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UNIT I – BIODIVERSITY Biodiversity- Variety and variability among living organisms (term coined by E. O.

Wilson) • • • • • • • Values of biodiversity: Ecological Value – purification of air, soil fertility, watershed benefits, prevention of soil erosion etc. Economic Value – Timber, food, forage, non-timber forest products such as medicines etc. Genetic Value - maintain gene pools and prevent inbreeding. Aesthetic Value- amazingly diverse and pleasing to the eye. Legal Value- right to exist & right over their life support systems. Ethical Value- man’s responsibility towards preserving and conserving other organisms. Option Value- anticipated future uses. Ecological role of biodiversity• Maintenance of genetic pool • Circulation of clean air & uptake of carbon dioxide (green house gas) • Recharge of ground water • Prevention of soil erosion • Habitat for wild fauna and flora • Water cycle (transpiration) Kinds of biodiversity: • Genetic diversity- Diversity in the number and types of genes as well as chromosomes present in the various species and the variations within the genes and the alleles within the same species. Eg. 30,000 to 40,000 different genes in humans. • Species diversity- Variety in number and richness of species inhabiting a region. It can be species richness in 1 area, greater evenness or equitability in species and greater diversity of species. Eg. Different species of plants and animals in Tropical forest • Ecosystem diversity- Diversity of ecological complexes or biotic communities found in a given area. It is the variety of species living together in different niches. Eg. Different biomes like Arctic Tundra, Northern coniferous forests, , Temperate deciduous forests, Grasslands, Tropical rain forests, marine ecosystems and Deserts Alpha diversity refers to the diversity within a particular area or ecosystem, and is usually expressed by the number of species (i.e., species richness) in that ecosystem. This can be measured by counting the number of taxa (distinct groups of organisms) within the ecosystem (eg. families, genera, species).

Beta diversity (β-diversity) is a measure of biodiversity which works by comparing the species diversity between ecosystems or along environmental gradients. This involves comparing the number of taxa that are unique to each of the ecosystems. It is the rate of change in species composition across habitats or among communities. It gives a quantitative measure of diversity of communities that experience changing environments. Gamma diversity is a measure of the overall diversity within a large region. It refers to the total biodiversity over a large area or region. It is the total of α and β diversity. Hunter (2002: 448) defines gamma diversity as "geographic-scale species diversity". Factors for the loss of biodiversity: Loss of habitat – destruction of forests & fragmentation Destruction of habitat Developmental activities Pollution of air, water and soil Introduction of exotic species Over-exploitation of natural resources Disturbance of migratory routes International trade in rare animal products Highways Official laxity Extinction of species will lead to  Loss of gene pool  Food web affected  If a keystone species, then the whole functioning of the ecosystem affected Steps proposed to protect wildlife: (a) On-site protection- Ecosystem maintenance & Species management ( e.g. Protected areas) (b) Off-site protection- Living collections & Germplasm storage ( e.g. gene banks) (c) Law formulation and stricter enforcement Ex-situ conservation entails removal of germplasm resources (seed, pollen, sperms and individual organisms) from their original habitats and preserving them in botanical gardens, zoos, aquaria and gene/seed banks. In-situ conservation refers to the preservation of the genetic resources within the evolutionary dynamic ecosystem of their original or natural environment. Eg. National parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries and Biosphere Reserves Advantages of ex-situ conservation:

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• Preserves the genes of the rare species • Opportunity for genetic manipulation • Possibility of restoring depleted populations for re-introduction in the wild Disadvantages of ex-situ conservation: • Organisms not in natural habitat • At times only genetic resources preserved not a live specimen Advantages of in-situ conservation: • Organisms preserved in their natural environment • The entire ecosystem along with the organism preserved • Ecosystem services derived from the ecosystem also preserved Disadvantages of in-situ conservation: • High cost of conservation in terms of opportunity cost lost for development

Main strategies for mitigating animal-wildlife conflicts Declaration of protected areas & stopping encroachment  Identification of corridors  Creation of buffer zones and corridors along with protected areas.  Compensation for cattle predation and crop raiding for the forest adjoining communities.  Create livelihood alternatives and give an alternative source of energy to the traditional forest dwelling communities to reduce their dependence on the forest resources.  Specific measures for particular species like planting crops that elephants don’t like in areas frequented by the elephants  Education and awareness to gain public support to conserve wildlife. India’s mega biodiversity India is divided into four relatively well defined geographic regions - the Himalayan Mountains, the Gangetic river plains, the southern (Deccan) plateau, and the islands of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar. (Ecosystem Diversity)  The climate of India is dominated by the Asiatic monsoon, most importantly by rains from the south-west between June and October, and drier winds from the north between December and February. From March to May the climate is dry and hot.  The panorama of Indian forests ranges from evergreen tropical rain forests in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the Western Ghats, and the north-eastern states, to

estimated to be <500 km2 • At very high risk of extinction in wild in near future • Require attention but not in dire need of extensive conservation • Require proper conservation measures measures or will become “critically endangered” (ii) Interspecific Interaction Intraspecific Interaction • Between two organisms of different • Between two organisms of the same species species • Can be beneficial or harmful • Usually beneficial .000 species of flowering plants.dry alpine scrub high in the Himalaya to the north. thorn forests. deciduous monsoon forests.   India has a total of 1.543 ha.904. Lion tailed macaque (Western Ghats) Sal (Gangetic Plain). (Species (i) Rare Species • Small world populations of the taxa • At risk Endangered Species • 50% population decline in last 10 years. 400 species of reptiles. covering an area of about 3. Diversity)  Some noteworthy species – • • • • • Olive Ridley and Leather back turtles (Orrisa coastline) Brow antlered deer(Manipur). Lakshadweep. Sunderbans) Great Indian Bustard (Gujrat) .  India has 2 hotspots – NE Himalayas and Western Ghats (rich in endangered endemic flora and fauna)  India has about 350 species of Mammals.193 wetlands. 1200 species of birds. Between the two extremes. Andaman and Nicobar Islands. subtropical pine forests in the lower montane zone and temperate montane forests. Indian Rosewood (Western Ghats) 2500 species of fish and 15. Gujrat) and Asiatic Tiger (Gangetic Plain. Black Buck Deer(Rajasthan) Asiatic Lion (Gir Wildlife Sanctuary. the country has semi-evergreen rain forests. Coral reefs are present in the Gulf of Kutch.

