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(a) State the difference between distance and displacement.

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(b) Figure 1 shows an idealised displacement-time graph for the journey of a train along a straight horizontal track, from the moment when it passes a point A on the track. Initially the train moves in an easterly direction away from A. Figure 1

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A cyclist and a car are both stationary at traffic lights. They are alongside each other with their front wheels in line. The lights change and they both move forward in the same direction along a straight flat road. The idealised graph shows the variation of velocity against time for both the cyclist and the car from the instant the lights change to green to the instant they are again level.

(a) What does the time interval of 0.8 s at the beginning of the graph represent?

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(b) (i) How long does it take, from the instant the lights change to green, for the car to reach the same velocity as the cyclist?

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(c) What is the relationship between the average velocity of the cyclist and the average velocity of the car for the time interval covered by the graph?

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A hot-air balloon is rising vertically at a speed of 10m S-I. An object is released from the balloon. The graph shows how the velocity of the object varies with time from when it leaves the balloon to when it reaches the ground four seconds later. It is assumed that the air resistance is negligible. velocity 1m S-l

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(a) Use the graph to (i) show that the object continues to rise for a further 5 m after it is released .

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(ii) determine the total distance travelled by the object from when it is released from the balloon to when it reaches the ground .

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(c) Using the axes below, sketch a graph showing how the acceleration of the object changes during the time from when it leaves the balloon to when it hits the ground. Mark any significant values on the axes. acceleration 1m S-2

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The graph below shows how the speed, v, of a pendulum bob ya~ies with time, t. vim S-1 0.25 0.20 0.15
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A light aircraft flies at a constant airspeed of 45 m S-1 on a journey towards a destination due north of its starting point. A wind is blowing at a constant speed of 20 m S-1 from the west. Find, by drawing or by calculation: (i) the direction in which the aircraft should point; the speed of the aircraft over the ground. '2...0 "",c;.-'

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Newton's three laws of motion are the basic general laws needed to understand the phenomenon of motion. But before we can apply them, we must agree on the meaning of terms such as state of rest, uniform motion, force, change in motion, action and reaction. This requires a frame of reference to be used and this requirement has to be made explicit. Thus we may state what can be called the Zeroth Law of Motion: One must have aframe of reference with respect to which the motion of a body is described. To talk of motion without such a frame is meaningless. Without such a frame we cannot define position, velocity, acceleration, etc .. Newton discovered his laws using a frame fixed to the Earth, or what is termed the laboratory frame of reference. What other frames are suitable? The questions below will help to clarify this issue. A stone is dropped from the top of a sailing boat's mast to the deck below. Will it land in front, behind or level with the foot of the mast if: (a) The boat is at rest on the water? (b) The boat is moving forwards at a steady speed? (c) The boat is moving backwards at a steady speed? (d) The boat is accelerating in the forward direction? (e) The boat is going round a circle at a constant speed?

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-11A student is provided with a trolley and a track as shown in the diagram below. He is required to apply different forces to the trolley, measure the corresponding accelerations and hence demonstrate the relationship between the two. Any additional normal school laboratory equipment is available for him to use.

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(ii) measure the velocity of the trolley at a point on the track as the trolley moves under the action of this applied force. List any additional apparatus that would be required. You may add to the diagram above to help your description.

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Figure 1 shows a box resting on the floor of a stationary lift. Figure 2 is a free-body force diagram showing the forces A and B that act on the box.
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For each of the following situations, tick the appropriate boxes to show how the magnitude of the forces A and B change, if at all, compared with when the lift is stationary. Force A increases no change decreases lllcreases Force B no change decreases

Situation Lift accelerating upwards Lift moving with constant speed upwards Lift accelerating downwards Lift moving with constant speed downwards

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(a) The spade is released and falls vertically. soil. (i)

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Show that the speed of the spade at this instant is approximately 3 m

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(3) (b) A heavier spade of identical shape is now dropped from the same height into the same patch of soil. Underline the correct phrase in the brackets to describe what difference, if any, there would be in the speed at impact and the acceleration in the soil compared to the lighter spade. Assume the resistive forces on both spades are the same. The heavier spade would have {a higher/a lower/the lighter spade. same} speed at impact as the

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A car is travelling at 13 m S-I. It is allowed to slow down naturally without applying the brakes. The distance travelled in coming to rest is 640 m. Show that the average deceleration of the car is about 0.1 m
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The car has a mass of 1400 kg.

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._. A small rocket is fired vertically upwards from ground level. The graph below shows how the upward speed of the rocket changes with time. The rocket burns fuel at a constant rate for several seconds and then, as the fuel runs out, the rate of burning decreases to zero in a second or two. The rocket goes straight up.

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The take-off acceleration of a high-jumper upwards. His Plass is 67 kg. b What is the ratio of this force to his weight?

