You are on page 1of 46

Hafiz Akmal 1 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry

SULPHURIC ACID

sulphuric acid is a diprotic (dibasic) mineral acid which does not volatise.

In the pure, concentrated form, sulphuric acid is an oily, colourless liquid which is dense and viscous.

It has high boiling point, that is 270 ÛC

Hafiz Akmal 2 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry

USES OF SULPHURIC ACID

18% 1% 38% making fertiliser paints chemicals detergents 18% 13% removing dust from steel other uses

12%

Figure 1:- Uses of Sulphuric Acid, H2SO4

Hafiz Akmal 3 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry

2H2SO4 (l) + Ca3(PO4)2 (s)

Ca(H2PO4)2 (l) + 2CaSO4 (s)

superphosphate fertilisers :- it is manufactured from the reaction between sulphuric acid and calcium phosphate.

sulphuric acid: making fertiliser

Potassium Sulphate:- It is manufactured by the neutralisation of sulphuric acid potassium hydoxide

Ammonia Sulphate fertiliser:- It is manufactured by the neutralisation of sulphuric acid and ammonia

2KOH(aq) + H2SO4(aq)

K2SO4(aq) + 2H2O (l)

2NH3(aq) + H2SO4(aq)

(NH4)2SO4(aq)

Hafiz Akmal 4 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry

MANUFACTURE OF SULPHURIC ACID
y The manufacture of sulphuric acid in industry is through the contact process. y The raw materials used to manufacture the acid are sulphur, air and water. y The acid is produced in 3 stages:-

Stage 1: The production of sulphur dioxide

Stage 2: Formation of sulphur trioxide

Stage 3: Formation of sulphuric acid

for example: 4FeS2 (s) + 11O2 (g) 2Fe2O3 (s) + 8SO2 (g) SO2 is a side-product in the extraction of the metal. S (s) + O2 (g) SO2 (g) b) Heating sulphides in air. [Fe2O3 is reduced to iron with coke] Zinc pyrites can also be heated in air as follows: 2ZnO (s) + 3O2 (g) 2SO2 (g) + 2ZnO (s) .Hafiz Akmal 5 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry STAGE 1: THE PRODUCTION OF SULPHUR DIOXIDE a) This can be obtained through two methods:a) Heating liquid sulphur with hot air in a furnace. iron.

Hafiz Akmal 6 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry STAGE 2: FORMATION OF SULPHUR TRIOXIDE a) Pure. c) Excess air is used to ensure higher percentage of SO3 produced. The conditions ensure the maximum production of sulphur trioxide: 2SO2 (g) + O2 (g) 2SO3 (g) b) The reaction takes place in a heat converter.550ÛC and a pressure of 1 atmosphere. . dry sulphur dioxide is mixed with dry oxygen in excess and passed over vanadium(V) oxide. V2O5 as catalyst at a temperature of 450ÛC .

. H2S2O7. oleum will not show any property of an acid. SO3 (g) + H2SO4 (aq) H2S2O7 (l) b) The product.5%. SO3 (g) + H2O (l) H2SO4 (aq) e) However. H2S2O7 (l) + H2O (l) 2H2SO4 (l) d) The reaction in (a) and (b) is equivalent to dissolving sulphur trioxide in water. c) Water is then added to the oleum to produce concentrated sulphuric acid.Hafiz Akmal 7 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry STAGE 3: FORMATION OF SULPHURIC ACID a) The sulphur trioxide is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid to form a product called oleum. this reaction is not carried out in industry. oleum will not ionise without the presence of water. This is because. f) It produces a large cloud of sulphuric acid mist. This is because the reaction is too vigorous. This mist is corrosive and pollutes the air. This is carried out until the concentrated sulphuric acid has reached a concentration of 99.

1 atm Burnt in air Oleum H2S2O7 Sulphur trioxide SO3 Sulphur dioxide SO2 concentated sulphuric acid. V2O5. H2SO4 Sulphur Figure 2:.Hafiz Akmal 8 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry CONTACT PROCESS: Water Concentrated H2SO4 O2 . 450ÛC.Flow chart of Contact Process .