allowed • 492 WLS in India Eg. parasites and pathogens are scarce) and how it affects those same factors (e.The relational position of a species or population in an ecosystem. and predators. ticks • E.) Sanctuaries • Areas where animals can take refuge without being hunted • Timber harvesting. .Variation between individuals in the population.• E. resources and enemies. grazing.P. (U. Parasitism. and are affected by. Tape worm.. Large carnivores (iv) National Parks • Areas maintained for betterment of wildlife • Cultivation. the niche includes how a population responds to the abundance of its resources and enemies (e. Diversity.P. by reducing the abundance of resources through consumption and contributing to the population growth of enemies by falling prey to them). collection of non timber forest products.the number of species per unit area. Kinds of species richness• One species found in large numbers • Equal amount of species found in an area • Larger area and number of species more varied Conservation .g.P. habitat manipulation not allowed • 89 N.. Dudhwa N. etc.g. The abiotic or physical environment is part of the niche because it influences how populations affect. genetic variation Ecological Niche. To protect natural resources including plant and animal species as well as their habitat for the future. Population is the assemblage of individuals who are similar in characteristics and lie in a particular area/habitat. in India Eg. Commensalism (iii) Parasitism • Parasite derive nutrition from the host • Parasite is smaller than the host • • Can be on the body (ecto) or inside the body (endo) of the host Eg.To try and preserve the biotic or abiotic components of the earth. Mahananda WLS (West Bengal) Species richness. g. by growing when resources are abundant. More formally.g. lopping. Aggregation Predation • Predators kill the prey • Predator is generally larger than the prey • The prey body is eaten up • Eg.

The availability of food. water and biological resources. an ecosystem may experience a dramatic shift if a keystone species is removed. . Species. Inbreeding is breeding between close relatives. result in inbreeding depression. over time. Decimation . If practiced repeatedly. While the keystone feels the least pressure of any of the stones in an arch. any biological activity. At these low temperatures. Such an organism plays a role in its ecosystem that is analogous to the role of a keystone in an arch. Endemic species. including the biochemical reactions that would lead to cell death. Law of limiting factor: The functioning of an organism is controlled or limited by that essential environmental factor or combination of factors present in the least favorable amount. an intolerably slow process. However. A higher frequency of recessive. predation pressure. the arch still collapses without it. the limiting factors are the land. Soil Laterization. it leads to an increase in homozygosity of a population. such as (typically) 77 K or −196 °C (the boiling point of liquid nitrogen). “Range Restricted Rarity” Example. the cells being preserved are often damaged due to freezing during the approach to low temperatures or warming to room temperature. whether plant or animal. deleterious traits in homozygous form in a population can. This may occur when inbred individuals exhibit reduced health and fitness and lower levels of fertility. or availability of shelter are examples of factors that could be limiting for a species population in a specific area.species confined / restricted to a specific geographical area of the globe.A keystone species is a species that has a disproportionate effect on its environment relative to its abundance. is effectively stopped.Group or population of similar individuals that reproduce by interbreeding within the group.Killing of large number of animals. Cryopreservation is a process where cells or whole tissues are preserved by cooling to low sub-zero temperatures. plants and people in a particular area leading to a drastic decrease in their population. In an ecosystem. Such species affect many other organisms in an ecosystem and help to determine the types and numbers of various others species in a community. brow-antlered deer ‘Sanghai’ of Manipur. when vitrification solutions are not used. The factors may not be continuously effective but only at some critical period during the year or perhaps only during some critical year in a climatic cycle.When laterite layer of soil is exposed because of extreme abuse or disturbance making biological repair. in human terms. Similarly.Giant robber crab or coconut crab of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. even though that species was a small part of the ecosystem by measures of biomass or productivity.

Catchment areas or watershed is a region of land where water from rain or snowmelt drains downhill into a body of water. ‘Gene poor’ countries.Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of fauna and flora. cobalt. copper. wetland. lake.Ecotype is a distinct entity of an animal. • Checks on the poaching and subsequent trade across national boundaries • Recognizes the endangered status of an animal at an international level Micronutrients are the essential elements needed in small quantities for life. or dry-land protrusions. zinc & iodine. such as a river. which started assessment of plant and animal varieties at a global level. The drainage basin acts like a funnel . paper industry and shipping industry besides proving inland navigation facilities. The drainage basin includes both the streams and rivers that convey the water as well as the land surfaces from which water drains into those channels.Mangrove forests produce a huge amount of charcoal for commercial consumption. Wetland ecosystems produce a great variety of floral species that act as a rich source of raw materials for any industries besides fulfilling the needs of survival by many faunal species.g. • Fish and shrimp production • Tourism e. Swamp is a wetland that features permanent inundation of large areas of land by shallow bodies of water. • Source of firewood in local region. manganese. Swamps are characterized by rich biodiversity and specialized organisms. • Raw materials which can be used in textile industry. estuary. sea or ocean.g. CITES. or other organism that is closely linked (in its characteristics) to the ecological surroundings it inhabits. It is an effort of IUCN. The term ecotype was coined in 1922 by Swedish botanist Gote Turesson. dam. food processing units.-Bengal tiger of Sunder bans. Traditional methods of conservation of biodiversity: . generally with a substantial number of hummocks. E. plant. ‘Red Data Book’ provides scientific and objective information about the status of genetic diversity present and also information on the status of threatened species that require special attention.Developed countries in Europe and North America do not harbour a lot of diverse species of flora and fauna & hence are termed as ‘gene poor’. construction of houses.collecting all the water within the area covered by the basin and channeling it into a waterway. Iron.

forest patches around places of worship highly respected and undisturbed. Interactions: Type of Association interaction Mutualism Opportunistic Species A + Species B + E. Eg. Jaintias and Khasias in Meghalaya and. Hook worm (endoparasit es) Trees with large canopies only allowing the shade Symbiosis Proto cooperation Commensalism Close physiological association Opportunistic No physiological association + + + + + 0 Predation Larger predator + devours smaller prey Smaller + parasite derives nutrition form larger host - • Parasitsm - • • Amensalism Site specific & 1 population inhibits the growth of others 0 • . Deodar forests protected by tribals in Kumaon.g. • • • • • • • Pollination Bison and cattle egret Mycorhizzae Lichens Oxpecker and rhinocerous Sucker fish (ecto commensal) Harmless protozoa in mammalian intestinal tract (endo commensal) Carnivores feeding on the herbivores Ticks. Bishnois in Rajasthan. lice (ecto parasites) Tapeworm.• Sacred groves and lakes.

