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Name of the Registrant: PARTICIPANTS Registration Number: 0099USA-2452TURBO Time: 25 Minutes 1. The passage is primarily concerned with evaluating (A) the importance of Florence Nightingale’s innovations in the field of nursing (B) contrasting approaches to the writing of historical biography (C) contradictory accounts of Florence Nightingale’s historical significance (D) the quality of health care in nineteenthcentury England (E) the effect of the Crimean War on developments in the field of health care A( ) B( ) C( ) D( ) E( ) 2. According to the passage, the editors of Nightingale’s letters credit her with contributing to which of the following? (A) Improvements of the survival rate for soldiers in British Army hospitals during the Crimean War (B) The development of a nurses’ training curriculum that was far in advance of its day (C) The increase in the number of women doctors practicing in British Army hospitals (D) Establishment of the first facility for training nurses at a major British University (E) The creation of an organization for monitoring the peacetime living conditions of British soldiers. A( ) B( ) C( ) D( ) E( ) 3. The passage suggests which of the following about Nightingale’s relationship with the British public of her day? (A) She was highly respected, her projects receiving popular and governmental support. (B) She encountered resistance both from the army establishment and the general public. (C) She was supported by the working classes and opposed by the wealthier classes. (D) She was supported by the military establishment but had to fight the governmental bureaucracy. (E) After initially being received with enthusiasm, she was quickly forgotten. A( ) B( ) C( ) D( ) E( )

Two recent publications offer different assessments of the career of the famous British nurse Florence Nightingale. A book by Anne Summers seeks to debunk the idealizations and present a reality at odds with Nightingale’s heroic reputation. According to Summers, Nightingale’s importance during the Crimean Was has been exaggerated: not until near the war’s end did she become supervisor of the female nurses. Additionally, Summers writes that the contribution of the nurses to the relief of the wounded was at best marginal. The prevailing problems of military medicine were caused by army organizational practices, and the addition of a few nurses to the medical staff could be no more than a symbolic gesture. Nightingale’s place in the national pantheon, Summers asserts, is largely due to the propagandistic efforts of contemporary newspaper reporters. By Contrast, the editors of a new volume of Nightingale’s letters view Nightingale as a person who significantly influenced not only her own age but also subsequent generations. They highlight her ongoing efforts to reform sanitary conditions after the war. For example, when she learned that peacetime living conditions in British barracks were so horrible that the death rate of enlisted men far exceeded that of neighboring civilian populations, she succeeded in persuading the government to establish a Royal Commission on the Health of the Army. She used sums raised through public contributions to found a nurses’ training hospital in London. Even in administrative matters, the editors assert, her practical intelligence was formidable: as recently as 1947 the British Army’s medical services were still using the costaccounting system she had devised in the 1860’s. I believe that the evidence of her letters supports continued respect for Nightingale’s brilliance and creativity. When counseling a village schoolmaster to encourage children to use their faculties of observation, she sounds like a modern educator. Her insistence on classifying the problems of the needy in order to devise appropriate treatments is similar to the approach of modern social workers. In sum, although Nightingale may not have achieved all of her goals during the Crimean War, her breadth of vision and ability to realize ambitious projects have earned her an eminent place among the ranks of social pioneers.

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She used sums raised through public contributions to found a nurses’ training hospital in London. she sounds like a modern educator. her practical intelligence was formidable: as recently as 1947 the British Army’s medical services were still using the costaccounting system she had devised in the 1860’s. Nightingale’s importance (A) While not ideal. the editors of a new volume of Nightingale’s letters view Nightingale as a person who significantly influenced not only her own age but also subsequent generations. (C) Although Summers’ accounts of Nightingale’s role in the Crimean War may be accurate. A Division of MLI Consulting. is largely due to the propagandistic efforts of contemporary A( ) B( ) C( ) D( ) E( ) newspaper reporters. Additionally. (B) The editors of Nightingale’s letters made some valid points about her practical achievements. of the female nurses. until near the war’s end did she become supervisor (B) Compared with conditions before the war. Even in administrative matters. few nurses to the medical staff could be no more (E) They were uniformly crude and than a symbolic gesture. According to Summers. (D) The editors of Nightingale’s letters mistakenly propagated the outdated idealization of Nightingale that only impedes attempts to arrive at a balanced assessment of her true role. They highlight her ongoing efforts to reform sanitary conditions after the war. and the addition of a the neighboring civilian populations. when she learned that peacetime living conditions in British barracks were so horrible that the death rate of enlisted men far exceeded that of neighboring civilian populations. I believe that the evidence of her letters supports continued respect for Nightingale’s brilliance and creativity. In sum. national pantheon. Her insistence on classifying the problems of the needy in order to devise appropriate treatments is similar to the approach of modern social workers. she succeeded in persuading the government to establish a Royal Commission on the Health of the Army. the editors assert. Name of the Registrant: PARTICIPANTS Registration Number: 0099USA-2452TURBO Time: 25 Minutes Two recent publications offer different assessments 4. they were superior to those during the Crimean Was has been exaggerated: not in other parts of the world. When counseling a village schoolmaster to encourage children to use their faculties of observation. The prevailing in urban centers. problems of military medicine were caused by (D) They were worse in military camps than in army organizational practices. Summers writes they had deteriorated. she ignored evidence of Nightingale’s subsequent achievement that suggest that her reputation as an eminent social reformer is well deserved. For example. Inc. A book by Anne Summers seeks to about sanitary conditions in Britain after the debunk the idealizations and present a reality at Crimean War? odds with Nightingale’s heroic reputation. Nightingale’s place in the unsatisfactory throughout England. 5. (E) The evidence of Nightingale’s letters supports Summers’ conclusions both about Nightingale’s activities and about her influence. but they still exaggerated her influence on subsequent generations. A( ) B( ) C( ) D( ) E( ) Page 2 .©Educational Training Services. although Nightingale may not have achieved all of her goals during the Crimean War. that the contribution of the nurses to the relief of (C) They were more advanced in rural areas than the wounded was at best marginal. With which of the following statements regarding the differing interpretations of Nightingale’s importance would the author most likely agree? (A) Summers misunderstood both the importance of Nightingale’s achievements during the Crimean War and her subsequent influence on British Policy. By Contrast. Summers asserts. her breadth of vision and ability to realize ambitious projects have earned her an eminent place among the ranks of social pioneers. The passage suggests which of the following of the career of the famous British nurse Florence Nightingale.