Hafiz Akmal 9 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry The industrial process in the Manufactured of Sulphuric Acid .

Hafiz Akmal 10 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry USES OF AMMONIA IN INDUSTRY: Examples are ammonium sulphate. To prevent the coagulation of latex in the rubber industry It neutralizes the organic acids formed by microorganisms in latex. 4NO2 (g) + O2 (g) + H2O (l) 4HNO3 (aq) Nitric acid is manufactured from ammonia before being used to make explosive like trinitrotoluene (TNT). liquefied ammonia makes a good cooling agent in refrigerators and air conditioners. Ammonia is converted to nitric acid in the Ostwald process: 1) To manufacture nitric acid in industry 2) 3) ammonia is first oxidised to nitrogen monoxide. in this case. a) To manufacture explosive b) . by oxygen in the presence of platinum as catalyst at 900ÛC. NO. 4NH3 (g) + 5O2 (g) Pt/900ÛC 4NO (aq) + 6H2O (l) nitrogen monoxide is further oxidised to nitrogen dioxide. thereby preventing coagulation and preserving the latex in liquid form. ammonium nitrate and urea. is reacted with organic substances like toluene. The reaction involved are as the following: a) 2NH3 (g) + H2SO4 (aq) (NH4)2SO4 (s) ammonium sulphate b) NH3 (g) + HNO3 (aq) NH4NO3 (aq) ammonium nitrate c) 2NH3 (g) + CO2 (g) (NH2)2CO (s) + H2O (l) urea To manufacture nitrogenous fertilisers As a cooling agent Having a low melting point. 2NO (g) + O2 (g) 2NO2 (g) Nitrogen dioxide and oxygen are dissolved in water to produced nitric acid. Nitric acid. The first two are prepare through neuralisation but urea is produced by the reaction of ammonia with carbon dioxide.

ammonia chloride. 2.1 mol dm sodium hydroxide solution. red litmus paper. Bunsen burner. The apparatus as shown in Figure 3 is set up . distilled water. stoppers. calcium hydroxide. delivery tube. Ph paper. concentrated hydrochloric acid. 0. Apparatus:y Test tubes. glass rod.Hafiz Akmal 11 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry EXPERIMENT TO INVESTIGATE THE PROPERTIES OF AMMONIA Aim:y To investigate the properties of ammonia Material:y 0.1 mol dm ammonia solution. soda lime. Some ammonium chloride is mixed with some calcium hydroxide. Procedure:a) Preparation of ammonia gas: 1. U-tube. beaker.

Hafiz Akmal 12 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry 3. The colour and physical state of ammonia are observed. 3. The test tubes containing ammonia gas must be closed with stoppers. c) Colour. The ammonia gas produced is collected in a few test tubes. . 4. All observation are recorded. A test tube containing ammonia gas is inverted into a beaker of water. smell and solubility of ammonia: 1. physical state. 2. b) Alkalinity of ammonia: 1.0 cm of 1 mol ammonia solution and 5 cm of 0. A piece of pH paper is dipped into the solution in each test tube. 5. The pH values of both solution are recorded. The mixture is heated 4. 2. The stopper of a test tube containing ammonia gas is removed and the smell of the gas is identified. 3.1 mol dm sodium hydroxide solution are poured into two separate test tubes.

One end of a glass rod is dipped into concentrated hydrochloric acid.Hafiz Akmal 13 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry d) Density of ammonia: 1. a piece of moist red litmus paper is put at the mouth of each test tube as shown in figure 5. 3. . 2. e) Chemical property of ammonia: 1. 4. A test tube containing ammonia gas is held upright and another test rube containing ammonia gas is held upside down. 3. The stopper of the two test tubes are removed. The glass rod is then put on top of a test tube of ammonia gas. The colour of the red litmus paper is recorded. 2. After 20 seconds. Any change taking place is observed.

