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Chapter 1 :Tables,Charts and Graph Graphis Aid in Business Commnuication Tables - Commonly used for presenting data

. -Convenient for presenting lot of data -Giving absolute value when precision is very important - not predominantly visual,reader’s mind must translate each number into relationship with every other number.  Bar Graphs - uses bar of equal witdth in varying length to present  comparison of item at one particular time comparison of item over time. change in one oem over time or comparison of portions of a sinle item - the horizontal and vertical axes represent the two element being ilustrated Such time and quality -extend in either a verticaland horizontal directioncannot represent exact quantities or provide comparison of quantities as precisely as table can. -appear on both sides of the axis to indicate positive and negative quantities --useful for reader who want to understand overall trends and comparison.  Pictographs - a variationmof bar graph that uses sysbols instead of bar to illustrate specific quanties of item. - the symbol should realiscally correspond the item,such as a cow representing milk production. - provide novelty and eyes-catching appeal,particularly in document intended for customers. -Limited,because symbol cannot adequately represent exact figures or fraction.  Line Graphs -uses a line between the horizontal and vertical axes to show change in the relationship between the elements represent by the two axes. -usually plot changes in quantity or in position . - particularly useful for illustrating trends. - three or four line representing different item can appear on the same graph for comparison. -the line mus distinguished by colour or design,and key must identify them  Pie Charts - circle representing in whole unit,with the segments of the circle or pie,representing portion of the whole. - often used to indicated distribution trends, - particularly good at providing a quick visual impression of a particular item - sometime difficult to represent exact quantities. - useful if the whole unit has between three and ten segments. - colours and shading are used to highlight segment of special important,or separate one segment from the pie for emphasis. - start the largest segment at the 12 o‘clock position and follow clockwise with the remainding segment in desending order. Graphis Type of Data Strength Weaknesses Aid Table For numbers Able to provide Difficult to data very precise data show trends or direction in the data Bar Very good for Cannot  comparison Graphs depicting overall present exact of item at one trens and quantities or particular time provide comparison of comparisons precise item over time. comparison of change in one quantities

oem over time or comparison of portions of a single item Pictograph Change in one item over time Novelty and eyes catching appeal Cannot adequately represent exact figures or fraction Cannot represent exact quantities Difficult to represent exact quantities

Line Graph Pie Chart

Change in quantity or in position For showing distributions trends

Particularly useful for illustrating trend Particularly good at providing a quick visual impression