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A transport plane is towing a glider, which in turn is towing a second glider. They accelerate from rest on a level runway. The plane and gliders remain in a straight line and the tow ropes are horizontal. The gliders each have a mass of 1000kg. Assume the force opposing the motion of each glider is constant at 1500 N. The plane reaches a speed of 40 m S-I after accelerating uniformly over a distance of 320 m. (a) (b) Calculate the acceleration of the plane. During the acceleration of the plane, calculate (i)
(ii) 2

the tension in the tow rope between the two gliders, the tension in the tow rope between the plane and the first glider.
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A car of weight 5000 N is parked on a hill as shown in the figure above. (a) Calculate the frictional force, F, between the locked wheels and the road surface, which stops the car fro. Moving down the slope. (b) What .inillu. coefficient of static friction is required between the rubber tyres and the road surface for the car to reMain stationary on the' slope with its handbrake on?

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(a) State. in words. Newton's second law ofrnotion relating force and momentum. (b) A student performs a laboratory experiment involving Newton's second law. A ttolley on a horizontal surface is accelerated by a falling weight hanging over a pulley which is attached to the bench. The accelerating trolley pulls a paper tape through a ticker-timer which marks dots on the tape at time intervals of 0.020s. (i) The mass of the trolley is M and that of the falling weight is m. Show that. iri the absence of friction. the acceleration, a, of the trolley is given by
a= mg

(2)

where

i is the acceleration

(M+m)

,

due to gravity.

(ii) A full-size drawing of a sample piece of tape from the experiment is shown below. The trolley is at rest at point A on the tape and is then released. Use the marked tape to show that the trolley is moving with uniform acceleration.

?...___A
(c) The table below shows a set of results from the experiment described in (b). The acceleration, a. is determined for different values of m.

l

(tOJ

mass mlkg 0.10 0.20 0.30 0040 (i) Rearrange graph of of-'
C',',)

acceleration

.

aims-2
1.40 2.45 3.27 3.92

+

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(g)

(d) A high speed lift has a mass of 500 kg and carries, in addition, a total passenger load of 400 kg. The lift accelerates from rest to a velocity of 8.0ms-' upwards in 4.0s and then moves with uniform velocity. If the lift is supported by a single cable which is pulled by an electric motor, calculate the tension in the cable when the lift is accelerating as described. (

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of accelerometer the ends of two scale is provided 0 shown in the

(a)

An accelerometer is a device which measures acceleration. A simple form is shown in the diagram. It consists essentially of a mass m attached to identical springs, the other ends of which are rigidly attached to a tube. A to measure the displacement x of the mass from its unaccelerated position diagram. In this position each spring is neither extended nor compressed.

(i) If the accelerometer has an acceleration to the right, then re-draw the diagram to

show the configuration in the tube, also showing the forces acting on the mass. Explain your reasoning. [3] (ii) If k is the spring constant (i.e. the force per unit extension) of each spring, and x is the displacement of the mass m when its acceleration is a, show that
a=-'x m

2k

[2]

(b)

(i) The accelerometer is attached to a motor car of mass 1200 kg so that its length is along the length of the car. The car starts from rest at t 0 and accelerates in a

=

straight line. Observations of x are taken at 1 s intervals for 5 s. These are shown below, together with some of the corresponding values of a.
tis xlm

o
0·100 2-40 0·080 1·92

2 0·060 1-44

3 0·040

4

5
0 0·00

0·020 0-48

aim S-2

(I) If m = 0·050 kg and k = 0·60 Nm', Show your working clearly.

calculate the value of a at t

=3

seconds. [1]

(II) Using the graph paper provided, draw the acceleration-time graph for the car. [3] (ii) From the graph, or otherwise, estimate the velocity of the car at each of the values of t and draw a velocity-time graph for the car. [6] (iii) Use the velocity-time graph to estimate the distance travelled by the car in the 5 s. [2]
(c)

Neglecting any resisting forces, estimate the average force exerted by the engine on the car. [3]

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-3tJA light string carrying a small bob of mass 5.0 x 10-2 kg hangs from the roof of a moving vehicle.
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(a) What can be said about the motion of the vehicle if the string hangs vertically? (b) The vehicle moves in a horizontal straight line from left to right. with a constant acceleration of 2.0 m 5- •
2

(i) Show in a sketch the forces acting on the bob. (ii) By resolving horizontally and vertically or by scale drawing. determine the angle which the string makes with the vertical. . (c) The vehicle moves down an incline making an angle of 30° with the horizontal with a constant acceleration of 3.0 m 5-2. Determine the angle which the string makes with the vertical.

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A man in the builder's cradle (Fig 1'1.1) is lifting himself upwards (there are safety devices not shown to prevent him falling). He has a mass of 80 kg and the cradle has a mass of 30 kg. He is pulling on the rope with a force of 600 N. Draw free-body diagrams of a the man,

(3)
(3)

FIG (9!.1 A builder's cradle, which enables a worker to move up oed down the face of a building. Various safely devices are omitted from the diagram.