Rare.Antibiosis Competition 1 organism + produces metabolite which is toxic to others Striving for the same resources - • • - • tolerant species to grow under them Penicillium Algal blooms of some green & red algae Over crowding of any animal or plant with the same source of food or space requirements Categories of threaten species as per IUCN: II.Confined to mountainous regions. thin and fragile for crop cultivation Indicators of a healthy soil: • Soil surface cover-presence of soil vegetation.Found in volcanic regions. • Laterite soils.Species with a small world population that is not at present endangered or vulnerable but is at risk VI.indicates soil erosion. Vulnerable. soil texture. Extinct. Insufficiently known.Found in volcanic regions.Found in regions having a steep topography and heavy rains.Species suspected but not definitely known to belong to any of the above categories Categories of soil: • Alluvial soils.Species likely to move into ‘endangered’ category in the near future if the causal factors continue to operate V. Rendered infertile due to heavy leaching. Extremely fertile. • Sandy soils. soil moisture etc . • Red soils. Brittle and not very fertile. Rich in minerals. yield per hectare • Soil compaction. Endangered. Dry and porous but can sustain agriculture with availability of fertilizers and water • Mountain soils.Found in deserts and semi arid areas.found in river basins and in coastal plains.Species in danger of extinction & whose survival is unlikely if the causal factors continue to operate IV.Species not definitely located in the wild in the last 50 yrs III. • Black soils.

enriching those who delve into researching and understanding the environment around them. Its impact on marine ecosystem : a. Black ( mostly clay). in addition to evaluating environmental and cultural factors. and social climate . biological activity and ion exchange rate (slow release of nutrients) Types of soil – Alluvial (rich in loam and clay). sweeping up both marketable and undesirable fish and fish of both legal and illegal size) b.indicate dry/moist condition. the physical damage which the trawl does to the seabed (because bottom trawling involves towing heavy fishing gear over the seabed at a speed of several knots. medium or loamy ( 30-50% Sand and 30-50% Silt and 20% Clay) and Fine (2-4mm diameter of particles-Clayey soil) Soil moisture and Porosity of water based on particle size Soil Organic Matter (SOM) : influences infiltration rate of water. it is destructive to the ocean bottom) Ecotourism typically involves travel to destinations where flora. fertility Presence of micro organisms & organic matter pH : 1-6 Acidic.soil tillage practices Presence of weeds. fauna and cultural heritage are the primary attractions. as human beings and also a greater appreciation of our own natural habitats. bulk density. perceived lack of selectivity (Trawl nets may be non-selective.125-2mm diameter of particles-Sandy soil ). Ecotourism is a conceptual experience. called trawlers.• • • • • • • • Land use pressure. It gives us insight into our impacts. Therefore. energy efficiency. Ecotourism principles:      minimize impact build environmental and cultural awareness and respect provide positive experiences for both visitors and hosts provide financial benefits and employment for local people raise sensitivity to host countries' political. an integral part of ecotourism is the promotion of recycling. Responsible ecotourism includes programs that minimize the negative aspects of conventional tourism on the environment and enhance the cultural integrity of local people. 7 neutral and 8-14 Alkaline Particle size: Coarse (0. Desert (Sandy) and Laterite (Clay) Trawling is a method of fishing that involves actively pulling a fishing net through the water behind one or more boats. environmental. Red ( Sandy and loamy). water conservation and creation of economic opportunities for the local communities.

by providing jobs to local populations sharing of socio-economic benefits with local communities and indigenous peoples by having their informed consent and participation in the management of ecotourism enterprises tourism to unspoiled natural resources. Australia. with minimal impact on the environment being a primary concern. flora and fauna being the main attractions     Ecotourism is now gaining recognisition worldwide and has huge economic value as well.Ideally. ecotourism should satisfy several criteria. minimization of tourism's own environmental impact affordability and lack of waste in the form of luxury local culture. such as:    conservation of biological diversity and cultural diversity through ecosystem protection promotion of sustainable use of biodiversity. . National ecotourism certification programs have been put in place in countries such as Costa Rica. Kenya and Sweden and ecotourism is a major component of the GDP of these nations.

Eg. Caddis fly larvae used to assess water quality Aspects of environmental management• Ethical principles • Social principles • Economic principles • Technological principles • Holistic approach towards sustainable development (considering all the factors together and concluding on the most feasible option) Steps required for environmental development: • Analysis of present status • Study of the dynamics • Present social.UNIT II – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Reclamation.Unique environmental indicators offer a signal of the biological condition in an ecosystem. Indicator Species. Using bioindicators as an early warning of pollution or degradation in an ecosystem can help sustain critical resources. economic and environmental status • Formulation of balanced program • Developing evaluation criteria • Promotion.is the process of reclaiming something from loss or from a less useful condition. Can be reclamation of land or of waste water. guidance and supervision of the program Steps to improve environmental quality: • Natural resource assessment and management • Strategies for environmental pollution monitoring & control • Population stabilization & public health • Environmental laws n regulations • Environmental education Economic policies can be vital to environmental management as• Activities need to be carried out for maximum gain to economy and minimum damage to ecology • Management of resources and technological applications which are ecofriendly will help in abatement of pollution and also remain cost effective • Impose heavy taxes/fines on those units which create pollution beyond a certain limit (‘Polluter Pays’ principle) .

the industry concerned and the nation on the whole – mitigation measures and conservation both depend directly on the economic resources available • Linked to national/regional politics.• • Educate the companies in order to optimize the use of natural resources and get a positive approach to environmental protection National Economic Board has been set up to manage optimum utilization of resources Environment management is multidisciplinary. must be site specific. Alternate technology: • Material substitution eg.Higher the diversity. So the standards must be minimum environmental quality standards based on maximum assimilative capacity of the environment. • Linked to economics of the area. conditions. Aluminium instead of steel. cleaner eg. wind and tidal energy • Discharges checked and international obligations taken seriously Environmental problems in India: • Those arising from conditions of poverty and underdevelopment • Those arising from the negative effects of the very process of development Vehicle emission standards in India- .development of eco friendly technology and optimum resource utilization • Linked to the biological diversity. Solar cooker. more the need for management Need to set the standards regarding environment: • To control increasing environmental pollution • To restrict the increased levels of toxic pollutants • To prevent occupational hazards • Managing and maintaining the environment • To preserve environment for future generations Disadvantage of borrowed standards: May not be suitable for local. glass fiber instead of copper • Less environmentally harmful substances used • Energy derived from renewable resources cheaper. Maintaining higher environmental quality than need is costly and lower standards may result in health hazards and environmental damage.determines the priority of law framing and stringent enforcement • Linked to technical advancements.

