S. Brent Morris (2006). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Freemasonry (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Jt5xHnMUCtcC). Alpha Books. p. 146. ISBN 9781592574902. . [3] Alvin J. Schmidt; Nicholas Babchuk (1980). Fraternal organizations. Greenwood Press. p. 170. ISBN 9780313214363. [4] Mark A. Tabbert (2005). American Freemasons: Three Centuries of Building Communities (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=NNO3AAAAIAAJ). National Heritage Museum. p. 186. ISBN 9780814782927. . [5] "Tour the Mick Memorial Room" (http:/ / www. jdicenter. org/ jdicurator/ mickmemtour. html). Papillion, Nebraska: International Center for Job's Daughters. . Retrieved 2009-08-26. [6] "United States Bethel Locator" (http:/ / iojd. org/ Bethels/ USA/ index. htm). Job's Daughters International. . Retrieved 2009-06-11.

External links
• Job's Daughters International (http://www.iojd.org) Home Page • The HIKE Fund (http://thehikefund.org/) Hearing Impaired Kids Endowment, created and supported by Job's Daughters

International Order of the Rainbow for Girls
The International Order of the Rainbow for Girls (IORG) is a Masonic youth service organization which teaches leadership training through community service. Girls (ages 11–20/21) learn about the value of charity and service through their work and involvement with their annual local and Grand (state or country) service projects.

History
The order came into existence in 1922,[1] when the Reverend W. Mark Sexson, a Freemason, was asked to make an address before South McAlester Chapter #149, Order of the Eastern Star, in McAlester, Oklahoma. As the Order of DeMolay had come under his close study during his Masonic activities, he suggested that a similar order for girls would be beneficial. The first Initiation consisted of a class of 171 girls on April 6, 1922, in the auditorium of the Scottish Rite Temple in McAlester. The original name was "Order of the Rainbow for Girls".[2]

Officers
Girls can hold many different offices (also called Stations) in the local Assembly. Each requires some memory work and all but two serve for one term (4 to 6 months out of the year). Some offices are elected by the other girls in the assembly. These offices include Faith, Hope, Charity, Worthy Associate Advisor, and Worthy Advisor. There are also two offices that are elected in January but serve a full year which are Treasurer and Recorder. The other offices are appointed by the Worthy Advisor (President) and Mother Advisor. All offices include:[3] • Worthy Advisor (WA) Presides at meetings and plans activities for her term like a President: the highest office in an Assembly. (elected) • Worthy Associate Advisor (WAA) Duties similar to a Vice President. Presides over a meeting in the absence of the Worthy Advisor. (elected) • Charity Teaches about charitable deeds. (elected)

International Order of the Rainbow for Girls • Hope Teaches that hope is always there for us. (elected) • Faith Teaches that faith is our constant companion. She is the officer who guides new candidates throughout an initiation ceremony. (elected) • Recorder Records minutes and handles correspondence (elected) • Treasurer Handles monies and bills and compiles reports about the balances of the Assembly's various money accounts (elected) • Chaplain Leads in prayers (appointed) • Drill Leader Leads the officers in their floor work and leads guests around the Assembly room. (appointed) • Seven Bow Stations Teach lessons about the colors of the rainbow and their corresponding virtues: (appointed) • Love (red) In all its forms. • Religion (orange) The Importance of religion in all its forms. (based on love and forgiveness) • Nature (yellow) Its Importance in your daily life. • Immortality (green) The understanding of death is a part of life. • Fidelity (blue) Emphasis on being honest and reliable. • Patriotism (indigo) Encouraging citizenship to your country. • Service (violet) Service to others which bind all the colors together. • Confidential and Outer Observers Guard the inner and outer doors, respectively. (appointed) • Musician and Choir Director Provide music for the meetings. (appointed) Some Assemblies and Grand Assemblies have other officers not specified in the ritual, such as Historian, Editor, Assistant Grand Editor, Circulation Manager, Orator (or Lecturer), Bible Bearer, Goodwill Ambassador, American Flag Bearer, State Flag Bearer, Christian Flag Bearer, Rainbow Flag Bearer, and Assembly Banner Bearer.[4] It is an unwritten law that each of the line officers (Faith, Hope, Charity, and Worthy Associate Advisor) advances to the next highest office, culminating in her term as Worthy Advisor. However, this is not a guarantee.[5]

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Advisors
The Mother Advisor is the primary adult working with the girls. An Advisory Board of seven to fifteen adults consisting of at least two Master Masons and two members of the Order of the Eastern Star, members of the sponsoring body(ies), and Majority Members, aid in the supervision of the Assembly. Almost all of the Assembly work is done by the girls, with the advisors in support roles only.[6]

High honors
The appointing of Grand Officers varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Generally, to be appointed or elected to a Grand Floor Office, a girl must be a Past Worthy Advisor in her assembly. Grand Representatives may also be PWAs, but sometimes it is not mandatory. Other offices include: Grand Choir, Personal Page, and Grand Page at Large. Majority Membership is reached in two ways. A girl receives age majority when she reaches her 20th birthday, or marriage majority if she marries before age 20. Also, depending on the jurisdiction, girls are given the choice of extending their membership until they reach the age of 21. For this to be granted, the girl must write a letter expressing her interest in extending her active service and present it to her Supreme Deputy/Inspector. The Grand Cross of Color is the highest award given to a member or adult leader for outstanding service. Recipients of the award (Masters of the Grand Cross of Color) are expected to meet once per year for a special service.[7] In order for designates to be nominated, the assembly must initiate 3 new members within a calendar year. For every 3 new members, one girl may be chosen to receive the Grand Cross of Color for service rendered above and beyond what is expected for Rainbow. The Masters of the Grand Cross of Color meet with the Advisory Board to decide which girl to nominate as a designee for the Grand Cross of Color. The Grand Cross of Color may also be awarded

International Order of the Rainbow for Girls to adults that serve the assembly, but there may be no more adults than girls that are nominated.

129

Supreme Assembly
The governing body of Rainbow is the House of Gold. New members are elected by current members. The House of Gold consists of the Supreme Officers (paralleling a local Assembly), Supreme Inspectors (chief advisor for a jurisdiction), and several others making up a total of 50.[3] Presiding Supreme Inspectors may retire their duties at any time, unless they are elected to the Supreme line, at which time they must find a successor by the time they reach Supreme Worthy Associate Advisor. The current Supreme Inspector chooses the person whom they believe can best associate with the girls of their jurisdiction. That person will become the next Supreme Deputy. It isn't until Supreme Deputies are elected into the House of Gold that they become Supreme Inspectors. There are 50 seats in the House of Gold, and they are lifetime appointments. A Supreme Deputy is eligible for recommendation into the House of Gold after her 3rd Supreme Assembly after being installed as Supreme Deputy (the Supreme at which they are installed does NOT count).

Locations
The International Order of the Rainbow for Girls has Assemblies in 47 states in the United States as well as in several other countries. The states that do not currently have Assemblies are Delaware, Utah, and Wyoming. (South Dakota instituted its first assembly in 2006.) The countries outside the United States that have assemblies are Aruba, Australia (in Queensland, New South Wales and South Australia), Bolivia, Paraguay, Brazil (in Parana and São Paulo), Canada (in Ontario and New Brunswick), the Philippines, Italy, Mexico, Japan, and Guam. Rainbow has had assemblies in the following countries, mostly due to American military presence: Cuba, France, Panama and Vietnam.[8]

Membership
Being related to a Master Mason is not a requirement for Rainbow membership. Interested girls must submit a petition to an Assembly Typical Assembly banner and members of that Assembly will meet with the girl to answer any questions the girl may have and to make sure she is a proper candidate to receive the degrees. Once the petition is accepted, the assembly will vote on accepting the candidate into the Assembly. Membership then starts with an Initiation Ceremony.[9] Members are expected to serve their community, be law-abiding, acknowledge the authority of the Supreme Assembly, and show loyalty to the other members, among other things. In 2000, the rules for Eastern Star were changed so that majority members of Rainbow were eligible for membership in that Order.[10] For girls between ages 8 and 11, some jurisdictions have a "Pledge" program for prospective members, so that they can become familiar with Rainbow ceremonies and activities.[11]

International Order of the Rainbow for Girls

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Famous members
United States Senator Olympia Snowe has stated:

I am proud to be a Rainbow Girl. This group instilled in me the values of service, honesty, and leadership, among others. I have carried these ideals with me throughout the years. Being a member of the International Order of Rainbow for Girls reflects well on a young women's [12] character and integrity and will benefit today's Rainbow Girls throughout their lifetime.

Other famous members include U. S. Supreme Court justice Sandra Day O'Connor, former Miss America and actress Lee Meriwether, inspirational speaker Jill Kinmont, actress Shauna McLean Tompkins, florist to the Presidents Lynn Lary McLean, AIFD, and Senior Consultant/Constitutional Law of the Canadian Department of Justice Luanne Walton.[13]

References
[1] Morris, S. Brent (2006). The complete idiot's guide to freemasonry. Alpha Books. p. 147. ISBN 1592574904, 9781592574902. [2] "Biography of William Mark Sexson" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071225045501/ http:/ / www. wsrainbow. org/ Sexson. htm). Winston-Salem, North Carolina: Grand Assembly of North Carolina. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. wsrainbow. org/ Sexson. htm) on 2007-12-25. . Retrieved 2008-11-17. [3] "House of Gold & Leadership" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070927225455/ http:/ / iorg. org/ sassembly_hgsl. htm). Supreme Assembly. Archived from the original (http:/ / iorg. org/ sassembly_hgsl. htm) on 2007-09-27. . Retrieved 2008-11-17. [4] "Rainbow around the World - Maine" (http:/ / www. rainbow. org/ international/ tradition-maine. html). . Retrieved 2007-08-14. | "Our Rainbow Treasure Chest: Customs and Traditions" (http:/ / caiorg. org/ Treasure Chest/ TreasureChest-customs. htm). Grand Assembly of California. . Retrieved 2007-08-14. | "Rainbow around the World - California" (http:/ / www. rainbow. org/ international/ tradition-california. php). rainbow.org. . Retrieved 2010-09-14. [5] Supreme Assembly. The Gold Book: Guided Visit Through the Realm of Rainbow (1994 ed.). p. 41. [6] The Gold Book: Guided Visit Through the Realm of Rainbow (1994 ed.). McAlester, Oklahoma: Supreme Assembly. pp. 3–4. [7] "The Grand Cross of Color" (https:/ / www. iorg. org/ database/ files/ TheGrandCrossofColor. pdf) (PDF). Supreme Assembly. . Retrieved 2007-07-27. "The Grand Cross of Color is an honorary degree conferred in recognition for outstanding services rendered to the Order. W. Mark Sexson created this honorary degree, or investiture, as a medium to express appreciation for faithful, loyal, and distinguished service." [8] "Global Network" (http:/ / gorainbow. org/ whatisrainbow/ globalnetwork. taf). Supreme Assembly. . Retrieved 2008-11-17. [9] "Joining the Rainbow Girls" (http:/ / www. gorainbow. org/ qanda/ joining. taf). Supreme Assembly. . Retrieved 2009-02-14. [10] "Eastern Star Membership" (http:/ / users. rcn. com/ sbyras/ maineoes/ join. htm). Grand Chapter of Maine. . Retrieved 2007-07-27. [11] "Pledge Groups" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070504193339/ http:/ / iorg. org/ pledgegroups. htm). Supreme Assembly. Archived from the original (http:/ / iorg. org/ pledgegroups. htm) on 2007-05-04. . Retrieved 2008-11-17. [12] Miner, Roger W.. "Rainbow" (http:/ / www. minerland. net/ rainbow. htm). Masonry Nebraska. . Retrieved 2007-08-21. [13] "Rainbow Girls" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071012193106/ http:/ / freemasoninformation. com/ BodiesofFM/ rainbow. htm). Freemason Information. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. freemasoninformation. com/ BodiesofFM/ rainbow. htm) on 2007-10-12. . Retrieved 2008-11-17.

External links
• GoRainbow.org (http://www.gorainbow.org/) -- Official website for Supreme Assembly • W. Mark Sexson (http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=14440524) at Find a Grave

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Famous Masons
Prince Hall
Prince Hall (c.1735[1] – December 7, 1807),[2] was a tireless abolitionist and a leader of the free black community in Boston. Hall tried to gain New England’s enslaved and free blacks a place in some of the most crucial spheres of society, Freemasonry, education and the military. He is considered the founder of “Black Freemasonry” in the United States, known today as Prince Hall Freemasonry. Hall formed the African Grand Lodge of North America. Prince Hall was unanimously elected its Grand Master and served until his death in 1807. He also lobbied tirelessly for education rights for black children and a back-to-Africa movement. Many historians regard Prince Hall as one of the more prominent African American leaders throughout the early national-period of the United States.

Early Life and Manumission
Prince Hall’s life history has been a subject of debate. William Grimshaw’s 1903 "Official History of Freemasonry Among the Colored People of North America" began the story that Prince Hall was born in Barbados to a white father and mulatto mother who fled to the British colony of Massachusetts where Hall became a Methodist minister.[3] Black Freemasonry scholars have for the most part, rejected Grimshaw’s account due to inconsistencies.
Portrait of Prince Hall Charles Wesley, a historian (not the founder of Methodism), put together an alternative history for Prince Hall through compilations of archival sources. He claimed that Prince Hall was enslaved to the tanner William Hall at age eleven in Boston. Prince Hall may have become literate on his own, or through the direct help of white people. Some New Englanders made a point of teaching slaves and Free Blacks to read and write.[4] Documents in Massachusetts showing that slaveowner William Hall freed a man named Prince Hall on April 9, 1765 cannot be conclusively linked to any one individual as there exists record of no fewer than 21 males named Prince Hall, and several other men named Prince Hall were living in Boston at that time.

It is extremely hard to conclusively say which man in either case is actually Prince Hall. At the time that Hall was supposedly freed, there were no fewer than 21 black males named Prince hall in Boston. But it is certain that by 1770 Prince Hall was a free, literate, black man living in Boston.[5]

Prince Hall

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Leadership
The details surrounding Prince Hall’s life involving abolitionism and masonry are more certain than his early life. He attempted various approaches to advance black rights. He was politically active, petitioning for the abolition of slavery in Massachusetts and fought for laws to protect free blacks in Massachusetts from kidnapping by slave traders. He proposed a back-to-Africa movement and pressed for equal education and funding for black and white school children, even operating a school in his own home. He showed his prowess in debate early on, citing Christian teachings in a petition that spoke out against slavery to fellow Christians in a predominantly church-attending Massachusetts legislature.[6] After the American Revolution ended, many African Americans who served in the ranks or as aids during the war expected equality from the whites whom they had stood next to against the British. Prince Hall soon emerged in the high profile realm of politics and was instrumental in proposing several pieces of legislation that would improve the lives of African Americans throughout New England . However, the situation soon became apparent that the African American place in society had budged little throughout the duration of the war. In addition to proposing legislation, Hall also hosted a variety of different events for African Americans including theater events as well as educational forums. Prince Hall’s role of an educator of the African American youth as well as a politician may very well have been just as instrumental as his foundation of the African American Free Masonry Lodge.

Involvement in American Revolutionary War
Hall urged the enlistment of both enslaved and freed blacks for the attempt to free the American colonies from British control. Hall was concerned with the development of the colonies if they gained independence. He was certain that involvement of blacks in the construction of the new nation would be the first step toward the complete freedom for all blacks.[7] The Massachusetts Committee of Safety declined Hall’s proposal to allow blacks the opportunity to fight for the colonies. Prince Hall and supporters of his cause petitioned the Committee by comparing Britain’s ruling of the colonies with the enslavement of blacks. A proclamation from England guaranteed blacks that if they enlisted in the British army instead of the Continental they would be freed at the end of the war. Only after the British Army began to use blacks in their troops did the Colonial Army change its decision to block admission of blacks into the military. It is very likely that because of his strong support for the revolutionary cause Prince Hall had served in the Massachusetts militia during the American Revolutionary War. It is again unclear definitively whether he served or not since at least six men from Massachusetts who were named “Prince Hall” served in the military during the war.

A Freemason
The Masonic fraternity was extremely attractive to free blacks of the eighteenth century. Prince Hall and his followers saw Freemasonry as a platform where racial differences did not exist.[8] The Masonic ideals greatly appealed to Hall, especially the beliefs in liberty, equality and peace. Prior to the American Revolutionary War, Prince Hall and fourteen other free black men petitioned for the admittance to the white Boston St. John’s Lodge.[9] They were turned away. Some whites were irate of the audacity for blacks applying to be Masons. Due to the resistance of colonial Masonries, Hall looked elsewhere and on March 6, 1775, Hall and fifteen other free blacks were initiated into the Masonry by members of the Irish Military Lodge No. 441. The Lodge was attached to the British forces stationed in Boston. Hall and the other freedmen founded African Lodge No. 1 with Prince Hall named as Grand Master. A problem quickly arose for black men wishing to become Masons in the newly formed United States: the members of a Lodge must agree unanimously in an anonymous vote to accept a petitioner to receive the degrees. As a consequence of the unanimity requirement, if just one member of a lodge did not want black men in his Lodge, his vote was enough to cause the petitioner's rejection. This sentiment can be seen in the letter of General Albert Pike to

Prince Hall his brother in 1875 where he says, “ I am not inclined to mettle in the matter. I took my obligations to white men, not to Negroes. When I have to accept Negroes as brothers or leave Masonry, I shall leave it.”[10] Thus, although exceptions did exist, Masonic Lodges and Grand Lodges in the United States generally excluded African Americans. And since the vote is conducted anonymously, this created a second problem: since no one knew who had voted against the applicant, it was impossible to identify a member as pursuing a policy of racism. This allowed even a tiny number of prejudiced members to effectively deny membership to black petitioners, and in some cases even exclude black men who had legitimately been made Masons in integrated jurisdictions. Thus there arose a system of racial segregation in American Masonry, which remained in place until the 1960s and which persists in some jurisdictions even to this day. When the British Army left Boston in 1776, the black Masons had limited power. They could meet as a lodge, take part in the Masonic procession on St. John’s Day, and bury their dead with Masonic rites but could not confer Masonic degrees or perform any other essential functions of a fully operating Lodge.[11] It took nine years of petitioning white American Lodges before they appealed to the less prejudiced lodges in England. They applied to the Grand Lodge of England for a warrant March 2, 1784. While waiting to hear from England, Prince Hall applied to mainstream Masonic authorities for a temporary full warrant in the meantime. They were unsuccessful. However, they were granted a second permit to continue with their original, though limited, operations that covered the period until Hall heard back from the Grand Lodge. The first meeting place was a lodge room they prepared in “Golden Fleece” which was located near Boston Harbor. They later met at Kirby Street Temple in Boston. Eventually, the grand master of the Mother Grand Lodge of England, H. R. H. The Duke of Cumberland, issued a charter for the African Lodge No. 1 later renamed African Lodge no. 459 September 20, 1784. But the charter was not received until April, 29, 1787 due to complications. The Lodge was organized under the warrant May 6, 1781. Shortly after, black masons elsewhere in the United States began contacting Prince Hall with requests to establish Lodges in their own cities. Consistent with European Masonic practices at the time, African Lodge granted their requests and served as Mother Lodge to new black Lodges in Newport, Rhode Island in 1799, Philadelphia, Providence and New York.[12] By 1779 there were at least thirty-four members in the Boston black lodge, a sizable number that was overlooked by mainstream Boston Masons.[7] Unfortunately, integration with the American white Masons was not impending. The dream that black Masonry and white Masonry would become simply Freemasonry had to be either abandoned or, at least, indefinitely postponed. Instead, the blacks concentrated on recognition from the whites. Recognition required that white Masons state that black Masonry, descending from Prince Hall of Massachusetts, was legitimate and not “clandestine.” That it had received its charter from the English Grand Lodge and was thus entitled to all Masonic rights such as intervisitation between black and white lodges without prejudice.[13] Many Grand Masters hoped that ultimately recognition would lead to integration but they knew it would be a long time before that happened.[14] In 1791, black Freemasons met in Boston and formed the African Grand Lodge of North America. Prince Hall was unanimously elected its Grand Master and served until his death in 1807. (The claim that he was appointed Provincial Grand Master for North America in 1791 appears to have been fabricated.) The African Grand Lodge was later renamed the Prince Hall Grand Lodge a year after Hall's death, in his honor. In 1827 the African Grand Lodge declared its independence from the United Grand Lodge of England, as the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts had done 45 years earlier. It also stated its independence from all of the white Grand Lodges in the United States.[15] Today, predominantly black Prince Hall Grand Lodges exist in the United States, Canada, the Caribbean and Liberia, governing Prince Hall Lodges throughout the world. Hall’s legacy as a Freemason and a leader has survived with the lodges. As a Georgia Mason noted, the original local lodge rules written by Prince Hall and his followers in the late

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Prince Hall 18th century were the first set of regulations drafted by colored men for self government in the United States and Masonry ever since has striven to teach its members ‘the fundamentals of central government’ which is the basis of American life.”[16] After nearly two centuries of controversy, the Grand Lodge of England was asked to decide the matter of Prince Hall Masonic legitimacy. Carefully studying the records, the Grand Lodge of England concluded that the Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Massachusetts was indeed entitled to Masonic recognition and this against the tradition that, per state, only one recognized Masonic body should exist.

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Attempted Reforms and Legislation
Prince Hall is recognized as a black leader due to an unrelenting effort to engage the Massachusetts’ legislature in the cause for blacks. He repeatedly joined groups requesting the legislative body to end slavery in the state. He also petitioned for state support for black schools, and even opened one in his own home. As with many of his previous appeals, this one went unattended, and yet, his emancipatory efforts helped create an enduring tradition of Black activism. Hall put much of his energy into education. Literate himself, he believed that education was an extremely important skill to teach black children to get them on even footing with whites. He is known for speeches and petitions he gave on furthering his cause. Prince Hall’ “1792 Charge”, “1797 Charge” and his 1787 Petition are his most recognizable writings. Hall had a way with words that could lead many to follow in his strong beliefs. In a speech given to the Boston African Masonic Lodge, Hall stated, “My brethren, let us not be cast down Prince Hall Monument in Copp's Hill Burying under these and many other abuses we at present labour under: for the Ground darkest is before the break of day….Let us remember what a dark day it was with our African brethren, six years ago, in the French West Indies. Nothing but the snap of the whip was heard, from morning to evening”.[17] Halls’ 1792 Charge, focused on the abolition of slavery in his home state of Massachusetts. He addressed how United States’ Black Leaders were important to the shaping of the country and unity. In his 1797 Charge, Hall spoke more about the treatment and hostility that blacks faced while living in the United States. He also gave recognition to the black revolutionaries in the Haitian Revolution. A strong advocate for black equality, Prince Hall was also involved in the back-to-Africa movement. In the 1780s Hall approached the legislature once again requesting funds for voluntary emigration to Africa. In January of 1773, Prince Hall and seventy three other African American delegates presented an emigration plea to the Massachusetts Senate.[18] This plea explained that the African Americans would be better suited to the warm climate of Africa and that they would be able to endure the lifestyle. However this failed. Hall felt that it was the most appropriate solution in order for blacks to gain some semblance of equality. Hall fought even harder for the movement when a group of freed black men were captured and detained while making their way to Africa. With all the information that Prince Hall had received he believed that blacks would be well suited back in Africa as leaders by using lessons they learned in America. However, due to a lack of support and enthusiasm for the movement, Hall decided to turn his efforts towards equality in education. Education played a significant role in Prince Hall’s life. As a slave, Hall was taught to read and write by his master. Some northern slave-owners believed it was a good idea to teach their slaves to become literate. By experiencing how crucial education was, Hall used his leadership to ask the Massachusetts congress for a school program for black children. Hall cited the same platform for fighting the American Revolution of “Taxation without Representation.” [19] Although Hall’s arguments were logical, his two attempts at passing legislation through the

Prince Hall Massachusetts Senate both resulted in failure. Denied equal funding, Hall was not to be deterred and eventually started a school program for free black children out of his own home. Prince Hall emphasized classical education and Liberal Arts.