You can assume that the tension in the rope is the Same at both ends of the rope, so that it exerts both a force of 600 N upwards on 'the man and a force of 600 N upwards on the cradle. c Find the acceleration of the man and the force that the man exerts on the floor of the cradle. ('J

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falls freely under gravity after being rel.eas~d from rest. Neglecting air resistance, which of the graphs m FIgure l~ I represents the variation of the height h of the body with time t. lSe.2 The graph in Figure,.Z~ 2.. shows how a trolley moved at a constant speed along a corridor. Its constant speed was A O.Sm s" 2.0m S-l C O.Sm S-2 D 2.0 m S-2

l<t./ A body

®

2'f'.~ A lunar landing module is descending to the Moon's surface at a steady
0 0

velocity of 10 m s". At a height of 120 m, a small object falls from its landing gear. If the Moon's gravitational acceleration is 1.6 m S-2, at what speed in m s -1 does the object strike the surface of the Moon? A 10.0
~ '='

Fig 2..~.1

B 19.6

@22.0

D 202

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1'.2,.

is suspended from an electromagnet attached to a trolley that is travelling as shown in Figure2~r-.at a steady speed of 1 m s :'. The trolley is illuminated by a stroboscope that flashes at a regular rate. The ball is released and a stroboscopic photograph taken using a camera that is also moving to the right at 1 m S-l.

ABo .,llectromagent UBall

Trolley

----+

1 m 5-1

The photograph

obtained is

D

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0.

Fig 2~.~

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lOWS

a ve OCIty agamst time graph for a vehicle moving in a straight

.

.

line.

velOCity!

ollQ \~I.
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B C D E

one of tl~e following is not a correct deduction from analysis of the graph alone? The vehicle returned to its starting point at t = t l' The vehicle had its maximum velocity at R. The distance travelled by the vehicle' equals the area under the graph. The vehicle started from rest at t = O. The acceleration of the vehicle at P is less than that at Q.

-33.2~.~

Figure 2y., shows the forces acting on an aircraft as it climbs at a steady speed at an angle e to the horizontal. Which one of the following is true? A lift x sin e = weight the resultant force is zero C lift x cos e = weight D the resultant force acts in the direction of the thrust

<i>

Fig.2 ~.~ 2Cf.:; A rocket is accelerating upwards through the atmosphere

Q

due to the thrust of its jets. The force required by Newton's third law to pair with the weight of the rocket is the A Earth's gravitational pull on the rocket B thrust of the jets on the air C thrust of the air on the jets rocket's gravitational pull on the Earth .ztr. 8. Figure.2 y. 8 shows a person sitting on a box that rests on the ground, together with a free-body force diagram for the box. Which of the following statements is correct?

®

p
L-rr-: ---'

®

Fig 2\$"·&

A force Q> force P + force R B P is the push of the box on the Earth C Q is the pull of the box on the Earth R is t?e push of the person ?n the box 2.~.{O.

.2'1'. r The following are sets of dimensions of physical
quantities involving the fundamental sions mass M, length L, and time T,
A

dimen-

An astronaut of mass m is launched from the surface of the Earth in a capsule having an initial vertical acceleration of 4g, where g is the acceleration of free fall. The initial push of the capsule on the astronaut

ML2 T-2 MLT-2 ML-1 T-2 MT-2 ML
-I

is A
zero
mg 3mg 4mg

®
C
D E

B

C
T-1

®
2~((

D

Smg

Which one of the above is the dimension of force

A small smooth sphere is released from rest just b~low the surface of the liquid in a tall vessel of large dtam,ete:. T~e sphere. whose density exceeds that of the liquid, IS observed until it reaches its terminal speed, During the period acceleration is
A

of observation.

its downward

constant positive positive negative zero

and positive and increasing and decreasing

B

@
D

E

•. /'?1=

2.~.a.-.2y.ly
A

=

Directions

Summarized

40N

B 1,2
only

C 2,3
only

D 1
only

E 3
only
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The diagram hows a force of 40 N acting at 30° to the horizonta on a body of mass 5 kg resting on a smooth hori ontal surface. Assuming that the acceleration f free fall is 10m s - 2, which of the following sta ments is (are) correct? 1 The horizontal The weight downwards.

1,2,3
correct

SatJ

force acting on the body is 20 N. acts vertically on 'the body is

of the 5-kg mass force

Ground The diagram above shows a man pushing a box towards the right at a steady speed. Which of the following is true 7 . 1 The frictional force of the ground is towards the left. The' frictional force of the ground is towards the left. box on the

The net vertical 30N.

(SJ

acting

o

I Two forces, of 9 Nand 5 N respectiv:ly, act on a body. If the directions of the forces can, be changed which of the following resultant forces could be produced?

man

on the

@
(l)
3

14N 4N 5N

@) The

frictional force of the man on the ground is equal in magnitude to the frictional force of the box on the ground. ~]