 The consumer need not worry about disposal of used material.• • • • • • • Standards are legal limits of air pollutants in the ambient air during a given period of time Standards generally regulate the emissions of NOx. This is a standard that specifies concentration limits of main constituents in ambient air like carbon monoxide. Ministry of Heavy Industry and Public Enterprise Implemented by Central Pollution Control Board (help in setting national standards and implementing in union Territories) or State Pollution Control Board (implementation in state) Characterizes the allowable level of emissions for each group of emitters Emission check of all vehicles mandatory Bharat IV (equivalent to EURO IV) now classified EIA is Environmental Impact Assessment. The basis of development of this standard is to provide a rational for protecting public health from adverse effects of air pollutants. sulphur dioxide. and to guide national and local authorities in their air quality management decisions. or volatile hydrocarbons. to eliminate or reduce exposure to hazardous air pollutants. These standards are set by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). ozone. lead particulate matter and suspended particles.  Consumers prefer products with this certification. . ISO 14000 – voluntary code for environmental regulation. Role in promoting a clean environment –  This certification is recognized world over and governments provide incentives for organizations which have this certificate. It is a certification given for better environmental management. Its role in conservation: • Evaluation of environmental implications • Incorporation of necessary safe guards for such activities having a bearing on the environmental quality • Important in decision-making and cost benefit analysis of any developmental project.  This will help in reducing the pollution caused by non biodegradable substances. Set by Ministry of Road Transport and highways. nitrogen dioxide. An air quality standard is a description of a level of air quality that is adopted by a regulatory authority as enforceable. It is an important management tool for incorporating environmental concerns in developmental process. carbon monoxide (CO). Ministry of Petroleum and Natural gas.  This will make producers responsible for their products.  It is essential for organizations to follow clean environment practises to achieve this certification. which makes it essential for industries to get this certification.  It promotes sustainable development. particulate matter (PM) or soot.

and downstream impacts during use.for worker health & safety. EPR is a policy tool to: • Enable producers to contribute to a more ecologically sustainable society by designing and supplying products that provide the greatest functionality and longest life with inherently safe materials and the least use of resources and with safe chemicals. . • • • The ultimate goal of EPR is to encourage cleaner. and in which consumers could make their selection accordingly EPR extends the traditional environmental responsibilities that producers and distributors have previously been assigned (i.e. the health and environmental impacts to workers and surrounding communities during the production process itself. This creates the setting for a market to emerge that truly reflects the environmental impacts of the product. mining and extraction of materials.to also include responsibility for life cycle costs of their products and associated packaging. as well as to eliminate waste at each stage of the product’s life cycle. Essential to EPR is its mandate for producers to ‘take back' their end-of-life products and create closed looped systems that prevent pollution and the inefficient use of resources. EPR enforces a design strategy that takes into account the upstream environmental impacts inherent in the selection. recycling and disposal of the products. • Producers of products should bear a significant degree of responsibility (physical and/or financial) not only for the environmental impacts of their products downstream from the treatment and/or disposal of the product.. financial and legal responsibility for the sound management of production wastes) to include management at the post-consumer stage. prevention and treatment of environmental releases from production. safer materials and production processes.EXTENDED PRODUCER RESPONSIBILITY (EPR) EPR is a policy tool that extends manufacturer's responsibilities beyond their current accountabilities -. A primary function of EPR is the transfer of the costs and/or physical responsibility of waste management from local government authorities and the general taxpayer to the producer. Environmental costs of treatment and disposal could then be incorporated into the cost of the product. Eg. consumer safety. but also for their upstream activities inherent in the selection of materials and in the design of products.-Battery companies taking batteries back after its life. and production costs -. worker safety.

i.e. The criterion follows a cradle-to-grave approach. the Government of India launched the eco-labelling scheme known as `Ecomark' in 1991 for easy identification of environment-friendly products. The ‘Ecomark’ label is awarded to consumer goods which meet the specified environmental criteria and the quality requirements of Indian Standards. To increase consumer awareness. To encourage citizens to purchase products which have less harmful environmental impacts Ultimately to improve the quality of the environment and to encourage the sustainable management of resources Environmental auditing is a systematic. used or disposed of in a way that significantly reduces the harm it would otherwise cause the environment could be considered as Environment-Friendly Product. Prevent the disposal of used products in landfills and incinerators. Any product which is made. and to disposal. from raw material extraction. To assist consumers to become environmentally responsible in their daily lives by providing information to take account of environmental factors in their purchase decisions.• • Reduce public costs by shifting costs of end-of-life product management from taxpayers to manufacturers. to manufacturing. periodic and objective process in assessing an organization's activities and services in relation to: Assessing compliance with relevant statutory and internal requirements • Facilitating management control of environmental practices • Promoting good environmental management • Maintaining credibility with the public • Raising staff awareness and enforcing commitment to departmental environmental policy • . documented. To reward genuine initiatives by companies to reduce adverse environmental impact of their products. The specific objectives of the scheme are as follows : To provide an incentive for manufacturers and importers to reduce adverse environmental impact of products. their recycling under sub-standard conditions or their export to developing countries.

Indeed. encouraging systematic incorporation of environmental perspectives into many aspects of an organization’s overall operation.Exploring improvement opportunities Establishing the performance baseline for developing an Environmental Management System (EMS) • • Conducting an environmental audit is no longer an option but a sound precaution and a proactive measure in today's heavily regulated environment. helping to trigger new awareness and new priorities in policies and practices . evidence suggests that EA has a valuable role to play.

regional requirements and area specific preferences  Dynamic and flexible policies. air and energy. air and water security  To continue our technological. Sustainable development includes:  Prevent pollution  Reduce waste generation  Foster consumption on the basis of need and not greed  Preserve resources & Prevent damage to ecosystem  Regenerate resources that have been degraded  Security for future generations Need for sustainable development:  All resources indispensable to basic human survival  Energy. land. food. water.Skilled man power. administration.  Comprehensive review and revision mechanism. ‘Sustainable development’ is the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising on the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs. social and economic development  Get maximum output of the resources  Reuse all the non renewable resources lest we run out of them  Bequest value.save for future generations Various steps leading to sustainable development:  Political and administrative will – Political framework. Steps leading to sustainable development• Political and administrative will .UNIT III – SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Sustainability means having to use any resource in such a manner that its existence is prolonged and they are not so exhausted that our productivity is declined. It takes the impact on environment into account and tries to minimize environmental damages.Feedback and remedial measures. data base with sufficient know for sustainable development of agriculture.Accommodate change and involve maximum community participation and focus on the least developed sectors of the society  Appropriate technology.