Moist red litmus paper under the inverted test tube turns blue Inference y ammonia is weak alkali y sodium hydroxide is a strong alkali y ammonia is a colourless gas with a pungent smell y ammonia is very soluble in water b) y c) y y y y d) y y Ammonia gas has escaped from the upright test tube and thus is slightly less dense than air e) y Dense white fumes are formed y Ammonia react with hydrogen chloride gas to form ammonium chloride .Hafiz Akmal 14 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry Observation :Section y Observation pH of ammonia solution is 10 pH of sodium hydroxide solution is 14 colourless gas pungent smell water rushed up and fills up the whole test tube moist red litmus paper on top of the upright test tube does not change colour.

It react with hydrogen chloride gas to form dense white fumes of ammonium chloride . ionize partially in water to form ammonium ions and hydroxide NH3 (g) + H2O (l) = NH4+ (aq) + OH.Hafiz Akmal 15 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry Discussion:y Ammonia is a weak alkali and has a pH of 10 y Ammonia is a colourless gas with a pungent smell y Ammonia is very soluble in water. colourless gas with a pungent smell.(aq) y Ammonia is slightly less dense than air y Ammonia react with hydrogen chloride gas to form ammonium chloride NH3 (g) + HCl (g) = NH4Cl (s) Conclusion:y Ammonia is an alkaline. It is very soluble in water and is less dense in than air.

Hafiz Akmal 16 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry HABER PROCESS .

Hafiz Akmal 17 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry The manufacture of ammonia through the Haber Process .

0 cm of ammonia solution:1.0 cm pipette. Material:y 1 mol dm-2 sulphuric acid. 2.0 cm of 2 mol dm-3 ammonia solution is transferred by a pipette to a clean conical flask. 2 mol dm-3 ammonia solution. 25. Three drops of methyl orange indicator are added to the alkali. retort stand and clamp. Procedure:a) Determining the volume of sulphuric acid that will neutralize 25. burette. beaker.Hafiz Akmal 18 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry PREPARATION OF AMMONIA FERTILISER Aim:y To prepare ammonium sulphate. white tile. filter paper Apparatus:y 25. glass rod. wire gauze. filter funnel. Bunsen burner. tripod stand. The solution turns yellow. evaporating dish. methyl orange. conical flask. .

. 5. The conical flask with its content is placed on a white tile below the burette as shown in figure 6 below. The volume of acid needed to completely neutralize the 25. The initial burette reading is recorded.0 cm of 2 mol dm-3 ammonia solution is calculated. 6. The final burette reading is recorded. 4. Let this volume V cm. The conical flask is swirled gently throughout the titration.Hafiz Akmal 19 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry 3. The addition of sulphuric acid is stopped when the indicator changes from yellow to orange. A clean burette is filled with 1 mol dm-2 sulphuric acid and clamped to a retort stand. The sulphuric acid is added slowly into the conical flask. 7.

3. saturated salt solution is left to cool for crystallization to occur. Observation:y A colourless solution is formed when sulphuric acid is added to ammonia solution. 5.Hafiz Akmal 20 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry b) Preparation ammonium sulphate salt:- 1. 4. The mixture in the conical flask is transferred to an evaporating dish and heated until a saturated solution is formed.0 cm of 2 mol dm-3 ammonia solution is pipetted into a clean conical flask. No indicator is added. V cm of 1 mol sulphuric acid is added from the burette to the ammonia solution. The crystal of ammonium sulphate formed are filtered. y The crystal obtained are white in colour . The hot. 2. ashed and dried between sheets of filter paper. 25.

