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Hafiz Akmal 1 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry

SULPHURIC ACID

sulphuric acid is a diprotic (dibasic) mineral acid which does not volatise.

In the pure, concentrated form, sulphuric acid is an oily, colourless liquid which is dense and viscous.

It has high boiling point, that is 270 C

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USES OF SULPHURIC ACID

18% 1% 38% making fertiliser paints chemicals detergents 18% 13% removing dust from steel other uses

12%

Figure 1:- Uses of Sulphuric Acid, H2SO4

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2H2SO4 (l) + Ca3(PO4)2 (s)

Ca(H2PO4)2 (l) + 2CaSO4 (s)

superphosphate fertilisers :- it is manufactured from the reaction between sulphuric acid and calcium phosphate.

sulphuric acid: making fertiliser

Potassium Sulphate:- It is manufactured by the neutralisation of sulphuric acid potassium hydoxide

Ammonia Sulphate fertiliser:- It is manufactured by the neutralisation of sulphuric acid and ammonia

2KOH(aq) + H2SO4(aq)

K2SO4(aq) + 2H2O (l)

2NH3(aq) + H2SO4(aq)

(NH4)2SO4(aq)

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MANUFACTURE OF SULPHURIC ACID


y The manufacture of sulphuric acid in industry is through the contact process. y The raw materials used to manufacture the acid are sulphur, air and water. y The acid is produced in 3 stages:-

Stage 1: The production of sulphur dioxide

Stage 2: Formation of sulphur trioxide

Stage 3: Formation of sulphuric acid

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STAGE 1: THE PRODUCTION OF SULPHUR DIOXIDE

a) This can be obtained through two methods:a) Heating liquid sulphur with hot air in a furnace. S (s) + O2 (g) SO2 (g) b) Heating sulphides in air, for example: 4FeS2 (s) + 11O2 (g) 2Fe2O3 (s) + 8SO2 (g) SO2 is a side-product in the extraction of the metal, iron. [Fe2O3 is reduced to iron with coke] Zinc pyrites can also be heated in air as follows: 2ZnO (s) + 3O2 (g) 2SO2 (g) + 2ZnO (s)

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STAGE 2: FORMATION OF SULPHUR TRIOXIDE

a) Pure, dry sulphur dioxide is mixed with dry oxygen in excess and passed over vanadium(V) oxide, V2O5 as catalyst at a temperature of 450C - 550C and a pressure of 1 atmosphere. The conditions ensure the maximum production of sulphur trioxide: 2SO2 (g) + O2 (g) 2SO3 (g) b) The reaction takes place in a heat converter. c) Excess air is used to ensure higher percentage of SO3 produced.

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STAGE 3: FORMATION OF SULPHURIC ACID

a) The sulphur trioxide is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid to form a product called oleum, H2S2O7. This is carried out until the concentrated sulphuric acid has reached a concentration of 99.5%. SO3 (g) + H2SO4 (aq) H2S2O7 (l) b) The product, oleum will not show any property of an acid. This is because, oleum will not ionise without the presence of water. c) Water is then added to the oleum to produce concentrated sulphuric acid. H2S2O7 (l) + H2O (l) 2H2SO4 (l) d) The reaction in (a) and (b) is equivalent to dissolving sulphur trioxide in water. SO3 (g) + H2O (l) H2SO4 (aq) e) However, this reaction is not carried out in industry. This is because the reaction is too vigorous. f) It produces a large cloud of sulphuric acid mist. This mist is corrosive and pollutes the air.