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Copp's Hill Burying Ground
Prince Hall is buried in the Historic Copp's Hill Burying Ground in Boston along with other notable Bostonians from the colonial era. Also, thousands of African Americans who lived in the community at the base of Copp's Hill are buried in unmarked graves.[20] Prince Hall's grave is marked, and the inscription reads: "Here lies ye body of Prince Hall, first Grand Master of the colored Grand Lodge in Mass. Died Dec. 7, 1807" A tribute monument was erected in Copp's Hill on June 24, 1835 in his name next to his grave marker. (see image in above section). See also: other memorials and ceremonies [21]

Notes
[1] "Prince Hall" (http:/ / www. pbs. org/ wgbh/ aia/ part2/ 2p37. html). Africans in America. WGBH. . Retrieved 2008-08-10. [2] FindAGrave (http:/ / www. findagrave. com/ cgi-bin/ fg. cgi?page=gr& GRid=6078) Prince Hall Prince Hall's tomb stone in Copp's Hill Burying Ground

[3] Grimshaw, William H., Past Grand Master, 1907 of the Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Washington, District of Columbia (1903). Official History of Free Masonry Among the Coloured People in North America. [4] ibid. pp. 239-242 [5] Greene, p. 241 [6] Greene, p. 288 [7] Loretta J. Williams, Black Freemasonry and Middle-Class Realities, (University of Missouri Press, 1980). [8] Maurice Wallace, “Are We Men?: Prince Hall, Martin Delany, and the Masculine Ideal in Black Freemasonry,” American Literary History, Vol. 9, No. 3. [9] [http://freemasonry.bcy.ca/biography/hall_p/hall_p.html Freemasonry British Columbia and Yukon. Prince Hall. [10] William H. Upton, Negro Masonry, (New York: AMS Press, 1975). [11] Joanna Brooks, “Prince Hall Freemasonry, and Genealogy,” African American Review, Vol. 34, No. 2. [12] Sidney Kaplan and Emma Nogrady Kaplan, The Black Presence in the Era of the American Revolution (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1989; ISBN 0-87023-663-6), p. 203. [13] Williams A. Muraskin, Middle Class Blacks in a White Society, (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1975). [14] Lamont D. Thomas. Paul Cuffe: Black Entrepreneur and Pan-Africanist (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1988) pp. 126-7 [15] Theda Skocpol, “Organizations Despite Adversity: The Origins and Development of African American Fraternity Associates," Social Science History, Volume 28, Number 3. [16] Williams A. Muraskin, “Middle Class Blacks in a White Society,” Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1975. [17] Maurice Jackson, “Friends of the Negro! Fly with Me, The Path is Open to the Sea,” Early American Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Volume 6, No. 1. pp. 58 - 59 [18] Arthur White, "Black Leadership Class and Education in Antebellum Boston: The Journal of Negro Education," Autumn 1973. [19] Joanna Brooks, "Prince Hall, Freemasonry, and Genealogy," Indiana State University, 34.2 (2000): 197-216. Print [20] City of Boston (http:/ / www. cityofboston. gov/ freedomtrail/ coppshill. asp) Copp's Hill Burying Ground] [21] http:/ / www. arlingtonhistorical. org/ princehall/ index. php

Prince Hall

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References
• Draffen of Newington, George (May 13, 1976).  Prince Hall Freemasonry.  Scotland: The Phylaxis Society.  Reprinted at Phylaxis Society: Prince Hall Freemasonry (http://www.freemasonry.org/phylaxis/prince_hall. htm) (retrieved December 29, 2004). • Edward, Bruce John (June 5, 1921).  Prince Hall, the Pioneer of Negro Masonry.  Proofs of the Legitimacy of Prince Hall Masonry.  New York. • Freemasons. Proceedings of the One Hundredth Anniversary of the Granting of Warrant 459 to African Lodge, at Boston ... Sept. 29th, 1884, Under the Auspices of the M.W. Prince Hall Grand Lodge F. and A. Masons. Boston: Franklin Press, 1885. • Grimshaw, William H., Past Grand Master, 1907 of the Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Washington, District of Columbia (1903).  Official History of Free Masonry Among the Coloured People in North America.  Note: significant claims in this book have been discredited by later research. • Haunch, T.O.  (Commentary on the illegitimacy of alleged Provincial Grand Master patent.)  Phylaxis Society: Reviews of Prince Hall Freemasonry (http://www.freemasonry.org/phylaxis/reviews.htm) (retrieved December 29, 2004). • Moniot, Joseph E.  Prince Hall Lodges History—Legitimacy—Quest for recognition.  Proceedings, Vol. VI, No. 5, Walter F. Meier Lodge of Research No. 281, Grand Lodge of Washington. • Roundtree, Alton G., and Paul M. Bessel (2006).  Out of the Shadows: Prince Hall Freemasonry in America, 200 Years of Endurance.  Forestville MD: KLR Publishing. ISBN 0-9772385-0-4 • Sidbury, James. Becoming African in America: Race and Nation in the Early Black Atlantic. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. • Walkes, Jr., Joseph A (1979).  Black Square and Compass—200 years of Prince Hall Freemasonry, p. 8.  Richmond, Virginia: Macoy Publishing & Masonic Supply Co. • Wesley, Dr. Charles H (1977).  Prince Hall: Life and Legacy.  Washington, DC: The United Supreme Council, Southern Jurisdiction, Prince Hall Affiliation and the Afro-American Historical and Cultural Museum.  Reprinted in Prince Hall Masonic Directory, 4th Edition (1992).  Conference of Grand Masters, Prince Hall Masons.

External links
• Biography of Prince Hall, Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon (http://freemasonry.bcy.ca/biography/ hall_p/hall_p.html) • Prince Hall History, Widow's Son Lodge No. 4 PHA, North Carolina (http://www.fortunecity.com/marina/ indiabasin/58/phhistory.htm) • A BRIEF HISTORY OF PRINCE HALL FREEMASONRY IN MASSACHUSETTS (http://www.princehall. org/history.html) • Most Worshipful Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Michigan (http://www.miphgl.org) • MAss Historical Society on "Bucks of America" Note copyrighted (http://www.masshist.org/endofslavery/ ?queryID=56)

Albert Pike

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Albert Pike
Albert Pike
December 29, 1809 – April 2, 1891 (aged 81)

Albert Pike Place of birth Place of death Boston, Massachusetts Washington, D.C.

Place of burial Oak Hill Cemetery Allegiance United States of America Confederate States of America

Service/branch Confederate States Army Rank Battles/wars Brigadier General American Civil War

Albert Pike (December 29, 1809–April 2, 1891) was an attorney, Confederate officer, writer, and Freemason. Pike is the only Confederate military officer or figure to be honored with an outdoor statue in Washington, D.C. (in Judiciary Square) mostly due to his masonic connection with President Andrew Johnson, who pardoned Pike for treason after the American Civil War.

Biography
Pike was born in Boston, Massachusetts, son of Ben and Sarah (Andrews) Pike, and spent his childhood in Byfield and Newburyport, Massachusetts. His colonial ancestors included John Pike (1613-1688/1689), the founder of Woodbridge, New Jersey.[1] He attended school in Newburyport and Framingham until he was 15. In August 1825, he passed entrance exams at Harvard University, though when the college requested payment of tuition fees for the first two years which he had successfully challenged by examination, he chose not to attend. He began a program of self-education, later becoming a schoolteacher in Gloucester, North Bedford, Fairhaven and Newburyport.[2] In 1831, Pike left Massachusetts to travel west, first stopping in St. Louis and later moving on to Independence, Missouri. In Independence, he joined an expedition to Taos, New Mexico, hunting and trading. During the excursion his horse broke and ran, forcing Pike to walk the remaining 500 miles to Taos. After this he joined a trapping expedition to the Llano Estacado in New Mexico and Texas. Trapping was minimal and, after traveling about 1300 miles (650 on foot), he finally arrived at Fort Smith, Arkansas.[3] Settling in Arkansas in 1833, he taught school and wrote a series of articles for the Little Rock Arkansas Advocate under the pen name of "Casca."[4] The articles were popular enough that he was asked to join the staff of the newspaper. Later, after marrying Mary Ann Hamilton, he purchased part of the newspaper with the dowry. By 1835, he was the Advocate's sole owner.[3] Under Pike's administration the Advocate promoted the viewpoint of the Whig party in a politically volatile and divided Arkansas.[4]

Albert Pike He then began to study law and was admitted to the bar in 1837, selling the Advocate the same year. He was the first reporter for the Arkansas supreme court and also wrote a book (published anonymously), titled The Arkansas Form Book, which was a guidebook for lawyers. Additionally, Pike wrote on several legal subjects and continued producing poetry, a hobby he had begun in his youth in Massachusetts. His poems were highly regarded in his day, but are now mostly forgotten.[3] Several volumes of his works were self-published posthumously by his daughter. In 1859, he received an honorary Master of Arts degree from Harvard,[3] [5] Pike died in Washington, D.C., aged 81, and was buried at Oak Hill Cemetery (against his wishes—he had left instructions for his body to be cremated).[3] In 1944, his remains were moved to the House of the Temple, headquarters of the Southern Jurisdiction of the Scottish Rite.

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Military career
When the Mexican-American War started, Pike joined the cavalry and was commissioned as a troop commander, serving in the Battle of Buena Vista.[3] He and his commander, John Selden Roane, had several differences of opinion. This situation led finally to a duel between Pike and Roane. Although several shots were fired in the duel, nobody was injured, and the two were persuaded by their seconds to discontinue it. After the war, Pike returned to the practice of law, moving to New Orleans for a time beginning in 1853. He wrote another book, Maxims of the Roman Law and some of the Ancient French Law, as Expounded Statue at Judiciary Square, Washington, D.C. and Applied in Doctrine and Jurisprudence. Although unpublished, this book increased his reputation among his associates in law. He returned to Arkansas in 1857, gaining some amount of prominence in the legal field and becoming an advocate of slavery, although retaining his affiliation with the Whig party. When that party dissolved, he became a member of the Know-Nothing party. Before the Civil War he was firmly against secession, but when the war started he nevertheless took the side of the Confederacy.[3] At the Southern Commercial Convention of 1854, Pike said the South should remain in the Union and seek equality with the North, but if the South "were forced into an inferior status, she would be better out of the Union than in it."[6] He also made several contacts among the Native American tribes in the area, at one point negotiating an $800,000 settlement between the Creeks and other tribes and the federal government. This relationship was to influence the course of his Civil War service.[3] At the beginning of the war, Pike was appointed as Confederate envoy to the Native Americans. In this capacity he negotiated several treaties, one of the most important being with Cherokee chief John Ross, which was concluded in 1861.[3] Pike was commissioned as a brigadier general on November 22, 1861, and given a command in the Indian Territory.[3] With Gen. Ben McCulloch, Pike trained three Confederate regiments of Indian cavalry, most of whom belonged to the "civilized tribes", whose loyalty to the Confederacy was variable. Although initially victorious at the Battle of Pea Ridge (Elkhorn Tavern) in March, Pike's unit was defeated later in a counterattack, after falling into disarray.[3] Also, as in the previous war, Pike came into conflict with his superior officers, at one point drafting a letter to Jefferson Davis complaining about his direct superior. After Pea Ridge, Pike was faced with charges that his troops had scalped soldiers in the field. Maj. Gen. Thomas C. Hindman also charged Pike with mishandling of money and material, ordering his arrest. Both these charges were later found to be considerably lacking in evidence; nevertheless Pike, facing arrest, escaped into the hills of Arkansas, sending his resignation from the Confederate Army on July 12. He was at length arrested on November 3 under charges of insubordination and treason, and held briefly in Warren, Texas, but his resignation was accepted on

Albert Pike November 11 and he was allowed to return to Arkansas.[3]

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Freemasonry
He first joined the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in 1840 then had in the interim joined a Masonic Lodge and become extremely active in the affairs of the organization, being elected Sovereign Grand Commander of the Scottish Rite's Southern Jurisdiction in 1859. He remained Sovereign Grand Commander for the remainder of his life (a total of thirty-two years), devoting a large amount of his time to developing the rituals of the order. Notably, he published a book called Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry in 1871, of which there were several subsequent editions. Pike is still regarded in America as an eminent[7] and influential[8] Freemason.

Morals and Dogma (1871)

Pike in Masonic regalia

Portrait by Mathew Brady

Poetry
As a young man, Pike wrote poetry which he continued to do for the rest of his life. At 23, he published his first poem, “Hymns to the Gods.” Later work was printed in literary journals like Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine and local newspapers. His first collection of poetry, Prose Sketches and Poems Written in the Western Country, appeared in 1834. He later gathered many of his poems and republished them in Hymns to the Gods and Other Poems (1872). After his death these appeared again in Gen. Albert Pike’s Poems (1900) and Lyrics and Love Songs (1916).[9]

Selected works
• Pike, Albert (1997). Book of the Words. City: Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1-56459-161-1. • Pike, Albert (1997). Indo-Aryan Deities and Worship as Contained in the Rig-Veda. City: Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1-56459-183-2. • Pike, Albert (1997). Lectures of the Arya. City: Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1-56459-182-4. • Pike, Albert (2004). The Meaning of Masonry. City: Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1-4179-1101-8. • Pike, Albert (2002). Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite Freemasonry. City: Kessinger Publishing, LLC. ISBN 0-7661-2615-3. • Pike, Albert (2004). Morals and Dogma of the First Three Degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite Freemasonry. City: Kessinger Publishing, LLC. ISBN 1-4179-1108-5. • Pike, Albert (2001). The Point Within the Circle. City: Holmes Pub Grou Llc. ISBN 1-55818-305-1. • Pike, Albert (1997). Reprints of Old Rituals. City: Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1-56459-983-3.

Albert Pike

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References
This article incorporates public domain text from : Cousin, John William (1910). A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature. London, J. M. Dent & Sons; New York, E. P. Dutton. • Abel, Annie (2007). The American Indian as Participant in the Civil War. City: BiblioBazaar. ISBN 1-4264-6170-4. • Allsopp, Fred (1997). Albert Pike a Biography. City: Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1-56459-134-4. • Brown, Walter (1997). A Life of Albert Pike. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press. ISBN 1-55728-469-5. • Cousin, John (2003). Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature. City: Kessinger Publishing, LLC. ISBN 0-7661-4348-1. • Morris, S. Brent (2006). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Freemasonry. Alpha Books. ISBN 1-59257-490-4.

Footnotes
[1] Albert's descent from his immigrant ancestor John Pike is as follows: John Pike (1572–1654); John Pike (1613–1688/89); Joseph Pike (1638–1694); Thomas Pike (1682–1753/4); John Pike (1710–1755); Thomas Pike (1739–1836); Benjamin Pike (1780–?); Albert Pike (1809–1891). [2] Hubbell, Jay B. The South in American Literature: 1607-1900. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1954: 640. [3] Handbook of Texas Online, s.v. "Pike, Albert," http:/ / www. tshaonline. org/ handbook/ online/ articles/ PP/ fpi18. html (accessed December 15, 2008). [4] http:/ / www. encyclopediaofarkansas. net/ encyclopedia/ entry-detail. aspx?entryID=1737 [5] "The Phoenix," Manly P. Hall [6] David Morris Potter, Don Edward. The impending crisis, 1848-1861. HarperCollins, 1976. (Page 467) [7] ALBERT PIKE AND FREEMASONRY (http:/ / www. freemason. org/ cfo/ mar_apr_2002/ pike. htm), March–April 2002 edition, California Freemason On-Line [8] Albert Pike (http:/ / www. masonicinfo. com/ pike. htm), masonicinfo.com [9] Moneyhon, Carl H. (February 4, 2009), Albert Pike (1809–1891) (http:/ / www. encyclopediaofarkansas. net/ encyclopedia/ entry-detail. aspx?entryID=1737), Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture, , retrieved November 14, 2009

External links
• • • • Pike's Masonic philosophy (http://www.masonicinfo.com/pikesphilosophy.htm) Albert Pike: Hero or Scoundrel? (http://civilwarstudies.org/articles/Vol_5/pike.htm) About Pike's famous Luciferian quote (http://albertpike.wordpress.com/albert-pike-lucifer) About room where he is entombed (http://web.archive.org/web/20060223081418/http://www.srmason-sj. org/web/temple-files/pillars.html) • Albert Pike commemorative Masonic Lodge - Located in Denver CO (http://www.AlbertPike117.com) • Lafferty, R.A. (1991). Okla Hannali. Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-2349-4. • Pike's words for Dixie ("Everybody's Dixie", also known as "To Arms in Dixie") (http://www.civilwarpoetry. org/confederate/songs/apdixie.html)

James Anderson

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James Anderson
James Anderson (ca. 1679-1680 – 1739) was a Scottish minister and miscellaneous writer born and educated in Aberdeen, Scotland. He was ordained a minister in the Church of Scotland in 1707 and moved to London, where he ministered to the Glass House Street congregation until 1710, to the Presbyterian church in Swallow Street until 1734, and at Lisle Street Chapel until his death. He is reported to have lost a large sum of money in the South Sea Company crash of 1720. Anderson is best known, however, for his association with Freemasonry.

Biography
He was the brother of Adam Anderson, (1692–1765); James was born about 1680, in Aberdeen, where he was educated, and probably took the degrees of M.A. and D.D. In 1710 he was appointed minister of the Presbyterian church in Swallow Street, London, whence he was transferred, in 1734, to a similar charge in Lisle Street, Leicester Fields. According to the Gentleman's Magazine, he is said to have been ‘well known among the people of that persuasion resident in London as Bishop Anderson,’ and he is described as ‘a learned but imprudent man, who lost a considerable part of his property in the fatal year 1720.’ Several of his sermons were printed. One of them, No King-Killers, preached in 1715, on the anniversary of the execution of Charles I, was a zealous defence of the conduct of the Presbyterians during the civil wars, and reached a second edition. Anderson was a freemason, and when, in 1721, on the revival of freemasonry in England, the grand lodge determined to produce an authoritative digest of the Constitutions of the fraternity, the task was assigned to him (Entick's edition (1747) of the Constitutions, p. 194 et seq.). It was as a grand warden of the lodge that he presented to it, on completing his task, The Constitutions of the Free Masons; containing the History, Charges, Regulations, &c. of that Most Ancient and Right Worshipful Fraternity. For the Use of the Lodges. London. In the year of Masonry 5723, Anno Domini 1723. This work, which passed through several editions, was long recognised by the English freemasons to be the standard code on its subject, and was translated into German. An American facsimile of the first edition of 1723 was issued at New York City in 1855, and there are reprints of the same edition in Cox's Old Constitutions belonging to the Freemasons of England and Ireland (1871) and in the first volume of Kenning's Masonic Archæological Library (1878). Anderson also contributed to masonic literature A Defence of Masonry, occasioned by a pamphlet called “Masonry Dissected” (1738?), which was translated into German, and is reprinted in Oliver's Golden Remains of the Early Masonic Writers (1847).

Anderson and Freemasonry
Anderson was a Freemason, the Master of a Masonic lodge, and a Grand Warden of the Grand Lodge of London and Westminster. He was commissioned in September 1721 by the Grand Lodge to write a history of the Free-Masons, and it was published in 1723 as The Constitutions of the Free-Masons. Anderson's name does not appear on the title page, but his authorship is declared in an appendix.

Works
In 1732 appeared the work by which Anderson is chiefly remembered, Royal Genealogies; or, the Genealogical Tables of Emperors, Kings, and Princes, from Adam to these times. Professedly based on Genealogische Tabellen of Johann Hübner, it was largely supplemented by Anderson's industry. While the earlier sections of the work are of little historical value, the later are often of use in relation to the genealogies of continental dynasties and houses. The volume closes with a
Anderson's Constitutions, 1723

James Anderson synopsis of the English peerage, and in the preface the author intimated his readiness, if adequately encouraged, ‘to delineate and dispose at full length the genealogies of all the peers and great gentry of the Britannic isles.’ Anderson's last work, which he was commissioned to undertake by the first Earl of Egmont and his son from materials furnished by them, bore the title, A Genealogical History of the House of Yvery, in its different branches of Yvery, Lovel, Perceval, and Gournay; but the first volume alone was completed when Anderson died on 25 May 1739, and a second volume, subsequently published, was due to another pen (see ‘To the Reader’ in vol. ii). The work was soon withdrawn from circulation on account of some disparaging remarks in it on the condition of the English peerage and on the character of the Irish people. It was re-issued, however, without the offensive passages, in 1742 (see Notes and Queries, 1st series, iv.158, and Letters of Horace Walpole (1857), i.107 n., and ii.145). Much of the genealogical matter in the book has been pronounced to be mythical (Drummond's Histories of Noble British Families (1846), art. ‘Percival’). Another work of Anderson's, News from Elysium, or Dialogues of the Dead, between Leopold, Roman Emperor, and Louis XIV, King of France, was published shortly after his death in 1739. The Constitutions was edited and reprinted by Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia in 1734, becoming the first Masonic book printed in America. An electronic edition of that work is online.[1] A second London edition, much expanded, appeared in 1738. The work was translated into many languages, including Dutch (1736), German (1741), and French (1745). His other published works include: • • • • Royal Genealogies (1732) A Defence of Masonry (1738?) News from Elysium (1739) A Genealogical History of the House of Yvery (1742)

142

References
•  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Anderson, James (1680?–1739)". Dictionary of National Biography, 1885–1900 . London: Smith, Elder & Co.

References
[1] "?" (http:/ / digitalcommons. unl. edu/ libraryscience/ 25/ ). .

Albert Mackey

143

Albert Mackey
Albert Gallatin Mackey (March 12, 1807 – June 20, 1881) was an American medical doctor, and is best known for his authorship of many books and articles about freemasonry, particularly Masonic Landmarks. He served as Grand Lecturer and Grand Secretary of The Grand Lodge of South Carolina; Secretary General of the Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite for the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States.[1]

Bibliography
• "Albert Gallatin Mackey" [2]. Masonic Biographies, Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. Retrieved 1 March 2005. • Albert Gallatin Mackey (1906). The History of Freemasonry: It's Legends and Traditions. • The Symbolism of Freemasonry [3], 1882 • Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, Vol I (1873) & Vol II (1878) • Albert Gallatin Mackey (1867). The Mystic Tie. • The Principles of Masonic Law [5], 1856 • Albert Gallatin Mackey (1845). A Lexicon of Freemasonry.

References
[1] Masonic Dictionary: Mackey Albert (http:/ / www. masonicdictionary. com/ mackey. html) [2] http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ biography/ mackey_a/ mackey_a. html [3] http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ files/ 11937/ 11937-h/ 11937-h. htm

External links
• Works by Albert Mackey (http://www.gutenberg.org/author/Albert+G.+Mackey) at Project Gutenberg

Robert Macoy

144

Robert Macoy
Robert Macoy (October 4, 1815 – January 9, 1895 (aged 79))[1] was born in Armagh, Ulster County, Ireland, but moved to the United States at the age of 4 months[2] . He was a prominent Freemason, and was instrumental in the founding of the Order of the Eastern Star[3] and the Order of the Amaranth[4] . He also founded what may be the largest Masonic publishing, regalia, and supply house currently active, Macoy Publishing & Masonic Supply Company.

Life
Growing up in America and having attained a considerable degree of education, Macoy entered the printing craft as soon as he was old enough to work. He spent most of his life in that business and in Masonic activities in New York City. In 1849, he started a Masonic supply and publishing business, which, under the name, Macoy Publishing & Masonic Supply Company, is still in active operation.

Masonic Activities
Macoy was initiated in Lebanon Lodge No. 191 in New York City, January 20, 1848, passed, January 27, and Raised February 3 of that year. On August 15, 1855, he withdrew to affiliate with Adelphic Lodge No. 348. He was elected Deputy Grand Master of New York in June, 1856 and reelected in 1857. He was exalted in Orient Chapter No. 138, Royal Arch Masons, September 5, 1849 and became a member of Adelphic Chapter No. 150 on December 24, 1855. He was also affiliated with Union Chapter No. 180, Americas Chapter No. 215, and De Witt Clinton Chapter No. 142. He also received the Cryptic degrees and was a charter member of Adelphic Council No. 7, Royal and Select Masters. He was elected Grand Recorder of the Grand Council on June 4, 1855. He was also knighted in Palestine Encampment No. 18 of New York City, in February, 1851, and in March withdrew to join Morton Encampment No. 4. On April 28, 1874, he affiliated with DeWitt Clinton Commandery No. 27 Knights Templar, where his membership continued for 20 years. He received the Scottish Rite degrees sometime prior to December 9, 1850, for on that date he received the 33rd Degree, Sovereign Grand Inspector General. In 1866 Macoy published A Dictionary of Freemasonry, which comprised his own work ("General History of Freemasonry" and "Cyclopaedia of Freemasonry") as well as George Oliver's Dictionary of Symbolical Masonry of 1853. It has been reprinted.[5]

Order of the Eastern Star
Robert Macoy and Rob Morris were close friends and their families often visited each other in Kentucky and New York. Before 1860 Macoy became interested in Morris' efforts to promote an organization for female relatives of Masons. Morris had formed "Constellations" - also the "Family System" in conferring degrees, but these proved too elaborate and cumbersome. Morris turned over his books on "Adoptive" Masonry to Macoy in 1868. Macoy published his first Adoptive Rite for the Eastern Star in 1869 having organized the work into the Chapter system and it is from Macoy's rite that all Eastern Star rituals used today have been taken. In 1883 Macoy founded at New York the Order of the Amaranth in connection with the Eastern Star.[6] [7]

Robert Macoy

145

References
[1] "About Macoy Publishing and Masonic Supply Co., Inc." (http:/ / www. macoy. com/ AboutUs. aspx). . Retrieved 2007-07-31. [2] Voorhis, Harold Van Buren (Harold Van Buren Voorhis) (1976). The Eastern Star: The Evolution from a Rite to an Order (http:/ / www. phoenixmasonry. org/ eastern_star_the_evolution_from_a_rite_to_an_order. htm). Richmond, Virginia: Macoy Publishing and Masonic Supply Company, Inc. . Retrieved 2007-08-01. [3] "History of the Order" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070703232723/ http:/ / www. easternstar. org/ oes/ oeshistory. html). General Grand Chapter, Order of the Eastern Star. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. easternstar. org/ oes/ oeshistory. html) on 2007-07-03. . Retrieved 2007-07-31. [4] "The Order of the Amaranth" (http:/ / www. amaranth. org/ NewHistory. asp). Supreme Council, Order of the Amaranth. . Retrieved 2007-07-31. [5] Robert Macoy, A Dictionary of Freemasonry. New York: Gramercy Books, 1989. ISBN 0-517-69213-9 [6] Arthur Edward Waite, A New Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry (1921), II:100-101. New York: Wings Books, 1994. ISBN 0-517-19148-2 [7] Other American adoptive rites of the period were the Heroine of Jericho, the Order of the Scarlet Cord, and the Order of Eternal Progress. Waite, II:104, 106-107.

External links
• Macoy Publishing: Home (http://www.macoy.com/)

Rob Morris

146

Rob Morris
Rob Morris
Born Died August 31, 1818near Boston, Massachusetts July 31, 1888 (aged 69)

Resting place La Grange, Kentucky Nationality Occupation Known for Title Predecessor American teacher Poetry and Freemasonry Poet Laureate of Freemasonry Robert Burns

Dr. Rob Morris was a prominent American poet and Freemason. He also created the first ritual for what was to become the Order of the Eastern Star.

Early life
Many references state that Rob Morris was born on August 31, 1818, near Boston, Massachusetts.[1] However, there is some evidence that he was born Robert Williams Peckham, in New York, and that he adopted the name of his foster parents after the death of his birth parents, later shortening his name to Rob to avoid confusion with another poet named Robert Morris.[2] He grew up in New York, where he (apparently) also went to college. He worked as a teacher for 10 years before moving to Oxford, Mississippi,[3] where he continued teaching at Mount Sylvan Academy, a school established by Freemasons. While living in Oxford, he met Charlotte Mendenhall, whom he married on August 26, 1841.

Eureka Masonic College, also known as The Little Red Schoolhouse. Birthplace of the Order of the Eastern Star

Eastern Star
After he became a Mason on March 5, 1846, he became convinced that there needed to be a way for female relatives of Masons to share in Order of the Eastern Star signage at the Little Red some measure in the benefits of Freemasonry. While teaching at the Schoolhouse Eureka Masonic College ("The Little Red Brick School Building") in Richland, Mississippi in 1849-1850, he wrote Eastern Star's first ritual, titled The Rosary of the Eastern Star. He organized a "Supreme Constellation" in 1855 to charter Star chapters. In 1866, because of his planned travel abroad, he handed over the organizational authority of Eastern Star to Robert Macoy.[1] He later served as Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky in 1858-9.[4] Upon given a job as professor of the Masonic University, he moved to La Grange, Kentucky in 1860.

Rob Morris

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Poetry
Over the years, he wrote over 400 poems, many of which were devoted to Eastern Star and Masonry. While traveling in the Holy Land, he wrote the words to the hymn "O Galilee". In 1854, he wrote "The Level and the Square", which may be his best-known poem.