• • • Dynamic and flexible policies Appropriate technologies Comprehensive review and revision mechanism Human resource for sustainable development:  Traditional technologies replaced by modern by skilled man power  Educated and trained man power  Research and implementation of eco friendly technologies  Development of HR can remove poverty Concept of sustainable consumption:  “use of goods and services that respond to the basic needs and bring a better quality of life. through skilled man power & modern. INTERNATIONAL BODIES & AGREEMENTS United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP):  Founded in 1973 with its HQ in Nairobi. services and facilities  Improving resource efficiency. which enhances efficiency and reduces pollution  Minimizing waste. toxic materials and emissions of waste pollutants over the life cycle. . setting of standards etc. so as not to jeopardize the need of future generations”.  Encourages sound developmental practices that help in environmental conservation. monitoring of air and water quality. using methods and technology to convert it to wealth. education/training programmes and varied employment opportunities o reduce gap between the rich and the poor.  Agency for implementation of GEF (Global Environment Facility). resource or energy  Taking a life cycle perspective. mineral resources. while minimizing the use of natural resources. thus saving virgin resources for future  Taking into account equity dimension. by promoting & implementing schemes. through better and cheaper goods. Kenya. through methods of recycling and reusing. efficient technology  Increasing the use of renewable energy sources.Oslo symposium in 1994  Meeting needs of poor and socially backward people of the society  Enhancing the quality of life.  Addresses issues of global concern like protection of ecosystems.  Coordinates research facilities and information among nations to have a joint and more effective effort to conserve environment. To help the weaker sections of the society achieve self sufficiency.

poverty.  Joint effort with the help of sound technological and financial background. Significant documents signed are mentioned below Agenda 21.  Gets financial help from member nations.  Functioning areas. women’s participation in development etc. recognizing it as integral and interdependent.  Biodiversity TreatyAll signatories “accepted responsibility for conserving biological diversity and using biological resources in a sustainable manner”.Montreal Protocol:  International treaty declared on September 16.  An effort that emphasizes on protection of the ozone layer. protection of human rights. .Main aim of this was to stop and reverse environmental damage. EARTH SUMMIT:   1 of the most significant collaborative efforts in order to save the environment. Emphasizes at the need for international agreements to protect the global environmental and developmental system.To enhance safety of habitats and virgin forestlands.  Forest Agreement.Controlling pollution to check global warming.  Climate Treaty. Brazil in 1992 by UN in which more than 175 countries participated. Emphasis on EIA and loss due to commercial acivities to be minimized. 1987 and came into force on January 1st 1989.health issues. sustainable energy resources and development of renewable resources. Global Action Plan with a comprehensive blue print. Held in Rio De Janeiro.  Provides assistance and guidance to the local governments especially of the least developed nations in order to meet their challenges. Reduce the production of greenhouse gases (GHGs)  Rio Declaration-Aims at establishing equitable global partnership through the creation of new level of cooperation among the nations.  Control and check the omissions of ‘ozone depleting substances’ (ODs) due to industrialization and vehicles. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP):  UN network on global level for sustainable development  HQ in New York City and offices in 166 countries.

Education helps in sustainable development by• Creating awareness and sensitivity • Highlighting the importance of the environment • Elaborating the impacts on humans of the damage to environment • Producing more number of qualified professionals in different fields People cooperation helps in conservation: • Community participation needed for implementation • Mass support effective in bringing change . Countries that ratify this protocol commit to reduce their emissions of carbon dioxide and five other greenhouse gases. By arresting and reversing the upward trend in greenhouse gas emissions that started in these countries 150 years ago.Each country’s emissions target must be achieved by the period 2008-2012. The developed countries commit themselves to reducing their collective emissions of six key greenhouse gases by at least 5%. 1993 by General Assembly Resolution of UN.  Aims at Development of ecologically sound technological development  Multi-year programme of work  Co-ordination among countries  Information exchange  Focus on sanitation.The Kyoto Protocol now covers more than 160 countries globally and over 55% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. water and human settlements. or engage in emissions trading if they maintain or increase emissions of these gases. the Protocol promises to move the international community one step closer to achieving the Convention’s ultimate objective of preventing "dangerous anthropogenic [man-made] interference with the climate system".  Helps in the implementation of Agenda 21 and remove any related problems. it contains legally binding emissions targets for Annex I (developed) countries for the post-2000 period. OthersInternational Union for Conservation of Nature and natural resources (IUCN) World Wide Fund for nature (WWF) Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of flora and fauna (CITES) Kyoto Protocol is an agreement made under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).Commission on sustainable development:  Established in Dec. Adopted by consensus at the third session of the Conference of the Parties (COP3) in December 1997.