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CONTACT PROCESS:
Water

Concentrated H2SO4

O2 , V2O5, 450C, 1 atm

Burnt in air

Oleum H2S2O7 Sulphur trioxide SO3 Sulphur dioxide SO2

concentated sulphuric acid, H2SO4

Sulphur

Figure 2:- Flow chart of Contact Process

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The industrial process in the Manufactured of Sulphuric Acid

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USES OF AMMONIA IN INDUSTRY:


Examples are ammonium sulphate, ammonium nitrate and urea. The first two are prepare through neuralisation but urea is produced by the reaction of ammonia with carbon dioxide. The reaction involved are as the following: a) 2NH3 (g) + H2SO4 (aq) (NH4)2SO4 (s) ammonium sulphate b) NH3 (g) + HNO3 (aq) NH4NO3 (aq) ammonium nitrate c) 2NH3 (g) + CO2 (g) (NH2)2CO (s) + H2O (l) urea

To manufacture nitrogenous fertilisers

As a cooling agent

Having a low melting point, liquefied ammonia makes a good cooling agent in refrigerators and air conditioners.

To prevent the coagulation of latex in the rubber industry

It neutralizes the organic acids formed by microorganisms in latex, thereby preventing coagulation and preserving the latex in liquid form.

Ammonia is converted to nitric acid in the Ostwald process: 1)


To manufacture nitric acid in industry

2)

3)

ammonia is first oxidised to nitrogen monoxide, NO, by oxygen in the presence of platinum as catalyst at 900C. 4NH3 (g) + 5O2 (g) Pt/900C 4NO (aq) + 6H2O (l) nitrogen monoxide is further oxidised to nitrogen dioxide. 2NO (g) + O2 (g) 2NO2 (g) Nitrogen dioxide and oxygen are dissolved in water to produced nitric acid. 4NO2 (g) + O2 (g) + H2O (l) 4HNO3 (aq) Nitric acid is manufactured from ammonia before being used to make explosive like trinitrotoluene (TNT). Nitric acid, in this case, is reacted with organic substances like toluene.

a)
To manufacture explosive

b)

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EXPERIMENT TO INVESTIGATE THE PROPERTIES OF AMMONIA


Aim:y To investigate the properties of ammonia

Material:y 0.1 mol dm ammonia solution, 0.1 mol dm sodium hydroxide solution, ammonia chloride, calcium hydroxide, concentrated hydrochloric acid, soda lime, distilled water, red litmus paper, Ph paper.

Apparatus:y Test tubes, beaker, U-tube, Bunsen burner, glass rod, delivery tube, stoppers.

Procedure:a) Preparation of ammonia gas: 1. Some ammonium chloride is mixed with some calcium hydroxide. 2. The apparatus as shown in Figure 3 is set up

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3. The mixture is heated 4. The ammonia gas produced is collected in a few test tubes. The test tubes containing ammonia gas must be closed with stoppers.

b) Alkalinity of ammonia: 1. 5.0 cm of 1 mol ammonia solution and 5 cm of 0.1 mol dm sodium hydroxide solution are poured into two separate test tubes. 2. A piece of pH paper is dipped into the solution in each test tube. 3. The pH values of both solution are recorded.

c) Colour, physical state, smell and solubility of ammonia: 1. The colour and physical state of ammonia are observed. 2. The stopper of a test tube containing ammonia gas is removed and the smell of the gas is identified. 3. A test tube containing ammonia gas is inverted into a beaker of water. 4. All observation are recorded.

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d) Density of ammonia: 1. A test tube containing ammonia gas is held upright and another test rube containing ammonia gas is held upside down. 2. The stopper of the two test tubes are removed. 3. After 20 seconds, a piece of moist red litmus paper is put at the mouth of each test tube as shown in figure 5. 4. The colour of the red litmus paper is recorded.

e) Chemical property of ammonia: 1. One end of a glass rod is dipped into concentrated hydrochloric acid. 2. The glass rod is then put on top of a test tube of ammonia gas. 3. Any change taking place is observed.