Nightingale’s importance (A) Educational philosophy in Nightingale’s day during the Crimean Was has been exaggerated: not did not normally emphasize developing until near the war’s end did she become supervisor children’s ability to observe. In sum. the editors assert. Army’s medical services were still using the cost(E) correcting a factual error occurring in one of accounting system she had devised in the 1860’s. her practical intelligence (D) citing evidence to support a view of was formidable: as recently as 1947 the British Nightingale’s career. Additionally. is largely due no concept of organized help for the needy in to the propagandistic efforts of contemporary nineteenth-century Britain. her breadth of vision and ability to realize ambitious projects have earned her an eminent place among the ranks of social pioneers. Summers asserts. Her insistence on classifying the problems of the needy in order to devise appropriate treatments is similar to the approach of modern social workers. there was national pantheon. A book by Anne Summers seeks to underlying the author’s assessment of debunk the idealizations and present a reality at Nightingale’s creativity? odds with Nightingale’s heroic reputation. She used sums raised presented in the preceding paragraph through public contributions to found a nurses’ (C) analyzing the weaknesses of the evidence training hospital in London. she sounds like a modern educator. Page 3 . she succeeded in persuading the Nightingale presented in the first two paragraphs government to establish a Royal Commission on (B) refuting the view of Nightingale’s career the Health of the Army. For example. newspaper reporters. (E) The British army’s medical services had no cost-accounting system until Nightingale devised By Contrast. When counseling a village schoolmaster to encourage children to use their faculties of observation. the author is primarily peacetime living conditions in British barracks concerned with were so horrible that the death rate of enlisted men far exceeded that of neighboring civilian (A) summarizing the arguments about populations. Inc. although Nightingale may not have achieved all of her goals during the Crimean War. Name of the Registrant: PARTICIPANTS Registration Number: 0099USA-2452TURBO Time: 25 Minutes Two recent publications offer different assessments 6. and the addition of a to enlist the help of village schoolmasters in few nurses to the medical staff could be no more introducing new teaching techniques than a symbolic gesture. when she learned that 7. Nightingale’s place in the (D) Until Nightingale began her work. The prevailing peacetime problems of military medicine were caused by (C) No education before Nightingale had thought army organizational practices. Summers writes (B) Nightingale was the first to notice the poor that the contribution of the nurses to the relief of living conditions in British military barracks in the wounded was at best marginal. Which of the following is an assumption of the career of the famous British nurse Florence Nightingale. Nightingale’s letters view Nightingale as a person who significantly influenced not only her own age A( ) B( ) C( ) D( ) E( ) but also subsequent generations.©Educational Training Services. According to Summers. the editors of a new volume of one in the 1860’s. of the female nurses. They highlight her ongoing efforts to reform sanitary conditions after the war. the works under review I believe that the evidence of her letters supports A( ) B( ) C( ) D( ) E( ) continued respect for Nightingale’s brilliance and creativity. Even in administrative presented elsewhere in the passage matters. A Division of MLI Consulting. In the last paragraph.