y The first titration is carried out to determine the exact volume of sulphuric acid required to completely neutralize the 25. y The ammonium sulphate solution should not be heated until dryness because ammonium sulphate decomposes when it is overheated. y The salt solution in the first titration is discarded because it is contaminated by methyl orange. y Other ammonium salt such as ammonium nitrate can be prepared from the reaction between nitric acid and ammonium solution. y The weight of ammonium sulphate obtained from the activity is always less than the theorical value. Conclusion:y Ammonium sulphate and other ammonium fertilizers can be prepared by neutralizing ammonia solution with the respective acids.0 cm of ammonia solution. This is because some of the salt is not fully crystallized out and still remains in the solution. .Hafiz Akmal 21 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry Discussion:y The equation for the reaction is: H2SO4 (aq) + 2NH4OH (aq) (NH4)2SO4 (aq) + 2H2O (l) y Methyl orange is an acid-base indicator used to determine the end point of the titration.

Hafiz Akmal 22 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PURE METAL .

Hafiz Akmal 23 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry PROPERTIES OF AMMONIA y y Ammonia turns the damp red litmus paper blue. 2NH3 + H2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 . K+. c lurless and pungent gas y Aqueous solutions of ammonia react with metal ions (except Na+. The gas is less dense than air NH3 + H2O NH4+ OH- y Ammonia gas burns in oxygen to produce nitrogen monoxide gas 4NH3 + 5O2 4NO + 6H2O   y An inverted filter funnel is used to prevent sucking back of water alkaline gas. and Ca2+) to produce precipitate of metal hydroxide y Ammonia is weak alkali which reacts with dilute acids in neutralization to produce salt.

Hafiz Akmal 24 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry ALLOY Meaning and purpose of making alloy:y Alloying is a process of mixing two or more metals (or mixing metals with element such carbon) which cannot be separated using physical way Arrangement of atoms in alloys:- Pure metal A Pure metal B Alloys .

bronze block.Hafiz Akmal 25 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry COMPARE THE HARDNESS OF A PURE METAL AND ITS ALLOYS Aim:y To compare the hardness of a pure metal and its alloy. height of the weight. Problem Statement:y Are alloys harder than pure metal ? Hypothesis:y Bronze is harder than cooper. mass of the weight. Operational definition:1) If the diameter of the dent is smaller. Variables:y Manipulated: Different types of materials (cooper & bronze) y Responding: diameter of the dent y Controlled: diameter of steel ball bearing. cellophane tape . then the material is harder Materials:2) Cooper block.

Procedure:1) A steel ball bearing is taped onto a cooper block using cellophane tape. 3) The weight is allowed to drop onto the ball bearing. steel ball bearing. 2) A 1-kg weight is hung at a height of 50 cm above the cooper block as shown in the figure 8. 5) Steps 1-4 are repeated twice on the other parts of the cooper block in order to obtain an average value for the diameter of dents formed. 1-kg weight. metre ruler. 6) Steps 1-5 are repeated using a bronze block to replace the cooper block.Hafiz Akmal 26 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry Apparatus:3) Retort stand and clamp. thread. . 7) The reading are recorded in the table. 4) The diameter of the dent made by the ball bearing on the cooper block is measured.

9 2. 2) The average diameter of the dent made on the surface on the cooper block is bigger than the bronze block. the harder and stronger is the material. Conclusion:y The hypothesis is accepted.8 2.2 average 2.9 2. .9 2.2 2.2 Discussion:1) The smaller the diameter of the dent. bronze is harder than cooper.Hafiz Akmal 27 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry Results:- METAL Cooper Bronze 1 2. 3) Based on the result.1 DIAMETER OF THE DENT (mm) 2 3 2.

Hafiz Akmal 28 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry EXAMPLE OF ALLOYS Brass Bronze Stainless Steel Bronze EXAMPLE OF ALLOY steel Manganese Steel Pewter Manganese steel Stainless steel .

and steel rust faster than stainless steel. Problem statement:y How does the rate of rusting of iron. STEEL. durations for rusting.Hafiz Akmal 29 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry THE RATE OF RUSTING OF IRON. steel and stainless steel differ? Hypothesis:y Iron rust faster than steel. AND STAINLESS STEEL Aim:y To compare the rate of rusting of iron. the higher is the rate of rusting. steel and stainless steel. Variables:y Manipulated variable: Different types of nails y Responding variable: Intensity & amount of blue colour y Controlled variable: Size of nails. Operational definition:y The more intense the blue colour formed. . concentration of solution used.