GANTT CHARTS - used for sheculing and tracking the key events and steps that are necessary to complete a project. - shows the steps involved in a project and their relationship over time. UNIT 2 : LISTENING AND SPEAKING CHAPTER 3 : DISCUSSION AND MEETING MEETING - usually held to enable people to exchange information,discuss ideas and make decisions. - to ensure that meeting achieves its purpose,every participant has to contribute actively. Items Languace expressions Starting a meeting Well,Ladies and gentlemen,I think we should…. If everyone has here,we can start.. Shall we start? Introducting the Today , we need to talk about.. agenda Let us look at the first item on the agenda.. The first item on the agenda is.. Starting objectives The purpose of this meeting is…first, to..and secondly.. The main objective of our meeting is… Keeping the Could you tell us more about.. meeting moving Shall we continue… Closing the Does anyone have anything else to add.. meeting If that’s all,we can stop here.. EXPRESSING OPINION  an important part of meeting is asking ang giving opinion. Items/Expressing Languace expressions Opinion Asking For Would you mind telling me what you think Opinion of.. What do you think about…. What’s your opinion of….. What your feel about……. What are your views on……. Any comments..? Giving An Opinion I think that… I feel/believe that… In my opinion/view… My opinion is that… My point of view is.. Expressing Agreement Languace expressions Strong Neutral
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we rely on non verbal communication cues or non verbal languace to get the message across to our audience. Useful for narratives.interesting.. b.such as your superiors.EFFECTIVE OPENING LINES  helps to create the right impression and capture attention.. That’s out of the question. d. Any suggestions? We should… What are your view on this? It might be a good idea to. this rfer to our posture.I quite agree..talk to tour colleagues or peers and conduct your own brainstrorming session to get a comprehensive understanding of the topic.  smile. Of course not.as well the positive and negative aspects of subject or topic. I think you’re right. I’m in complete agreement..AUDIENCE AWARENESS  an important to remember when giving a talk or presentation is to focus on the needs and temperament of the audience. Draw branches leading from the central idea and develop each section using sub-branches.  help audience follow your ideas more closely ang prevent boredom.processes or series of events.nod and move your arms moderately or only when necessary. Used of Organizational Pattern  Outlined and presented according to a specific organizational pattern. Exactly.sequences. Comparison-Contrast Order  organize the information according to the similarities and/or difference between the various subject you wish to talk about.. Some of the rules you may wish to follow is : maintain frequent eyes contact with everyone in the room.it is important to  optimize on your expertise also for this audience. That’s true. Successful presentation you ought to ask yourself about : why am I giving this presentation what do I hope to achive? how much does the audience already know about the subject? what are some of the visual aid I can use to make point? what kind of audience is going to see and hear the presentation? how can I make my talk interesting? PLANNING PLAN Structure of Subject Matter A begin by gathering all your thought on the topic. What do you recommend? I would suggest that we. suggestion. Cause-effect Order  organizes information according to the cause and effect of anactions or initiative Problem-solution Order  your talk will focus on a sequence of problem and their respective solutions. That’s right. On the contrary..  ridicule – they may think you a making fun of them or assuming the are poorly informed.  add the meaning ang effectiveness of your talk.definitely. Topical Order Useful when you have a number of specific topics or subtopic for your talk..it is important to note that how you present yourself is as important as what you present.. You’re right there. That ridiculous. Expressing Disagreement Languace expressions Strong Neutral I disagree completely. Non Verbal-Communication Very often.  If the audience is made up of senior organization. Neutral: I think we should.you may begin with the most important topic and lead the least important. I think you are wrong. That’s not how I ses it.. I disagree. Making and Asking for Suggestion Languace expressions Making request for Making suggestion & suggestion recommendation I’d like to hear some of your Strong : We must.logical frame work MIND MAPING develop your theme by writing the central idea on the centre of a page. Today I’m going to give a presentation on the computer communication Network in our organization.  the audience should not spend a lot of time reading or interpreting the visual.Some of the difference ways doing this are describe as followed :Chronological Order using time as a framework. Appropriate Visual Aids The use of appropriate Visual Aids can make your talk more persuasive . By the end on my talk you will realize how these new computer save time and money.. c. example :-The way you smiles in response to a question from a member of the Audience may send one of the following messages : friendliness – the audience may think you do not mind being questioned.you will have to be well prepared and present an assertive and posoitive front. Spatial Order  used for describing building.even when you are pointing out to something the have or something they are reading CHAPTER 5 : THE LANGUACE OF BUSINESS WRITING 2 . Example : Let me begin with a story on computer communication networks. What would you suggest? Tentative : It might be a good idea I’d like to hear yours ideas to… on this? Do you have any I recommended that we should. I agree… Yes.places or locations. CHAPTER 4 : PRESENTATION MAKING A PRESENTATION  When making a presentation. sort out all idea into a clear. read. I don’t agree.do some research. Structure of Presentation The structure of presentation involves a number of different aspects of interpersonal communication.and professional. I wouldn’t say that.  maintain voice control so that you are neither shouting nor speaking too Softly  maintain a reasonable distance from indidual members of the audience. suggestions? I think we should….The most common of these are describe as follows:a.how we move and what we do with our arms feet and eyes during delivering.. Precisely.