meteor streams hasten the further disintegration of comets. Surprisingly. while meteor streams consist only of large dust particles. In the model. hollow pipe.000 miles) after the first burst. one as the Earth entered the thick-walled “pipe” and one as it exited. but only those of meteor streams are perturbed by planetary gravitation. computer-model Geminid stream if the stream were 5. Inc. a secondary burst of meteor activity being clearly visible at an average of 19 hours (1. A( ) B( ) C( ) D( ) E( ) 10. the Earth would take. so the time interval between the two bursts of activity would vary from one year to the next. that the compute-model stream broadened with time. the Geminid.000 years old. a meteor shower occurs. (E) Analyzing recent data derived from observations of an actual phenomenon and constructing a model to explain the data. on average. (C) Meteor streams are composed of dust particles derived from comets. A recent computer-modeling experiment tested this hypothesis by tracking the influence of planetary gravitation over a projected 5. which of the following is an accurate statement concerning meteor streams? (A) Meteor streams and comets start out with similar orbits. however. The author states that the research described in the first paragraph was undertaken in order to (A) determine the age of an actual meteor stream (B) identify the various structural features of meteor streams (C) explore the nature of a particularly interesting meteor stream (D) test the hypothesis that meteor streams become broader as they age (E) show that a computer model could help in explaining actual astronomical data A( ) B( ) C( ) D( ) E( ) Page 4 . the computer-model meteor stream gradually came to resemble a thick-walled. Has the predicted twin-peaked activity been observed for the actual yearly Geminid meteor shower? The Geminid data between 1970 and 1979 shows just such a bifurcation.000 years old.000 year period on the position of a group of hypothetical dust particles. (B) Describing a new theoretical model and noting that it explains the nature of observations made of a particular natural phenomenon. Two brief periods of peak meteor activity during the shower would be observed. The researcher found.200. (D) Comets may be composed of several kinds of materials.©Educational Training Services. as expected. There is no reason why the Earth should always pass through the stream’s exact center. (B) Meteor streams grow as dust particles are attracted by the gravitational fields of comets. Astronomers have hypothesized that a meteor stream should broaden with time as the dust particles’ individual orbits are perturbed by planetary gravitational fields. predicted that the distribution of particles would be increasingly dense toward the center of a meteor stream. Moving at a little over 1. The primary focus of the passage is on which of the following? (A) Comparing two scientific theories and contrasting the predictions that each would make concerning a natural phenomenon. 8. (D) Explaining how two different natural phenomena are related and demonstrating a way to measure them. the particles were randomly distributed throughout a computer simulation of the orbit of an actual meteor stream. (C) Evaluating the results of a particular scientific experiment and suggesting further areas for research. A( ) B( ) C( ) D( ) E( ) 9. Name of the Registrant: PARTICIPANTS Registration Number: 0099USA-2452TURBO Time: 25 Minutes PASSAGE 2 A Meteor stream is composed of dust particles that have been ejected from a parent comet at a variety of velocities. just over a day to cross the hollow. Conventional theories.500. Whenever the Earth passes through a meteor stream. The time intervals between the bursts suggest the actual Geminid stream is about 3. (E) Once formed.000 miles per day around its orbit. A Division of MLI Consulting. These particles follow the same orbit as the parent comet. but due to their differing velocities they slowly gain on or fall behind the disintegrating comet until a shroud of dust surrounds the entire cometary orbit. According to the passage.

There is no reason why the Earth should always pass through the stream’s exact center. (E) their ejection velocity is slower than that of the comet A( ) B( ) C( ) D( ) E( ) Page 5 . so the time interval between the two bursts of activity would vary from one year to the next. why do the dust particles in a meteor stream eventually surround a comet’s original orbit? (A) They are ejected by the comet at differing velocities. just over a day to cross the hollow. one as the Earth entered the thick-walled “pipe” and one as it exited. but due to their differing velocities they slowly gain on or fall behind the disintegrating comet until a shroud of dust surrounds the entire cometary orbit. (B) Their orbits are uncontrolled by planetary gravitational fields. a meteor shower occurs. In the model. Astronomers have hypothesized that a meteor stream should broaden with time as the dust particles’ individual orbits are perturbed by planetary gravitational fields.200. Has the predicted twin-peaked activity been observed for the actual yearly Geminid meteor shower? The Geminid data between 1970 and 1979 shows just such a bifurcation. hollow pipe. Moving at a little over 1. (D) Their velocity slows over time. (C) They become part of the meteor stream at different times. These particles follow the same orbit as the parent comet.500. (D) Random bursts of very high meteor activity would be interspersed with periods of very little activity (E) In years in which the Earth passed through only the outer areas of a meteor stream. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following could most probably be observed during the Earth’s passage through a meteor stream if the conventional theories mentioned in the first paragraph were correct? (A) Meteor activity would gradually increase to a single. Inc. the particles were randomly distributed throughout a computer simulation of the orbit of an actual meteor stream. the computer-model meteor stream gradually came to resemble a thick-walled. Two brief periods of peak meteor activity during the shower would be observed. Surprisingly. Conventional theories. the Earth would take. however. Name of the Registrant: PARTICIPANTS Registration Number: 0099USA-2452TURBO Time: 25 Minutes A Meteor stream is composed of dust particles that have been ejected from a parent comet at a variety of velocities. A Division of MLI Consulting. The researcher found. Whenever the Earth passes through a meteor stream. meteor activity would be absent. The time intervals between the bursts suggest the actual Geminid stream is about 3.000 miles) after the first burst.©Educational Training Services. and then gradually decline.000 years old. on average. the Geminid. 11. A recent computer-modeling experiment tested this hypothesis by tracking the influence of planetary gravitation over a projected 5. computer-model Geminid stream if the stream were 5.000 miles per day around its orbit. According to the passage. a secondary burst of meteor activity being clearly visible at an average of 19 hours (1.000 years old. predicted that the distribution of particles would be increasingly dense toward the center of a meteor stream. intense peak.000 year period on the position of a group of hypothetical dust particles. (C) Meteor activity would rise to a peak at the beginning and at the end of the meteor shower. that the compute-model stream broadened with time. as expected. (B) Meteor activity would be steady throughout the period of the meteor shower. A( ) B( ) C( ) D( ) E( ) 12.