A few drops of potassium hexacyanoferrate(lll) solution are then added to the jelly solution. 5) The test tubes are placed in a test tube rack and left aside for three days. steel nail. Apparatus:y Test tubes. 3) A 5% jelly solution is prepared by adding 5 g of jelly into 100 cm of boiling water. 2) The iron nail placed in the test tube A. potassium hexacyanoferrate(lll) solution. 4) The hot jelly solution is poured into the three test tubes until all the nails are fully immersed. The intensity of the blue colour is observed. . water. stainless steel nail.Hafiz Akmal 30 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry Materials:y Iron nail. sandpaper. the steel nail in test tube B and the stainless steel nail in test tube C. Procedure:1) The nails are rubbed using sandpaper to remove the rust from the surface of the nails. test tube rack. 6) All observation are recorded in the table. jelly solution.

iron rust faster than steel. 4) The higher the intensity of the blue colour.(aq) 2) Potassium hexacyanoferrate(lll) solution is added to the jelly solution as an indicator to detect iron(ll) ions. chromium and nickel. This is because diffusions occurs the slowest in solids. This is because this nail is an alloy of iron with carbon. potassium hexacyanoferrate(lll) solution will form dark blue colouration. 3) When there is iron(ll) ion. . Fe (s) = Fe2+ (aq) + 2e. 6) Based on the observation.Hafiz Akmal 31 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry Observation:Test tube A B C Intensity of blue colour Very High Low Nil Inference Rusting occurs very fast Rusting occurs slowly No rusting occurs Discussion:1) When iron rust. each iron atom loses two electrons to form an iron(ll) ion. 7) The nail made from stainless steel does not rust. 5) Solidified jelly solution is used to trap and see the blue colouration clearly. the higher is the rate of rusting. Fe2+. Stainless steel does not rust.

9) Rusting of iron is an example of corrosion. When corrosion occurs. Hypothesis is accepted.Hafiz Akmal 32 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry 8) The nail made from steel will rust slowly. Stainless steel does not rust. . Conclusion:y Iron rust faster than steel. the metal loses electrons to form metal iron. The presence of carbon atoms will make the steel stronger than iron but does not prevent it from rusting.

soldering work Decorative items. rust resistant Light. artwork. strong. bell.souvenirs Tyre rim of racing car. strong Malleable. buildings Kitchen appliance. strong Hard. nails. fork. strong. ductile. bridges. strong Coins Uses Aeroplane part. machine parts Decorative items.Hafiz Akmal 33 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry COMPOSITONS OF ALLOYS & THEIR USES Alloy Cupronickel Duralumin Steel Stainless steel bronze Brass Solder Pewter Magnalium Composition Cu 75% Ni 25% Al 95% Cu 4% Mg 1% Fe 99% C 1% Fe 73% Cr 18% Ni 8% C 1% Cu 90% Sn 10% Cu 70% Zn 30% Pb 50% Sn 50% Sn 91% Sb 7% Cu 2% Al 70% Mg 30% Properties Hard. strong. shining Harder and cheaper than Cu Low melting point. watches. rust resistant Hard. skeletal body of aeroplane . and pots Welding. knifes. cheap Hard. spoons. resist corrosion Light. screw. electric cables racing bicycles Vehicles. medals. pots & pans Musical instrument.

natural polymer .Hafiz Akmal 34 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry POLYMER large molicule that is in the form of long chain with high RMM POLYMER two types:.syntetic polymer made up of many monomers which join together through process called polymerisation .