 in business writing it is important that your message Icommunicated to receiver without misintrepretasion.  mr and mrs – identify gender.then an attention line would hasten the n Line process. Short sentence are easier to read and communicate the message more clearly. Double spacing is recommended between the date and the salutation. the layout of letter provides the frame for the body of your letter. using a variety of sentences. Subject should be no more than 10 words. The essential parts will be details.however.therefore and as will help to make more coherent. Date more common way writing the date 4 August 2000. PARTS OF A LETTER Part of explaination a Letter gives information on the writer. appropriate sentence length and proper paragraphing will prevent ambiguity. GRAMMAR : WORD ORDER IN SENTENCES When contructing different type of sentences. An aggressive and patronizing tone as in ”How could you have allowed a stop payment cheque” “We note that stop payment cheque has been allowed” convey the same idea in a non threatening manner. selecting appropriate words will contribute to a courteous tone and clarity.g.  business writing is considered a specialized type of writing. The attention line is added two spaces below the last line of the inside address.on the other hand may sound jerk and monotonous to the reader. most business organization use company stationer Letterhe with a letterhead with include these detail ad Often the telex.choose words that are familiar to tou reader and be concise and get to the point quickly.the organization he/she present the address and telephone number. Unnecessary word/cliches Better expression/word On the occasion When A number of different Various The majority of Most Wise words of wisdom Wise Completely eliminate Eliminate Your good self You At this point Now Reside Live Optimum Best Terminate End Beg to acknowledge recept of terminate SENTENCE STRUCTURE readability and punctuation are important of sentence structure.word become a permanent record and the document cannot be deleted once it has reached the customer.  miss and mrs – convey maritial status. avoid using clichés as they are over used and lack impact. encourage. Line placed after the greeting.  identifies the letter’s subject or purpose. Dear Madam or Dear Sir – would mean you do not know the receiver’s name and add to the formality.coherent and unambiguous Complete Contain all necessary details Concise Has relevant detail only Considerate Aware of the receiver Courteous Tactful and sensitive Concrete Not vague or abstract correct Specific detail. The name or expression is often precedeby title that Greeting distinguish people by gender or marital status. ms – reserved for women whose marital status is unknown or if the receiver would prefer to be adressein that manner. staff or workforce.grammar.but also on how well you construct your paragraphs.a style that iis reader-friendly and aim to get the message across easily and quickly.attention to the order of information will help in paragraphing. the use of logical connectors such as while.About languace  communication tool that expresses meaning and gives form ideas.facsimile numbers and email adresss are also included Also provided reference for use when the need arise placed between the letterhead and the inside address.uses non sexiest languace e. general rule in business correspondence is to keep sentences within a lent of between 15 and 20 words. Long sentence may cause confusion and the point of the letter may be lost to the reader. Business writing gneraly has three function. to persuade TONE effective business communication depends on choice of word and order information in paragraphs to convey the right tone.  placed after the date and before the greeting or salutation.instead of manpower.it is important to bear in mind that sentences should be complete. 3 . the subject is the person or thing affected by the action or situation.where the message sent by the sender is received by the intended and act on accordingly. CHOICE OF WORDS when choosing words.namely  to inform  to instruct……. Inside contains the name of the addressee and/or Adress designation and the company address.feeling and event as you transmit them to others. SEVEn CS Characteristics Description of effective communication Clear Readable. placed two line below the inside address or the attention line as the case may be. PARAGRAPH STRUCTURE  The coherence and cohesion of your writing will depend not only on your choice pf words and sentences structure. the style of the letter can be varied to reduce formality depending on familiarity with the receiver.. the use of jargon is unnecessary unless it is familiar to the reader.punctuation & spelling CHAPTER 6 : THE FORMAT OF BUSINESS LETTERS  Sucessful business letter is one that elicits the desired response. in written documents.. Suitable word or expression to replace the following unnecessary words or clichés. in term of gender bias and gender issue.which would ensure effective communication . officaildom requires that all letters are addressed to the management but if have information about the specific section or person who would be responsible Attentio for resonding.