as expected. The researcher found. 14. It can be inferred from the last paragraph of the passage that which of the following must be true of the Earth as it orbits the Sun? (A) Most meteor streams it encounters are more than 2. simulation of the orbit of an actual meteor stream. longer in duration that the compute-model stream broadened with than those caused by very young meteor streams. (E) It accounts for most of the gravitational perturbation affecting the Geminid meteor stream. however. Has the predicted twin-peaked activity been observed for the actual yearly Geminid meteor shower? The Geminid data between 1970 and 1979 shows just such a bifurcation. Moving at a little over 1. There is no reason why the Earth should always pass through the stream’s exact center.000 years old. Inc. A( ) B( ) C( ) D( ) E( ) Whenever the Earth passes through a meteor stream. the Earth would take. A Division of MLI Consulting. Two brief periods of peak meteor activity during the shower would be observed. In the model. Surprisingly. one as the Earth entered the thick-walled “pipe” and one as it exited.000 years old. time.000 year give rise to a meteor shower. smaller than those increasingly dense toward the center of a meteor stream. period on the position of a group of hypothetical (C) Over time. (D) It usually takes over a day to cross the actual Geminid meteor stream. Name of the Registrant: PARTICIPANTS Registration Number: 0099USA-2452TURBO Time: 25 Minutes A Meteor stream is composed of dust particles that 13. it usually passes near to the stream’s center. computer-model Geminid stream if the stream were 5. predicted (E) The individual dust particles in older meteor that the distribution of particles would be streams should be.200.000 years old. on average. streams should be. the particles were meteor stream will usually become denser at the randomly distributed throughout a computer outside edges of the stream than at the center. the distribution of dust in a dust particles. The time intervals between the bursts suggest the actual Geminid stream is about 3. a secondary burst of meteor activity being clearly visible at an average of 19 hours (1. the computer-model meteor that compose younger meteor streams. stream gradually came to resemble a thick-walled. Conventional theories.000 miles per day around its orbit. fields. Astronomers have hypothesized that a meteor stream should (A) Dust particles in a meteor stream will broaden with time as the dust particles’ individual usually be distributed evenly throughout any orbits are perturbed by planetary gravitational cross section of the stream. (D) Meteor showers caused by older meteor the Geminid. (B) When passing through a meteor stream. The passage suggests that which of the have been ejected from a parent comet at a variety of velocities. (C) It crosses the Geminid meteor stream once every year. These particles follow the same orbit following is a prediction concerning meteor as the parent comet.©Educational Training Services. hollow pipe. so the time interval between the two bursts of activity would vary from one year to the next.000 miles) after the first burst. A recent computer-modeling experiment (B) The orbits of most meteor streams should tested this hypothesis by tracking the influence of cross the orbit of the Earth at some point and planetary gravitation over a projected 5.500. on average. A( ) B( ) C( ) D( ) E( ) Page 6 . on average. a meteor shower occurs. just over a day to cross the hollow. but due to their differing streams that can be derived from both the velocities they slowly gain on or fall behind the conventional theories mentioned in the first disintegrating comet until a shroud of dust paragraph and the new computer-derived theory? surrounds the entire cometary orbit.

the (C) A solid pipe with uniform density Earth would take. on average. over 1. one as the Earth entered the density toward the center. cross the hollow.000 miles per day around its orbit. so the time interval between the two bursts of activity would vary from one year to the next. It can be inferred from the passage that if the Earth were moving at 750. Which of the following is an assumption A Meteor stream is composed of dust particles that underlying the last sentence of the passage? have been ejected from a parent comet at a variety of velocities. Moving at a little (B) A thick-walled pipe with a hollow center. The researcher found. velocities they slowly gain on or fall behind the the Earth took exactly 19 hours to cross the disintegrating comet until a shroud of dust Geminid meteor stream. thick-walled “pipe” and one as it exited. the Geminid. A( ) B( ) C( ) D( ) E( ) that the compute-model stream broadened with time. Two brief that there is space between any two pipes. period on the position of a group of hypothetical (E) The computer-model Geminid meteor stream dust particles. It can be inferred from the passage that that the distribution of particles would be which of the following would resemble a meteor increasingly dense toward the center of a meteor stream.000 miles) after the first burst. Inc. a meteor shower occurs. A Division of MLI Consulting. simulation of the orbit of an actual meteor stream. predicted 16.000 year old Computermodel Geminid stream? (A) 24 hours (B) 36 hours (C) 48 hours (D) 60 hours (E) 72 hours A( ) B( ) C( ) D( ) E( ) END OF SECTION How long did you take to complete this section? Minutes. the computer-model meteor stream if the conventional theory as discussed in stream gradually came to resemble a thick-walled.000 year would have predicted. the first paragraph were true? hollow pipe. Has the predicted twin-peaked activity been observed for the actual yearly Geminid meteor shower? The Geminid data between 1970 and 1979 shows just such a bifurcation. In the model. stream. computer-model Geminid stream (D) A set of concentric hollow pipes placed such if the stream were 5. a secondary burst of meteor activity being clearly visible at an average of 19 hours (1. however. as expected. just over a day to throughout. Conventional theories. Name of the Registrant: PARTICIPANTS Registration Number: 0099USA-2452TURBO Time: 25 Minutes 15. A recent computer-modeling experiment (D) The Geminid meteor stream has not tested this hypothesis by tracking the influence of broadened as rapidly as the conventional theories planetary gravitation over a projected 5.500.©Educational Training Services.200. fields. Astronomers (B) The comet associated with the Geminid have hypothesized that a meteor stream should meteor stream has totally disintegrated. A( ) B( ) C( ) D( ) E( ) 17. (A) A solid pipe with gradually disappearing Whenever the Earth passes through a meteor halo around it. the particles were provides an accurate representation of the randomly distributed throughout a computer development of the actual Geminid stream. The time intervals between the bursts suggest the actual Geminid stream is about 3. surrounds the entire cometary orbit.000 miles per day around its orbit. These particles follow the same orbit as the parent comet. it would take approximately how long to cross the 5. periods of peak meteor activity during the shower (E) A solid pipe with gradually decreasing would be observed. broaden with time as the dust particles’ individual (C) The Geminid meteor stream should continue orbits are perturbed by planetary gravitational to exist for at least 5.000 years old. Page 7 .000 years.000 years old. There is no reason why the Earth should always pass through the stream’s exact center. but due to their differing (A) In each of the years between 1970 and 1979. Surprisingly.