3 diene) Eg: in latex . and furs y y Monomer glucose Eg: in starch and cellulose y y Monomer isoprene (2-methylbuta-1. skin. hairs. silk.Hafiz Akmal 35 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry NATURAL POLYMER y y Monomer acid amino Eg: in muscle. wools.

inner tubing of tyre. hoses. shoe soles Polystytrene (monomers: phenylethene) eg:.shoe soles & tyres Synthetic fibres (long chained polymer that withstand streching) Thermoplastic Polyvinyl chloride(PVC) (monomers: chloroethene) eg:. car lamps Polypropene (monomers: propene) eg:. y Many of the raw materials for synthetic polymers are obtained from petroleum. pails.butadlene rubber (SBR) (monomers: styrene & butadlene. plastic bags Butyl rubber (monomers: isobutylene & isoprene) eg:. after refining and cracking process.synthetic textile.plastic bottles . disposable cup and plates Perspex (monomers: methyl metacrylate) eg:.battery cases.toys.spectacles. eg:. electric wire insulator. water pipes Nylon (monomers: diamine and dicarboxylic acid) eg:. water pipes Terrylene (monomers: diol and dicarboxylic acid) eg:. string Neoprene (monomers: chloroprene) eg:.rain clothes.gloves. Synthetic rubber Styrene.fishing net Polythene (monomers: ethene) eg:.Hafiz Akmal 36 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry SYNTHETIC POLYMER & IT USES y Synthetic polymers are polymers made in industry from chemical substances.

Hafiz Akmal 37 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry WHY USE SYNTETIC POLYMERS IN DAILY LIFE? Strong & light easily moulded or shaped & be coloured Synthetic polymers can be made to have special properties able to resist corrosion cheap .

plastic also cause the death of marine organism if they mistaken the plastic as food. (dioxin will destroy human immune system.plastic will stop the flow of river water and drains.caused by burning of plastic eg: burning of PVC will produce dioxin.Hafiz Akmal 38 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION RESULTING FROM THE DISPOSAL OF SYNTHETIC POLYMERS AIR POLLUTION . .destroy the beauty of environment -plastic also cause the soil not suitable for planting because plastic inhibit the growth of root Effects of improper Disposal of Synthetic Polymer WATER POLLUTION . reproductive system & nervous system SOIL POLLUTION . .plastic thrown on land fill up our living spaces . this will cause flash floods.

SiO2 which found in sand.Hafiz Akmal 39 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry GLASS Glass:y The major component of glass is silica or silicon dioxide.ri Impermeable to liquid Transparent Electrical insulator Properties of glass hard but brittle Heat insulator Chemically inert .

Hafiz Akmal 40 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry TYPES. COMPOSITION. PROPERTIES. AND USES OF GLASS GLASS COMPOSITION SiO2 70% Na2O 15% CaO 10% Others 4% y y y y y y PROPERTIES Low melting point Mouldable into shapes Cheap Breakable Can withstand high heat High density and refractive index Glittering surface Soft Low melting point (600ÛC) Resistant to high heat &chemical reaction Does not break easily Allow infra-red rays but no ultra-violet rays High melting point (1700ÛC) Expensive Allow ultraviolet to pass through Difficult to melt or mould into shape y y y y y y y y y y y y USES Glass container Glass panes Mirror Lamps and bulbs Plates and bowls Bottles Containers for drinks and food Decorative glass Crystal glassware Lens for spectacles Glass apparatus in lab Cooking utensils Soda lime glass Lead glass (crystal) SiO2 70% Na2O 20% PbO 10% y y y y y y y Borosilicate glass (Pyrex) SiO2 B2O3 Na2O Al2O3 80% 13% 4% 2% y Fused silicate glass SiO2 99% B2O3 1% y y y y y Scientific apparatus like lens on spectrometer Optical lens Lab apparatus .

ceramic cannot be recycled.Hafiz Akmal 41 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry CERAMICS Ceramics:y Ceramic is manufactured substances made from clay that is dried. Unlike glass. extremely hard & strong but brittle able to withstand and resist corrosion Properties of ceramics has a very high melting point good insulator of electricity and heat inert to chemicals . and heated in a kiln at a very high temperature y The main component of clay is aluminosilicate (aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide) with small quantities of sand and feldspar. y Kaolinite is a high quality white clay that contains hydrated aluminosilicate. Al2O3‡2SiO2‡2H2O.