 a used with a/an  can be used in the plural(diaries. modified block layout  centred the sender’s address. Commonly.a factory.clichés. it is written to match the way the receiver thinks rather than the way the writer thinks. Except for the signature.good news and neutral letter are written for the purpose of giving information or asking for information. should be close with “ Yours faithfully” followed by the sender signature. LAYOUT helps to create a good impression of the company you are representing.a photo A receptionist. the open style does not use punctuation except in the body of the letter 2.industries.shopping.crashes if the final consonant of a noun is followed by –y. a gallon.jobsharing. Bad news Letters.using plain English. 5.these.detail.  inside address (receiver name and address) and the greeting are placed against the left hande margin and so each paragraph.then close with “Your sincerely” refers to the writer’s signature.explain the situasition. decide on purpose of letter ask yourself why you are writing this letter and stayed focused on this purpose. The middle section -refered to as the body of the letter.a number of UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS  Subtance : gas.well organized and meet the need of the receiver.glass. 4. decide what you want to say only include information relevant to the purpose 1.minutes. -May contain one or more of the following inquiry request reply to an inquiry/request acknowledgement of receipt of letter introduction of self and organization information about organization’s service and activities granting a loan or extending credit confirming success at an interview special offer for valued customers.the others detail are typewritten. 3.plastic . a a litre.  poorly written business letter can cause misunderstanding and this puts the company’s finance and reputation at stake.if the noun ends in –s. 6. GOOD NEWS AND NEUTRAL BUSINESS LETTER.oil.iron.it changed into – ies . Neutral Letters 3.They are 1.Body Compli mentary Close Signatur e three parts to the body including the opening and closing.namely :1.water  many abtract idea: health.ch.memos. 7 steps as your ckeck list for writing a good business document :7.safety  verbal noun : branstorming. write the first draft. orderall idea n point form  arrange according to the order of information appreciate for Purpose. PUNCTUATION STYLE There are two style of punctuating a business letter.a pound.name and position or job.  the complimentary close and signature block are centred in line with the writer’s address and the date. -the ending indicates specific action the reader has to take and closes courteously to maintain goodwill. CHAPTER 7 : BUSINESS LETTER GOOD BUSINES LETTER  should be well planned and not written in haste.timing.a letter.-sh -letters.. 4 GRAMMAR : SINGULAR AND PLURAL FORM COUNTABLE NOUNS  Are individual things : people and places : a diary.boxes. three type of layout:1. modified layout with indented paragraph. note down all idea in point form this is to ensure you have included all revelant point and are Not replying on memory alone. The opening paragraph -catch the reader attention.restructing.  more conservative style of layout 3.the first line of each paragraph is indented. use the same format as modified block except that.  follow word such as many. Good News Letter 2.gold.unfamiliar words and long structure.deliveries.the sender’s professional image and important of communication.a good news letter will follow the direct order of information as outlined by the following : identify the letter’s purpose in the subject line or opening paragraph.profitability.  an effective letter expresses its purpose clearly.bunches. 2. full block layout has all the parts of the lettetr aligned against the left-hand margin 2. a kilo. -should prompt the reader to take desired action.or align it with the right-hand margin.  place the good news in the opening paragraph. Genarally . TYPES OF LETTER Letters generally fall into 3 categories.progress.and state intention.  it is the responsibility of the sender to impress upon the receiver.  are unit of measurement such a metre.  the date is placed straight underneath and in line with the sender’s address. PLURAL NOUNS add –s to form the plural most nouns. . a memo.-x.name and job title/designation if the received is used in the greeting . the mixed style places a comma after the greeting and after the complimentary close.Contain detail appropriate to the purpose of the communication. Including rammar and spelling. should match the form of address used in the greeting.relevance. rewrite if necessary check against the appreciate order of information. read the letter to ensure that you will achieve the purpose  the receiver should be able to respond in the manner Intended.humour.few .classes. avoid jargon.several.