Symbiotic cells of algae known as zooxanthellae carry out photosynthesis using the metabolic wastes of corals.©Educational Training Services. (E) Coral reef communities are more complex and diverse than most ecosystems located on dry land. After reading a passage choose the best answer to each question and fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet. (D) indicate a cause of decreasing nutrient input in waters that reefs inhabit. a variety of human activities are causing worldwide degradation of shallow marine habitats by adding nutrients to the water. Inc. Typical symptoms of reef decline are destabilized herbivore populations and an increasing abundance of algae and filter-feeding animals. slashand-burn land cleaning. This symbiotic process allows organisms in the reef community to use sparse nutrient resources efficiently. A Division of MLI Consulting. and thus nutrient-poor. and diverse marine ecosystems on earth. (D) explaining how coral reefs produce food for themselves. thereby producing food for themselves. Answer all questions following a passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in that passage. biologically complex. (A) describing the effects of human activities on algae in coral reefs. and manufacturing that creates waste by-products all increase nutrient loads in these waters. (B) explaining how human activities are posing a threat to coral reef communities. (E) describing the abundance of algae and filterfeeding animals in coral reef areas. and even for other members of the reef community. The passage is primarily concerned with Time : 25 Minutes 18 Questions Directions: Each passage in this group is followed by questions based on its content. Page 8 . The passage suggests which of the following about coral reef communities? (A) Coral reef communities may actually be more likely to thrive in waters that are relatively low in nutrients. for their coral hosts. sewage disposal. however. Declines in reef communities are consistent with observations that nutrient input is increasing in direct proportion to growing human populations. Name of the Registrant: PARTICIPANTS Registration Number: 0099USA-2452TURBO Time: 25 Minutes 1. thereby threatening reef communities sensitive to subtle changes in nutrient input to their waters. Unfortunately for coral reefs. (C) discussing the process by which coral reefs deteriorate in nutrient poor waters. A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) Coral reefs are one of the most fragile. which threatens coral reef communities. (C) identify a factor that helps herbivore populations thrive. Agriculture. A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) 2. The author refers to “filter-feeding-animals” in paragraph 2 in order to (A) provide an example of a characteristic sign of reef deterioration. A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) 3. (C) Human population growth has led to changing ocean temperatures. (D) The growth of coral reef communities tends to destabilize underwater herbivore populations. (E) identify members of coral reef communities that rely on coral reefs for nutrients. This ecosystem is one of the fascinating paradoxes of the biosphere: how do clear. (B) The nutrients on which coral reef communities thrive are only found in shallow waters. (B) explain how reef communities acquire sustenance for survival. waters support such prolific and productive communities? Part of the answer lies within the tissues of the corals themselves.

thereby producing (C) The degraded waters of their marine habitat food for themselves. slashand-burn land cleaning. A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) Page 9 . and 5. A Division of MLI Consulting.©Educational Training Services. Inc. photosynthesis. efficiently. This ecosystem is one of following is a factor that is threatening the the fascinating paradoxes of the biosphere: how survival of coral reef communities? do clear. a variety of human activities are causing worldA ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) wide degradation of shallow marine habitats by adding nutrients to the water. and have reduced their ability to carry out even for other members of the reef community. (E) They are declining even when the water surrounding them remains clear. Symbiotic cells of algae known as (B) A decline in nutrient input is disrupting their zooxanthellae carry out photosynthesis using the symbiotic relationship with zooxanthellae. (A) They are thriving even though human Declines in reef communities are consistent with activities have depleted the nutrients in their observations that nutrient input is increasing in environment. Agriculture. subtle changes in nutrient input to their waters. for their coral hosts. and diverse marine 4. (C) They are able to survive in an environment with limited food resources. themselves. biologically complex. Name of the Registrant: PARTICIPANTS Registration Number: 0099USA-2452TURBO Time: 25 Minutes Coral reefs are one of the most fragile. metabolic wastes of corals. (D) Their metabolic wastes contribute to the degradation of the waters they inhabit. sewage disposal. This symbiotic process allows organisms in the (D) They are too biologically complex to survive reef community to use sparse nutrient resources in habitats with minimal nutrient input. Unfortunately for coral reefs. According to the passage. It can be inferred from the passage that the manufacturing that creates waste by-products all author describes coral reef communities as increase nutrient loads in these waters. (E) Waste by-products result in an increase in nutrient input to reef communities. (B) They are able to survive in spite of an over thereby threatening reef communities sensitive to abundance of algae inhabiting their waters. and thus nutrient-poor. which of the ecosystems on earth. direct proportion to growing human populations. waters support such prolific and productive communities? Part (A) The waters they inhabit contain few nutrient of the answer lies within the tissues of the corals resources. however. Typical paradoxical most likely for which of the symptoms of reef decline are destabilized following reasons? herbivore populations and an increasing abundance of algae and filter-feeding animals.