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Observation :Section y Observation pH of ammonia solution is 10 pH of sodium hydroxide solution is 14 colourless gas pungent smell water rushed up and fills up the whole test tube moist red litmus paper on top of the upright test tube does not change colour. Moist red litmus paper under the inverted test tube turns blue Inference y ammonia is weak alkali y sodium hydroxide is a strong alkali y ammonia is a colourless gas with a pungent smell y ammonia is very soluble in water

b)

c)

y y y

d)
y

y Ammonia gas has escaped from the upright test tube and thus is slightly less dense than air

e)

y Dense white fumes are formed

y Ammonia react with hydrogen chloride gas to form ammonium chloride

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Discussion:y Ammonia is a weak alkali and has a pH of 10 y Ammonia is a colourless gas with a pungent smell y Ammonia is very soluble in water, ionize partially in water to form ammonium ions and hydroxide NH3 (g) + H2O (l) = NH4+ (aq) + OH- (aq) y Ammonia is slightly less dense than air y Ammonia react with hydrogen chloride gas to form ammonium chloride NH3 (g) + HCl (g) = NH4Cl (s)

Conclusion:y Ammonia is an alkaline, colourless gas with a pungent smell. It is very soluble in water and is less dense in than air. It react with hydrogen chloride gas to form dense white fumes of ammonium chloride

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HABER PROCESS

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The manufacture of ammonia through the Haber Process

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PREPARATION OF AMMONIA FERTILISER

Aim:y To prepare ammonium sulphate.

Material:y 1 mol dm-2 sulphuric acid, 2 mol dm-3 ammonia solution, methyl orange, filter paper

Apparatus:y 25.0 cm pipette, burette, conical flask, white tile, retort stand and clamp, beaker, glass rod, evaporating dish, filter funnel, Bunsen burner, tripod stand, wire gauze.

Procedure:a) Determining the volume of sulphuric acid that will neutralize 25.0 cm of ammonia solution:1. 25.0 cm of 2 mol dm-3 ammonia solution is transferred by a pipette to a clean conical flask. 2. Three drops of methyl orange indicator are added to the alkali. The solution turns yellow.

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3. A clean burette is filled with 1 mol dm-2 sulphuric acid and clamped to a retort stand. The initial burette reading is recorded. 4. The conical flask with its content is placed on a white tile below the burette as shown in figure 6 below.

5. The sulphuric acid is added slowly into the conical flask. The conical flask is swirled gently throughout the titration. 6. The addition of sulphuric acid is stopped when the indicator changes from yellow to orange. The final burette reading is recorded. 7. The volume of acid needed to completely neutralize the 25.0 cm of 2 mol dm-3 ammonia solution is calculated. Let this volume V cm.

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b) Preparation ammonium sulphate salt:-

1. 25.0 cm of 2 mol dm-3 ammonia solution is pipetted into a clean conical flask. No indicator is added. 2. V cm of 1 mol sulphuric acid is added from the burette to the ammonia solution. 3. The mixture in the conical flask is transferred to an evaporating dish and heated until a saturated solution is formed. 4. The hot, saturated salt solution is left to cool for crystallization to occur. 5. The crystal of ammonium sulphate formed are filtered, ashed and dried between sheets of filter paper.

Observation:y A colourless solution is formed when sulphuric acid is added to ammonia solution. y The crystal obtained are white in colour

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Discussion:y The equation for the reaction is: H2SO4 (aq) + 2NH4OH (aq) (NH4)2SO4 (aq) + 2H2O (l) y Methyl orange is an acid-base indicator used to determine the end point of the titration. y The first titration is carried out to determine the exact volume of sulphuric acid required to completely neutralize the 25.0 cm of ammonia solution. y The salt solution in the first titration is discarded because it is contaminated by methyl orange. y The ammonium sulphate solution should not be heated until dryness because ammonium sulphate decomposes when it is overheated. y The weight of ammonium sulphate obtained from the activity is always less than the theorical value. This is because some of the salt is not fully crystallized out and still remains in the solution. y Other ammonium salt such as ammonium nitrate can be prepared from the reaction between nitric acid and ammonium solution.