Local people who were supported by international agencies like IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and natural resources) and WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature) came forward and this area was saved.In the 1970s. Anna Hazare played an important role.G. as the villagers hugged the trees.Located in Pallakad district of Kerala. (NGO) Vanarai. Role of N. The name of the movement comes from the word 'embrace'.Conservation activities with the help of rural community in Pune. (NGO) Ladakh Ecology Development Board. been conserving the flora and fauna to the extent of sacrificing their lives to protect the environment. It is now declared as ‘Urja Gram’. proper management of resources especially watershed management & afforestation done. and prevented the contractors' from felling them.• • • • • Examples- Awareness & sensitization of groups leads to sustained effort towards conservation Direct action. lobbying and litigation for environmental concerns On ground work for preservation of species and habitat Better implementation of plans Removal of disparity between various fractions of the community groups • • • • • • • Bishnois.Working in Doon valley and checking deforestation and mining. ‘Beej Bachao Aandolan’ – Movement of the local people to save the native crop varieties by preserving their seeds them in the Himalayan district of Tehri Garhwal. • Silent Valley. • Chipko Movement. Community participation.’s in environment conservation: . The basic philosophy of this religion is that all living things have a right to survive and share all resources. (NGO) Warlis tribe.O. living in western Rajasthan on the fringe of the Thar desert. Ralegaon Sidhi – Village in semi arid region of Maharashtra. Consists of eco-clubs comprising of teachers & students too. Part of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve and Silent Valley national Park.The Bishnois. Tropical forests rich in biodiversity People fought against the threat of drowning under the huge reservoir of a hydroelectric project (The Pathrakadavu Hydroelectric Project) which was to be started by Kerala Electricity Board. Friends of Doon.Educating people and establish harmony with the local environment. an organized resistance to the destruction of forests spread throughout India and came to be known as the Chipko movement. a Vaishnavite sect. have for centuries.Conservation of natural resources in the Western ghats in the state of Maharashtra.

g. Education: Nursery schools. 4. work among rural women. marketing. design.. marketing facilities. motivators in famine relief camps. Rajasthan. the BC dealt only with the poor peasants' animals. groundwater survey. soil and water testing. The College addresses problems of drinking water. 2. health & sanitation. Animal husbandry: Demonstrate how stall feeding of goats is useful for milk and meat but constitutes an ecological hazard. electricity and power. Tilonia. decontamination of wells. weavers and rural women in order to generate more income for their families. use of street plays and other media. 6. . immunisation camps. appliances for the handicapped. The College benefits the poorest of the poor who have no alternatives and encourages practical knowledge and skills rather than paper qualifications through a learning by doing process of education. Agricultural extension: Development of unused and underutilised land allotted by government. dispensaries. not with buffaloes and cows. homoeopathy. Centre for Science and Environment (CSE). TB eradication. rearing of rabbits and sheep. Appropriate technology: Use of biogas for generating power. 5. Rural industry: Working with leather workers. classes for women and girls. as well as social awareness and the conservation of ecological systems in rural communities. site selection. testing drinking water for contamination. Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS) The Barefoot College was started in 1972 by Social Work and Research Centre (SWRC). 3. awareness generating. Groundwater: Survey. repair and maintenance through community participation. engineering survey. nursery school teachers. 9. 8. pre-natal and post-natal care. grain storage. girl education. with the conviction that solutions to rural problems lie within the community. 7. and credit.• • • • • • Mobilizing people support Spreading awareness about various environmental issues Direct action. photovoltaic cells for generating electricity in night schools. rural unemployment. assistance with raw materials. nature walks and campaigns about consumer education On ground work for preservation of species and habitat E. eye camps. Communication: Use of traditional media like puppetry to communicate with the rural poor. installation of hand pumps. income generation. Medical care: Preventive health programmes where a doctor is not needed. lobbying and litigation for environmental concerns Organize activities like nature camps. family planning camps. seeds and fertiliser loans. credit.Kalpvriksh. The areas on which the Barefoot College concentrated were: 1. Women's programmes Training of traditional midwives. evening schools for dropouts. social forestry.

Environmental LawsIndian Forest Act. or Green building is an outcome of a design which focuses on increasing the efficiency of resource use — energy. pollution and environmental degradation Realising the importance of Environmental Information. These Centres have been set up in the areas of pollution control. and materials — while reducing building impacts on human health and the environment during the building's lifecycle. Presently the ENVIS network consists of Focal Point at the Ministry of Environment and Forest and ENVIS Centres setup in different organisations/establishments in the country in selected areas of environment. and other resources Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity Reducing waste. 1981 Water Cess Act. storage. scientists and engineers. central and offshore ecology. all over the country. 1977 Environment (Protection) Act. policy planners. etc. ENVIS focal point ensures integration of national efforts in environmental information collection. operation. through better siting. and removal Green buildings are designed to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health and the natural environment by: • • • Efficiently using energy. 1927 Wildlife (Protection) Act. retrieval and dissemination to all concerned. bio-degradation of wastes and environment management. . collation. environmentally sound and appropriate technology. toxic chemicals. construction. 1974 Forest Conservation Act. in December. the Government of India. maintenance. 1982. 1980 Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act. 1986 Biodiversity Act. 2002 A Sustainable building. retrieval and dissemination to all concerned. etc. storage. The focus of ENVIS since inception has been on providing environmental information to decision makers. ENVIS is a decentralised system with a network of distributed subject oriented Centres ensuring integration of national efforts in environmental information collection. water. established an Environmental Information System (ENVIS) as a plan programme. design. research workers. water. collation. 1972 Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act.

retrieval and dissemination capabilities with the ultimate objectives of disseminating information speedily to the users. storage.  to build up storage. processing. development and innovation in environmental information technology.  to promote exchange of information amongst developing countries.  to promote. support and assist education and personnel training programmes designed to enhance environmental information processing and utilisation capabilities.  to provide national environmental information service relevant to present needs and capable of develoment to meet the future needs of the users.  to gear up the modern technologies of acquistion.  to promote. originators. .Objectives:  to build up a repository and dissemination centre in Environmental Science and Engineering. processors and disseminators of information. and  to support and promote research. retrieval and dissemination of information of environmental nature. national and international cooperation and liasion for exchange of environment related information.

following agronomic practices like crop rotation. commercial gains and social concerns are safeguarded. crops resources and using them in such a manner that environmental quality.desertification. SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE • Increasing population-increased need for food • Developmental pressures-restricted land resource • Over exploitation of land.Practice which prepares soil in order to carry out sowing seeds  Helps in making the soil aerated and in germination of seeds  Clears soil of any unwanted plant growth.UNIT IV. Steps for sustainable agriculture Maintaining proper soil quality. ecosystems’ health. . Tillage. mixed farming and mixed cropping. Hence the need for ‘sustainable agriculture’ Sustainable agriculture is a concept that deals with good production of crops without making any compromise with the quality of soil. water.