Poet Laureate
Because of his many works on Masonic subjects, on December 17, 1884, he was crowned the "Poet Laureate of Freemasonry", an honor which had not been granted since the death of Robert Burns in 1796.[3]

Death
His health began to fail in 1887, and in June 1888, he became paralyzed.[2] He died on July 31, 1888, and is buried at La Grange, Kentucky. The Rob Morris Home is kept as a shrine to Rob Morris by the Kentucky Grand Chapter of the Order of the Eastern Star.

References
[1] "Rob Morris" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070708101023/ http:/ / www. oescal. org/ 2005/ 2005RobMorris. htm). Grand Chapter of California, Order of the Eastern Star. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. oescal. org/ 2005/ 2005RobMorris. htm) on 2007-07-08. . Retrieved 2007-08-01. [2] Dotson, Raymond (1984-08-27). "Brother Rob Morris" (http:/ / www. masonicsites. org/ oes54/ morris1. htm). . Retrieved 2007-08-01. [3] Morris, Rob. "Biography of Rob Morris, L.L.D." (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=mAiZdrpp7ysC). Poetry of Freemasonry. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0766100324. . Retrieved 2007-08-01. [4] "Past Grand Masters" (http:/ / www. grandlodgeofkentucky. org/ grand_officers/ past_grandmasters. htm). Grand Lodge of Kentucky. . Retrieved 2007-08-01.

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Other views of Freemasonry
Anti-Masonry
Anti-Masonry (alternatively called Anti-Freemasonry) is defined as "avowed opposition to Freemasonry".[1] However, there is no homogeneous anti-Masonic movement. Anti-Masonry consists of radically differing criticisms from sometimes incompatible groups who are hostile to Freemasonry in some form.

Early Anti-Masonic documents
The earliest[2] anti-Masonic document was a leaflet printed in 1698 by a Presbyterian minister by the name of Winter. It reads: TO ALL GODLY PEOPLE, In the Citie of London. Having thought it needful to warn you of the Mischiefs and Evils practiced in the Sight of God by those called Freed Masons, I say take Care lest their Ceremonies and secret Swearings take hold of you; and be wary that none cause you to err from Godliness. For this devllish Sect of Men are Meeters in secret which swear agains all without ther Following. They are the Anti Christ which was to come leading Men from Fear of God. For how should Men meet in secret Places and with secret Signs taking Care that none observed them to do the Work of GOD; are not these the Ways of Evil-doers? Knowing how that God observeth privilly them that sit in Darkness they shall be smitten and the Secrets of their Hearts layed bare. Mingle not among this corrupt People lest you be found so at the World's Conflagration.[3]

Political Anti-Masonry
American Political Anti-Masonry (1830s-1850s)
In 1826, William Morgan disappeared from the small town of Batavia, New York, after threatening to expose Freemasonry's "secrets" by publishing its rituals. His disappearance caused some Anti-masons to claim that he had been kidnapped and murdered by Masons. Morgan's disappearance sparked a series of protests against Freemasonry, which eventually spread to the political realm. Under the leadership of anti-Masonic Thurlow Weed, an Anti-Jacksonist movement became (since Jackson was a Mason) the Anti-Masonic Party. This political Party ran presidential candidates in 1828 and 1832, but by 1835 the party had disbanded everywhere except Pennsylvania.

British Political Anti-Masonry (1990s-current)
Since 1997, several members of the British Government have attempted to pass laws requiring Freemasons who join the police or judiciary[4] to declare their membership publicly to the government amid accusations of Freemasons performing acts of mutual advancement and favour-swapping. This movement was initially led by Jack Straw, Home Secretary from 1997 until 2001.[4] In 1999, the Welsh Assembly became the only body in the United Kingdom to place a legal requirement on membership declaration for Freemasons.[5] Currently, existing members of the police and judiciary in England are asked to voluntarily admit to being Freemasons.[6] However, all first time successful judiciary candidates "must declare their freemasonry status" before appointment.[6] Conversely, new members of the police are not required to declare their status.[6]

Anti-Masonry In 2004, Rhodri Morgan, the First Minister of the Welsh Assembly, said that he blocked Gerard Elias' appointment to counsel general because of links to hunting and freemasonry,[7] although it was claimed by non-Labour politicians that the real reason was in order to have a Labour supporter, Malcolm Bishop, in the role.[8]

149

Persecution under totalitarian regimes
In the 20th century totalitarian regimes, both Fascist and Communist,[9] treated Freemasonry as a potential source of opposition. Masonic writers state that the language used by the totalitarian regimes is similar to that used by some modern critics of Freemasonry.[10] Consistently considered an ideological foe of Nazism in their world perception (Weltauffassung), Freemasonic Concentration Camp inmates were graded as "Political" prisoners, and wore an inverted (point down) red triangle.[11] The number of Freemasons from Nazi occupied countries who were killed is not accurately known, but it is estimated that between 80,000 and 200,000 Freemasons perished under the Nazi regime.[12] The Government of the United Kingdom established Holocaust Memorial Day[13] to recognise all groups who were targets of the Nazi regime, and counter Holocaust denial. Freemasons are listed as being among those who were targeted.

Iraqi Baathist Anti-Masonry
In 1980, the Iraqi legal and penal code was changed by Saddam Hussein and the ruling Ba'ath Party, thereby making it a felony to "promote or acclaim Zionist principles, including freemasonry, or who associate [themselves] with Zionist organizations."[14]

Freemasonry and Patriotism
Freemasonry is often alleged by Catholic critics to hold back its members from fully committing to their nation.[15] Critics claim that compared to Operative Masonry's clear denunciations of treachery,[16] Freemasonry after 1723 (Speculative Masonry) was far more ambiguous.[17] It is alleged in the Catholic Encyclopedia that Masonic disapproval of treachery is not on moral grounds but on the grounds of inconvenience to other Masons.[18] It also argues[19] that the adage "Loyalty to freedom overrides all other considerations"[20] justifies treason. However, Freemasonry charges its members that: "In the state you are to be a quiet and peaceful subject, true to your government and just to your country; You are not to countenence disloyalty or rebellion, but patiently submit to legal authority and conform with cheerfulness to the government of the country in which you live."[21] With this charge in mind, American Freemasons are consistent advocates of the US Constitution, including the separation of church and state,[22] which was seen by the Roman Catholic Church as a veiled attack on the Church's place in public life.[23]

Conspiracy theories
Due to its secretive nature Freemasonry has long been a target of conspiracy theories in which it is either bent on world domination or already secretly in control of world politics. Historically, complaints have been made that the Masons have secretly plotted to create a society based on the revolutionary ideals of liberty, equality, fraternity, separation of church and state and (in Nazi Germany) a Jewish plot for religious tolerance.[24] Similarly, some anti-Masons have claimed that Freemasonry is a Jewish front for world domination, or is at least controlled by Jews for this goal. An example of this is the notorious literary forgery The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Hitler outlawed Freemasonry partially for this reason.[25] The covenant of the Palestinian Islamist movement Hamas claims that Freemasonry is a "secret society" founded as part of a Zionist plot to control the world.[26]

Anti-Masonry The earliest document accusing Freemasonry of being involved in a conspiracy was Enthüllungen des Systems der Weltbürger-Politik (“Disclosure of the System of Cosmopolitan Politics”), published in 1786.[27] The book claimed that there was a conspiracy of Freemasons, Illuminati and Jesuits who were plotting world revolution.[28] During the 19th Century, this theory was repeated by many Christian counter-revolutionaries,[29] [30] who saw Freemasons as being behind every attack on the existing social system.[29] [30] There are also many other religious and political conspiracy theories, most regarding the United States government, from claiming all the Presidents as Masons[31] (actually only 14 out of 44 Presidents were Freemasons)[32] or that Masons were involved in the JFK assassination.[33] Many of these theories allude to Masonic symbolism in the architecture of federal buildings or in the street plan of Washington, D.C.

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Religious anti-Masonry
Christian anti-Masonry
One of the first highly vocal Christian critics of freemasonry was Charles Finney. In his book The Character, Claims, and Practical Workings of Freemasonry, Finney not only ridicules the masons but also explains why he viewed leaving the association as an essential act 3 years after his conversion to Christianity and entering seminary. A number of Protestant and Eastern Orthodox denominations discourage their congregants from joining Masonic lodges, although this differs in intensity according to the denomination. Some simply express mild concern as to whether Freemasonry is compatible with Christianity while, at the other extreme, some accuse the fraternity of outright devil worship. The Roman Catholic Church has, since the 18th century, been especially critical of Freemasonry, citing both political and religious reasons. Until 1983 the penalty for Catholics who joined the fraternity was excommunication.[34] Since that time the punishment has been an interdict" (a penalty barring an offender from the Sacraments).[35]

Muslim anti-Masonry
Many Islamic anti-Masonic arguments are closely tied to both Anti-Semitism and Anti-Zionism, though other criticisms are made such as linking Freemasonry to Dajjal.[36] Some Muslim anti-Masons argue that Freemasonry promotes the interests of the Jews around the world and that one of its aims is to rebuild the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem after destroying the Al-Aqsa Mosque.[37] In article 28 of its Covenant, Hamas states that Freemasonry, Rotary, and other similar groups "work in the interest of Zionism and according to its instructions...."[38] Many countries with a significant Muslim population do not allow Masonic establishments within their jurisdictions. However, countries such as Turkey and Morocco have established Grand Lodges[39] while in countries such as Malaysia,[40] and Lebanon[41] there are District Grand Lodges operating under a warrant from an established Grand Lodge.

Notes and references
[1] [2] [3] [4] Oxford English Dictionary (1979 ed., p. 369). Morris, S. Brent; The Complete Idiot's Guide to Freemasonry, Alpha books, 2006, p,203 As quoted by Morris, S. Brent; The Complete Idiot's Guide to Freemasonry, Alpha books, 2006, p,204 "New judges must declare masonic membership" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ uk/ politics/ 57381. stm), BBC, March 5, 1998, retrieved February 26, 2006 [5] "Freemason policy review due" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ uk_news/ wales/ 1699189. stm), BBC, December 8, 2001, retrieved February 26, 2006 [6] "House of Commons Hansard Written Answers for 21 July 2005 (pt 69)" (http:/ / www. parliament. the-stationery-office. com/ pa/ cm200506/ cmhansrd/ vo050721/ text/ 50721w69. htm#50721w69. html_sbhd0), UK House of Commons, July 21, 2005, retrieved October 2, 2007 [7] "Morgan criticised over job blocking" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ uk_news/ wales/ 3557279. stm), BBC, March 22, 2004, retrieved February 26, 2006

Anti-Masonry
[8] "Mr Morgan wanted another QC, Malcolm Bishop, who has stood as a Labour candidate and is a close associate of former Lord Chancellor Derry Irvine." Morgan 'blocked' QC appointment (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ wales/ 3530987. stm) [9] " The New Catholic Encyclopedia (1967) (http:/ / www. trosch. org/ bks/ freemasonry. html) Soviet Russia outlawed Masonry in 1922. Freemasonry does not exist today in the Soviet Union, China, or other Communist states. Postwar revivals of Freemasonry in Czechoslovakia and Hungary were suppressed in 1950. [10] Paul M. Bessel (1994). "Bigotry and the Murder of Freemasonry" (http:/ / bessel. org/ naziartl. htm). . "These people who attack Masonry with exaggerated language, and without accepting reasonable explanations of what Freemasonry really is, would probably say that their use of language about Masonry that is strikingly similar to that which was used by the Nazis and other vicious attackers of Freemasonry in the past does not mean that they are following in the footsteps of the Nazis." [11] The Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, volume 2, page 531, citing Katz, Jews and Freemasons in Europe. [12] Christopher Hodapp (2005). Freemasons for Dummies (http:/ / members. aol. com/ brlodge/ whymasons. html). Indianapolis: Wiley Publishing Inc.. p. 85. ., sec. "Hitler and the Nazi" [13] What is Holocaust Memorial Day? (http:/ / www. hmd. org. uk/ about/ ) [14] "Saddam to be formally charged", The Washington Times, 2004, retrieved March 1, 2006 [15] "Another characteristic of Masonic law is that "treason" and "rebellion" against civil authority are declared only political crimes, which affect the good standing of a Brother no more than heresy, and furnish no ground for a Masonic trial." Masonry (Freemasonry) (http:/ / www. newadvent. org/ cathen/ 09771a. htm) from the Catholic Encyclopedia, partially quoting Mackey, Jurisprudence, 509. [16] "2nd – You shall be true liegemen to the King of England without any treason or falsehood, and if you know of any that you amend it privily, if you may, or else warn the King and his Council of it by declaring it to his officers." [17] II. Of the CIVIL MAGISTRATES supreme and subordinate (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ history/ anderson/ charges. html) "A Mason is a peaceable Subject to the Civil Powers, wherever he resides or works, and is never to be concern'd in Plots and Conspiracies against the Peace and Welfare of the Nation, nor to behave himself undutifully to inferior Magistrates; for as Masonry hath been always injured by War, Bloodshed, and Confusion, so ancient Kings and Princes have been much dispos'd to encourage the Craftsmen, because of their Peaceableness and Loyalty, whereby they practically answer'd the Cavils of their Adversaries, and promoted the Honour of the Fraternity, who ever flourish'd in Times of Peace. So that if a Brother should be a Rebel against the State he is not to be countenanc'd in his Rebellion, however he may be pitied as an unhappy Man; and, if convicted of no other Crime though the loyal Brotherhood must and ought to disown his Rebellion, and give no Umbrage or Ground of political Jealousy to the Government for the time being; they cannot expel him from the Lodge, and his Relation to it remains indefeasible." [18] "The brotherhood ought to disown the rebellion, but only in order to preserve the fraternity from annoyance by the civil authorities." from the article Masonry (Freemasonry) (http:/ / www. newadvent. org/ cathen/ 09771a. htm) in the Catholic Encyclopedia [19] "Such language would equally suit every anarchistic movement." Masonry (Freemasonry) (http:/ / www. newadvent. org/ cathen/ 09771a. htm) in the Catholic Encyclopedia [20] "If we were to assert that under no circumstances had a Mason been found willing to take arms against a bad government, we should only be declaring that, in trying moments, when duty, in the masonic sense, to state means antagonism to the Government, they had failed in the highest and most sacred duty of a citizen. Rebellion in some cases is a sacred duty, and none, but a bigot or a fool, will say, that our countrymen were in the wrong, when they took arms against King James II. Loyalty to freedom in a case of this kind overrides all other considerations, and when to rebel means to be free or to perish, it would be idle to urge that a man must remember obligations which were never intended to rob him of his status of a human being and a citizen." "Freemason's Chronicle" 1875, I, 81, quoted as footnote [89] in Masonry (Freemasonry) (http:/ / www. newadvent. org/ cathen/ 09771a. htm) in the Catholic Encyclopedia [21] Webb, Thomas Smith; Freemason's Monitor Or Illustrations of Freemasonry (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=7FrMR3dtgDwC& printsec=frontcover& dq=Freemasonry+ Webb& lr=& sig=ACfU3U12X8JycSas2h1UcDzwniKTT6se1A#PPA43,M1) - Charge at initiation into the first degree, p. 43 (originally published 1818... republished by Kessinger Publishing, 1995 ISBN 1564595536, 9781564595539) [22] "Freemasonry Does Not Support any particular political position. It has long stood for separation of Church and State, and has been a champion of Free Public Education." From a speech given by Bill Jones (http:/ / www. arkmason. com/ didknow. htm) Grand Master of Arkansas, 1996 [23] Pope Leo XIII ETSI NOS (On Conditions in Italy) (http:/ / www. ewtn. com/ library/ ENCYC/ L13ITL. HTM) [24] Hitler, Adolf. Mein Kampf: Volume One - A Reckoning. "[Chapter XI: Nation and Race, http:/ / www. adolfhitler. ws/ lib/ books/ 43kampf/ kampf43. htm]" 1924, trans. 1943. - "Finally, the Jewish influence on economic affairs grows with terrifying speed through the stock exchange. He becomes the owner, or at least the controller, of the national labor force. To strengthen his political position he tries to tear down the racial and civil barriers which for a time continue to restrain him at every step. To this end he fights with all the tenacity innate in him for religious tolerance-and in Freemasonry, which has succumbed to him completely, he has an excellent instrument with which to fight for his aims and put them across. The governing circles and the higher strata of the political and economic bourgeoisie are brought into his nets by the strings of Freemasonry, and never need to suspect what is happening." [25] Hitler, Adolf. Mein Kampf: Volume Two - The National Socialist Movement, "[Chapter XIII: German Alliance Policy after the War http:/ / www. adolfhitler. ws/ lib/ books/ 43kampf/ kampf43. htm]", 1924, trans. 1943. - "The fight which Fascist Italy waged against Jewry's three principal weapons, the profound reasons for which may not have been consciously understood (though I do not believe this myself) furnishes the best proof that the poison fangs of that Power which transcends all State boundaries are being drawn, even though in an indirect way. The prohibition of Freemasonry and secret societies, the suppression of the supernational Press and the definite abolition of Marxism, together with the steadily increasing consolidation of the Fascist concept of the State — all this will enable the Italian Government, in the course of

151

Anti-Masonry
some years, to advance more and more the interests of the Italian people without paying any attention to the hissing of the Jewish world-hydra." [26] 'The Covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement (HAMAS)-Palestine' (http:/ / www. library. cornell. edu/ colldev/ mideast/ hamas. htm), Art. XVII, XXII, and XXVIII, 18 August 1988. Retrieved 29 October 2005. [27] "Bereits um 1786, kurz zuvor waren die Illuminaten in Bayern verboten worden, kursierte das erste Pamphlet über die Freimaurer, das von einem anonymen Autor als "Enthüllungen des Systems der Weltbürger- Politik" veröffentlicht wurde." Transl. "As early as 1786, shortly before the banning of the Illuminati in Bavaria, the first pamphlet about Freemasonry arrived, the anonymously authored "Enthüllungen des Systems der Weltbürger- Politik"." Freimaurer im Wandel der Zeit- von der Gründung bis heute (http:/ / www. neue-freimaurer. com/ freimaurerei. html), from the Neue Freimaurer (http:/ / www. neue-freimaurer. com/ ) website. [28] prof. Dr. Pfahl-Traughber: Der antisemitisch-antifreimaurerische Verschwörungsmythos [29] Matthias Pöhlmann: Verschwiegene Männer, Protestant Centre for Religious and Ideological Issues of the Evangelical Church in Germany [30] Dr. Johannes Rogalla von Biberstein, historian and librarian of the University of Bielefeld: Die These von der Verschwörung 1776–1945. Philosophen, Freimaurer, Juden, Liberale und Sozialisten gegen die Sozialordnung, Flensburg 1992 [31] http:/ / www. geocities. com/ endtimedeception/ famous. htm endtimedeception. Archived (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5knIOoemY) 2009-10-25. [32] Masonic and Anti-Masonic Presidents of the United States, presented at Federal Lodge #1, F.A.A.M., of the District of Columbia February 9, 1998, by Paul M. Bessel (http:/ / bessel. org/ presmas. htm) [33] Downard, James Shelby, and Michael A. Hoffman II. "King-Kill/33°: Masonic Symbolism in the Assassination of John F. Kennedy (http:/ / www. revisionisthistory. org/ kingkill33. html)", 1987. Website excerpt, 1998. Retrieved 16 July 2007. [34] newadvent.org (http:/ / www. newadvent. org/ cathen/ 05678a. htm) page on excommunication [35] text (http:/ / www. vatican. va/ roman_curia/ congregations/ cfaith/ documents/ rc_con_cfaith_doc_19831126_declaration-masonic_en. html) of Quaestum Est [36] Prescott, Andrew (pdf). The Study of Freemasonry as a New Academic Discipline (http:/ / freemasonry. dept. shef. ac. uk/ pdf/ ovn. pdf?PHPSESSID=bf5645aae288a112e6c99cacdca85a90). pp. 13–14. . Retrieved 2006-05-21. [37] "Can a Muslim be a freemason?" (http:/ / www. islamonline. net/ servlet/ Satellite?cid=1119503547288& pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar/ FatwaE/ FatwaEAskTheScholar) (asp). Islamonline.com. . Retrieved 2007-05-08. [38] Hamas Covenant of 1988. Wikisource. Accessed 2 October 2007. [39] Leyiktez, Celil. "Freemasonry in the Islamic World" (http:/ / www. freemasons-freemasonry. com/ layiktez1. html). Accessed 2 October 2007. [40] DGLME.org - The District Grand Lodge of the Middle East (http:/ / www. dglme. org/ contacts/ contacts. aspx) [41] Districts Online | Grand Lodge F. & A. M. State of New York (http:/ / www. nymasons. org/ cms/ districtsonline)

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External links
Critical of Freemasonry
• www.conspiracyarchive.org (http://www.conspiracyarchive.com/NWO/Freemasonry.htm) - New World Order Conspiracy site. • www.masoncode.com (http://www.masoncode.com/The Jewels of Freemasonry.htm) - Masonic Symbolism • www/ephesians 5-11.org (http://www.ephesians5-11.org) - Christian Anti-Masonry site • islamaqa.com (http://www.islamqa.com/index.php?ref=34576&ln=eng) - Islamic Anti-Masonry site

Supportive of Freemasonry
• srmason-sj.org (http://srmason-sj.org/web/SRpublications/DeHoyos.htm) - Is It True What They Say About Freemasonry? by Art DeHoyos • masonicinfo.com (http://masonicinfo.com) - Masonic rebuttal to Anti-Masonic claims • www.freemasonry.bcy.ca (http://www.freemasonry.bcy.ca/anti-masonry/anti-masonry_faq.html) Anti-masonry Frequently Asked Questions • www/freemasons-freemasonry.com (http://www.freemasons-freemasonry.com/gazzo_antimasonry.html) Anti-Masonry in the contemporary world Academic examinations of Anti-Masonry • Academic Conference on Anti-masonry (http://www.canonbury.ac.uk/)

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Christianity and Freemasonry
 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed (1913). Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company. Christianity and Freemasonry have had a mixed relationship, with various Christian denominations strongly discouraging or even prohibiting members from becoming Freemasons or Freemasons from becoming members.

Ties to Christianity
While Freemasonry is mostly non-sectarian, some Masonic bodies and rites require a statement of Christian faith to join. These include (but are not limited to) the Knights Templar, the Rectified Scottish Rite, the Swedish Rite, Societas Rosicruciana, the Royal Order of Scotland and the Red Cross of Constantine. Additionally, there are numerous Masonic orders and degrees that while not specifically requiring a profession of faith, require that potential members belong to one or more of the bodies which do and as a result limit their membership to professing Christians (e.g. the Commemorative Order of St. Thomas of Acon, the Holy Royal Arch Knight Templar Priests, the Knight York Cross of Honor (KYCH), the York Rite College, etc.)

Catholic Church
The most persistent critic of Freemasonry has been the Catholic Church.[1] Since the early 18th century, the Vatican has issued several papal bulls banning membership of Catholics from Freemasonry under threat of excommunication. Currently, as reiterated in 1983, Catholics who become Masons are in a state of Grave sin and may not receive Holy Communion,[2] [3] but the penalty of excommunication is not formally declared in the current code of canon law. The Church argues that Freemasonry's philosophy is antithetical to Christian doctrine and that it is at many times and places anti-clerical in intent.[4] The 1913 edition of the Catholic Encyclopedia argued that some of the ceremonial in the Scottish Rite is anti-Catholic.[5] However this claim does not appear in subsequent editions. The Masonic use of Biblical imagery was seen in the 1913 edition of the Catholic Encyclopedia as being done in such a way as to deny the revelation of Christianity.[6] However this complaint was not included in the 1967 edition.

Allegations of Deism
One of the persistent Catholic criticisms of Freemasonry is that it advocates a deist or naturalist view of creation. Freemasonry in fact requires of its members no particular view of a supreme being. Whilst it is recognised that Masonry is not atheistic (Masons are asked if they believe in God before joining),[7] its references to the "Supreme Architect of the Universe"--a term attributed to the Protestant theologian John Calvin--are seen by some Christians as contending that God created the Universe but did not intervene in the world after this.[8] This was a common heresy that arose in the Enlightenment.[9] Freemasons—especially Christian Freemasons—deny this claim . A specific charge made in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia[10] against Freemasonry is that the introduction of speculative Masonry in the early eighteenth century specifically aimed at "dechristianising" the old operative masonry lodges. However, this charge was dropped from subsequent editions. Whereas the constitutions of previous lodges of operative Masonry stated that "The first charge is this that you be true to God and Holy Church and use no error or heresy"[11] in 1723 the constitution of the Grand Lodge of England:[12]

Christianity and Freemasonry A Mason is obliged by his Tenure, to obey the moral law; and if he rightly understands the Art, he will never be a stupid Atheist nor an irreligious Libertine. But though in ancient Times Masons were charged in every Country to be of the Religion of that Country or Nation, whatever it was, yet 'tis now thought more expedient only to oblige them to that Religion in which all Men agree, leaving their particular Opinions to themselves; that is, to be good Men and true, or Men of Honour and Honesty, by whatever Denominations or Persuasions they may be distinguished; whereby Masonry becomes the Centre of Union, and the Means of conciliating true Friendship among Persons that must have remained at a perpetual Distance. This change is seen by the Catholic Church as moving towards a Deist view.[8]

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Separation of church and state
Freemasons are consistent advocates of the Freedom of Religion, as found in the First Amendment[13] of the US Constitution. The idea that the establishment clause means a strict separation of church and state is seen by the Catholic Church as a veiled attack on its place in public life.[14] The Catholic Church also saw in the advocacy of a strict separation of the state from the Church as manifesting a "Religious Indifferentism" which did not accept any religion as true or revealed.[15] This reference is not present, however, in later versions of the encyclopedia. Some specific areas which Freemasons were accused of aiming for a democratic separation of church and state were: • State supported secular education in Italy in 1882[16] • The introduction of civil marriage in Mexico in 1857[17]

Religious indifference
Catholic critics of Freemasonry allege that it refuses to see one faith as being superior to any others, while at the same time it contains religious-type rituals that the Catholic Church says inculcate an indifference to religion.[18] [19] Freemasonic behaviour is seen as a denial of the truth of Christian revelation.[20] The Masonic author Mackey called Freemasonry "a science which is engaged in the search after the divine truth".[21] Anderson's Ancient Charges of a Freemason, 1723, says of Freemasons, that it is "expedient only to oblige them to that Religion in which all Men agree, leaving their particular Opinions to themselves".[12] Freemasons understand this to mean that personal beliefs are not to be discussed in the lodge, avoiding argument with those holding different beliefs.[22] It has been suggested that this ban on religious discussion was especially important in Eighteenth Century England[23] where a civil war, in part caused by religious conflict, had only recently ended.