A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) Page 10 . ethnicity serves as a way of mobilizing a certain population behind issues relating to its economic position. Inc. A different conception of ethnicity deemphasizes the cultural component and defines ethnic groups as interest groups. ethnicity is more satisfactorily conceived of as a process in which preexisting communal bonds and common cultural attributes are adapted for instrumental purposes according to changing real life situations. (B) One emphasizes the political aspects of ethnicity and the other focuses on the economic aspects. (E) The two definitions of ethnicity that have dominated sociologists’ discussions are incomparable and should be replaced by an entirely new approach. Rather. One example of the process is the rise of participation by Native American people in the broader United States political system since the Civil Rights movement of the 1960’s. Patrick’s Day (both are major holidays in the countries of origin). Mexican Americans formed community-based political groups that emphasized ancestral heritage as a way of mobilizing constituents. (D) One focuses more on the ancestral components of ethnicity than does the other. The first emphasizes the primordial and unchanging character of ethnicity. late twentieth-century Mexican American leaders combined ethnic with contemporary civic symbols. The Civil Rights movement also brought changes in the uses to which ethnicity was put by Mexican American people. with both holidays having been reinvented in the context of the United States and linked to ideals. (B) Ethnicity is best defined as a dynamic process that combines cultural components with shared political and economic interests.©Educational Training Services. and the other is favored by members of ethnic groups. A Division of MLI Consulting. Such emerging issues as immigration and voting rights gave Mexican American advocacy groups the means by which to promote ethnic solidarity. Besides leading Native Americans to participate more actively in politics (the number of Native American legislative officeholders more than doubled). Texas. Name of the Registrant: PARTICIPANTS Registration Number: 0099USA-2452TURBO Time: 25 Minutes 6. Mexican Americans celebrate Cinco de Mayo as fervently as many Irish American people embrace St. neither fully captures the dynamic and changing aspects of ethnicity in the United States. Which of the following best states the main idea of the passage? Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists’ discussions of the nature of ethnicity. then Mayor of San Antonio. and the other is the result of analysis of European populations. sociologists have underestimated the power of the primordial human need to belong. Like European ethnic groups in the nineteenth-century United States. this movement also evoked increased interest in tribal history and traditional culture. In this view. In 1968 Henry Cisneros. (E) One focuses more on immigrant groups than does the other. cited Mexican leader Benito Juarez as a model for Mexican Americans in their fight for contemporary civil rights. and heroes of the United States. ethnic groups have begun to organize in order to further their political and economic interests. Cultural and instrumental components of ethnicity are not mutually exclusive. A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) 7. (A) In their definitions of the nature of ethnicity. symbols. (C) In the United States in the twentieth century. In the 1960’s. (C) One is the result of analysis of United States populations. In this view. While both of these definitions are useful. And every year. Which of the following statements about the first two definitions of ethnicity discussed in the first paragraph is supported by the passage? (A) One is supported primarily by sociologists. but rather reinforce one another. (D) Ethnicity in the United States has been significantly changed by the Civil Rights movement. people have an essential need for belonging that is satisfied by membership in groups based on shared ancestry and culture.