Benefits    Mobilizing existing soil nutrients. Include manure. worm castings.  the necessity of reapplying artificial fertilizers regularly (and perhaps in increasing quantities) to maintain fertility increases the cost (substantial and rising in recent years) and resulting lack of independence DDT (dichloro diphenyl tricholoroethane)  Leads to biomagnification leading to death of many species in the food chain . more consistent rate. reduced ability to absorb precipitation. sewage . (air) Organic fertilizers: Naturally occurring fertility enhancing living or non living products. etc. an over supply of some nutrients)  the progressive decrease of real or perceived "soil health". reducing the stress due to temporary moisture stress Improving the soil structure Organics also have the advantage of avoiding certain long-term problems associated with the regular heavy use of artificial fertilizers:  the possibility of "burning" plants with the concentrated chemicals (i.e.   Selection of different species of plants to maintain a good diversity Proper site selection Making use of Biopesticides/bioinsecticides and using manures/biofertilizers/compost in order to stop pollution of soil organic Effect of agrochemicals:  Chemicals like DDT and some fungicides have carcinogens in them  Development of resistant varieties of pests  Leaching into ground water (water)  Aquatic life is killed when these chemicals leach into water bodies (water)  Biomagnification (water and soil)  Effects the microbial population that carry out decomposition in the soil (soil)  Eutrophication of lakes (water)  Spraying and fumigation can lead to deposition on the surface of plants (and hence enter the food chain) and also expose the people working to the harmful pesticides. and guano. seaweed. so that good growth is achieved with lower nutrient densities while wasting less Releasing nutrients at a slower. lightening of soil color. helping to avoid a boomand-bust pattern Helping to retain soil moisture. Green manure crops are also grown to add nutrients to the soil like legumes. peat. slurry. apparent in loss of structure.

 Causes thinning of egg shells and death of hatchlings in certain bird species like the bald eagle  Toxic to marine life and gets accumulated in fish  Classified as ‘moderately hazardous’ by WHO and a probable carcinogen Biopesticides are measures to control pest populations using living organisms or compounds produced by them. (otherwise remain weak or die) Some pests do not respond Production involves long research which is time and money consuming Quite slow at work sometimes Tissue culture is the growth of tissues and/or cells separate from the organism.g. often to produce clones of a plant.  The regeneration of whole plants from plant cells that have been genetically modified. i.  To quickly produce mature plants. Different techniques in plant tissue culture may offer certain advantages over traditional methods of propagation. climate moisture etc. including:  The production of exact copies of plants that produce particularly good flowers.  To clean particular plant of viral and other infections and to quickly multiply these plants as 'cleaned stock' for horticulture and agriculture. while the more specific term plant tissue culture is used for plants.      . fruits.  The production of multiples of plants in the absence of seeds or necessary pollinators to produce seeds.  The production of plants from seeds that otherwise have very low chances of germinating and growing. or have other desirable traits. Bt toxin incorporated in Cotton (from bacteria Bacillus thurengienisis) Advantages Less harmful than chemical pesticides  May be modified in such a manner that they attack only 1 target organism  Often are effective in very small quantities  Decompose quickly therefore avoid the pollution problem of chemical pesticides  Can decrease the use of chemicals without the decrease in productivity when used with integrated pest management DisadvantagesSometimes tough to make target specific Condition specific-soil. Tissue culture commonly refers to the culture of animal cells and tissues.e. Plant tissue culture is a practice used to propagate plants under sterile conditions.: orchids and nepenthes. E.

solid waste composting or oil spill treatment. Uses GMO are widely used now for production of insulin. which involves the crossing of hundreds or thousands of genes. animals or microrganisms) for specific use. antibiotics etc Negative dimensions of biotechnology . Plant biotechnology beneficial for crop improvement  Helps producing transgenic plants with desired traits. medicines and flowers  Helps in preservation of endangered plants and seeds that are not found in large numbers  Unlike traditional plant breeding. The production of plants in sterile containers that allows them to be moved with greatly reduced chances of transmitting diseases. plant biotechnology allows for the transfer of only one or a few desirable genes Disadvantages of modified crops:  Loss of original gene pool  High requirement of fertilizers  High irrigation need  Possibility of gene leakage GMO – Genetically Modified Organisms Biotechnology is used to genetically modify organisms (Plants. antibiotics. alcohols etc.E. GM organisms are a result of modern biotechnology. pests. coli for insulin production  They are also used in bioremediation (purification of water or decomposition of waste using micro organisms) of waste – sewage treatment. increased disease resistance and higher nutrient levels in crops  Helped in horticulture and floriculture  Tissue culture helped in faster production of plant products. and pathogens. Eg.Enhancement in agriculture production by developing high yielding strains. enzymes.  They are also used for biomining (Metals are absorbed in the body of the micro organisms from where it is later extracted)  Plants are also genetically modified now – Bt cotton (toxin producing gene incorporated in the cotton plant) and Flavr savr tomato(longer shelf life) Advantages of GM food Pest and disease resistant  Longer shelf life  Cheaper products-vaccines.

led to green revolution. E. coli used to produce insulin Green revolution term coined by William Gadd of Rockfellar Foundation      A step towards gaining self sufficiency in food production Use of high yielding varieties Use of irrigation facilities (like tube wells) Use of chemical fertilizers Use of pesticides and insecticides AdvantagesSelf sufficiency in food production Economic gains Maintenance a good standard of living by the farmers Research in the field of agriculture DisadvantagesSalinization of soil (Desertification) Water logging and leaching Using of selected fertilizers (leading to eutrophication too) Loss of genetic diversity and food security         . water and synthetic fertilizers in large amounts. Role of biotechnology in India:  Use of HYVs in agriculture .soil salinization and large dams needed for irrigation)  Some people are allergic to Genetically Modified (GM) crops  Gene leakage and loss of gene pool  Scientists worries that plant-eating insects and weeds will develop resistance to GM crops leading to the creation of super-bags or weeds that cannot be destroyed  Companies often hold patents on GM seeds and licence and protect these patents. fertilizers. Corn is genetically modified to produced trypsin. Eg. millets and corn. rice. Eg – K68 variety of wheat  Sequences from varied sources like bacteria. (pesticide – biomagnification. viruses and eukaryotic systems can be transferred to plants to develop transgenic crop varieties eg Bt cotton Pharma crops are standard crops genetically engineered to produce pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals. Indian Council for Agriculture Research (IARI) developed many new strains of High Yielding Varieties of wheat. Biotechnology has created HYVs that require use of pesticides.