Protestant churches
The great majority of Protestant denominations do not prohibit or discourage their members from joining Masonic lodges and have not issued any position papers condemning Freemasonry. Some churches have, however, formally opposed Masonry and spoken of the problems they see with Christians belonging to Masonic lodges. In most instances, these are relatively small church bodies which broke from the mainline Protestant denominations in recent decades, citing as their reason their opposition to theological liberalism or diversity. The largest by far of the Lutheran, Presbyterian, Anglican (i.e. Episcopal), and Methodist church bodies in the United States have not taken a stand against Freemasonry, and many Masons are active members of them. There is a range of intensity among those Protestant denominations which discourage their congregants from joining Masonic lodges. Denominations that, in some form or other, discourage membership of Freemasons include the tiny Evangelical Lutheran Synod,[24] to larger Protestant church bodies. Among Protestants opposed to Freemasonry are the Church of the Nazarene, Mennonites, The North American Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention,[25] [26] Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod,[27] Christian Reformed Church in North America,[28] Church of the Brethren,[29] Assemblies of God,[30] Society of Friends (Quakers),[31] United Brethren, Free Methodist

Christianity and Freemasonry church,[32] Seventh-day Adventist Church,[33] Orthodox Presbyterian Church,[34] Free Church of Scotland,[35] Baptist Union of Great Britain and Ireland,[36] Presbyterian Church in America,[37] Reformed Presbyterian Church of Ireland.[38] It must be admitted, however, that many of these Protestant condemnations have never been enforced and are dead letters today. The Church of Scotland does not ban congregants from becoming Freemasons, but in 1989 the general assembly said there were "very real theological difficulties" with Church of Scotland members being Freemasons.[39] The 1985 Methodist Conference in England said that Freemasonry competed with Christian beliefs,[40] asking that Methodist Freemasons reconsider their membership and that Masonic meetings be banned from Methodist premises. It did not, however, call for a ban on membership, and some Masonic meetings have continued to take place on Methodist premises.[41]

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Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS church) has a longstanding policy of maintaining no official position on Freemasonry. However, some people see links between the two movements in practice, structure, and symbolism, which go back to the church's origins. It can be said the early Latter Day Saint movement and Freemasonry had an amicable relationship. While the impact of Freemasonry in church doctrine is the subject of intense debate, it is known that the family of the church's founder and first president, Joseph Smith, Jr., was active in Freemasonry as early as 1816. When the church was headquartered in Nauvoo, Illinois, Smith and several of his followers – including his first four successors as church president – became Freemasons. Many features of the church's temple endowment ceremony as established by Smith in Nauvoo parallel rituals and ceremonies practiced in Freemasonry. When the church relocated to Utah in the 1840s after Smith's death, there was even talk of forming a "Mormon Grand Lodge." However, this notion was ultimately rejected by church President Brigham Young. However, many non-Mormon Freemasons harbored strong anti-Mormon sentiments. Soon after Smith and his followers were initiated, the Grand Lodge of Illinois was compelled to revoke the charters of several predominantly Mormon Lodges. In 1872 the Grand Lodge of Utah was formed as an openly anti-Mormon organization. Over time the hostility increased, ultimately leading to the Grand Lodge of Utah banning Mormons from joining its constituent Lodges altogether. While the church never banned Freemasons from its ranks, it did at one time prohibit Freemasons from holding leadership positions in the church priesthood. In 1984 the Grand Lodge of Utah and church leadership under President Spencer W. Kimball mutually agreed to drop their antagonistic positions against each another. While some suspicion remains on both sides, today there is no formal barrier preventing a male Mormon from becoming a Freemason or vice versa.[42] [43]

New religion
Freemasonry unambiguously states that it is not a religion, nor a substitute for religion.[44] There is no separate "Masonic" God.[45] Nor is there a separate proper name for a deity in any branch of Freemasonry.[46] There is no general interpretation for any of the symbols. In keeping with the geometrical and architectural theme of Freemasonry, the Supreme Being is referred to in Masonic ritual by the attributes of Great Architect of the Universe (sometimes abbreviated as G.A.O.T.U.), Grand Geometer or similar. Freemasons use these variety of forms of address to God to make clear that the reference is generic, not about any one religion's particular God or God-like concept. Nevertheless, Freemasonry has been criticised for being a substitute for Christian belief. For example, the New Catholic Encyclopedia states the opinion that "Freemasonry displays all the elements of religion, and as such it becomes a rival to the religion of the Gospel. It includes temples and altars, prayers, a moral code, worship, vestments, feast days, the promise of reward or punishment in the afterlife, a hierarchy, and initiation and burial

Christianity and Freemasonry rites."[47]

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Links to Esotericism
Certain types of Freemasonry, most notably the Swedish Rite are said to be connected to Esoteric Christianity,[48] which holds that orthodox Christian doctrine is for the duller masses and that "real" Christianity holds the secret knowledge concerning the sacrifice of Christ on Golgotha.[49]

Pre-Christian pagan influences
The Catholic Encyclopedia says that the Masonic authors Clavel, Ragnon, Pike and Mackey claim Masonic symbolism is rooted in the solar and phallic worship of pre-Christian mystery religion, particularly Egyptian religion.[50]

Rosicrucian influences
Some scholars believe that Freemasonry has links to the Rosicrucian movement. The Rosicrucian symbol of the Rose Cross is also found in certain rituals of appendant bodies to Freemasonry which require candidates to be Master Masons.[51] Many Anti-Masonic Christian authors have stated that Rosicrucian Robert Fludd (1574–1637) was a Mason. However there is no evidence supporting this contention. Nor is there any documented evidence to support Arthur Edward Waite's (1857–1942) speculation that Fludd may have introduced a Rosicrucian influence into Freemasonry. Robert Vanloo states that earlier 17th century Rosicrucianism had a considerable influence on "Anglo-Saxon" Masonry. A list of groups linked to both Freemasonry and Rosicrucianism, which requires for membership admission to be Christian and Master Mason (see websites), includes: • Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia, 1866 • Societas Rosicruciana in Civitatibus Foederatis, 1880 Manly Palmer Hall, a noted occultist and author on Masonic topics, wrote a book called Rosicrucian and Masonic Origins in 1929 (long before he ever became a Mason)[52] and the Rosicrucian author Max Heindel wrote a book in the 1910s,[53] both of which portray Catholicism and Freemasonry as being two distinct streams in the development of Christianity.

Claims of Satan worship
Some Christian critics of Freemasonry, usually evangelical Christians, claim that Freemasonry involves the worship of Satan.[54] Such claims are often supported by quoting (and sometimes misquoting, or quoting out of context) various Masonic and non-Masonic authors. Below are some of the more common quotations used on the internet to substantiate the claim that Masons worship Satan, and some notes about them:

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Waite
First Conjuration Addressed to Emperor Lucifer. Emperor Lucifer, Master and Prince of Rebellious Spirits, I adjure thee to leave thine abode, in what-ever quarter of the world it may be situated and come hither to communicate with me. I command and I conjure thee in the Name of the Mighty Living God, Father, Son and Holy Ghost, to appear without noise and without ....[55] This quote is often attributed to "Arthur Edward Waite, 33°" on Christian Anti-Masonic websites, as if it were an authoritative statement from a "high level" Mason, but Waite is not identified as a 33rd degree Mason anywhere in the book the quote is taken from.[56] He is described simply as an individual with an interest in the occult. Waite was not a Mason when he wrote this book (the book was written and published in 1898; Waite became a Mason in 1902). Additionally, according to the Masonic research document "The Lie of Luciferianism"[57] Waite was never a 33rd degree Mason; he never joined the Scottish Rite. He was, however, a "high level" member of the Order of the Golden Dawn, a pseudo-Masonic organization that used Freemasonry as a model. Further, the book is discussing Black Magic, not Freemasonry. There is no link whatsoever between this material and Freemasonry, other than that a future Mason wrote it.

Hall
I hereby promise the Great Spirit Lucifer, Prince of Demons, that each year I will bring unto him a human soul to do with as it may please him, and in return Lucifer promises to bestow upon me the treasures of the earth and fulfil my every desire for the length of my natural life. If I fail to bring him each year the offering specified above, then my own soul shall be forfeit to him. Signed..... {Invocant signs pact with his own blood}[58] This passage is from Manly Palmer Hall's The Secret Teachings of All Ages (specifically, the chapter "Ceremonial Magic and Sorcery."). As with Waite, Christian Anti-masons use this quotation as if it were an "authoritive" statement from a "high level" Mason. However, as with Waite, Hall is not identified as a 33° Mason anywhere in the book, nor is there a record of his reception of the 33° cited in any readily available source that does not include the above quotation. According to the Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon, Hall was initiated into Freemasonry, but not until 1954,[59] when he was 53 years old. The secret Teachings of All Ages was published in 1928,[60] when he was only 27. More importantly, the quotation is taken out of context. Hall is not discussing Freemasonry at all, but rather summarizing how a magician would invoke a spirit and giving an example of how a demonic pact might read. Hall was an occultist, and according to one source,[61] was a well-established lecturer on the occult and other esoterica by the age of 20, before he was even eligible to become a Mason. When The Mason learns that the Key to the warrior on the block is the proper application of the dynamo of living power, he has learned the Mystery of his Craft. The seething energies of Lucifer are in his hands and before he may step onward and upward, he must prove his ability to properly apply this energy.[62] This quotation appears in Hall's The Lost Keys Of Freemasonry. It appears in Chapter 4 (titled "The Fellowcraft") which has nothing to do with the actual Fellowcraft degree.[63] The passage is again taken out of context, and its meaning changes when it is put back into the context of the chapter it comes from: it is part of a larger philosophical discussion which can also be read to imply that the improper use of "energies" can make the Mason a tool of Satan. Furthermore, even taken out of context, this passage does not refer to worshipping Satan per se. As with the previous quotation from Secret Teachings of All Ages, the book was written well before Hall became a Mason. In his Introduction to the book Hall clearly states: "At the time I wrote this slender volume, I had just passed my twenty-first birthday, and my only contact with Freemasonry was through a few books commonly available to the public".[57]

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Blavatsky
Lucifer represents..Life..Thought..Progress..Civilization.. Logos..the Serpent, the Savior.[64] Liberty..Independence..Lucifer is the

This quotation is taken from Helena Petrovna Blavatsky's pseudo-masonic Ancient and Accepted Primitive Rite. Her Rite is not considered a legitimate part of Freemasonry, by any Masonic Jurisdiction. Those who cite this quotation are conflating things Masonic and things that simply claim to be Masonic, or used Freemasonry as a model.[57]

Pike and Taxil
Yes, Lucifer is God, and unfortunately Adonay is also God. For the eternal law is that there is no light without shade, no beauty without ugliness, no white without black, for the absolute can only exist as two Gods: darkness being necessary to light to serve as its foil as the pedestal is necessary to the statue, and the brake to the locomotive.[65] Albert Pike is frequently quoted by Christian Anti-Masons, often with the quotation taken out of context. However, in this case the statement was not even written by Pike. It was included in a letter which con artist Leo Taxil claimed was from Pike, and was later demonstrated to be a forgery. See: Taxil hoax.

Notes and references
[1] [2] [3] [4] The Catholic Church has continually prohibited members from being Freemasons since In Eminenti Secula in 1739 http:/ / www. vatican. va/ roman_curia/ congregations/ cfaith/ documents/ rc_con_cfaith_doc_19831126_declaration-masonic_en. html Catholic Library: Declaration on Masonic Associations (http:/ / www. newadvent. org/ library/ docs_df83ma. htm) "French Masonry and above all the Grand Orient of France has displayed the most systematic activity as the dominating political element in the French "Kulturkampf" since 1877." From Masonry (Freemasonry) (http:/ / www. newadvent. org/ cathen/ 09771a. htm) from the Catholic Encyclopedia [5] "The Kadosh (thirtieth degree), trampling on the papal tiara and the royal crown, is destined to wreak a just vengeance on these "high criminals" for the murder of Molay [128] and "as the apostle of truth and the rights of man" [129] to deliver mankind "from the bondage of Despotism and the thraldom of spiritual Tyranny"." From the article Masonry (Freemasonry) (http:/ / www. newadvent. org/ cathen/ 09771a. htm) in the Catholic Encyclopedia [6] "In the text of 1738 particular stress is laid on "freedom of conscience" and the universal, non-Christian character of Masonry is emphasized. The Mason is called a "true Noahida", i.e. an adherent of the pre-Christian and pre-Mosaic system of undivided mankind." From Masonry (Freemasonry) (http:/ / www. newadvent. org/ cathen/ 09771a. htm) in the Catholic Encyclopedia [7] "We do ask a man if he believes in God and that is the only religious test." Freemasonry and religion (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ textfiles/ religion. html), from the Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon [8] "The nature of the Masonic God is best seen in their favorite title for him: the Supreme Architect. The Masonic God is first of all a deistic God, who is found at the top of the ladder of Masonic wisdom", Jolicoeur and Knowles, pp. 14-15 cited in THE PASTORAL PROBLEM OF MASONIC MEMBERSHIP, sent out as a part of the Letter of April 19, 1985 to U.S. Bishops Concerning Masonry (http:/ / www. catholicculture. org/ docs/ doc_view. cfm?recnum=5285) by Cardinal Bernard Law [9] Deism (http:/ / www. wsu. edu/ ~dee/ GLOSSARY/ DEISM. HTM), in the European Enlightenment Glossary [10] Masonry (Freemasonry) (http:/ / www. newadvent. org/ cathen/ 09771a. htm) [11] Quote from The Builders (http:/ / www. sacred-texts. com/ mas/ bui/ bui11. htm) by Joseph Fort Newton, 1914 [12] Article I of The Ancient Charges of a Freemason (http:/ / www. adam. com. au/ jrigano/ AncientCharges. html), James Anderson, 1723 [13] "Amendment I - Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances. From the Constitution of the United States (http:/ / www. law. cornell. edu/ constitution/ constitution. billofrights. html#amendmenti) [14] Pope Leo XIII ETSI NOS (On Conditions in Italy) (http:/ / www. ewtn. com/ library/ ENCYC/ L13ITL. HTM), Item 2 [15] "If the Bloc has been established, this is owing to Freemasonry and to the discipline learned in the lodges. The measures we have now to urge are the separation of Church and State and a law concerning instruction. Let us put our trust in the word of our Bro. Combes" from quoted as footnote 158 in the article Masonry (Freemasonry) (http:/ / www. newadvent. org/ cathen/ 09771a. htm) in the Catholic Encyclopedia [16] "the position of the religious authorities as to the education of the young utterly ignored" Pope Leo XIII ETSI NOS (On Conditions in Italy) (http:/ / www. ewtn. com/ library/ ENCYC/ L13ITL. HTM), Item 2 [17] Oscar J. Salinas Mexican Masonry- Politics & Religion (http:/ / www. yorkrite. com/ gcmx/ os1999. html)

Christianity and Freemasonry
[18] "The March 11, 1985, issue of L'Osservatore Romano carried an article titled "Irreconcilability Between Christian Faith and Freemasonry" as a comment on the Nov. 26, 1983, declaration. In part the Vatican newspaper said a Christian "cannot cultivate relations of two types with God nor express his relation with the Creator through symbolic forms of two types." Quoted in the THE PASTORAL PROBLEM OF MASONIC MEMBERSHIP in the Letter of April 19, 1985 to U.S. Bishops Concerning Masonry (http:/ / www. catholiculture. net/ docs/ doc_view. cfm?recnum=5285) by Cardinal Bernard Law [19] "The truth of the matter is, Freemasonry espouses universalism, embraces religious pluralism and has effectively created a unique syncretistic religion." Order of Former Freemasons (http:/ / www. fish4masons. org/ home. html) [20] "No one can come to the Father except through me" (John 14:6) [21] Mackey, Symbolism of Freemasonry, 1869, 303, Cited in the article Masonry (Freemasonry) (http:/ / www. newadvent. org/ cathen/ 09771a. htm) from the Catholic Encyclopedia [22] S. Brent Morris, The Complete Idiot's Guide to Freemasonry, Alpha/Penguin Books, ISBN 1-59257-490-4, p. 202-203 [23] S. Brent Morris, The Complete Idiot's Guide to Freemasonry, Alpha/Penguin Books, ISBN 1-59257-490-4, p. 203 [24] "A Concise Doctrinal Statement of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod" (http:/ / www. holycrossmadison. org/ churchfiles/ elsbelieve. htm#10. CHURCH FELLOWSHIP). Holy Cross Lutheran Church and School. . Retrieved 7 August 2010. ""We also reject participation or membership in religious organizations which have features that are in conflict with the Christian faith, such as the Masonic Lodge and similar organizations"" [25] For the first time in the history of the SBC, however, the Convention concluded, “many tenets and teachings of Freemasonry are not compatible with Christianity or Southern Baptist doctrine.” A Closer Look at Freemasonry (http:/ / www. namb. net/ atf/ cf/ {CDA250E8-8866-4236-9A0C-C646DE153446}/ Closer_Look_Freemasonry. pdf) (PDF), North American Mission Board, Southern Baptist Convention quoting Annual of the Southern Baptist Convention, 1993, Nashville: Executive Committee, Southern Baptist Convention, 1993, p. 225 [26] The "Closer Look" concludes by noting that while many Christians and leaders have been and are Masons, "several points of the lodge's teachings are non-biblical and non-Christian." It also states that "while Freemasonry encourages and supports charitable activities, it contains both multireligious and inclusivistic teachings that are not Christian in its religious instruction." New publication on Freemasonry available from SBC's North American Mission Board (http:/ / www. bpnews. net/ bpnews. asp?ID=5959), June 9, 2000, James Dotson, Baptist Press [27] Q. Could someone please explain briefly why Masons are not allowed in the Lutheran Church? (http:/ / www. lcms. org/ pages/ internal. asp?NavID=2187) [28] Chris Meehan, CRC Communications. "CRC Scholar Discusses 19th Century Controversy over Freemasonry" (http:/ / www. crcna. org/ news. cfm?newsid=453). . Retrieved 2010-09-02. [29] "The Brethren objected to the oaths required of the mason, and even more to the evidence of heathen beliefs about Jesus Christ incorporated in the higher levels of this secret society. Joining such was forbidden" from Brethren Life (http:/ / www. cob-net. org/ docs/ brethrenlife_dunkers. htm) [30] "Why should Christians avoid membership in secret societies such as the Masons?" (http:/ / www. ag. org/ top/ beliefs/ topics/ charctr_16_secret_societie. cfm). General Council of the Assemblies of God. 2010. . Retrieved 3 August 2010.This document reflects commonly held beliefs based on scripture which have been endorsed by the church's Commission on Doctrinal Purity and the Executive Presbytery... The official delineation of this position is found in the Assemblies of God Bylaws, Article IX, Part B, Section 4 "Membership in Secret Orders". [31] "The Quakers will not join secret societies, such as Freemasonry, which specialize in oaths." The Quakers, or Our Neighbors, The Friends by William J. Whalen, 4:Practices (http:/ / www. fgcquaker. org/ library/ welcome/ whalen3. html) [32] "They found the main body of the church disinterested in their reforms and broke away to form the Free Methodist Church, which survives to this day as a small group which does not permit its members to join any lodge." FOUR FACETS of FRIENDSHIP THE SHORT TALK BULLETIN Short Talk Bulletin - April 1972 (http:/ / www. bessel. org/ helmer/ four. htm), by George Helmer, hosted on the Masonic Leadership Center - NOTE THIS LINK MAY HAVE MOVED... [33] "She talked of Free Masonry and the impossibility of a man's being a Free Mason and a Seventh-day Adventist at the same time.", Ellen White, the founder of the Seventh Day Adventists, quoted in Chapter Eight (http:/ / www. whiteestate. org/ books/ bhp/ bhpc08. html), God Revealed Secrets Through Ellen G. White [34] "membership in the Masonic fraternity is inconsistent with Christianity", Christ or the Lodge? A Report on Freemasonry (http:/ / www. opc. org/ GA/ masonry. html), Committee on Secret Societies, ninth General Assembly of the Orthodox Presbyterian Church, June 2–5, 1942 [35] "... in the minds of the committee, according to their interpretations of the Scriptures, membership of Freemasonry... is inconsistent with a profession of the Christian faith." Unnamed report, quoted in Freemasonry: What Do Christian Churches Really Think about The Lodge? (http:/ / www. jubilee. org. nz/ p38. htm), hosted by Jubilee Resources International [36] "However, the clear conclusion we have reached from our enquiry is that there is an inherent incompatibility between Freemasonry and the Christian faith. Also that commitment within the movement is inconsistent with a Christian's commitment to Jesus Christ as Lord." From Baptists and Freemasonry (http:/ / www. believersweb. org/ view. cfm?ID=577), date and author unknown, published by the Baptist Union of Scotland and endorsed by the Baptist Union of Great Britain and Ireland [37] "No one shall be received into membership into a PCA church who is a member of a Masonic organisation. Present members of a church in the PCA who are members of a Masonic organisation will be given a period of one year to read the report of the Committee to Study Freemasonry, pray and consider their membership in the Order in light of the clear statement of incompatibility of Freemasonry with Biblical

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Christianity and Freemasonry
Christianity. After said year, they will be allowed to resign membership or become the subject of formal church discipline." Unnamed report adopted by the General Assembly of PCA, April 15–16, 1988, quoted in Freemasonry: What Do Christian Churches Really Think about The Lodge? (http:/ / www. jubilee. org. nz/ p38. htm), hosted by Jubilee Resources International [38] "4. Unchristian Fellowship - True fellowship exists only between those who are united by saving faith to the Lord Jesus Christ. Freemasonry, for example, excludes the mediation of Christ and accepts, as brothers, representatives of many non-Christian religions. Scripture, however, clearly teaches that we can have fellowship with one another only because "our fellowship is with the Father and with His Son, Jesus Christ." From The Church and Secret Societies (http:/ / www. rpc. org/ beliefs/ testimony/ ch12. htm) on the church's home page [39] Many Kirk members still Masons despite earlier call to 'think again' (http:/ / news. scotsman. com/ scotland. cfm?id=185672003) Saturday 15 Feb 2003 [40] "It is clear that Freemasonry may compete strongly with Christianity. There is a great danger that the Christian who becomes a Freemason will find himself compromising his Christian beliefs or his allegiance to Christ, perhaps without realizing what he is doing.", Methodist Conference Faith and Order committee, quoted in the Daily Telegraph 17 June 1985, quoted in turn in The Angelus, August 1985 (http:/ / www. angelusonline. org/ Article2544-thread-order1-threshold0. phtml) [41] Hamill, John M. (May 1989). "CONTEMPORARY ANTI-FREEMASONRY" (http:/ / mysite. verizon. net/ vze244bj/ ReadingText/ CONTEMPORARY_ANTI-FREEMASONRY. txt). . Retrieved 2007-08-16. [42] The Mormon Church and Freemasonry (http:/ / www. freemason. org/ cfo/ may_june_2001/ mormon. htm) [43] An Introduction to Mormonism and Freemasonry (http:/ / www. signaturebookslibrary. org/ essays/ mason. htm) [44] For example, this is stated in exactly these words on the web site of the United Grand Lodge of England (http:/ / www. grandlodge-england. org/ masonry/ freemasonry-and-religion. htm) [45] Also from United Grand Lodge of England (http:/ / www. grandlodge-england. org/ masonry/ freemasonry-and-religion. htm) [46] United Grand Lodge of England (http:/ / www. grandlodge-england. org/ masonry/ freemasonry-and-religion. htm) [47] Freemasonry article from the New Catholic Encyclopedia, 1964, Volume 6, pages 132 through 139 inclusive [48] "In the Swedish system, practised by the German Country Grand Lodge, Christ is said to have taught besides the exoteric Christian doctrine, destined for the people and the duller mass of his disciples, an esoteric doctrine for his chosen disciples, such as St. John, in which He denied that He was God." Findel, "Die Schule der Hierarchie, etc.", 1870, 15 sqq.; Schiffmann, "Die Entstehung der Rittergrade", 1882, 85, 92, 95 sq. Cited in Masonry (Freemasonry) (http:/ / www. newadvent. org/ cathen/ 09771a. htm), from the Catholic Encyclopedia [49] Steiner, Rudolf, Exoteric and Esoteric Christianity (http:/ / www. uncletaz. com/ exoeso. html) [Das Sonnenmysterium von Tod und Auferstehung], 1922 [50] footnotes 113 and 114 in Masonry (Freemasonry) (http:/ / www. newadvent. org/ cathen/ 09771a. htm) in the Catholic Encyclopedia [51] For example the name of the Scottish Rite degree Knight Rose Croix. Knight Rose Croix (http:/ / www. sacred-texts. com/ mas/ md/ md19. htm) [52] Hall, Manly Palmer, Rosicrucian and Masonic Origins (http:/ / the_mystic_light. tripod. com/ rosicrucian_and_masonic. htm), 1929 [53] Heindel, Max, Freemasonry and Catholicism (http:/ / www. rosicrucian. com/ frc/ frceng01. htm), 1910s [54] An example is, Masonry (http:/ / www. chick. com/ reading/ tracts/ 0093/ 0093_01. asp), a Jack Chick tract accusing Masons of Satanism (images, ~561Kb) [55] Cephas Ministry (http:/ / www. cephasministry. com/ masonic_worship. html) citing "Arthur Edward Waite 33°" The Book Of Black Magic, page 244 [56] The cover of A E Waite's book (http:/ / www. amazon. com/ dp/ 0877282072/ ), retrieved 11 January 2006 [57] The lie of luciferianism (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ anti-masonry/ luciferianism. html), retrieved 11 January 2006 [58] Choosing Truth Ministries (http:/ / www. ctmin. org/ To The Churches of Red Deer. htm) - citing "Manley Palmer Hall 33°", The Secret Teachings of All Ages, Page CIV [59] Manly Palmer Hall (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ biography/ esoterica/ hall_m_p/ hall_m_p. html), retrieved 11 January 2006 [60] 'The Secret Teachings of All Ages', by Manly P. Hall (http:/ / www. prs. org/ secret. htm), retrieved 11 January 2006 [61] The Secret Teachings of All Ages (http:/ / www. crucible. org/ mphall. htm), retrieved 11 January 2006 [62] Plymouth Brethren (http:/ / www. plymouthbrethren. com/ success. htm) citing "Manley Palmer Hall 33°", The Lost Keys Of Freemasonry, Page 48 [63] 'The Lost Keys of Freemasonry', chapter IV, by Manly P. Hall (http:/ / altreligion. about. com/ library/ texts/ bl_lostkeys5. htm), retrieved 11 January 2006 [64] John-Lee Ministries (http:/ / www. john-lee-ministries. org/ Current_Articles/ Is_Free_Masonry_Compatible_wit/ is_free_masonry_compatible_wit. html) citing "Helena Petrovna Blavatsky 32°": Pages 171, 225, 255 (Volume II) [65] Learnthebible.org (http:/ / www. learnthebible. org/ q_a_freemasonry. htm) citing 'Albert Pike 33° Instructions to the 23 Supreme Councils of the world Supposedly issued July 14, 1889; A. C. De La Rive in La Femme et l'Enfant dans la Franc-Maconnerie Universelle (page 588)

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Christianity and Freemasonry

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External links
• Freemasonry: Midwife to an Occult Empire (http://www.conspiracyarchive.com/NWO/Freemasonry.htm) Anti-Masonic study detailing the supposed occult nature of Freemasonry • Freemasonry & Christianity (http://www.douknow.net/fm_FreemasonryandChristianity.htm) • Was Freemasonry Dechristianised? (http://www.oztorah.com/2010/02/was-freemasonry-dechristianised/)

Humanum Genus
Humanum Genus was a papal encyclical promulgated on April 20, 1884, by Pope Leo XIII. Coming in the ascent of the industrial age (and Marxism), it posited that the late 19th Century was a dangerous era for Christians, and condemned Freemasonry as well as a number of beliefs and practices allegedly associated with Freemasonry, including naturalism, popular sovereignty which does not recognize God, and the idea that the state should be "without God". Some of the encyclical's strictures remain in force today.