In 1968 Henry Cisneros. A different conception of ethnicity deemphasizes the cultural component and defines ethnic groups as interest groups. Texas. cited Mexican leader Benito Juarez as a model for Mexican Americans in their fight for contemporary civil rights. Cultural and instrumental components of ethnicity are not mutually exclusive. and heroes of the United States. late twentieth-century Mexican American leaders combined ethnic with contemporary civic symbols. Which of the following types of ethnic cultural expressions is discussed in the passage? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) The retelling of traditional narratives The wearing of traditional clothing The playing of traditional music The celebration of traditional holidays The preparation of traditional cuisine A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) Page 11 . American people in the second paragraph in The first emphasizes the primordial and unchanging order to provide an example of character of ethnicity.©Educational Training Services. then Mayor of San Antonio. Rather. (C) how the Civil Rights movement can help promote solidarity among United States ethnic groups. but rather reinforce one another. (C) In the 1960’s leaders of the Mexican American community concentrated their efforts on promoting a renaissance of ethnic history and culture. (B) In the 1960’s Mexican American community groups promoted ethnic solidarity primarily in order to effect economic change. neither fully captures the dynamic and changing aspects of ethnicity in the United States. (D) In the 1960’s members of the Mexican American community were becoming increasingly concerned about the issue of voting rights. A Division of MLI Consulting. Mexican Americans celebrate Cinco de Mayo as fervently as many Irish American people embrace St. A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) 9. One example of the process is the rise of participation by Native American people in the broader United States political system since the Civil Rights movement of the 1960’s. A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) 10. In this view. (A) the ability of membership in groups based on shared ancestry and culture to satisfy an essential human need. (E) In the 1960’s the Mexican American community had greater success in mobilizing constituents than did other ethnic groups in the United States. (B) how ethnic feelings have been motivated and strengthened by political activity. this movement also evoked increased interest in tribal history and traditional culture. Like European ethnic groups in the nineteenth-century United States. Mexican Americans formed community-based political groups that emphasized ancestral heritage as a way of mobilizing constituents. The Civil Rights movement also brought changes in the uses to which ethnicity was put by Mexican American people. Besides leading Native Americans to participate more actively in politics (the number of Native American legislative officeholders more than doubled). The author of the passage refers to Native Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists’ discussions of the nature of ethnicity. (E) the benefits gained from renewed study of ethnic history and culture. In the 1960’s. Name of the Registrant: PARTICIPANTS Registration Number: 0099USA-2452TURBO Time: 25 Minutes 8. While both of these definitions are useful. ethnicity serves as a way of mobilizing a certain population behind issues relating to its economic position. And every year. The passage supports which of the following statements about the Mexican American Community? (A) In the 1960’s the Mexican American community began to incorporate the customs of another ethnic group in the United States into the observation of its own ethnic holidays. people have an essential need for belonging that is satisfied by membership in groups based on shared ancestry and culture. ethnicity is more satisfactorily conceived of as a process in which preexisting communal bonds and common cultural attributes are adapted for instrumental purposes according to changing real life situations. (D) how participation in the political system has helped to improve a group’s economic situation. In this view. Inc. with both holidays having been reinvented in the context of the United States and linked to ideals. symbols. Patrick’s Day (both are major holidays in the countries of origin). Such emerging issues as immigration and voting rights gave Mexican American advocacy groups the means by which to promote ethnic solidarity.

A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) Page 12 . The information in the passage supports which of the following statements about many European ethnic groups in the nineteenth-century United States? (A) They emphasized economic interests as a way of mobilizing constituents behind certain issues. In this view. neither fully captures the dynamic and changing aspects of ethnicity in the United States. this movement also evoked increased interest in tribal history and traditional culture. The first emphasizes the primordial and unchanging character of ethnicity. late twentieth-century Mexican American leaders combined ethnic with contemporary civic symbols. (C) They created cultural traditions that fused United States symbols with those of their countries of origin. Besides leading Native Americans to participate more actively in politics (the number of Native American legislative officeholders more than doubled). A different conception of ethnicity deemphasizes the cultural component and defines ethnic groups as interest groups. Mexican Americans celebrate Cinco de Mayo as fervently as many Irish American people embrace St. (B) They conceived of their own ethnicity as being primordial in nature. then Mayor of San Antonio. Texas. While both of these definitions are useful. ethnicity serves as a way of mobilizing a certain population behind issues relating to its economic position. A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) 12. cited Mexican leader Benito Juarez as a model for Mexican Americans in their fight for contemporary civil rights. One example of the process is the rise of participation by Native American people in the broader United States political system since the Civil Rights movement of the 1960’s. (E) Mexican Americans should emulate the strategies of Native American political leaders. 11. Mexican Americans formed community-based political groups that emphasized ancestral heritage as a way of mobilizing constituents. A Division of MLI Consulting. ethnicity is more satisfactorily conceived of as a process in which preexisting communal bonds and common cultural attributes are adapted for instrumental purposes according to changing real life situations. Rather. Like European ethnic groups in the nineteenth-century United States. In this view. symbols. (E) They organized formal community groups designed to promote a renaissance of ethnic history and culture. In the 1960’s. with both holidays having been reinvented in the context of the United States and linked to ideals. (B) many Mexican Americans were insufficiently educated in Mexican history.©Educational Training Services. (D) They de-emphasized the cultural component of their communities in favor of political interests. (C) the fight for civil rights in the United States had many strong parallels in both Mexican and Irish history. Patrick’s Day (both are major holidays in the countries of origin). Inc. In 1968 Henry Cisneros. people have an essential need for belonging that is satisfied by membership in groups based on shared ancestry and culture. The passage suggests that in 1968 Henry Cisneros most likely believed that (A) many Mexican Americans would respond positively to the example of Benito Juarez. Such emerging issues as immigration and voting rights gave Mexican American advocacy groups the means by which to promote ethnic solidarity. Name of the Registrant: PARTICIPANTS Registration Number: 0099USA-2452TURBO Time: 25 Minutes Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists’ discussions of the nature of ethnicity. (D) the quickest way of organizing communitybased groups was to emulate the tactics of Benito Juarez. but rather reinforce one another. and heroes of the United States. The Civil Rights movement also brought changes in the uses to which ethnicity was put by Mexican American people. Cultural and instrumental components of ethnicity are not mutually exclusive. And every year.