Methods adopted to overcome this problem –  Storage in well ventilated godowns  Use of preservation in packing  Preserving by refrigeration  Use of dehydration of certain food items  Fumigation/pest control methods/neem Cropping techniques:  Mixed farming. Dehydration designates drying by artificial means. Non-perishable food products like wheat.g. pisciculture. rice. Cold storage and godowns can be used for them Steps to manage or store food products Proper grading by concentrating the food products  Proper processing in order to preserve the food  Removal of moisture content (drying)  Mixing of salt/ sugar and/or spices  Keeping it at low temperature & Freezing  Canning  Pasteurization & sterilization In India.Both means of preservation work by removing water from the food. . potatoes. apiculture or rearing cattle with crops. onions etc have longer shelf life and basically need hygienic and pest free storage space. such as a blast of hot air. which prevents the growth of microorganisms and decay. such as spreading fruits on racks in the sun.   Land use pattern changed Pollution of resources (biomagnification) Economic strain on the small scale farmer Perishable food like fruits and vegetables have short shelf life hence need elaborate storing and preserving techniques like  Drying  Pickling  Salting  Freezing  Canning  Use of vinegar Drying refers to natural desiccation.Include livestock rearing (reduces risk and reutilizes resources) E. food transportation and management is a far more serious concern than food production.

(c) There is low labor requirement to operate these systems. or relay cropping. It is a form of polyculture.Practice of growing field crops in narrow strips either at right angles to the direction of the prevailing wind. in order to minimize erosion. • Relatively low pump pressures are required to operate the system. and a sod-forming crop. Examples include Wheat fields or Apple orchards or Grape vineyards. The planting of a single species of tree crop instead of encouraging a diverse canopy of trees or the practice of planting crops with the same patterns of growth has the following disadvantages: • Monoculture can lead to large scale crop failure as this single genetic variant or cultivar becomes susceptible to a disease. Avoids wastage and water logging. (b) Drip irrigation. The growing of a cultivated crop. in which a second crop is planted after the first has been harvested. In agriculture. Advantages: • Water is used efficiently by being poured directly at the base of the plant.spray continuous drizzle of water.  Multiple cropping is the practice of growing two or more crops simultaneously in the same space during a single growing season. thereby reducing fungal problems in sensitive crops.Planting different crops in successive cropping seasons  Strip cropping.Plastic pipes with holes laid down in the field when crops have to be watered. in which the second crop is started amidst the first crop before it has been harvested. such as cotton. in alternating strips following the contour of the land. or following the natural contours of the terrain to prevent wind and water erosion of the soil.2 or more crops grown together randomly (Inter cropping) or 2 or more crops planted in alternate rows (alternate cropping)  Crop Rotation. the marigolds repel some tomato pests. • Fertilization is possible through the system. monoculture refers to the planting of a single species of tree crop instead of encouraging a diverse canopy of trees. Mixed cropping. Example . such as alfalfa.tomatoes + onions + marigold. • The plant leaves remain dry. and not being wasted between the rows. "monoculture" describes the practice of planting crops with the same patterns of growth resulting from genetic similarity. which are easy to automate . • Low biodiversity • Depreciated the soil of particular nutrients Major techniques of irrigation: (a) Sprinkler irrigation/ Spray irrigation. In forestry.

The main focus is usually insect pests.large dams and canals Advantages of macro systems of irrigation: • Larger areas of cultivation • Relatively regular supply Disadvantages of macro system of irrigation: • Water logging • Salinization.(d) Furrow irrigation. The whole structure keeps moving all over the field. property. Water absorbed by soil as it flows through these furrows. and with the least possible hazard to people.flood the field with water (usually used for paddy) (g) Centre pivot system. Acceptable pest levels: The emphasis is on control. and the environment". (f) Flood irrigation. IPM holds that wiping out an entire pest population is often impossible. IPM is a pest control strategy that uses an array of complementary methods: natural predators and parasites. cultural practices. genetic and chemical methods. biological. not eradication. An IPM system is designed around six basic components: 1. and pesticides as a last resort. including cultural.Indirect method of irrigation applicable to those areas where ground water is available at shallow depths. and any other naturally occurring biological crop threat. but IPM encompasses diseases.This system is built of many metal frames which move on wheels that hold the central water providing system. and the attempt can . to prevent unacceptable levels of pest damage by the most economical means. Macro systems of irrigation. Minimum effort and less time.Irrigation in rows that have crops. This transports water from a pump located at the center and water is sprayed through sprinklers.accumulation of salts in soil which make it saline and render soil infertile • Eutrophication and chemical pollution INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) "Integrated Pest Management is the coordinated use of pest and environmental information along with available pest control methods. various physical techniques. weeds. biological controls. or sophisticated enough to be a farming system in its own right. An IPM regime can be quite simple. It is an ecological approach that can significantly reduce or eliminate the use of pesticides. (e) Sub irrigation. pest-resistant varieties.

They include simple hand-picking. and potentially lower overall costs. a new type of aphid was seen in California. vacuuming. further predators were also introduced. Better to decide on what constitutes acceptable pest levels. the amount of organophosphate used was lowered to allow the natural predators to live. and tillage to disrupt breeding. mechanical methods are the first options to consider. chemical-based farms. using traps. Preventive cultural practices: Selecting varieties best for local growing conditions.2. and apply controls if those levels are reached. and often at low cost. and other measurement methods are used to monitor pest levels. organophosphate pesticides were applied but after 5 years. IPM can reduce human and environmental exposure to hazardous chemicals. 3. Visual inspection. with minimal environmental impact. Biological insecticides. 5. and integration of multiple techniques makes IPM a perfect fit for organic farming (the synthetic chemical option is simply not considered). The pesticides also killed natural predators of the aphid. insect traps. In the application of IPM. erecting insect barriers. also fit in this category. Chemical controls: Considered as an IPM last resort. An example In 1954. Biological controls: Natural biological processes and materials can provide control. Reliance on knowledge. derived from plants or naturally occurring microorganisms (eg: Bt). . For large-scale. Mechanical controls: Should a pest reach an unacceptable level. experience. is the first line of defense. Record-keeping is essential. 4. observation. be more costly. synthetic pesticides may be used when other controls fail or are deemed unlikely to prove effective. IPM is applicable to all types of agriculture. environmentally unsafe. 6. Monitoring: Regular observation is the cornerstone of IPM. and all-round counterproductive than it is worth. most of the aphid population had become resistant. and maintaining healthy crops. At first. as is a thorough knowledge of the behavior and reproductive cycles of target pests. The main focus here is on promoting beneficial insects that eat target pests.