Two Cities
It starts by using the Augustinian concept of the two cities, the City of Man and the City of God. So the human race was "separated into two diverse and opposite parts, of which the one steadfastly contends for truth and virtue, the other of those things which are contrary to virtue and to truth. The one is the kingdom of God on earth, namely, the true Church of Jesus Christ ... The other is the kingdom of Satan," which were "led on or assisted" by Freemasonry. The fundamental doctrine of Masonry was portrayed as naturalism, which leads to Deism and gnosticism. This was seen to lead them to a fundamental clash with (Roman Catholic) Christianity as, due to their supposed beliefs, Freemasons were accused of support of a radical separation of church and state, with an attempt to impose legal obstacles to the church.

Historical circumstances
The encyclical argued that the late 19th century was a time of particular danger for Christians as the "partisans of evil" were now far more open, as evidenced by the new openness of Freemasonry. Freemasonry had been condemned by previous Popes as contrary to Christian doctrine, but the nature (if not beliefs) of Freemasonry was changing as Freemasons were now far more open in their practices and affiliations. The encyclical specifically condemned certain practices of the Freemasons, such as: religious indifference;[1] the promotion of public education which denied the Church's role and where "the education of youth shall be exclusively in the hands of laymen";[2] the approval of the notion that the people are the only source of sovereignty, and that "those who rule have no authority but by the commission and concession of the people." It had long been a practice of the church to forbid Catholics from becoming Freemasons, often backed up by contemporary governments. This remains the official stance of the Roman Catholic Church to this day.

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Principles Condemned
Humanum Genus criticises a number of principles, for example the idea that popular sovereignty is the source of all rights and that man should bend to no authority other than himself. This condemnation is consistent with Jeffersonian principles which limits popular sovereignty by rights "endowed by their Creator": Then come their doctrines of politics, in which the naturalists lay down that all men have the same right, and are in every respect of equal and like condition; that each one is naturally free; that no one has the right to command another; that it is an act of violence to require men to obey any authority other than that which is obtained from themselves.[3] [emphasis added] Finally it condemns what it sees as the Masonic idea of the total separation of religion and state: It is held also that the State should be without God; that in the various forms of religion there is no reason why one should have precedence of another; and that they are all to occupy the same place.[3] [emphasis added]

Background
Previous Papal denouncers of Freemasonry were: • Pope Clement XII – In Eminenti • • • • • • Pope Benedict XIV – Providas Romanorum Pope Pius VII – Ecclesiam a Jesu Christo Pope Leo XII – Quo Graviora Pope Pius VIII – Traditi Humilitati Pope Gregory XVI – Mirari Vos Pope Pius IX – Qui Pluribus

Leo XIII's denunciation of Freemasonry should be seen in context of his examination of socialism (Quod Apostolici Muneris), his defence of Christian marriage (Arcanum) and on the role of government (Diuturnum). Because of the supposed secrecy in Freemasonry, it was believed by the Roman Catholic Church to have an enormous amount of secret discipline of its members – which was seen by the Pope as enslavement. So by this definition, although individual Masons may be decent people, they were being led to do evil things.

Notes and references
[1] "Again, as all who offer themselves are received whatever may be their form of religion, they thereby teach the great error of this age—that a regard for religion should be held as an indifferent matter, and that all religions are alike." Paragraph 16, Humanum Genus (http:/ / www. ewtn. com/ library/ ENCYC/ L13HUMAN. HTM) [2] "With the greatest unanimity the sect of the Freemasons also endeavors to take to itself the education of youth. They think that they can easily mold to their opinions that soft and pliant age, and bend it whither they will; and that nothing can be more fitted than this to enable them to bring up the youth of the State after their own plan. Therefore, in the education and instruction of children they allow no share, either of teaching or of discipline, to the ministers of the Church; and in many places they have procured that the education of youth shall be exclusively in the hands of laymen, and that nothing which treats of the most important and most holy duties of men to God shall be introduced into the instructions on morals." Paragraph 21, Humanum Genus (http:/ / www. ewtn. com/ library/ ENCYC/ L13HUMAN. HTM) [3] Paragraph 22, Humanum Genus (http:/ / www. ewtn. com/ library/ ENCYC/ L13HUMAN. HTM)

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External links
• Humanum Genus, from the Vatican (http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/leo_xiii/encyclicals/documents/ hf_l-xiii_enc_18840420_humanum-genus_en.html) • Humanum Genus, from EWTN (http://www.ewtn.com/library/ENCYC/L13HUMAN.HTM) • Humanum Genus, with a reply by General [[Albert Pike (http://books.google.com/ books?id=NYTOAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover)], Supreme Commander of the Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, USA]

Taxil hoax
The Taxil hoax was an 1890s hoax of exposure by Léo Taxil intended to mock not only Freemasonry, but also the Roman Catholic Church's opposition to it.[1]

Taxil and Freemasonry
Léo Taxil was the pen name of Marie Joseph Gabriel Antoine Jogand-Pagès, who had been accused earlier of libel regarding a book he wrote called The Secret Loves of Pope Pius IX. On April 20, 1884 Pope Leo XIII published an encyclical, Humanum Genus, that said that the human race was "separated into two diverse and opposite parts, of which the one steadfastly contends for truth and virtue, the other of those things which are contrary to virtue and to truth. The one is the kingdom of God on earth, namely, the true Church of Jesus Christ... The other is the kingdom of Satan..." This kingdom was said to be "led on or assisted" by Freemasonry. After this encyclical, Taxil underwent a public, feigned conversion to Roman Catholicism, and announced his intention of repairing the damage he had done to the true faith. The first book produced by Taxil after his conversion was a four-volume history of Freemasonry, which contained fictitious eyewitness verifications of their participation in Satanism. With a collaborator who published as "Dr. Karl Hacks," Taxil wrote another book called the Devil in the Nineteenth Century, which introduced a new character, Diana Vaughan, a supposed descendant of the Rosicrucian alchemist Thomas Vaughan. The book contained many implausible tales about her encounters with incarnate demons, one of whom was supposed to have written prophecies on her back with its tail, and another who played the piano in the shape of a crocodile.[2] Diana was supposedly involved in Satanic freemasonry, but was redeemed when one day she professed admiration for Joan of Arc, at whose name the demons were put to flight. As Diana Vaughan, Taxil published a book called Eucharistic Novena, a collection of prayers which were praised by the Pope. On April 19, 1897 Taxil called a press conference at which he claimed he would introduce Diana Vaughan to the press. He instead announced that many of his revelations about the Freemasons were fictitious. He thanked the clergy for their assistance in giving publicity to his wild claims.[3]
Poster advertising the work of Leo Taxil.

Taxil hoax The hoax material is still used to this day. Chick Publications publishes such a tract called The Curse of Baphomet and Randy Noblitt's book on satanic ritual abuse, Cult and Ritual Abuse also cites the Taxil hoax.[4]

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The Luciferian Quote
The quote most frequently associated with the Taxil Hoax reads: That which we must say to the world is that we worship a god, but it is the god that one adores without superstition. To you, Sovereign Grand Inspectors General, we say this, that you may repeat it to the brethren of the 32nd, 31st and 30th degrees: The masonic Religion should be, by all of us initiates of the higher degrees, maintained in the Purity of the Luciferian doctrine. If Lucifer were not God, would Adonay and his priests calumniate him? Yes, Lucifer is God, and unfortunately Adonay is also god. For the eternal law is that there is no light without shade, no beauty without ugliness, no white without black, for the absolute can only exist as two gods; darkness being necessary for light to serve as its foil as the pedestal is necessary to the statue, and the brake to the locomotive.... Thus, the doctrine of Satanism is a heresy, and the true and pure philosophical religion is the belief in Lucifer, the equal of Adonay; but Lucifer, God of Light and God of Good, is struggling for humanity against Adonay, the God of Darkness and Evil. While this quote was published by Abel Clarin de la Rive in his Woman and Child in Universal Freemasonry, and does not appear in Taxil's writings proper, it is sourced in a footnote to Diana Vaughan, Taxil's creation.[5]

References
[1] " Mysteries Of The Freemasons — America (http:/ / www. thehistorychannel. co. uk/ site/ tv_guide/ full_details/ World_history/ programme_3234. php)". written by Noah Nicholas and Molly Bedell. Decoding the Past. A&E Television Networks. The History Channel. 2006-08-01. [2] Hause, Steven C. (Spring89). "Anti – Protestant Rhetoric in the Early Third Republic". French Historical Studies 16 (1): 192. [3] "The Confession of Leo Taxil" (http:/ / altreligion. about. com/ library/ texts/ bl_confessiontaxil. htm). April 25, 1897. . Retrieved 2007-10-25. [4] King, EL. "Book review: Cult & Ritual Abuse — Its History, Anthropology, and Recent Discovery in Contemporary America" (http:/ / www. masonicinfo. com/ books/ cultritualabuse. htm). . Retrieved 2009-04-05. [5] de Hoyos, Arturo; Morris, S. Brent (1998). "Albert Pike and Lucifer" (http:/ / www. srmason-sj. org/ web/ SRpublications/ DeHoyos. htm#i11). Is It True What They Say About Freemasonry? (2nd edition (revised) ed.). Silver Spring, Maryland: Masonic Information Center. . Retrieved 2007-10-25.

Further reading
• Melior, Alec (1961). "A Hoaxer of Genius-Leo Taxil (1890-7)". Our Separated Brethren, the Freemasons. trans. B. R. Feinson. London: G. G. Harrap & Co.. pp. 149–55.

External links
• "A hoax", l'Illustration, May 1. 1897- No. 2827: Paris, France. (http://freemasonry.bcy.ca/texts/ taxil_confession.html) • Abel Claren de la Rive (1855-1914) (http://freemasonry.bcy.ca/anti-masonry/delarive.html) • Devil-Worship in France, by A.E. Waite (http://www.sacred-texts.com/evil/dwf/index.htm) complete e-text of Waite's debunking of Taxil. • Lady Queenborough, Edith Starr Miller (http://freemasonry.bcy.ca/anti-masonry/miller_e/miller_e.html) • Leo Taxil's Confession (http://freemasonry.bcy.ca/texts/taxil_confessed.html)

William Morgan

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William Morgan
William Morgan (1774–1826?) was a resident of Batavia, New York, whose disappearance ignited a powerful anti-Freemason movement in the United States in the early 19th century. After stating his intention to write a book exposing Freemasonry's "secrets", Morgan was arrested, kidnapped, and then apparently killed. His disappearance sparked a public outcry and launched the formation of a new Anti-Masonic Party.[1]

Early life
Morgan was born in Culpeper, Virginia, in 1774. His birthdate is sometimes listed as August 7, but no source for this is given. He was apprenticed as a bricklayer[2] or stone cutter, then briefly was a brewer in Canada, before returning to quarry work in Rochester, New York. In October 1819, when he was in his mid 40's, Morgan married 16-year old Lucinda Pendleton in Richmond Virginia. They had two children: Lucinda Wesley Morgan and Thomas Jefferson Morgan.[3] Two years after his marriage, he moved for unknown reasons to York, Upper Canada, where he operated a brewery. He has been described as a heavy drinker and a gambler.[4] When his business was destroyed in a fire, Morgan was reduced to poverty. He returned to the United States, settling first at Rochester, New York, and later in Batavia. Morgan claimed to have served with distinction as a captain during the War of 1812, though there is no evidence that he did so. Several men named William Morgan appear in the Virginia militia rolls, but none held the rank of captain.

Association with Freemasonry
Morgan attempted to join the Masonic lodge in Batavia, New York but was denied admission.[5] Angered by his rejection, Morgan declared that it was his intention to publish a book entitled Illustrations of Masonry,[6] critical of the Freemasons and describing their secret degree work in great detail. Morgan announced that a local newspaper publisher, David Cade Miller, had given him a sizable advance for the work. Miller is said to have received the entered apprentice degree (the first degree of Freemasonry), but had then been stopped from advancement by the objection of one or more of the Batavia lodge members.[4] This would have given him motivation to join with Morgan. In fact, it appears that Morgan had entered into a $500,000 penal bond with three men: Miller, John Davids (Morgan's landlord) and one Russel Dyer.[5]

The Morgan affair
If the local Masons had simply ignored Morgan's actions, that probably would have been the end of the matter. However, some members of the Batavia lodge responded to Morgan's “betrayal” by publishing an advertisement denouncing Morgan, and several attempts were made by unknown individuals to set fire to Miller's newspaper office.[5] When these efforts failed, a group of Masons gathered at Morgan's house claiming that he owed them money. On 11 September 1826, Morgan was arrested; according to the law, he could be held in debtor's prison until the debt was paid. Learning of this, Miller went to the jail to pay the debt. After several failed attempts, he finally secured Morgan's release. A few hours later, Morgan was arrested again, now for a loan it was claimed he had not paid back, and for supposedly stealing clothing. He was jailed again, this time in Canandaigua. On the night of 11 September, someone appeared, claiming to be a friend of Morgan's and offering to pay his debt and have him released. Morgan was taken to a carriage that was waiting for him outside the prison. The next day, the carriage arrived at Fort Niagara.[4]

William Morgan There are several tales of what happened next. The most common one is that Morgan was taken in a boat to the middle of the Niagara River and drowned.[7] A man named Henry L. Valance allegedly confessed to his part in the murder in 1848 and his deathbed confession is recounted in chapter two of Reverend C. G. Finney's book The Character, Claims, and Practical Workings of Freemasonry.[8] A little more than a year after Morgan disappeared, in October, 1827, a badly decomposed body that washed up on the shores of Lake Ontario was presumed by many to be Morgan, and was buried as such, even though the clothing was positively identified as that of a missing Canadian, Timothy Monroe, by his widow.[9] [10] Freemasons deny that Morgan was killed, saying instead that he was paid $500 to leave the country. There have been numerous reports of Morgan being seen in other countries, but none have been confirmed. Three Masons, Loton Lawon, Nicholas Chesebro and Edward Sawyer, were charged with, convicted and served sentences for the kidnapping of Morgan.[11]

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The aftermath: the anti-Masonic movement
Soon after Morgan disappeared, Miller published Morgan's book. It became a bestseller and some people have speculated that the disappearance was an elaborate publicity stunt, especially since Miller made no claim that Morgan had been murdered, saying simply he had been "carried away". According to them, Morgan assumed a new identity and settled in Albany, in Canada, or the Cayman Islands, or even was hanged as a pirate. New York governor DeWitt Clinton, himself a Mason, offered a $1,000 reward for information about Morgan's whereabouts, but no one ever claimed it.[10] Morgan's disappearance—and the minimal punishment received by his kidnappers—sparked a series of protests against the Freemasons throughout New York and the neighboring states. Despite the prompt disavowal of the actions of the kidnappers by the Masonic hierarchy, all Masons found themselves being criticized. Under the leadership of a New York politician named Thurlow Weed, an anti-Masonic and anti-Andrew Jackson (Jackson was a Mason) movement was formed, the Anti-Masonic political party, which ran a candidate for the presidency in 1828, gaining the support of such politicians as William H. Seward. Its influence was such that other Jackson rivals, including John Quincy Adams, joined in denouncing the Masons. Adams in 1847 wrote a widely distributed book titled Letters on the Masonic Institution that was also highly critical of the Masons. In 1832, the party fielded William Wirt as its presidential candidate, though the party only received seven electoral votes. Three years later, the party had become moribund everywhere but Pennsylvania, as other issues, such as slavery, became the focus of national attention. Morgan's widow Lucinda Pendleton later became one of the plural wives of Joseph Smith, Jr., founder of the Latter Day Saint movement. Subsequent confrontations between Freemasonry and the included controversy surrounding the church’s alleged adoption of Masonic rituals and regalia. William Morgan was given one of the first official baptisms for the dead into the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.[3]

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Monument to Morgan
On 13 September 1882, a large monument[12] praising Morgan was unveiled in the Batavia Cemetery by the National Christian Association, a group opposed to secret societies. The ceremony was witnessed by 1,000 people, including representatives from local Masonic lodges.[13] [14] The monument reads: Sacred to the memory of Wm. Morgan, a native of Virginia, a Capt. in the War of 1812, a respectable citizen of Batavia, and a martyr to the freedom of writing, printing and speaking the truth. He was abducted from near this spot in the year 1826, by Freemasons and murdered for revealing the secrets of their order. The court records of Genesee County, and the files of the Batavia Advocate, kept in the Recorders office contain the history of the events that caused the erection of this monument. In June 1881 in Pembroke, New York, a grave was discovered in a quarry two miles south of the Indian reservation, and in it a metal box containing a crumpled paper with a few still-readable words hinting that the body might have been Morgan's.[10]

In fiction
Pharmacist John Uri Lloyd based part of the background story and setup of his popular fantasy or scientific allegorical novel Etidorhpa, first published in 1895, on the kidnapping of William Morgan and the start of the Anti-Masonry movement. In the novel, the speaker is kidnapped by fellow members of a secret society, because he and an undertaken publication is suspected to be a threat to the society's secrecy. Referring to himself as I-Am-The-Man, he is taken to a cave in Kentucky; there he is led by a cavern dweller on a long subterranean journey, which becomes an inner journey of the spirit as much as a geographical trip through underground realms.
William Morgan Pillar, April 2011

In his 2010 novel The Craft: Freemasons, Secret Agents, and William Morgan, author Thomas Talbot presents a fictional explanation for the William Morgan kidnapping in a fast-paced thriller which involves William Morgan as a British spy, rogue British Masons, and the quest by presidential agents to thwart a plot to assassinate the president.

References
[1] The History Channel, Mysteries of the Freemasons: America, video documentary, 1 August 2006, written by Noah Nicholas and Molly Bedell [2] The Proceedings of the United Stares Antimasonic Convention, Held at Philadelphia, September 11, 1830. Embracing the Journal of Proceedings, the reports, the Debates, and the Address to the People, Published by I. P. Trimble, Philadelphia et al. 1830. 164 pp. [3] Thompson, John E.; "The Mormon Baptism of William Morgan", The Philalethes, February, 1985; 38(1): p. 8. [4] Tillotson, Leo F.; Ancient Craft Masonry in Vermont Online version (http:/ / www. vtfreemasons. org/ tillotson/ chapter7. htm) [5] anonymous; “The Morgan Affair”, The Short Talk Bulletin, Vol. XI, March 1933; No. 3. Online version (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ texts/ morgan_affair. html) [6] Morgan, William (1827), Illustrations of Masonry by One of the Fraternity Who has devoted Thirty Years to the Subject: "God said, Let there be Light, and there was light" (http:/ / utlm. org/ onlinebooks/ captmorgansfreemasonrycontents. htm), Batavia, N.Y.: David C. Miller, [7] Captain William M. Morgan of Batavia New York (http:/ / www. truevine. net/ ~forchrist@truevine. net/ Morgan. htm) Christian Martyrs [8] Finney, Charles Grandison; The Character, Claims, and Practical Workings of Freemasonry (http:/ / onlinebooks. library. upenn. edu/ webbin/ book/ lookupid?key=olbp33154).

William Morgan
[9] Clyde R. Forsberg, Jr., Equal Rites: The Book of Mormon, Masonry, Gender, and American Culture, New York: Columbia University Press, Preface xv. [10] (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ abstract. html?res=9F00E5DD103CEE3ABC4A51DFB066838A699FDE) “William Morgan's Bones; A Skeleton Found in a Quarry in Genesee County” [11] Ridley, Jasper;The Freemasons: A History of the World's Most Powerful Secret Society, pp. 180-181 (Arcade Publishing 1999). [12] Monument (http:/ / www. truevine. net/ ~forchrist@truevine. net/ monum2. jpg) [13] "An Old Tragedy Revived; Erection Of A Memorial To Morgan, Who Divulged The Secrets Of Masonry", New York Times, 14 September 1882, p. 1. [14] "The Unveiling Ceremonies Witnessed by a Large Crowd Who Listen to Able and Interesting Addresses Substance of the Speeches Proceedings at the Convention A Letter from Thurlow Weed" (http:/ / www. buffalonian. com/ hnews/ 1882morgansmonument. html), The Daily News, Batavia, 14 September 1882.

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External links
• Illustrations of Masonry by Capt. Wm. Morgan (http://www.utlm.org/onlinebooks/ captmorgansfreemasonrycontents.htm) • A detailed account from a Canadian Grand Lodge (http://freemasonry.bcy.ca/texts/morgan_affair.html) • Morgan's book on line (http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/18136) • Downloadable summary of Morgan Affair from Historic Lewiston, NY (http://www.historiclewiston.org/ downloads/Summer06.pdf)

Anti-Masonic Party

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Anti-Masonic Party
Anti-Masonic Party
Founded Dissolved 1828 1838

Succeeded by Whig Party Ideology Anti-Masonry, economic nationalism, social conservatism Politics of the United States Political parties Elections

The Anti-Masonic Party (also known as the Anti-Masonic Movement) was the first "third party" in the United States.[1] It strongly opposed Freemasonry and was founded as a single-issue party aspiring to become a major party. It introduced important innovations to American politics, such as nominating conventions and the adoption of party platforms.

Origins
The Anti-Masonic Party was formed in upstate New York in 1828. Some people feared the Freemasons, believing they were a powerful secret society that was trying to rule the country in defiance of republican principles. These opponents came together to form a political party after the Morgan affair convinced them the Masons were murdering their opponents. This key episode was the mysterious disappearance, in 1826, of William Morgan (1774-1826?), a Freemason of Batavia, New York, who had become dissatisfied with his lodge and intended to publish a book detailing the secrets of the freemasons. When his intentions became known to the lodge, an attempt was made to burn down the publishing house. Finally in September 1826 Morgan was arrested on charges of petty larceny. Someone paid his debt and upon his release he was seized by parties and taken to Fort Niagara, after which he disappeared.[2] The event created great excitement and led many to believe that not just the local lodge but all Freemasonry was in conflict with good citizenship. Because judges, businessmen, bankers, and politicians were often Masons, ordinary citizens began to think of it as an elitist group. Moreover, many claimed that the lodges' secret oaths bound the brethren to favor each other against outsiders, in the courts as well as elsewhere. Because the trial of the Morgan conspirators was mishandled, and the Masons resisted further inquiries, many New Yorkers concluded that Masons "controlled key offices and used their official authority to promote the goals of the fraternity. When a member sought to reveal its 'secrets', so ran the conclusion, they had done away with him, and because they controlled the officials, were capable of obstructing the investigation. If good government was to be restored all Masons must be purged from public office".[3] They considered the Masons to be an exclusive organization taking unfair advantage of common folk and violating the essential principles of democracy. True Americans, they said, had to organize and defeat this conspiracy.

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Formation of a political party
Opposition to Masonry was taken up by the churches as a sort of religious crusade, and it also became a local political issue in Western New York, where, early in 1827, the citizens in many mass meetings resolved to support no Mason for public office. In New York at this time the faction supporting President John Quincy Adams, called "Adams men," or the "Anti-Jackson" faction, were a very feeble organization, and shrewd political leaders at once determined to utilize the strong anti-Masonic feeling in creating a new and vigorous party to oppose the rising Jacksonian Democracy. In this effort they were aided by the fact that Andrew Jackson was a high-ranking Mason and frequently spoke in praise of the Order. The alleged remark of political organizer Thurlow Weed, that a corpse found floating in the Niagara River was "a good enough Morgan" until after the election, summarized the value of the crime for the opponents of Jackson. In the elections of 1828 the new party proved unexpectedly strong, and after this year it became the main opposition party in New York. In 1829 it broadened its issues base when it became a champion of internal improvements and of the protective tariff. The party published 35 weekly newspapers in New York. Soon one became preeminent, the Albany Journal, edited by Thurlow Weed. The newspapers reveled in partisanship. One brief Albany Journal paragraph on Martin Van Buren included the words "dangerous," "demagogue," "corrupt," "degrade," "pervert," "prostitute," "debauch" and "cursed."