(E) It needed to be improved to attain parity with the service provided by competing banks. (C) It had already been improved after having caused damage to the bank’s reputation in the past. The bank managers did not recognize the level of customer inertia in the consumer banking industry that arises from the inconvenience of switching banks. This truth was not apparent to managers of one regional bank. like those in production and distribution. Page 13 . (C) illustrate various ways in which a type of business investment could fail to enhance revenues. (B) It threatened to weaken the bank’s competitive position with respect to other regional banks. Investments in service. If a company is already effectively on a par with its competitors because it provides service that avoids a damaging reputation and keeps customers from leaving at an unacceptable rate. (B) increased revenues that they ultimately produce. (E) criticize the way in which managers tend to analyze the costs and benefits of business investments. (D) It was slightly superior to that of the bank’s regional competitors. investments in service are comparable to investments in production and distribution in terms of the (A) tangibility of benefits that they tend to produce. A Division of MLI Consulting. According to the passage. since service is a deciding factor for customers only in extreme situations. (D) trace the general problems of a company to a certain type of business investment. Nor did they analyze their service improvement to determine whether it would attract new customers by producing a new standard of service that would excite customers or by proving difficult for competitors to copy. tangible benefits such as cost reduction and increased revenues. then investment in higher service levels may be wasted. A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) The fact that superior service can generate a competitive advantage for a company does not mean that every attempt at improving service will create such an advantage. The only merit of the improvement was that it could be easily described to the customers. The primary purpose of the passage is to (A) contrast possible outcomes of a type of business investment. A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) 14. (B) suggest more careful evaluation of a type of business investment. (C) basis on which they need to be weighed (D) insufficient analysis that managers devote to them (E) degree of competitive advantage that they are likely to provide. which failed to improve its competitive position despite its investment in reducing the time a customer had to wait for a teller.©Educational Training Services. must be balanced against other types of investments on the basis of direct. The passage suggests which of the following about service provided by the regional bank prior to its investment in enhancing that service ? (A) It enabled the bank to retain customers at an acceptable rate. Name of the Registrant: PARTICIPANTS Registration Number: 0099USA-2452TURBO Time: 25 Minutes 13. A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) 15. Inc.

A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) Page 14 .©Educational Training Services. (E) It provides an example of the point about investment in service made in the first paragraph. since service is a deciding factor for customers only in extreme situations. must be balanced against other types of investments on the basis of direct. (D) It supports the argument that investments in certain aspects of service are more advantageous than investments in other aspects of service. A Division of MLI Consulting. which failed to improve its competitive position despite its investment in reducing the time a customer had to wait for a teller. then investment in higher service levels may be wasted. Name of the Registrant: PARTICIPANTS Registration Number: 0099USA-2452TURBO Time: 25 Minutes The fact that superior service can generate a competitive advantage for a company does not mean that every attempt at improving service will create such an advantage. The passage suggests that bank managers failed to consider whether or not the service improvement mentioned in the second paragraph (A) was too complicated to be easily described to the prospective customers. like those in production and distribution. Investments in service. tangible benefits such as cost reduction and increased revenues. This truth was not apparent to managers of one regional bank. Nor did they analyze their service improvement to determine whether it would attract new customers by producing a new standard of service that would excite customers or by proving difficult for competitors to copy. 16. The bank managers did not recognize the level of customer inertia in the consumer banking industry that arises from the inconvenience of switching banks. Inc. (B) made a measurable change in the experience of customers in the bank’s offices. If a company is already effectively on a par with its competitors because it provides service that avoids a damaging reputation and keeps customers from leaving at an unacceptable rate. (C) It demonstrates the kind of analysis that managers apply when they choose one kind of service investment over another. (D) was an innovation that competing banks could have imitated (E) was adequate to bring the bank’s general level of service to a level that was comparable with that of its competitors. (C) could be sustained if the number of customers increased significantly. (B) It illustrates the pitfalls of choosing to invest in service at a time when investment is needed more urgently in another area. The only merit of the improvement was that it could be easily described to the customers. A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) 17. The discussion of the regional bank in the second paragraph serves which of the following functions within the passage as a whole? (A) It describes an exceptional case in which investment in service actually failed to produce a competitive advantage.

©Educational Training Services. Name of the Registrant: PARTICIPANTS Registration Number: 0099USA-2452TURBO Time: 25 Minutes The fact that superior service can generate a competitive advantage for a company does not mean that every attempt at improving service will create such an advantage. The only merit of the improvement was that it could be easily described to the customers. Investments in service. then investment in higher service levels may be wasted. (C) distinguish the primary attribute of the service improvement from secondary attributes. must be balanced against other types of investments on the basis of direct. like those in production and distribution. 18. which failed to improve its competitive position despite its investment in reducing the time a customer had to wait for a teller. The author uses the word “only” in the last sentence of the second paragraph most likely in order to (A) highlight the oddity of the service improvement. A Division of MLI Consulting. This truth was not apparent to managers of one regional bank. Inc. (B) emphasize the relatively low value of the investment in service improvement. Nor did they analyze their service improvement to determine whether it would attract new customers by producing a new standard of service that would excite customers or by proving difficult for competitors to copy. since service is a deciding factor for customers only in extreme situations. (E) point out the limited duration of the actual service improvement. If a company is already effectively on a par with its competitors because it provides service that avoids a damaging reputation and keeps customers from leaving at an unacceptable rate. tangible benefits such as cost reduction and increased revenues. A ( ) B ( ) C( ) D ( ) E ( ) How long did you take to complete this section? Minutes Page 15 . The bank managers did not recognize the level of customer inertia in the consumer banking industry that arises from the inconvenience of switching banks. (D) single out a certain merit of the service improvement from other merits.