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1. The main component to make glass is silica or silicon dioxide, SiO2. 2.

Carbonates decompose at elevated temperatures to produce metal oxides. Equation: Na 2CO3 (s)→Na2O(s)+CO2(g) CaCO3(s)→CaO(s)+CO2(g) 3. The metal oxides combine with silica to form various metal silicates. Equation:SiO2(s)+Na2O(s)→Na2SiO3(s) SiO2(s)+CaO(s)→CaSiO3(s) 4. Hence, glass is a mixture of metal silicates. 5. Silicates are compounds in which a silicon atom is bonded tetrahedrally to four oxygen atoms. The basic silicate unit is the silicate ion, SiO44-

Structure of the SiO4 tetrahedron of the SiO446. In glass, the SiO4 tetrahedras bond together by sharing oxygen atoms to build up a giant non-regular three-dimensional structure containing Si-O-Si linkages .Sodium ions and calcium ions balance the negatively-charged silicate ions.

Quartz glass

Electric insulator Resistant to chemicals Heat insulator Nonporous Common Properties of Glass Easy to clean Hard but brittle Transparent Can withstand compression Types of glass Composition Properties Uses .

Photochromic glass -created by adding silver chloride and copper(I) chloride to glass -used to make photochromic lenses which darken on exposure to sunlight and protect the eyes from ultraviolent rays. .Fused glass Silicon dioxide High transparency High melting point Great purity Chemical durability Low melting point Easily moulded High thermal expansion High melting point Low thermal expansion Resistant to heat Resistant to chemical attack High density High refractive index Glass rods Quartz lenses Mirrors Optical fibres Laboratory glassware Soda-lime glass Silicon dioxide Sodium oxide Calcium oxide Window glass Bottles Light bulbs Borosilicate glass Silicon dioxide Sodium oxide Calcium oxide Boron oxide Cooking wares Laboratory glass wares Lead crystal glass Silicon dioxide Sodium oxide Lead(II) oxide Prism High reflective lenses Decorative glasswares Special glasses 1.

The word 'ceramic' means hardened by heat or heat resistant. Ceramics are a class of non-metal materials. using light waves that pass through the fibre 4. Optical fibre -a pure silica glass thread that conducts light -transmit information such as telephone and television signals over long distances without distortion and loss of signal. Conducting glass -made by coating a layer of conducting material. indium stanum oxide(ITO) -used in making of liquid crystal display (LCD) panels 3. hardness and resistance to heat and chemical attacks compared to organic polymers. which are better electrical and thermal insulators than metals. Bioglass -adding phosphorous pentoxide in the making of soda-limeglass -used as coating in surgical implants What are ceramics??? 1. 2.2. . They have greater rigidity.

exterior of space shuttles Plates. cement Lining for high temperature furnaces nuclear reactors. tiles. bowls. porcelain. wall tiles Reason Hard and strong Can withstand high pressure and heat Ornamental articles Resistant to chemicals. resistant to corrosion and long lasting . vase. cups.Strong Resistant to heat Hard but brittle Resistant to c chemicals Electric insulator Properties of Ceramics Able to withstand compression Uses of Ceramics Uses Construction materials Examples Bricks.

2. able to withstand compression Special ceramics 1. resistant to corrosion and chemicals. spark plugs Good electric and heat insulator Semiconductors Microchips Have semi conducting properties and can store charge Medical field Artificial limbs. toasters . for examples valves and cams. bones. teeth Hard. Perovskites.YBa2Cu3O7 was found to conduct electricity at 95 K. ovens. Boron nitride. .fuses. silicon nitride and carbon nitride are used to build parts in car engines which are subjected to wear and high temperatures.Electric insulators Electric irons.

Similarities and differences between glasses and ceramics How are they alike? -Hard -Brittle -Strong under compression -Don not corrode -Good heat insulator -Good electrical insulator -Resistant to chemical attacks How are they different? Glass Highly transparent Can be melted and remoulded Optical transparency Moulding Melting point Low Very high Ceramics Opaque Cannot be melted and remoulded .