Political conventions
The party invented the convention, a system whereby locally elected delegates would choose state candidates and pledge their loyalty. Soon the Democrats and Whigs recognized the convention's value in building a party, and held their own conventions. By 1832 the movement had lost its focus on Masonry, and had spread to neighboring states, becoming especially strong in Pennsylvania and Vermont. A national organization was planned as early as 1827, when the New York leaders attempted, unsuccessfully, to persuade Henry Clay who was a Mason, to renounce the Order and head the movement. In 1831, William A. Palmer was elected governor of Vermont on an Anti-Masonic ticket, an office he held until 1836. The party conducted the first U.S. presidential nominating convention in the U.S. at Baltimore, in the 1832 elections, nominating William Wirt (a former Mason) for President and Amos Ellmaker for Vice President. Wirt won 7.78 percent of the popular vote, and the seven electoral votes from Vermont. The highest elected office ever held by a member of the party was that of a governor: besides Palmer in Vermont, Joseph Ritner was the governor of Pennsylvania from 1835 to 1838. This was the high tide of its prosperity; in New York in 1833 the organization was moribund, and its members gradually united with the National Republican Party and other opponents of Jacksonian Democracy in forming the Whig Party. The Whigs' great New York boss, Thurlow Weed, began his political career as an Anti-Mason. Following the election of Joseph Ritner as Governor of Pennsylvania in 1835, a state convention was held in Harrisburg [4] on December 14–17, 1835 to choose Presidential Electors for the 1836 election. The convention nominated William Henry Harrison for President and Francis Granger for Vice President. The Vermont state Anti-Masonic convention [5] followed suit on February 24, 1836. National Anti-Masonic leaders were unable to obtain assurance from Harrison that he was not a Mason, so they called a national convention. The second Anti-Masonic National nominating convention [6] was held in Philadelphia on May 4, 1836. The convention was divisive, but a majority of the delegates were able to restate that purpose of the party as strictly anti-Masonry and to officially state that the party was not sponsoring a national ticket for the presidential election of 1836. Although Harrison was not elected, his strength throughout the North was hailed by Anti-Masonic leaders because the party was the first to officially place his name in contention. The party held a conference in September 1837 to discuss its situation; one delegate was former President John Quincy Adams. The third Anti-Masonic National nominating convention [7] was held in Temperance Hall, Philadelphia, on November 13–14, 1838. By this time, the

Anti-Masonic Party party had been almost entirely engulfed by the Whig Party. In any case, the AMP convention unanimously nominated William Henry Harrison for President and Daniel Webster for Vice President. When the Whig National Convention nominated Harrison and Tyler, the Anti-Masonic Party did not make an alternate nomination and vanished. A later political organization called the Anti-Masonic Party was active from 1872 until 1888. This second group had a more religious basis for its anti-Masonry and was closely associated with Jonathan Blanchard of Wheaton College. The growth of the anti-Masonic movement was due more to the political and social conditions of the time than to the Morgan episode, which was merely the catalyst. Under the banner of "Anti-Masons" able leaders united those who were discontented with existing political conditions. The fact that William Wirt, their choice for the presidency in 1832, not only was a former Mason but also even supposedly defended the Order in a speech before the convention that nominated him indicates that mere opposition to Masonry was by no means the central premise of the political order.

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Candidates
• William Wirt/Amos Ellmaker - 1832 election for President of the United States (lost) • John Quincy Adams - 1836 election for Governor of Massachusetts (lost) • Jonathan Blanchard - 1884 election for President of the United States (lost)

References
• Holt, Michael F. "The Antimasonic and Know Nothing Parties," in History of U.S. Political Parties, ed. Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. (4 vols., New York, 1973), vol I, 575-620. • McCarthy, Charles (1903), The Antimasonic Party: A Study of Political Antimasonry in the United States, 1827–1840 [8], Washington: Government Printing Office, reprinted from Annual Report of the American Historical Association, 1, 1902, pp. 365–574. • Robert J. Rayback, Millard Fillmore: Biography of a President. Buffalo Historical Society. 1959. • Hans L. Trefousse; Thaddeus Stevens: Nineteenth-Century Egalitarian. University of North Carolina Press. 1997. • Vaughn, William Preston (1983) The Antimasonic Party in the United States, 1826-1843. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-1474-8, the standard history • Van Deusen, Glyndon G. Thurlow Weed, Wizard of the Lobby [9] (1947) •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (Eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press.

Footnotes
[1] Richard B. Morris, Encyclopedia of American History, revised edition, Harper & Row (New York), 1961, pages 170-171 [2] Peck, William F. (1908). History of Rochester and Monroe county, New York (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=IvssAAAAYAAJ& pg=PA63). The Pioneer publishing company. . Retrieved 2009-05-02. [3] (Rayback 1959, pp. 18–19) [4] http:/ / www. ourcampaigns. com/ RaceDetail. html?RaceID=432554 [5] http:/ / www. ourcampaigns. com/ RaceDetail. html?RaceID=432869 [6] http:/ / www. ourcampaigns. com/ RaceDetail. html?RaceID=157642 [7] http:/ / www. ourcampaigns. com/ RaceDetail. html?RaceID=432897 [8] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=QapJAAAAMAAJ [9] http:/ / www. questia. com/ PM. qst?a=o& d=8520692

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Propaganda Due
Propaganda Due (Italian pronunciation: [propaˈɡanda ˈduːe]), or P2, was a Masonic lodge operating under the jurisdiction of the Grand Orient of Italy from 1945 to 1976 (when its charter was withdrawn), and a pseudo-Masonic or "black" or "covert" lodge operating illegally (in contravention of Italian constitution banning secret lodges, and membership of government officials in secret membership organizations) from 1976 to 1981. During the years that the lodge was headed by Licio Gelli, P2 was implicated in numerous Italian crimes and mysteries, including the collapse of the Vatican-affiliated Banco Ambrosiano, the murders of journalist Mino Pecorelli and banker Roberto Calvi, and corruption cases within the nationwide bribe scandal Tangentopoli. P2 came to light through the investigations into the collapse of Michele Sindona's financial empire.[1] P2 was sometimes referred to as a "state within a state"[2] or a "shadow government".[3] The lodge had among its members prominent journalists, members of parliament, industrialists, and military leaders—including Silvio Berlusconi, who later became Prime Minister of Italy; the Savoy pretender to the Italian throne Victor Emmanuel; and the heads of all three Italian intelligence services. When searching Licio Gelli's villa, the police found a document called the "Plan for Democratic Rebirth", which called for a consolidation of the media, suppression of trade unions, and the rewriting of the Italian Constitution.[4] Outside Italy, P2 was also active in Uruguay, Brazil and in Argentina, with Raúl Alberto Lastiri, Argentina's interim president (between July 13, 1973 to October 12, 1973) during the height of the "Dirty War" among its members. Emilio Massera, who was part of the military junta led by Jorge Rafael Videla from 1976 to 1978, José López Rega, minister of Social Welfare in Perón's government and founder of the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance ("Triple A"), and General Guillermo Suárez Mason were also members.[5]

Foundation
"Propaganda" was originally founded in 1877, in Turin, as "Propaganda Massonica". This lodge was frequented by politicians and government officials from across Italy who were unable to attend their own lodges and included prominent members from the Piedmont nobility. The name was changed to "Propaganda Due" following World War II, when the Grand Orient of Italy numbered its lodges. By the 1960s, however, the lodge was all but moribund, holding few meetings. This original lodge, however, had little to do with the one Licio Gelli established in 1966, two years after becoming a freemason.[6] Italian Masonry had been outlawed by the fascist regime of Benito Mussolini, but was reborn after the Second World War under US influence. However, its traditions of free thinking under the Risorgimento morphed into a fervent anti-communism. The increase of the influence of the left at the end of the 1960s had the Masons deeply worried. In 1971, Grand Master Lino Salvini of the Grand Orient of Italy—one of Italy's largest Masonic lodges—assigned to Gelli the task of reorganizing the lodge.[7] Gelli took a list of "sleeping members"—members who were not invited to take part in masonic rituals anymore, as Italian freemasonry was under close scrutiny by the reigning Christian Democrats. From these initial connections, Gelli was able to extend his network throughout the echelons of the Italian establishment.[8]

Expulsion
The Grand Orient of Italy allegedly expelled Gelli and the P2 Lodge in 1976.[9] In 1974 it had been proposed that P2 be erased from the list of lodges by the Grand Orient of Italy, and the motion was carried overwhelmingly. However, in 1975 a warrant was issued by the Grand Master for a new P2 lodge. The Grand Orient in 1976 had actually suspended, but did not expel, the lodge on Gelli's request. Gelli was still active in the Grand Orient's national affairs two years later, financing the election of a Grand Master. In 1981 a Masonic tribunal decided the 1974 vote meant that the lodge had in fact ceased to exist and that Gelli's lodge had been illegal all along.[6]

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Discovery
The P2 lodge was discovered by prosecutors while investigating the banker Michele Sindona, the collapse of his bank and his ties to the Mafia.[10] A list of alleged adherents was found by the police in Gelli's house in Arezzo in March 1981, containing 962 names, among which were important state officials, some important politicians and a number of military officers, including the heads of the three Italian secret services.[7] Future Italian prime minister Silvio Berlusconi was on the list, although he had not yet entered politics at the time. Another famous member was Victor Emmanuel, the son of the last Italian king. Prime Minister Arnaldo Forlani (whose chef de cabinet was a P2 member as well)[7] appointed a Parliamentary Commission of Inquiry, headed by the independent Christian Democrat Tina Anselmi. Nevertheless, in May 1981, Forlani was forced to resign due to the P2 scandal, causing the fall of the Italian government.[2] [11] In July 1982, new documents were found hidden in the false bottom of a suitcase belonging to Gelli's daughter at Fiumicino airport in Rome. The two documents were entitled "Memorandum sulla situazione italiana" (Memorandum on the Italian situation) "Piano di rinascita democratica" (Plan of Democratic Rebirth) and are seen as the political programme of P2. According to these documents, the main enemies of Italy were the Italian Communist Party (PCI) and the trade unions. These had to be isolated and cooperation with the communists (the second biggest party in Italy and the largest in Western Europe), which was proposed in the historic compromise by Aldo Moro needed to be disrupted.[7] Gelli's goal was to form a new political and economic elite to lead Italy towards a right-wing, authoritarian form of democracy, with an anti-communist pre-occupation.[12] P2 advocated a programme of extensive political corruption: "political parties, newspapers and trade unions can be the objects of possible solicitations which could take the form of economic-financial manoeuvres. The availability of sums not exceeding 30 to 40 billion lire would seem sufficient to allow carefully chosen men, acting in good faith, to conquer key positions necessary for overall control." [7]

P2's influence
Opinions about the importance and reach of P2 differ. Some see the P2 as a reactionary, shadow government ready to take over power in case of an electoral victory of the Italian Communist Party. Others think it was nothing more than a sordid association of people eager to improve their careers by making powerful and important connections.[13] Nevertheless, P2 was implicated in numerous Italian scandals and mysteries.

Corriere della Sera takeover
In 1977 the P2 took control of the Corriere della Sera newspaper, a leading paper in Italy. At the time, the paper had run into financial trouble and was unable to raise bank loans because its then editor, Piero Ottone, was considered hostile to the ruling Christian Democrats. Corriere's owners, the publishing house Rizzoli, struck a deal with Gelli. He provided the money with funds from the Vatican Bank directed by Paul Marcinkus. Ottone was fired and the paper's editorial line shifted to the right.[7] [14] The paper published a long interview with Gelli in 1980. The interview was carried out by the television talk show host Maurizio Costanzo, who would also be exposed as a member of P2.[15] Gelli said he was in favour of rewriting the Italian constitution towards a Gaullist presidential system. When asked what he always wanted to be, he replied: “A puppet master”.[7] [16]

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Bologna massacre
P2 members Gelli and the head of the secret service Pietro Musumeci were condemned for attempting to mislead the police investigation of the Bologna massacre on August 2, 1980, which killed 85 people and wounded more than 200.[17]

Banco Ambrosiano scandal
P2 became the target of considerable attention in the wake of the collapse of Banco Ambrosiano (one of Milan's principal banks, owned in part by the Vatican Bank), and the suspicious 1982 death of its president Roberto Calvi in London, initially ruled a suicide but later prosecuted as a murder. It was suspected by investigative journalists that some of the plundered funds went to P2 or to its members.

Protezione account
One of the documents found in 1981 was about a numbered bank account, the so-called "Protezione account," at the Union Bank of Switzerland in Lugano (Switzerland). It detailed the payment of US$ 7 million by the president of ENI, Florio Fiorini through Roberto Calvi to the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) leader Claudio Martelli on behalf of Bettino Craxi, the socialist Prime Minister from 1983-1987. The full extent of the payment only became clear twelve years later, in 1993, during the mani pulite (Italian for "clean hands") investigations into political corruption. The money was allegedly a kickback on a loan which the Socialist leaders had organised to help bail out the ailing Banco Ambrosiano. Rumours that the Minister of Justice, Martelli, was connected with the account had been circulating since investigations began into the P2 plot. He always flatly denied them. However, learning that formal investigations were opened, he resigned as minister.[18]

Criminal organization
Parliamentary Commission of Inquiry
The Parliamentary Commission of Inquiry, headed by Anselmi, concluded that the P2 lodge was a secret criminal organization. Allegations of surreptitious international relationships, mainly with Argentina (Gelli repeatedly suggested that he was a close friend of Juan Perón) and with some people suspected of affiliation with the American Central Intelligence Agency were also partly confirmed; but soon a political debate overtook the legal level of the analysis.[19] The majority report said that P2 action resulted in "… the pollution of the public life of a nation. It aimed to alter, often in decisive fashion, the correct funtioning of the institutions of the country, according to a project which … intended to undermine our democracy." A minority report by Massimo Teodori concluded that P2 was not just an abnormal outgrowth from a essentially healthy system, as upheld by the majority report, but an inherent part of the system itself.[7]

New Italian law prohibiting "secret lodges"
Even though outlawed by Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini in 1925, Masonic institutions have been tolerated in Italy since the end of World War II. A special law was issued, however, that prohibited secret lodges. The Grande Oriente d'Italia, after taking disciplinary action against members with P2 connections, distanced itself from Gelli's lodge. Other laws introduced a prohibition on membership in allegedly secret organizations for some categories of state officials (especially military officers). These laws have been recently questioned by the European Court of Human Rights. Following an action brought by a serving British naval officer, the European Court has established as precedent the illegality of any member nation attempting to ban Masonic membership for military officers, as a breach of their human rights.[20]

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Licio Gelli's list found in 1981
On March 17, 1981, a list composed by Licio Gelli was found in his country house (Villa Wanda). The list should be contemplated with some caution, as it is considered to be a compilation of P2 members and the contents of Gelli's Rolodex. Many on the list were apparently never asked if they wanted to join P2, and it is not known to what extent the list includes members who were formally initiated into the lodge. Since 1981, some of those on the list have demonstrated their distance from P2 to the satisfaction of the Italian legal system.[21] On May 21, 1981, the Italian government released the list.[22] The Parliamentary Commission of Inquiry headed by Tina Anselmi considered the list reliable and genuine. It decided to publish the list in its concluding report, Relazione della Commissione parlamentare d’inchiesta sulla Loggia massonica P2.[23] The list contains 962 names (including Gelli's). It has been claimed that at least a thousand names may still be secret, as the membership numbers begin with number 1,600, which suggests that the complete list has not yet been found.[7] The list included all of the heads of the secret services, 195 officers of the different armed forces (12 generals of the Carabinieri, 5 of the financial police Guardia di Finanza, 22 of the army, 4 of the air force and 8 admirals), as well as 44 members of parliament, 3 ministers and a secretary of a political party, leading magistrates, a few prefects and heads of police, bankers and businessmen, civil servants, journalists and broadcasters.[7] Also included were a top official of the Banca di Roma, Italy's third largest bank at the time, and a former director-general of the Banca Nazionale del Lavoro (BNL), the country's largest.[11]

Notable people on Gelli's list
Some notable individuals include: • Silvio Berlusconi, businessman, founder of the Forza Italia political party and Prime Minister of Italy.[24] [25] • Michele Sindona, banker linked to the Mafia.[26] • Roberto Calvi, so-called "banker of God", allegedly killed by the Mafia.[26] [27] • Umberto Ortolani, leading P2-member.[28] • Franco Di Bella, director of Corriere della Sera.[14] [25] Di Bella had commissioned a long interview with Gelli, who openly talked of his plans for a "democratic renaissance" in Italy—including control over the media. The interview was carried out by the television talk show host Maurizio Costanzo, who would also be exposed as a member of P2.[15] • Angelo Rizzoli, owner of Corriere della Sera, today cinema producer.[25]

Receipt for membership of Silvio Berlusconi to the P2 masonic lodge

• Bruno Tassan Din, general director of Corriere della Sera.[25] • General Vito Miceli, chief of the SIOS (Servizio Informazioni), Italian Army Intelligence's Service from 1969 and SID's head from October 18, 1970 to 1974. Arrested in 1975 on charges of "conspiracy against the state" concerning investigations about Rosa dei venti, a state-infiltrated group involved in the strategy of tension, he later became an Italian Social Movement (MSI) member.[29] [30] • Federico Umberto D'Amato, leader of an intelligence cell (Ufficio affari riservati) in the Italian Minister of Interior.[31] [32] • Federico Carlos Barttfeld (Argentina), ambassador to Yugoslavia from 1991 to 1995,[5] under-secretary of state in Néstor Kirchner's government, relieved of his functions in 2003 following allegations of involvement in the Dirty War.[33]

Propaganda Due • Emilio Massera (Argentina), a member of the military junta led by Jorge Rafael Videla in Buenos Aires from 1976 to 1978.[5] • José López Rega (Argentina), Argentinian minister of Social Welfare in Perón's government, founder of the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance ("Triple A").[5] • General Giuseppe Santovito, head of the military intelligence service SISMI (1978-1981).[11] [29] • Admiral Giovanni Torrisi, Chief of the General Staff of the Army.[11] [29] • General Giulio Grassini, head of the intelligence service SISDE (1977-1981).[11] [29] • General Pietro Musumeci, deputy director of Italy's military intelligence service, SISMI.[29] • General Franco Picchiotti.[29] • General Giovambattista Palumbo.[29] • General Raffaele Giudice, commander of the Guardia di Finanza (1974-1978).[29] Appointed by Giulio Andreotti, Giudice conspired with oil magnate Bruno Musselli and others in a lucrative tax fraud of as much as $2.2 billion.[11] [34] • General Orazio Giannini, commander of the Guardia di Finanza (1980-1981).[29] On the day the list was discovered Giannini phoned the official in charge of the operation, and told him (according the official's testimony to the parliamentary commission): "You better know that you've found some lists. I'm in those lists – be careful, because so too are all the highest echelons (I understood 'of the state') ... Watch out, the Force will be overwhelmed by this."[7] • Carmine Pecorelli, a controversial journalist assassinated on March 20, 1979. He had drawn connections in a May 1978 article between Aldo Moro's kidnapping and Gladio.[35] • Maurizio Costanzo, popular television talk show host of Mediaset programmes (Mediaset is Berlusconi's commercial television empire).[15] • Pietro Longo, secretary of the Italian Democratic Socialist Party (PSDI).[36] • Fabrizio Cicchitto, member of the Italian Socialist Party, who later joined Berlusconi's centre-right party Forza Italia.[11] • Publio Fiori, Christian Democrat politician.

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References
[1] [2] [3] [4] "Masonic lodge affair leaves Italy shocked". The Times. 1981-05-23. BBC On This Day: 26 May 1981 (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ onthisday/ hi/ dates/ stories/ may/ 26/ newsid_4396000/ 4396893. stm) Jones, The Dark Heart of Italy, p. 187 Jones, The Dark Heart of Italy, p. 186

[5] (Spanish) En el mismo barco (http:/ / www. pagina12. com. ar/ 1998/ 98-12/ 98-12-14/ pag03. htm), Pagina 12, December 14, 1998. [6] What was the P2 Lodge? (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca/ anti-masonry/ anti-masonry01. html#p2), Anti-masonry Frequently Asked Questions, Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon (http:/ / freemasonry. bcy. ca) [7] Ginsborg, Italy and Its Discontent, pp. 144-48 [8] "How Licio Gelli took over Italy's secret power centre". The Times. 1981-05-30. [9] Decree No. 444 L.S. of June, 1976 quoted by masonicinfo.com (http:/ / www. masonicinfo. com/ p2_lodge. htm) [10] Stille, Excellent Cadavers, pp. 39-40 [11] A Grand Master's Conspiracy (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ printout/ 0,8816,922552,00. html), Time, June 8, 1981 [12] (Italian) La loggia massonica P2 (Loggia Propaganda Due) (http:/ / www. stragi. it/ index. php?pagina=vicenda& par=p2), Associazione tra i familiari delle vittime della strage alla stazione di Bologna del 2 agosto 1980. On the site one can also find the list of P2 members and the final report of the Italian Parliamentary commission of inquiry: Relazione di Maggioranza (Anselmi)], Commissione parlamentare d’inchiesta sulla Loggia massonica P2, July 12, 1984. [13] Stille, Excellent Cadavers, p. 40 [14] Obituary: Franco Di Bella (http:/ / www. independent. co. uk/ news/ obituaries/ obituary-franco-di-bella-1290357. html), The Independent, December 23, 1997. [15] Obituary: Alberto Cavallari (http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_qn4158/ is_19980723/ ai_n14162383), The Independent, July 23, 1998. [16] Willan, Puppetmasters, pp. 229-30 [17] Willan, Puppetmasters, p. 161 [18] Italian minister falls victim to corruption (http:/ / www. independent. co. uk/ news/ world/ europe/ italian-minister-falls-victim-to-corruption-1472280. html), The Independent, February 11, 1993

Propaganda Due
[19] Willan, Puppetmasters, p. 50 [20] Article on the ECHR decision on the Grand Lodge of Scotland website (http:/ / www. grandlodgescotland. com/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=308& Itemid=115) [21] Licio Gelli's List of P2 Members (http:/ / www. namebase. org/ sources/ dE. html), Italian Parliament, 1981 [22] Elenco degli iscritti alla Loggia P2 (http:/ / www. archivio900. it/ it/ documenti/ doc. aspx?id=42) [23] (Italian) Relazione di Maggioranza (Anselmi) (http:/ / www. archivio900. it/ it/ documenti/ finestre-900. aspx?c=1163), Commissione parlamentare d’inchiesta sulla Loggia massonica P2, July 12, 1984. The list is in book 1, tome 1, pp 803–874 and 885-942, and in book 1, tome 2, p. 213 ss. and p. 1126 ss. [24] An Italian story (http:/ / www. economist. com/ opinion/ displaystory. cfm?story_id=587107), The Economist, April 26, 2001. [25] Ginsborg, Silvio Berlusconi, p. 31. [26] Stille, Excellent Cadavers, p. 41. [27] Calvi murder: The mystery of God's banker (http:/ / www. independent. co. uk/ news/ world/ europe/ calvi-murder-the-mystery-of-gods-banker-452056. html), The Independent, June 7, 2007. [28] Mason indicted over murder of 'God's banker' (http:/ / www. independent. co. uk/ news/ world/ europe/ mason-indicted-over-murder-of-gods-banker-499461. html), The Independent, July 20, 2005. [29] (Italian) Gli apparati militari. Conclusioni (http:/ / www. archivio900. it/ it/ documenti/ doc. aspx?id=481), in Relazione di Maggioranza (Anselmi), Commissione parlamentare d’inchiesta sulla Loggia massonica P2, July 12, 1984. [30] Willan, Puppetmasters, p. 59. [31] La Loggia la P.A. e la magistratura - I rapporti con la Pubblica Amministrazione (http:/ / www. archivio900. it/ it/ documenti/ doc. aspx?id=485), in Relazione di Maggioranza (Anselmi), Commissione parlamentare d’inchiesta sulla Loggia massonica P2, July 12, 1984. [32] Willan, Puppetmasters, p. 73. [33] (Spanish) Un dinosaurio camino a casa (http:/ / www. pagina12. com. ar/ diario/ elpais/ 1-35106-2004-05-09. html), Pagina 12, May 9, 2004. [34] Italy: Terror on the Right (http:/ / www. nybooks. com/ articles/ 7178), The New York Review of Books, January 22, 1981. [35] Moro's ghost haunts political life (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ print/ 0,,4665179-105806,00. html), The Guardian, May 9, 2003. [36] Ginsborg, Silvio Berlusconi, p. 30.