E-MAIL AND FAXES MEMORANDUM A memo. LETTER OF INQUIRY A letter of inquiry is written when we need to ask for more information concerning a product or service that interests us. Persuasive letter have a specific plan and format of writing so that the reader will be persuaded enough to take the desired action. sent to multiple receivers forward to other user printed have replied automatically generated.within a company. They rarely go out to clients.we often need more information before making a decision about. Open with courteous. it allow the writer to canvey detailed or difficult information logically and accurately.We may have heard or read about the product or service in an advertisement in the newspaper.blocked to the left margin. also categorized as a neutral letter is written .or to consider an application for work. CHAPTER 8: MEMOS. -A net address contains the user’s ID at side or domain. Reference intial ( optional) Attachment notation DISTRIBUTION LIST include when memo is sent to a group rather than an individual. -Useful expression and key phrases you can use when responding to an inqury. -It maintain and promote goodwill between the writer and the receiver.that is an internal piece of communication and part of company procedure. delivery confirmed files attached NETIQUETTE -refer to etiquette on the net. Purchasing the product. From… Date… Subject Body written in short paragraph.This may followed by the explaination before giving the bad news. Difficult letter to write because it must convey bad news to the reader and yet maintain the receiver goodwill. -The domain identifies the organization running the site and the kind of site. a request or writing a letter of acknowledgement :Thank you for your request for information  if I can help in any others way.  message can be spell-checkked. -a professional email message should be courteous and confident. Memo are passed internally. NET ADDRESSES -Net addresses must be accurately written.You may uses the following :open with courteous opening explain the situasition fully state the bad news close with positive paragraph. INDIRECT ORDER OF INFORMATION The receiver need to be guided through a bad news letter so that he/she reads the explaination for the bad news.please let me know we thank you for your interest in this couse and wish you well in your career I will be happy to answer any question you may have regarding I appreciate I am pleased to be able to fill this order for you BAD NEWS LETTER A bad news letter communicates unwelcome news to the reader. OVERVIEW OF PART OF A MEMO Heading To.by a company letterhead.request for action. Mail application offer a number of options likes. state the detail thet support the good news in the middle paragraph  close with statement of goodwill. The reader must be interested enough and motivated enough to respond to the letter..pay an overdue account. A Memorandummis an internal form of communication that is sent within the organization. it takes little time to construct because it is informal yet provides a written record for filing and reference.It is a means by which managers correspond within employee and vice versa. Bad news letter may be written for the following reasons :refuse credit refuse a request decline to speak at a function notify an unsuccessful job applicant explain inability to fulfill an order.It is less formal than a letter but it still regarded as a serious document and it almost always carefully filled A memo may communicate informationexplain new proceduresannounce changesmakes requestconfirm results offer advise. -the organization suffix at the end of the email address identifies the type of organization com-commercial business org-non profit organization gov-government organization net-companies or organization thet run large network mil-government and military organization ADDRESSING E-MAIL 5 . uses the good news letter format LETTER OF REPLY TO AN INQUIRY Your choice depends on the purpose of the inqury and the relationship you want to establish between the receiver and the sender.It aims to persuade the reader to buy a product. stored without being sent copied. Names list at the bottom o -alphabetical order or rank order -indended to the first tab EMAIL Electronic communication is one of the fastest growing trends in the world.policies and procedures.or memorandum is form of written business communication. THE ADVANTAGE OF A MEMO the same message is communicated accurately to many people at the same time. it can indicate.It sent via intranet (LAN) and via the World Wide World.neutral opening that acknowledges the original request. PERSUASIVE LETTER A persuasive letter is written to influence the reader in some way.One incorrect digit or letter will send the mail to the wrong location. amagazine or a commercial on the TVHowever.WWW.Memo are filed as a record of announcements. The electronic mail is a facility which enabale an individual to create a message within a mail application on a computer.