Hafiz Akmal 42 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry THE DIFFERENT CLASES OF CERAMIC GROUP Mineral Cement material Oxide of ceramic COMPOSITION Quartz SiO2 Calcite CaCO3 Mixture of CaSiO3 and ammonium silicate Aluminium oxide Al2O3 Silicon dioxide SiO2 Magnesium oxide MgO Silicon nitride Si3N4 Silicon carbide SiC Boron nitride BN Boron carbide B4C3 Non-oxides of ceramic .

adding a layer of indium tin(iv) oxide (ITO) acts as an electrical conductor.Hafiz Akmal 43 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry THE USES OF IMPROVED GLASS AND CERAMICS FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES GLASS OPTICAL FIBRE A pure silica glass thread that conducts light. LAN CONDUCTING GLASS a type of glass that can conduct electricity. electric motors. used in windows. rockets. this fibres can transmit messages modulated onto light waves. loss of electrical energy as heat used to make light magnet. cookware. chemical attacks used in tile. used inmedical instrument. produce by embedding a thin layer of conducting material in glass. sunglasses ad instrument control . electrical generators PHOTOCHROMIC GLASS sensitive to light intensity the glass darken when exposed to sunlight but became clear when light intensity decresase. engine blocks CERAMIC SUPERCONUCTOR superconductor can conduct electricity at low temoerature without resistance. used in the making of LCD GLASS-CERAMIC Rearrange its atoms into regular patterns by heating glass to form strong material it can withstand high temperature.

leading to loss of electrical energy as heat. producing a complex mixture. y They are used to make various substances in daily life because of the following reasons:a) Metals corrode and are ductile and malleable b) Glass and ceramic break easily c) Metal are good conductors but have high resistant.Hafiz Akmal 44 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry COMPOSITE MATERIALS y A composite material is structural material formed by combining two or more materials with different physical properties. d) Plastic and glass can withstand heat to a certain level only .

voice and image y Magnetically levitated train y Transformer y Electric cable y Computer parts y Information display panels y Light detector device y Car windshields y Optical lens Superconductor y Cooper(ll) oxide y Yttrium oxide y Barium oxide y Glass y Transparent y Not sensitive to light Photochromic glass y Silver chloride or silver bromide y Sensitive to light y Glass with low refraction index y Transparent y Does not reflect light rays y Transmit data using light waves in telecommunications Fibre optics y Glass with higher refractive index y glass y high density y strong but brittle y non-flexible y y y y light flexible inflammable elastic but weak Fibre glass y polyester plastic y y y y y y y y high tensile strength moulded and shaped inert to chemicals light.Hafiz Akmal 45 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry COMPOSITE MATERIAL COMPONENT y concrete PROPERTIES OF COMPONENT y hard but brittle y low tensile strengh PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE USES Reinforced concrete y steel y strong in tensile strength y expensive y can corrode y Insulator of electricity y stronger y construction of road y higher tensile strength y rocket launching pads y does not corrode y high-rise buildings easily y cheaper y can be moulded into shape y can withstand very high applied force y can support very heavy load y Conducts electricity without resistance when cooled by liquid nitrogen y Reduce refraction of light y Control the amount of light passed through it auto. tough non-flammable impermeable to water resilient flexible y y y y y car bodies helmets skies rackets furniture . y Has the ability to change colour and become darker when exposed to ultraviolet light y Low material cost y Reflect light rays and allow to travel along the fibre y Can transmit electronic data or signal. strong.

Hafiz Akmal 46 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry in the medical field: to replace organs in the form of plastic composite organ Uses of composite material car part now use composite material instead iron and steel. this increase the speed of the car and fuel saver sronger buildings are built by using reinforce concrete .