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Further reading
• Ginsborg, Paul (2003). Italy and Its Discontents, London: Palgrave Macmillan ISBN 1-4039-6152-2 ( Review Institute of Historical Research (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/paper/donovanM.html) | Review New York Times (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/paper/donovanM.html)) • Ginsborg, Paul (2005). Silvio Berlusconi: television, power and patrimony (http://books.google.nl/ books?id=fi6I0dxdheoC), London: Verso, 2005 ISBN 1844675416 • Jones, Tobias (2003). The Dark Heart of Italy. New York: North Point Press. • Stille, Alexander (1995). Excellent Cadavers. The Mafia and the Death of the First Italian Republic, New York: Vintage ISBN 0-09-959491-9 • Willan Philip P. (2002). Puppetmasters: The Political Use of Terrorism in Italy (http://books.google.nl/ books?id=9g-UIMo1SaYC), iUniverse, ISBN 0595246974 • Normand, P.G. "The Italian Dilemma". American Masonic Review, Vol. 3, No. 2. (Publ. by St. Alban's Research Society, College Station, Texas; Spring 1994.) • DeHoyos, Art & S. Brent Morris (1997). The methods of anti-Masons (http://www.indianafreemasons.com/ imoanti/isittrue/chap1.htm), Masonic Information Center. • Unger, Craig. The war they wanted, the lies they needed (http://www.vanityfair.com/politics/features/2006/ 07/yellowcake200607?currentPage=1), Vanity Fair, July 2006. • Willan, Philip. The Last Supper: the Mafia, the Masons and the Killing of Roberto Calvi, Constable & Robinson, 2007(ISBN 978 1 84529 296 6) • Dickie, John. Cosa Nostra: A History of the Sicilian Mafia, Palgrave Macmillan, 2004 (ISBN 1403966966) • Sterling, Claire, The Mafia: The Long Reach of the International Sicilian Mafia (ISBN 0586212345)

Propaganda Due

178

External links
• Article by Gianni Barbacetto (http://www.societacivile.it/focus/articoli_focus/massoni/p2.html) • Revelation (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0278675/) at the Internet Movie Database (mentions P2 as part of its storyline) • Philip Willan, personal website of journalist and author with information on Roberto Calvi, Banco Ambrosiano, Licio Gelli, Propaganda Due. (http://www.philipwillan.com)

Article Sources and Contributors

179

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Nightkey, Nlu, Occuli, OttoMäkelä, OverSS, PGNormand, PJBEAR13, PeRshGo, Peter Gower, Philip Trueman, Pietre-stones, Ping, Pjetson, Proyster, Pvosta, Rbrwr, Rjensen, Seaphoto, Shushi9876, Spinboy, SteveSims, Stijn Calle, Stonemad GB, Stuart.weiner5, Tiles, Tirin, Top.Squark, Tothebarricades.tk, Toussaint, Tricornio, Triglyph, Vidkun, VirtualSteve, Wandering Writer, WegianWarrior, Wfgh66, Wtmitchell, Zef, Zoicon5, Zundark, 120 anonymous edits Masonic manuscripts  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=411409015  Contributors: Bamboodragon, Blueboar, BobtheEditorMan, Charleca, Charles Matthews, Cuchullain, Flaxmoore, Grye, Happy932, HenriLobineau, Hmains, Hyperion008, Jezzabr, John Carter, JohnSawyer, Leolaursen, MSJapan, Mamalujo, Micjohn, Navydocclift, PGNormand, Paine Ellsworth, Proyster, Pvosta, Rjwilmsi, SarekOfVulcan, Scriberius, Stijn Calle, Svanslyck, Teknomegisto, Tide rolls, Trackratte, Vidkun, WegianWarrior, Zef, 19 anonymous edits Ahiman Rezon  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=228994972  Contributors: Bamboodragon, Docboat, Dpentland, Editor2020, Hierosolymite, PGNormand, Pvosta, Stijn Calle, Zef, 1 anonymous edits Regular Masonic jurisdictions  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=405486172  Contributors: ALR, Ahc, Alai, Antibacterial, Azuredeltascribe, Biruitorul, Bloodshedder, Blueboar, Bn, CaribDigita, Chris the speller, Chrislk02, Comason, Dale Arnett, Deville, Editor2020, Ergo-Nord, Everyking, Faustus37, Fish and karate, Flaxton, Fuzzypeg, Galoubet, Grye, Holstott, Hoot41494, Ilikeverin, Imacomp, Iridescent, JASpencer, Jezzabr, Lexicon, Liberal Freemason, Ligulem, Lkinkade, MSJapan, Matthewrobinson, Maxim, Melathron, Millennium Sentinel, N95787, Nicosia1, Ortale, PGNormand, Pietre-stones, Pvosta, RHaworth, Rgraziani, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, RxS, SarekOfVulcan, Saxophobia, Secretlondon, Skull 'n' Femurs, Splash, Stijn Calle, Svanslyck, Synergy, That Guy, From That Show!, TheParanoidOne, Thisisbossi, Timothy Titus, Toussaint, Tyciol, Vidkun, Zef, 67 anonymous edits Lodge Mother Kilwinning  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=419638339  Contributors: ALR, Auntof6, Blueboar, BrownHairedGirl, Craigy144, Daswede, Grye, Hugo999, Jizzbug, Jllm06, Leutha, Lexicon, Lotje, MSJapan, Mais oui!, Rjwilmsi, Rodhullandemu, Stijn Calle, Svanslyck, Tagishsimon, TheBourtreehillian, ThreeBlindMice, Thumperward, Zef, 10 anonymous edits United Grand Lodge of England  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=424128786  Contributors: A. Carty, ADM, ALR, AZJuanes, Andrei Iosifovich, Aquizard, Ardenn, CaptainMongles, Cesaer, Charles Matthews, Condem, Craigy144, Cremepuff222, DerHexer, Dzw49, Ergo-Nord, Feddk, Flaxton, Freemason12345, Frietjes, Gene.arboit, Ground Zero, Grye, Hiram K Hackenbacker, Hugo999, Jack1956, Jhamez84, Joshua Scott, Karada, Leolaursen, Lexicon, MSJapan, Matt Crypto, Mauls, Maxim, Mcdennis13, Meco, Mycroft, Neddyseagoon, Nick, PGNormand, PGWG, Peter Gower, PhantomReinhart, Philip Baird Shearer, Pirags, Pixi Uno, Pjetson, Proteus, Pvosta, RHaworth, RamXa, Realmason, SarekOfVulcan, Shanel, Splash, Stijn Calle, Surturz, Toussaint, Vidkun, Zef, 64 anonymous edits Prince Hall Freemasonry  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=423350747  Contributors: Arthena, Besselpaulm, BlackDated, Blueboar, BrownHairedGirl, Canute, Clariosophic, CutOffTies, Daderot, Dale Arnett, Durno11, Dvyost, Exxoskeleton, Fingers-of-Pyrex, Fram, Grye, Henrygb, Hugo999, Imacomp, JASpencer, Jack1956, Leemuhammad, Leutha, Lexicon, Ligulem, MSJapan, Maengpong, Matthewrobinson, Maustrauser, Maxim, Myland, Phanttom, Piano non troppo, Pietre-stones, Rhobite, SarekOfVulcan, SchuminWeb, Shinerunner, Smmurphy, Smooth0707, Stijn Calle, Tanizaki, Tellyaddict, Temporary resident, Tom harrison, Toussaint, Vidkun, Waterhouse5, WazzaMan, WegianWarrior, Xavexgoem, Zef, 58 anonymous edits Hiram Abiff  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=427871150  Contributors: 999, ALR, Abu America, Andy85719, Anetode, Anthony Appleyard, Blueboar, Brando130, CJames745, Chris the speller, Christophe Dioux, Creationlaw, Dave, Deanlaw, Deazwe, Docboat, Eduard Gherkin, Enviroboy, Excirial, Flammifer, Freemason74, GeorgeC, GregCMCSE, Grye, Haza-w, Imacomp, Iordanis 777, JASpencer, Jachin, Jack1956, John Carter, JohnCD, Johnathan2f2, Jusdafax, Kakofonous, Kozushi, Kukini, Kylu, Leandrod, Lexicon, MSJapan, MStraw, Mattisse, Mycroft, Nuttyskin, Ogress, Oknazevad, Oneliner, Pawl Kennedy, Ralphellis, Rjwilmsi, Rocxan, RucasHost, Russianbolero, SamuelTheGhost, SarekOfVulcan, Sawyer207, Shsilver, Smartlcc, Stijn Calle, Str1977, Sunhawk, Surturz, Synergy, Tabletop, TheJC, Vidkun, WegianWarrior, Wfgh66, Whirledtraveller, Widefox, Xzrox, Yanbushad, Yonderboy, Zef, Zelator, Zimbob, 74 anonymous edits Masonic Lodge  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=427680770  Contributors: ALR, AVand, Aka042, Andres, Angela, Asrghasrhiojadrhr, AvicAWB, Bdevoe, Billy Hathorn, Blueboar, Branden, Bsktcase, Chillllls, Chiramabi, Chtirrell, Cmdrjameson, Crosbiesmith, Debresser, Doncram, Ergo-Nord, Faustus37, Francs2000, Fuzzypeg, Grye, Headbomb, Icairns, Imacomp, Ixfd64, J.delanoy, Jaywr20, Jezzabr, Jj137, JoeSmack, Lexicon, Liberal Freemason, M.nelson, MSJapan, Manuel Anastácio, Maxim, Melathron, Michael Hardy, Millennium Sentinel, Movementarian, Multixfer, Orlady, Richard001, Roland zh, SPKirsch, Sannse, SarekOfVulcan, SchuminWeb, Stepnwolf, Stormie, TheGreenKnight, Timothy Titus, Toussaint, Trevor W. McKeown, Vanadinite, Vandersontx, Vidkun, Wandering Writer, Waterhouse5, Webmaster.storylodge, WegianWarrior, Wereon, Zef, 56 anonymous edits Masonic Lodge Officers  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=422707962  Contributors: Bachrach44, Baldrick's Mum, Ben2282, BesselDekker, Blanchardb, Blueboar, Chrislk02, Docboat, Duncan, Esrever, Eyespeakthetruth, FlyingToaster, GLaDOS, George2621, Hackloon, Headbomb, Hongooi, JASpencer, Jack1956, Jezzabr, John Carter, Kennonv, Lleachii, Lottamiata, MSJapan, Matthew Cadrin, Maxim, Michael Hardy, MileyDavidA, Narra Mine, Necrothesp, Nuttyskin, PeRshGo, PhilD86, Stijn Calle, Surturz, Svanslyck, TemplarSeth, The Letter J, Tide rolls, Timothy Titus, Ttony21, WegianWarrior, Wknight94, Zef, Zelator, 59 anonymous edits Grand Lodge  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=420265208  Contributors: Ajh16, Blueboar, Bsktcase, Darkieboy236, Edison, ElfMage, EoGuy, Ergo-Nord, Evercat, Fuzzypeg, Grye, Headbomb, Iordanis 777, J S Ayer, Karada, Leutha, Liberal Freemason, MONGO, MSJapan, Maestro79, Marauder40, Maxim, Melesse, Nkorfiatis, Pearle, Pvosta, R.P.D., RHaworth, Sango123, SarekOfVulcan, Seano1, Skull 'n' Femurs, Smartlcc, Stijn Calle, Str1977, Tabletop, Thatcrazysage, Toussaint, Troy 07, Vidkun, Wfgh66, Yorkshirian, Zef, 55 anonymous edits Masonic Landmarks  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=426938131  Contributors: ALR, Abune, Blueboar, Bn, Charles Matthews, Christophe Dioux, Chtirrell, Doncram, ElfMage, Esrever, Headbomb, JASpencer, Lanternshine, Leutha, Lexicon, MSJapan, Mailer diablo, Pi zero, Pietre-stones, Pvosta, SarekOfVulcan, Station1, Stijn Calle, Tivedshambo, Tom Lougheed, WegianWarrior, Zef, 8 anonymous edits Square and Compasses  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=426158699  Contributors: Blueboar, Commissarusa, Cybercobra, Damian Yerrick, Iordanis 777, JASpencer, Jack1956, Jokerst44, JordanITP, Lexicon, MSJapan, Michael Hardy, Nabokov, RedCoat10, SarekOfVulcan, Stemonitis, Stijn Calle, TaintedMustard, WegianWarrior, Werideatdusk33, Zef, 22 anonymous edits Research Lodge  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=420812972  Contributors: Brenont, Ergo-Nord, Everwyck, Jack1956, MSJapan, Narra Mine, Oakalley1, Sensei-CRS, Willking1979, 18 anonymous edits Freemasonry and women  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=417705459  Contributors: 149AFK, Ahuvahb, Alison, Bdevoe, Blueboar, Bolognaking, Chtirrell, Daywalker2009, Ergo-Nord, Euchiasmus, Fred.e, Giraffedata, Goustien, Headbomb, Jack1956, Kytok, Leutha, Mike Rosoft, Neddyseagoon, ONUnicorn, Robofish, SarekOfVulcan, Stijn Calle, Storm3373, Toussaint, WegianWarrior, Zef, 33 anonymous edits Elizabeth Aldworth  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=415445874  Contributors: Aciram, Adam sk, AnonMoos, Baal-Hiram, Bdevoe, Blueboar, Coolavokig, Deb, Luckyz, Nuttyskin, Prescott, ShadowRAM, Ultimatewisdom, Y0u, Youngamerican, Zef, 12 anonymous edits Co-Freemasonry  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=414081118  Contributors: ALR, Alexmb, Angusmclellan, Ardenn, Augusta2, Blazingstar2, Blue Square, Blueboar, Comason, Fred.e, Fuzzypeg, GTBacchus, Gemischte, Grye, Headbomb, JASpencer, Jmdavid, Kjkolb, La goutte de pluie, Leutha, Liberal Freemason, MSJapan, Madsalty, Mion, Mweller18, Pearle, Pvosta, Quillshadow, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Think2wice, Toussaint, Tresoreion, Vidkun, WegianWarrior, Wjhonson, Zef, 56 anonymous edits Masonic bodies  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=419842944  Contributors: ALR, Action Army, Altenmann, Areopagiticus, Avador, Blueboar, Bolognaking, Boooooom, Bowness, CALR, Ceyockey, ChrisCork, Christophe Dioux, Cpl Syx, Eshafoshaf, Esrever, Fellowinsurer, Frumious Bander, Generic Character, GraceCourt, Grye, Hackloon, Haunti, Heirx, Irishmason, J S Ayer, J8tennant, Jezzabr, JohnI, Jossi, Lexicon, Loremaster, MSJapan, Mcomrie, Md84419, Mirage5000, Mycroft, NovaSTL, Onceonthisisland, Orthorhombic, PGNormand, PeRshGo, Reddan, Rjwilmsi, Sander123, Sebras, Serpent's Choice, Setanta747 (locked), Stormbay, Str1977, Surazeus, Timothy Titus, Toussaint, Vidkun, Warshy, Webbbbbbber, WegianWarrior, West.andrew.g, Wfgh66, Zef, 89 anonymous edits Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=405282618  Contributors: 129.128.164.xxx, 2fort5r, Aaorn, ActivExpression, Adam Carr, Adamm1983, Ahoerstemeier, Akkhima, Alex Kennedy, Alex756, Amherst5282, Andy Marchbanks, Anthony Appleyard, Anti-Shriner Roman Censor, Baumbach, Bkell, Blueboar, Blurble, Bobo192, Bryan Derksen, Burntsauce, CALR, Caleson, CanadianLinuxUser, CarolGray, Chowbok, Chrislk02, Chtirrell, Conversion script, Coolrascal, CryptidBoy, Csramirez, DakotaDocMartin, Dalcrow, DavidChipman, DavidWBrooks, Dawebweaver, December21st2012Freak, Deejayk, Derktar, Dioxinfreak, Djflem, DocWatson42, Documentator20, Doncram, Doom, Dushant, Eclecticology, Edge79mi, Egrivner, Elan26, ElfMage, Engineer Bob, Esrever, Fastifex, Faustus37, Finngall, Flex, Fplay, Frog47, Fshfsh, Fumitol, Fvasconcellos, GTBacchus, Gababond55, GalimatiasGesture, Gerhard51, Ghakko, Ghosts&empties, Graham87, GrahamHardy, Greg Carter, Grye, Gurch, Haladir, Haunti, Honbicot, Icelandic Hurricane, Illyad, J8tennant, Jagged 85, Jamidwyer, Jamie1957, Jarhed, JesseW, Jiang, JohnBlackburne, Joydawg, Kakofonous, Kaszeta, Kate, Kbdank71, Ken Gallager, Krazytea, Kvn8907, KyleGarvey, Lenin1991, Lexicon, Liberal Freemason, Lincolnite, Lotje, MSJapan, Marc Kupper, Martarius, Mego'brien, Michael Daly, Montrealais, Mutiny, Nertzy, Neutrality, Nicke Lilltroll, Njlincolnlion, Ntsimp, Nyttend, Ortolan88, Otweihmayr, OverlordQ, PGNormand, Pahan, Pauli133, PaulinSaudi, Pchurch, Philip Trueman, R. fiend, Rcsheets, Rdikeman, Revdubya, RevelationDirect, Reywas92, Rich Farmbrough, Rillian, Rintrah, Rjwilmsi, Rklawton, Roma lane, SE7, SarekOfVulcan, Scriberius, Selket, Squilax, Stephen Gilbert, Stijn Calle, Str1977, Superm401, Tamariki, Temujinski, The Letter J, Thepreacher, Tiddly Tom, Tide rolls, TigerShark, Tillman, Timothy Drake, Tom Lougheed, Toussaint, UtahSurf, Verdatum, Victoriaedwards, Wereon, Wesley, Wgfinley, WhisperToMe, WideArc, Willking1979, Wolf grey, Yonkeltron, Zanimum, Zef, 194 anonymous edits

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York Rite  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=427996853  Contributors: ALR, Adam Bishop, Alai, Altenmann, Blueboar, Bolognaking, Boooooom, Bryan Derksen, Burnettrae, Chiramabi, CommonsDelinker, DakotaDocMartin, EEMIV, Editor2020, Elonka, Escaper7, Faustus37, Fwaldron, Gaius Cornelius, Generic Character, Grye, Heirx, Hephaestos, Hugo Zorilla, Iordanis 777, J S Ayer, JDoorjam, Jack1956, JeLuF, Jokerst44, Kbdank71, Lawrence King, Lottamiata, MSJapan, Marasmusine, Maximus Rex, Millennium Sentinel, Mrwjh71, Mwalbert, NotJackhorkheimer, Nuttyskin, PGNormand, PeRshGo, Peter Gower, Prewitt81, Pwohlrabe, Reddan, Rich Farmbrough, Rsmelt, Sambridger, SeraphimXI, Shyam, Skull 'n' Femurs, Snozzer, Stepnwolf, Stijn Calle, Synergy, TJSwoboda, Thingg, Timothy Titus, Toussaint, Vidkun, Wandering Writer, Wgfinley, Zef, Zeuspitar, 45 anonymous edits Royal Arch Masonry  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=425924021  Contributors: Blueboar, Bowness, Hugo999, Kosmicwizard, MSJapan, PeRshGo, SarekOfVulcan, SoWhy, Timothy Titus, 5 anonymous edits Cryptic Masonry  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=419842374  Contributors: CommonsDelinker, PeRshGo, 1 anonymous edits Knights Templar  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=427789968  Contributors: 2D, Aaron816, Anger22, Av99, BlueTemplar13, Blueboar, Boooooom, Croquen, Darkwind, Drudgeon, EJSawyer, Eeekster, Elonka, Faustus37, Gilliam, GreenReaper, Grye, Heirx, Hmains, Icairns, Jezzabr, John of Reading, JohnSawyer, Kerrykaye, Lmateo002, Loremaster, MSJapan, Maestro79, Marasmusine, Micahtheangel, MikeJ9919, Montagu 1234, Mpk138, Myland, Neilbeach, Nerodog, PGNormand, PeRshGo, Peter Gower, Pragmaticstatistic, RFM57, RSStockdale, Rjwilmsi, Robofish, SGT141, Snozzer, Soltaran, StarlitGlitter, Stbalbach, Sukiari, The Letter J, The wub, Timothy Titus, Tom Lougheed, Tomdo08, TwinsMetsFan, Vaastuvit, Vidkun, Waggers, Wiki alf, Yamamoto Ichiro, Zef, 85 anonymous edits Scottish Rite  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=426945562  Contributors: 198.144.199.xxx, 213.112.165.xxx, ALR, Aaron lightbody, Aaron816, AceTracer, Aknxy, Alex Kennedy, Alex S, Alexf, Aliceharvey, Aliciaferguson, Angela, Artdehoyos, AusTerrapin, Avalon, Bedford, Blueboar, Brian Crawford, CHodapp, Cgmusselman, Charles Matthews, Charvex, Chiramabi, Chrislk02, Chtirrell, CliffC, Cmdrcody, Coffee, CommonsDelinker, Conversion script, Da Stressor, DakotaDocMartin, Dawkeye, DocWatson42, Doncram, DreamBoy, DreamGuy, Dudesleeper, EEMIV, Editor2020, Ergo-Nord, Escaper7, Esrever, Faustus37, FeanorStar7, FearAndLoathing08, Finlay McWalter, Fuzzypeg, Graham87, Grye, HalloweenHJB, Hmains, Huphelmeyer, Iordanis 777, Ironweed, J S Ayer, JASpencer, Jack1956, Jamespeterka, Jengod, Jerzy, Jezzabr, Jokerst44, Kasaalan, Kastagire, Kate, Kbdank71, Kcordina, Lambdoid, Laurinavicius, Lcawte, Lexicon, Lightbringer (usurped - blocked), Lottamiata, MSJapan, Mahan, Mais oui!, Markles, Mddake, Mlparnell, Nickptar, Norm mit, Oknazevad, Opera hat, Optim, PGNormand, PamD, Paul Markel, PeRshGo, Pessina, PoliSciMaster, RG, RadicalBender, Rarelibra, Rboatright, Rich Farmbrough, RideABicycle, Rjwilmsi, Sandstein, SarekOfVulcan, Sensei-CRS, Shenachy, SimonArlott, Skorpion87, Sonjay11, Spacini, Stepnwolf, Stijn Calle, Str1977, Svick, Synergy, Tekhunah, Telekomer, Thingg, Tobin Richard, Tom Lougheed, Toussaint, Vidkun, Vitruvius, Wandering Writer, Wgfinley, Willermoz, Willking1979, Winchelsea, Wlodzimierz, Xandi, Yonderboy, Zef, Zfr, Žiedas, 143 anonymous edits Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=394460727  Contributors: A2Kafir, ALR, Blueboar, Bobblewik, Clarknova, Editor2020, GlaucoBR, Grye, JASpencer, Jenblower, Jjmiller768, JohN, John Carter, Lexicon, MSJapan, Motlpots, Narra Mine, Nygdan, PGNormand, Ptdecker, SarekOfVulcan, Stijn Calle, Svanslyck, Tekhunah, Tuckerresearch, Vidkun, WegianWarrior, Winchelsea, Zef, 17 anonymous edits Order of Mark Master Masons  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=426625519  Contributors: ALR, Appropriate Username, Aquizard, Blueboar, Canton Viaduct, Docboat, Durova, Generic Character, Iridescent, Jezzabr, Loremaster, MSJapan, Ninly, PGNormand, PeRshGo, PhishRCool, Pvosta, Reddan, Rosso2005, Stijn Calle, Toussaint, WegianWarrior, Wmahan, Zef, 7 anonymous edits Holy Royal Arch  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=416085870  Contributors: Blueboar, Boooooom, Bowness, Daemonic Kangaroo, Gjauger, Hmains, Jack1956, Jezzabr, KConWiki, Light Warrior, MSJapan, Md84419, Pax681, PeRshGo, Stijn Calle, Timothy Titus, Vidkun, 11 anonymous edits Order of the Eastern Star  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=427665112  Contributors: 041744, Aesha, AgnosticPreachersKid, Alexaspirit, Argentino, Athena2k1, Autopilot, Avador, Bedford, Beginning, Bellemare, Billy Hathorn, Blueboar, Brian Crawford, Bsktcase, Capricorn42, CarolGray, Cdc, Cholmes75, Christophe Dioux, Conversion script, Dcoetzee, Deconstructhis, Discospinster, Dreadstar, ElfMage, Elpe, Emersoni, Eshalis, Esrever, Gaius Cornelius, Gary D, Gary King, Gfoley4, GoodDamon, Greenshed, Grye, HalfShadow, Insanity Incarnate, J S Ayer, JDoorjam, Jclemens, JinnyannD, Jlittlet, Just Another Dan, Kbdank71, Kshira, Lquilter, MBisanz, Magog the Ogre, Mianagrits, Mimi93, Miquonranger03, Mrbill, NeonMerlin, Nhl4hamilton, NuclearWarfare, OES-CW, PEAR, Pm356, Richard Arthur Norton (1958- ), River6969us, RucasHost, Sam Francis, SarekOfVulcan, Schmiteye, StAnselm, Stevegiacomelli, TamYum, TheDoober, Toussaint, Wgfinley, Windharp, Wolfpeaceful, WriterHound, Yankeeroo, Zaf, Zef, 126 anonymous edits Order of the Amaranth  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=421089065  Contributors: Bedford, Esrever, Ian Pitchford, J S Ayer, JimVC3, JinnyannD, Kbdank71, Lexicon, Macellarius, Nhl4hamilton, Proofreader77, SDPiner, SarekOfVulcan, Seamus56, Skysmith, Thatgirl08, TheEditrix2, Toussaint, Zef, 8 anonymous edits DeMolay International  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=427686581  Contributors: A.Gatica, ATravelingMan, Adam Rock, AdjustShift, Alex756, Amitst, Ardenn, Arjayay, Arthurhenrique, Astronautics, Avador, BaZ, Binary TSO, Bob diablo, Bobo192, Bosox3, Bovineboy2008, Brian Crawford, Brianczako, Bsadowski1, Bullzeye, CRKingston, Calvin 1998, CanadianCaesar, Cfamnunez, Ctjf83, Cuprum17, D climacus, DMacks, Dark T Zeratul, Darwin16, Daveshira, DeMolayKid, Demolay mexico, Demolayhater, Discospinster, Donnie cordero, Dpv, Dungodung, Edison, ElfMage, Elonka, Emstidor, Enviroboy, F15 sanitizing eagle, FHSerkland, FRATBOYD, Fabrictramp, Faustus37, FreplySpang, Geneb1955, Gilliam, Giraffedata, Glennwells, GracianoFord, Grye, HWAshton, Hebrides, Ianblair23, Impasse, Iridescent, J M Rice, J S Ayer, James ONeal, Jbush4, Jean22paul, Jeff G., Jlhelm, JoaoRicardo, Jowaldsucks, Justin Stiegar, Jychao, Kat2tew, Ken Gallager, Khasogi08, Khatru2, Kibiusa, Kingpin13, Klaw, Krudey, Kuba2610, Leofreitas, Lirick, Loren.wilton, MSJapan, Maengpong, Manishearth, Marek69, Martarius, Mattanator925, Mattbr, McSly, Mds6901, Meegs, Molochs, Morton devonshire, My76Strat, N1111z, Neald001, NeilHynes, NellieBly, NickBurns, Nigelfarro, Nirdla2707, Omicronpersei8, Onlyclave, Pbrusoe, PeRshGo, Philgang, Prlambert76, Prokopenya Viktor, Promethean, Raptors2, Ray rasta619, Romansareawsomelodgers69, Sam Spade, SarekOfVulcan, Scimitar, Signalhead, SilkTork, Smartestgirl01, Snigbrook, Snowman304, Spartan-James, Stijn Calle, Sulfur, Svanslyck, Sweetheartohmy, TJ Spyke, That Guy, From That Show!, Thatcrazysage, Thesloth, Tim!, Tony Sidaway, Tresiden, Ukexpat, Undertaker Jr., Unluckee, Versus22, Wally11, Wgfinley, WikiBob47, Will Beback, Willking1979, YUL89YYZ, Zef, 589 anonymous edits Job's Daughters International  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=423071284  Contributors: Aesha, Alikaalex, Aprilscastle, Ardenn, Avador, BackMaun, Badagnani, Beki346, BlueAzure, Bsktcase, Casweetangel, Chris the speller, Cytjob4215, Delirium, DougsTech, EdH, ErinOConnor, Esrever, Etakemllac, Faustus37, Friday, Geoff Plourde, Gilliam, Herkemer, Hotchikee, J S Ayer, Jmrowland, Jobie4life, Khabs, Kmwierz, Krudey, Lexicon, Logan, Loren.wilton, MER-C, MSJapan, Mailer diablo, Mariaoctaviacosta, Mcmomx4, Mercury, Montrealais, NeilN, NickBurns, Patrick McDougle, Quatloo, Ronhjones, Roxya, RucasHost, SarekOfVulcan, Slinga, Stijn Calle, Tagishsimon, The Thing That Should Not Be, Thivierr, TypoBoy, Upholder, Wally11, Wgfinley, Woohookitty, Xoxzoexoxfun, Zef, Zhou Yu, 170 anonymous edits International Order of the Rainbow for Girls  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=427664846  Contributors: 1girlrevolution, Arakunem, Blahblahblahx2, BrgdyRose, Celtic hackr, ChildofMidnight, Cmasu, Countedx58, Curtholr, DavidLevinson, DavidWBrooks, Dewelar, Flinkee, Ja 62, Justme89, Kshira, Kumioko, Lenagirl5, Lexicon, MSJapan, Marc Kupper, Mariaoctaviacosta, Masonictraveler, Mum2girls, Naniwako, PaulinSaudi, Rockinbrooklyn, SarekOfVulcan, Scimitar, Smartestgirl01, Squids and Chips, Tabletop, Takedrugs, Teukros, Thedarxide, Tierney dale, TravisAF, Wally11, Wgfinley, Ymf42c, Zef, 103 anonymous edits Prince Hall  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=422809406  Contributors: Ajarmitage, Allisoncallahans, AnakngAraw, Arniep, Besselpaulm, BlackDated, Bookgrrl, Boston, Bsktcase, CapitalR, Capricorn42, Cbustapeck, Clariosophic, CutOffTies, Da Stressor, David.cormier, Ddivirg, Delirium, Dennishidalgo, Dimadick, Dirkbb, DuncanHill, Excirial, Gleamor, Grye, Hmains, JASpencer, Jarednhidalgo, Jayink14, Jncraton, Kevin Myers, Koavf, Kroose, Loren36, M2545, MSJapan, Madsalty, Mr Tan, Mynameinc, Natalie Erin, Nellis, Omnipaedista, PeRshGo, PhilaRegion1062, Pvosta, Radgeek, Rae13love, Raeky, Rjwilmsi, Robgott, SaltyBoatr, SarekOfVulcan, Scott Mingus, Shinerunner, Solitude, Swampyank, Thingg, Tom harrison, Uhai, Wimt, Woohookitty, Yaris678, Youngamerican, Ytcracker, Zef, 104 anonymous edits Albert Pike  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=424285535  Contributors: (jarbarf), 5 albert square, 999, Ace4848, Adailton, Alastair Haines, Alpike, Arahant, Ardepark, ArielGold, Asimsky, AstroNomer, Biruitorul, Blueboar, Bouott, Brian0918, Bryan Derksen, Callmeace2001, Charley sf, Chiricua, Clarknova, Cmk956, Conversion script, D Monack, D6, DNewhall, Da Stressor, DabMachine, Daigaku2051, Danielgkelley, Dapike, Davepape, Dawn Bard, Discospinster, Dismas, DocWatson42, Docu, Eduard Gherkin, Ektar, ElmoMotterson, Embram, Essaywrite, FeanorStar7, GeneralCheese, Goldom, Good Olfactory, Grahamdubya, Grazon, Grye, Haemo, Harmil, Hephaestos, Hiram111, HistorianCP, Hlj, Hmains, ILovePlankton, ISTJester, Ihcoyc, J JMesserly, JASpencer, JDPhD, JaGa, Jdsteakley, JeffBillman, Jezzabr, JohN, John Carter, John Nevard, Jpaulm, Jusdafax, Kameyama, Karen Johnson, King Lopez, Kumioko, Kwantus, Leatherstocking, Looper5920, LowLevelMason, MCB, MER-C, MSJapan, MacCumahail, Marychelle, Mateo SA, Mazzini et Pike, Meco, Midnightdreary, Milesnfowler, Mksmith, Monegasque, Mr. Wheely Guy, Mrwojo, Nagy, Nakedtruth, Narra Mine, NekoDaemon, Nfgii, NickW557, Nikter, Niteowlneils, Nygdan, Oaklandguy, Octoberdan, Onthegogo, Pawyilee, Peruvianllama, Philip Trueman, Pietre-stones, Poppachris, Postcard Cathy, Postdlf, Q Chris, Rchamberlain, Reecej35, Ricardo Carneiro Pires, Rich Farmbrough, Richardelainechambers, Rjwilmsi, Rlcantwell, RobertLunaIII, Robfergusonjr, Ryan shell, SGBailey, SarekOfVulcan, Saudade7, Scott Mingus, Searcher 1990, Shanes, Sherurcij, Shoeofdeath, Skapur, Sophie, Tassedethe, The Mystery Man, The stuart, Theonlytiminthebook, Thingg, Thisisbossi, Thomasolson, Tommy2010, Tomseidler, TravisRivers, Trevor W. McKeown, Tuckerresearch, Umeboshi, Vikiçizer, WegianWarrior, Why did the chicken cross the road?, Will Beback, William Avery, Winchelsea, Worlock93, Yekrats, Zef, Zoicon5, ^demon, 176 anonymous edits James Anderson  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=426945738  Contributors: AllyD, Baronnet, Blueboar, Charles Matthews, Chicheley, Dr. Blofeld, Dsp13, FeanorStar7, Ida Shaw, Jack1956, Jerzy, MSJapan, PBS-AWB, Proyster, Pvosta, SDC, Salam32, Trilobitealive, 3 anonymous edits