prepare. position and/or organizationa. make a match between what you have to offer and the potencial employer’s need.Start with the most recent work experience that match potential employer’s need.letter or memo formatting.supervise..one or more names can be selected and automatically enter into the “to” field Your name /date/from also automatically shown.uses advertisement’s as guide for specific function.  Please accept this letter this letter as an expression of interest in the position….qualifications.iniate. first task is to produce the main text-the part which contain an introduction to the findings.report.install.Highlight strength with action words(verbs) such as achieve. SHORT REPORT LAYOUT places information on the page in a way that is easy to understand. FORMAL REPORT contain the following  a title page which includes the title of the report.com LAYOUT The layout of an email message is the frame from your message.recipient’s name. TYPES OF SHORT REPORT Justification report Presents a course of action or idea and then uses evidence to explain why something either should or has been done Progress report Used to provide information on a project’s progress and forecast timetable for the future.experience and achievement .followed by subheadings to highlight job functions. persuade your potential employer to consider the application carefully introduce yourself and ask for an interview. GUIDELINE FOR WRITING A COVER LETTER Opening paragraph use one of the following to draw the reader’s attention to what you want to offer and the job applying for: Summarize the opening  Name the opening  Requset an opening  Question the availability of an opening  Middle paragraph  education  work experience  ability to work with others and/or alone  interest in your field  interest in the company  responsibilities in previous positions Closing Paragraph  in the last paragraph. TYPE OF RESUME Three type of resume Basic resume Include all normal parts of resume.By pointing and clicking the mouse. SHORT REPORT  contain the following  a clear indication of your purpose  accurate and objective information  a suitable order oof information which highlight the main point and leads logically to your conclusion appropriate formal short repor.convenien and flexibility.the body of your finding.your conclusion and recommendation.which include your education. WRITING LONG REPORT Formal report are major document written to provide comprehensive information and expert opinion. -more convenience than email because any sheet of paper can be put through a fax machine and used by companies with no computers or internet connection.Also sometime reffered to as curriculum bitae or CV. CHAPTER 9 : COVER LETTER AND RESUMES The letter of application is the covering letter for your job application. can serve various purpose.adapt.writer name and position and the date. Funcional Resume Uses a different order of presentation to highlight a wide range of skills and work experience.work experience.  I wish to apply for the position of….with emphasis on qualification.apart from the sender.hobby and interest. specific resume Prepare for specific job. It summary of your personal data.the letter should be 1-2 page in length and accompanied by a resume or curriculum vitae. PRESENTATION 6 . -fast as telephone call to send and because of their speedrelatively cheap.present experiences in term of criteria advertised.skill.or by using arrow keys and then pressing the enter key. USEFUL KEY PHRASES Some useful key phrases  I am writing to you in response to yo advertisement for….suitable for school leaver or those who have little experience. Acceptable minimum part for an email message are as follows:receiver name sender’s name subject Date body e-mail address at least one other way. Ideally. an introduction sections which heading in the body conclusion recommendations ( when required) attachments are included if their information is useful. FAXES -Are well-established means of communication in modern business and are widely used because of their speed. Example – qatinazahra@yahoo. RESUME The resume is a document that contains all your qualifications. The cover letter serves to :draw attention to relevant qualification and experience listed in the resume.refernces.inpect oor make.skill and experience particularly relevant to the job.but it simpler and shorter. CHAPTER 10: BUSINESS REPORT Planning and writing report are important skill which may be expected of most working adults.Make it easy for the reader to follow up by providing your telephone number and e-mail address.you can request for an interview stating that you will be happy to come to the employer’s office when convenient. Periodic report Used to keep management informed at regular interval by providing information on some aspect to the organization’s operation over a specific period.

Presentation is the arrangement of information on the page. Presentation of document are :heading underline indentation shading Numberedd list or sections.(Set as separate sections) conclusion summarizes and evaluates the report’s main facts. has conventional rules with some flexibility depending on the formality of the communication.as inreport spaced between paragraph.Short.left and right margin header and footer PART OF A LONG REPORT The front matter Title page Letter of transmittal Table of contents The body ( Main text) Introduction Discussion and analysis of finding Development of idea Conclusion Recommendation The end matter References Appendices Three main part introductory section begin with the purpose statement that defines the report’s main task or topic central Section : Body of Text usually investigates and analyses the finding and purpose solution for any problems involved present both advantages and disanvanteges  uses eading and numbering system Final section contain the conclusion and recommendation. 7 . It create an intial impression of your organization and therefore that layout is given attention to project a professional image.Clearly state the action required.Recommendation are not need if the long report is intended as a database for others who will be responsible for planning and recommendation. has to be st out clearly and well spaced.  recommendations are the writter’s attempt to provide at least some answer.