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Albert Mackey  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=427445587  Contributors: 999, Amatulic, Arch dude, Caerwine, Chris 73, Deor, Ebyabe, Eliyak, Gaius Cornelius, GcSwRhIc, Grye, JASpencer, John Carter, Lajoe.aal, Leutha, Localzuk, LordCobalt, Neatpete86, Pegship, Rich Farmbrough, RogDel, SeanMD80, Sherool, Triquetra, Uncle G, Zef, 15 anonymous edits Robert Macoy  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=426945680  Contributors: BrownHairedGirl, Charles Matthews, Dalcrow, Dark Mage, Dravecky, Kernel Saunters, MSJapan, Orlady, RogDel, SarekOfVulcan, Tmy83, Waacstats, 3 anonymous edits Rob Morris  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=425585190  Contributors: -The Bold Guy-, Bedford, Blueboar, Elpe, Orlady, Pegship, Ravenswing, SarekOfVulcan, Svanslyck, X96lee15, 5 anonymous edits Anti-Masonry  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=418806153  Contributors: 40 Days of Lent, A Man In Black, ABrowne, ALR, Aaron Schulz, Activevision, Addihockey10, Aim Here, Anderson12, Angel ivanov angelov, Aquizard, Ardenn, Avador, Basil Rathbone, Benne, Blueboar, Byebyeviking, Call of Duty, Catfish1, Causa sui, Chairman S., Christophe Dioux, Chtirrell, Codigo38, Cratbro, Crowfeeder, DDerby, Daniel Matheson, Decembre 3, Dylan Lake, EagleFan, ElationAviation, Erianna, F1r3r41n, Famspear, Felix St. Amour, Felon-free Masonry, Fibonacci, Flenser, Fossick, Freemasonry is permanently condemned, Fuhghettaboutit, Fyodor Dos, Gaius Cornelius, Gazzster, Grazon, Grye, HHHH, Headbomb, Hipocrite, Hmains, Holyrollerjim, Honor Guard, Humanun Genus, Igiffin, Imacomp, J S Ayer, J.delanoy, JASpencer, JKWithers, Jachin, Jake the wiki, JeffT, JoanneB, JohnSawyer, JonHarder, JoshuaZ, Jossi, Kelly Martin, Keystrokes, Kit Marlowe, Kjlee, KnowledgeOfSelf, Kotra, Lcg.wda, LeContexte, Lexicon, Liberal Freemason, Licurgo112358, Lightbringer (usurped - blocked), Linament, MCTales, MS Japan, MSJapan, Mason POV bias ruining this page, Mauler90, Michigan Knight, MicroMacro, Mista-X, Murray Langton, Mysterymanofmystery, Nandesuka, Narrowminded, Neutrality, NewEnglandYankee, Nightstallion, Not a Banned Editor, Not a Mason, Novembre 19, Nsbendel, Oregano, Orville Eastland, PEAR, PaulMcCartney, Pgk, Pietre-stones, Pitchka, PittPanther42, Pjacobi, Postdlf, Psy guy, Rchamberlain, Rjensen, Rjwilmsi, Rrburke, SarekOfVulcan, Seaoneil, SeraphimXI, Shadowjams, Shamesean, Spinboy, Steve Dufour, Steven J. Anderson, Stevertigo, Stijn Calle, Susvolans, Systemworks, Sysy, Telex, The Brotherhood, The wub, Thingg, Tom harrison, Toussaint, Trevor W. McKeown, Ulsterman81, Urco, VQHernandez, Victrix, Vidkun, WegianWarrior, Welsh, William M. Connolley, XDev, YellowMonkey, Zef, Zoicon5, 156 anonymous edits Christianity and Freemasonry  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=426215908  Contributors: 40 Days of Lent, ABrowne, ADM, ALR, ARTEST4ECHO, Aaron816, Acjeebs, Anglican1, Biruitorul, Blueboar, Bobo192, Boing! said Zebedee, Bolognaking, Charles Matthews, Codigo38, Cromwellt, DE, Dawynn, Dmodlin71, Dudleycoates, Editor2020, Faustus37, Funandtrvl, GalaazV, Georgius a Valle Sancta, Gugganij, Gurch, Harry the Dirty Dog, Holyrollerjim, Ian.thomson, Igiffin, Imacomp, Invisible123, JASpencer, Jag7720, Jay-Sebastos, JeffT, Jimmy Pitt, JonHarder, Keith7832, Kithira, Knyght27, Kurtdodgen, Liberal Freemason, LilHelpa, Loremaster, LovesMacs, Luxor Egypt, MSJapan, Mamalujo, Michal Nebyla, MisfitToys, Nachtsoldat, Niedson, NoMore3579, Nonexistant User, Oliver202, Omahaprogrammer, OpenFuture, Ottava Rima, PeRshGo, Pseudomonas, Riccardo.fabris, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Robtj966, STJAMES888, SarekOfVulcan, SeraphimXI, Smitty1337, Sukiari, Sweetmoose6, Sysy, TimChandler, Tom Lougheed, Tom harrison, Topfuelabd, Toussaint, Triona, Tyewolfe, Ulsterman81, Uncle Milty, Valentinian, Venus Copernicus, Vier44, WJBscribe, WegianWarrior, WereSpielChequers, Whensalute1, Zef, 119 anonymous edits Humanum Genus  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=396813433  Contributors: Adeptus23, Ambrosius007, Art LaPella, Ataricom, Blueboar, Captain panda, Darev, DerHexer, FDR, Grye, Gugganij, Interlingua, JASpencer, JW1805, Jonathunder, Josh Parris, KrisK, LeonelMarques, Liberal Freemason, Loren.wilton, MSJapan, Mamalujo, Massimo Macconi, Mel Etitis, MisfitToys, Moly, Ms2ger, No1lakersfan, PGNormand, Paul Magnussen, Piledhigheranddeeper, Plrk, RG2, RJFJR, Rita Moritan, SarekOfVulcan, Sheridan, Skier Dude, Stijn Calle, Suicidalhamster, Uhrwerkaffefass, WegianWarrior, YellowMonkey, Zef, Zvika, 达伟, 24 anonymous edits Taxil hoax  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=416786027  Contributors: ***Ria777, 40 Days of Lent, 66.92.166.xxx, Adam1213, Alex Kennedy, Allstarecho, Atompowered, Ben Tibbetts, Blueboar, Brujo, Candymoan, Chairman S., Conversion script, Corpx, Dominic, DreamGuy, Editor2020, Elonka, Everything Inane, Gaius Cornelius, GeorgeLouis, Good Olfactory, Grye, Gzornenplatz, Hephaestos, Hugo999, Ihcoyc, Ingolfson, JASpencer, Jeremystalked, JonHarder, Jonathunder, Jvano, KillerChihuahua, Lachaume, Laurinavicius, Lexicon, Lightbringer (usurped - blocked), Loremaster, MSJapan, Magister Mathematicae, Meco, Metaphorge, Mousescribe, Mysid, Occuli, Pjacobi, Premeditated Chaos, Quuxplusone, Rich Farmbrough, SarekOfVulcan, Skysmith, Specialthings, Stijn Calle, Taivo, Trevor W. McKeown, Trombipulation!, Urco, Vidkun, WLU, Wachholder0, WegianWarrior, Wik, Zef, 37 anonymous edits William Morgan  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=423847814  Contributors: ARTEST4ECHO, Ahoerstemeier, Aliajacta, Alvenden, Antandrus, Azuredeltascribe, Bellhalla, Bn, BoNoMoJo (old), Breffni Whelan, Bremerenator, Bsktcase, COGDEN, Canton Viaduct, Cate0012, Cpastern, Cunningham, Daniel Quinlan, Danny, Deconstructhis, Depthoflocation, DerHexer, Dfsghjkgfhdg, Dimadick, DragonflySixtyseven, Elonka, Emeraldcityserendipity, Erianna, Eshalis, Fingers-of-Pyrex, GTBacchus, Gary Thomas Unfried, GeeAlice, Grye, Hipocrite, Hu12, Humblefool, Imacomp, IronDuke, JASpencer, JJay, Jefferson Anderson, Josh Cherry, Keilana, Kjlee, Kkarma, Koavf, Larry660, MSJapan, Magnus Manske, Mamalujo, MarnetteD, Mboverload, Melkart, Merodack, Mrebus, Not a Mason, Oneliner, Orangemike, Paul A, Pollinator, Ponyo, ProfessorPaul, Pubdog, Ricky81682, Rjwilmsi, Rrrrrrrobbie, SarekOfVulcan, Scott Mingus, Seaphoto, SlamDiego, Stijn Calle, Storm Rider, Superpower2, Tmangray, Urco, Vidkun, WBardwin, WegianWarrior, Wideangle, WikiLambo, 139 anonymous edits Anti-Masonic Party  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=426717411  Contributors: 64.26.98.xxx, Absolutadam802, Actricalian, Adamahill, Ahoerstemeier, Alarm, Allixpeeke, Believeitornot itsjustme, Bped1985, Bryan Derksen, Bsktcase, COGDEN, Chris-gore, Chronicler3, Conversion script, DBaba, Dahveed323, Deconstructhis, Delirium, Dimadick, Doprendek, Dspark76, Dudeman5685, Eaglizard, Ed Fitzgerald, Esrever, Evb-wiki, Firien, Formeruser-81, Fortdj33, Fürst Gorg, Gabbe, Good Olfactory, Grazon, Grenavitar, Grye, Hcheney, Herolind18, Hq3473, Hugo999, JASpencer, Jeffrey Smith, Jengod, John K, KNewman, Kaldari, Kauffner, Kithburd, LightSpectra, Lightbringer (usurped - blocked), MSJapan, Markles, Matt Yeager, Minesweeper, Mjk2357, Mugunth Kumar, Mugwumpgyzym, Myleslong, Namcurrie, NewEnglandYankee, Philip Trueman, Polotet, Prikryl, Pwqn, RPH, Rarelibra, Recognitionhas, Rich Farmbrough, Ricky81682, Rjensen, Rmhermen, Ryuhaku, SarekOfVulcan, Serpent656, Seth Ilys, Shakescene, Sidney, SignsTokensWords, Smith03, Spshu, Sunraerae, Svick, The Thing That Should Not Be, The wub, Thingg, Toussaint, Urco, Venus Copernicus, Vrenator, Woohookitty, Zef, Zginder, 100 anonymous edits Propaganda Due  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=424850639  Contributors: 172, AdultSwim, Againme, Akriasas, Attilios, Axeman89, Badanedwa, Bash, Blueboar, Bobrayner, Boing! said Zebedee, Bolivian Unicyclist, BorgQueen, Bossk-Office, Bryan Derksen, CFPeterson, CRedit 1234, Cambalachero, Checco, Ck4829, CommonsDelinker, DNewhall, DO'Neil, Dahn, Dans, Desyman44, Deus Ex, Dezidor, DocWatson42, DonCalo, Dr.K., Duncharris, Ecemaml, Ed8r, Edwin Hale, Erinaceus, Esperant, Estéban, FMAkid, Ferkelparade, FreeMorpheme, Gaius Cornelius, Gala.martin, Garrick92, Gastaman, Geezuss, Gianfranco, Ground Zero, Grye, Guanaco, Gurch, Gwern, HandsomeFella, Haymaker, Hmains, Hozro, Igodard, Intangible2.0, Itai, Ithinkhelikesit, JASpencer, Jacopo Werther, Jaraalbe, Jimwalsh01, Jnestorius, Jorbian, Jtdirl, Kaliz, Katsam, Kbdank71, Kwamikagami, Lairor, Lapsed Pacifist, Liberal Freemason, Liface, Ligulem, LilHelpa, Lincspoacher, Little guru, Loremaster, Lou Crazy, MECU, MER-C, MSJapan, Marudubshinki, Mattabat, Maurice Carbonaro, Meco, Mellery, Michael Essmeyer, Michael Hardy, Moshe Constantine Hassan Al-Silverburg, Mushroom, Nathan, Navy.enthusiast, Neddyseagoon, NekoDaemon, Nobel prize 4 peace, Nobs01, Norm mit, Olivier, Omassey, Orzetto, PGNormand, Porfyrios, Poseidon^3, QEDquid, R'n'B, Rich Farmbrough, Rock69, Rosa Lux, Ruairidhbevan, Rwauthor1, SCEhardt, Sam Spade, Santa Sangre, Scriberius, Seabhcan, Sensei-CRS, SimonP, SirEbenezer, Sjc, Sky.walker, Sole Soul, Stefanomione, Stephian, Stuart.weiner5, SummerWithMorons, Sysy, TDC, Tazmaniacs, Timothy Titus, Tizio, Transf1o, Travelbird, Vardion, Viator slovenicus, Yekrats, Yorkshirian, Zef, 134 anonymous edits

182

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183

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
Image:Square compasses.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Square_compasses.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: user:MesserWoland Image:Goose and Gridiron.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Goose_and_Gridiron.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: BLueFiSH.as, Baronnet, Christophe Dioux, Grye, Liberal Freemason, 1 anonymous edits File:Room at Masonic Hall Bury St Edmunds Suffolk England.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Room_at_Masonic_Hall_Bury_St_Edmunds_Suffolk_England.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: unknown Image:freemasons.hall.london.arp.750pix.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Freemasons.hall.london.arp.750pix.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Adrian Pingstone File:NIRMAS_plaque_Lodge_Gundagai_United_1991.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:NIRMAS_plaque_Lodge_Gundagai_United_1991.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:Peter Ellis Image:Square and compasses2.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Square_and_compasses2.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Nabokov. Original uploader was Nabokov at en.wikipedia File:Masonic Register 1876.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Masonic_Register_1876.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: W. Jones & Co., Publishers, Cincinnati, Ohio. Strobridge & Co., Lith., Cincinnati, Ohio. Image:Freimaurer Initiation.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Freimaurer_Initiation.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Liberal Freemason Image:Forgetmenotflower.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Forgetmenotflower.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was Calibas at en.wikipedia File:SoMoteItBeRegiusMS.gif  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SoMoteItBeRegiusMS.gif  License: unknown  Contributors: Svanslyck Image:Anderson'sConstitutions.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Anderson'sConstitutions.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Christophe Dioux Image:Lodge Mother Kilwinning.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Lodge_Mother_Kilwinning.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: daswede File:Flag of England.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_England.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Nickshanks Image:Freemasons.hall.london.arp.750pix.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Freemasons.hall.london.arp.750pix.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Adrian Pingstone Image:Prince Hall grave.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Prince_Hall_grave.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was Swampyank at en.wikipedia Image:MrsAldworth.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MrsAldworth.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Contemporary portrait Image:2005 FinbarreCathedral AldworthPlaque.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:2005_FinbarreCathedral_AldworthPlaque.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:ShadowRAM Image:Maria-Deraismes-freemason.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Maria-Deraismes-freemason.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was Fuzzypeg at en.wikipedia Image:Georges-Martin-freemason.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Georges-Martin-freemason.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Fuzzypeg File:Annie Besant Freemason.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Annie_Besant_Freemason.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was Fuzzypeg at en.wikipedia Image:Shriners.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Shriners.png  License: unknown  Contributors: Shriners of North America Image:Dr Walter Millard Fleming.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Dr_Walter_Millard_Fleming.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was Wolf grey at en.wikipedia Image:William J Conlin - Florence.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:William_J_Conlin_-_Florence.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was Wolf grey at en.wikipedia Image:Shrine Peace Memorial - CNE Grounds, Toronto (September 1 2005).jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Shrine_Peace_Memorial_-_CNE_Grounds,_Toronto_(September_1_2005).jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: Captmondo, Skeezix1000, Spyder Monkey, Zanimum Image:ShrinePeaceMemorial-plaque-Toronto-CNEGrounds-Sept1-05.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ShrinePeaceMemorial-plaque-Toronto-CNEGrounds-Sept1-05.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Captmondo, GeorgHH, Skeezix1000, Spyder Monkey File:Triple tau.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Triple_tau.svg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:PeRshGo File:Council_of_Royal_&_Select_Masters_Emblem.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Council_of_Royal_&_Select_Masters_Emblem.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:PeRshGo File:Knights Templar Logo (Freemasonry).gif  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Knights_Templar_Logo_(Freemasonry).gif  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Grand Encampment, Knights Templar, U.S.A. File:Mark Master Keystone.gif  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mark_Master_Keystone.gif  License: Public Domain  Contributors: General Grand Chapter, Royal Arch Masons International Image:royalarch1.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Royalarch1.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Jack1956 File:Cross-Pattee-alternate_red.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cross-Pattee-alternate_red.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Amit6, AnonMoos, Bilou, DenghiùComm, Lokal Profil, Nagy, Wst, 2 anonymous edits File:KT-cross-UK.gif  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:KT-cross-UK.gif  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:Timothy Titus File:Crosscrown.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Crosscrown.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Frater5 File:Cross of the Knights Hospitaller.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cross_of_the_Knights_Hospitaller.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Own work Image:Knight-Saint-Paul.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Knight-Saint-Paul.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:Timothy Titus File:Scottish Rite Double Headed Eagle.gif  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Scottish_Rite_Double_Headed_Eagle.gif  License: unknown  Contributors: PeRshGo Image:Bijou fm 18eme.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bijou_fm_18eme.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Christophe Dioux, Kersti Nebelsiek, Maksim, 2 anonymous edits Image:Charter of the Rite of Perfection 25º.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Charter_of_the_Rite_of_Perfection_25º.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Christophe Dioux, Ekki01, Sandivas Image:Morals and Dogma eagle.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Morals_and_Dogma_eagle.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Abu badali, Clarknova File:Scottish rite miami.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Scottish_rite_miami.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: User:Alexf File:Indianapolis Scottish Rite Cathedral.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Indianapolis_Scottish_Rite_Cathedral.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Baronnet, Christophe Dioux, Grye, Mortadelo2005, Nilfanion, Thuresson, Xnatedawgx, 1 anonymous edits Image:Oes GGC color.PNG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Oes_GGC_color.PNG  License: unknown  Contributors: Bedford, Gnome Economics, IZAK, JYolkowski, Lexicon, SarekOfVulcan, 1 anonymous edits Image:EasternStarChairs.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:EasternStarChairs.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: SarekOfVulcan Image:EasterStarLodge.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:EasterStarLodge.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Declic

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Image:Belmont Mansion (Washington, D.C.).JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Belmont_Mansion_(Washington,_D.C.).JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:AgnosticPreachersKid Image:The Little Red Schoolhouse.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:The_Little_Red_Schoolhouse.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: NatalieMaynor Image:OES Birthplace.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:OES_Birthplace.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: NatalieMaynor Image:Crown.gif  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Crown.gif  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Order of DeMolay Image:Chevalier Jewel2.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Chevalier_Jewel2.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Neald001 Image:LOH Jewel.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:LOH_Jewel.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Neald001 Image:Knighthood.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Knighthood.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Neald001 Image:Jobdaughterlogo.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Jobdaughterlogo.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Mariaonc, Nachcommonsverschieber Image:Rainbowgirlslogo.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rainbowgirlslogo.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Calmer Waters, Lexicon Image:OronoAssemblyBanner.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:OronoAssemblyBanner.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: User:SarekOfVulcan Image:Prince hall portrait.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Prince_hall_portrait.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: According to the site Grand Logde of British Culumbia and Yucon UNIQ-ref-1-bab904713ac66f28-QINU , the portrait is unattributed. UNIQ-ref-2-bab904713ac66f28-QINU Image:PrinceHallMason.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PrinceHallMason.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Harrisonlatour, Melesse, Shinerunner, Trixt File:Copp's_Hill_Burying_Ground,_Boston_-_Prince_Hall_monument.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Copp's_Hill_Burying_Ground,_Boston_-_Prince_Hall_monument.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Daderot File:Copp's_Hill_Burying_Ground,_Boston_-_Prince_Hall_tombstone.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Copp's_Hill_Burying_Ground,_Boston_-_Prince_Hall_tombstone.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Daderot File:AlbertPikeYounger.jpeg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:AlbertPikeYounger.jpeg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Midnightdreary, Stanmar File:Flag of the United States.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_United_States.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Dbenbenn, User:Indolences, User:Jacobolus, User:Technion, User:Zscout370 File:Confederate National Flag since Mar 4 1865.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Confederate_National_Flag_since_Mar_4_1865.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Fornax, Fry1989, Homo lupus, O, Pmsyyz, Vantey, 2 anonymous edits File:Albert Pike statue, Washington (558221844).jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Albert_Pike_statue,_Washington_(558221844).jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: dbking File:Albert Pike Morals and dogma.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Albert_Pike_Morals_and_dogma.jpg  License: Free Art License  Contributors: Juppi66 File:Albert Pike portrait.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Albert_Pike_portrait.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Jdsteakley File:Albert Pike - Brady-Handy.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Albert_Pike_-_Brady-Handy.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Davepape, Frank C. Müller, Geosapiens, Grye, Jdsteakley, Rmhermen, 1 anonymous edits File:Anderson'sConstitutions.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Anderson'sConstitutions.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Christophe Dioux File:Wikisource-logo.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wikisource-logo.svg  License: logo  Contributors: Nicholas Moreau Image:Red triangle.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Red_triangle.svg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Fibonacci, User:Fibonacci File:PD-icon.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PD-icon.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Duesentrieb, User:Rfl Image:Mysteres.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mysteres.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: AnonMoos, Bapho, Bohème, Christophe Dioux, Dahn, Mu File:WIlliam Morgan Pillar Apr 11.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:WIlliam_Morgan_Pillar_Apr_11.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Pubdog Image:Ricevuta di pagamento per l'iscrizione del dott. Silvio Berlusconi alla loggia massonica P2.gif  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ricevuta_di_pagamento_per_l'iscrizione_del_dott._Silvio_Berlusconi_alla_loggia_massonica_P2.gif  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Alessio from Bologna, Italia

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