Conclusion:y Ammonium sulphate and other ammonium fertilizers can be prepared by neutralizing ammonia solution with the respective acids.

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THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PURE METAL

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PROPERTIES OF AMMONIA

Ammonia turns the damp red litmus paper blue. The gas is less dense than air
NH3 + H2O NH4+ OH-

Ammonia gas burns in oxygen to produce nitrogen monoxide gas 4NH3 + 5O2 4NO + 6H2O

An inverted filter funnel is used to prevent sucking back of water

alkaline gas, c lurless and pungent gas

Aqueous solutions of ammonia react with metal ions (except Na+, K+, and Ca2+) to produce precipitate of metal hydroxide

Ammonia is weak alkali which reacts with dilute acids in neutralization to produce salt.
2NH3 + H2SO4 (NH4)2SO4

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ALLOY

Meaning and purpose of making alloy:y Alloying is a process of mixing two or more metals (or mixing metals with element such carbon) which cannot be separated using physical way

Arrangement of atoms in alloys:-

Pure metal A

Pure metal B

Alloys

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COMPARE THE HARDNESS OF A PURE METAL AND ITS ALLOYS


Aim:y To compare the hardness of a pure metal and its alloy.

Problem Statement:y Are alloys harder than pure metal ?

Hypothesis:y Bronze is harder than cooper.

Variables:y Manipulated: Different types of materials (cooper & bronze) y Responding: diameter of the dent y Controlled: diameter of steel ball bearing, height of the weight, mass of the weight.

Operational definition:1) If the diameter of the dent is smaller, then the material is harder

Materials:2) Cooper block, bronze block, cellophane tape

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Apparatus:3) Retort stand and clamp, 1-kg weight, metre ruler, steel ball bearing, thread.

Procedure:1) A steel ball bearing is taped onto a cooper block using cellophane tape. 2) A 1-kg weight is hung at a height of 50 cm above the cooper block as shown in the figure 8.

3) The weight is allowed to drop onto the ball bearing. 4) The diameter of the dent made by the ball bearing on the cooper block is measured. 5) Steps 1-4 are repeated twice on the other parts of the cooper block in order to obtain an average value for the diameter of dents formed. 6) Steps 1-5 are repeated using a bronze block to replace the cooper block. 7) The reading are recorded in the table.

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Results:-

METAL Cooper Bronze

1 2.9 2.1

DIAMETER OF THE DENT (mm) 2 3 2.8 2.2 2.9 2.2

average 2.9 2.2

Discussion:1) The smaller the diameter of the dent, the harder and stronger is the material. 2) The average diameter of the dent made on the surface on the cooper block is bigger than the bronze block. 3) Based on the result, bronze is harder than cooper.

Conclusion:y The hypothesis is accepted.

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EXAMPLE OF ALLOYS

Brass

Bronze

Stainless Steel

Bronze

EXAMPLE OF ALLOY

steel

Manganese Steel

Pewter
Manganese steel

Stainless steel

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THE RATE OF RUSTING OF IRON, STEEL, AND STAINLESS STEEL

Aim:y To compare the rate of rusting of iron, steel and stainless steel.

Problem statement:y How does the rate of rusting of iron, steel and stainless steel differ?

Hypothesis:y Iron rust faster than steel, and steel rust faster than stainless steel.

Variables:y Manipulated variable: Different types of nails y Responding variable: Intensity & amount of blue colour y Controlled variable: Size of nails, concentration of solution used, durations for rusting.

Operational definition:y The more intense the blue colour formed, the higher is the rate of rusting.

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Materials:y Iron nail, steel nail, stainless steel nail, jelly solution, potassium hexacyanoferrate(lll) solution, water, sandpaper.

Apparatus:y Test tubes, test tube rack.

Procedure:1) The nails are rubbed using sandpaper to remove the rust from the surface of the nails. 2) The iron nail placed in the test tube A, the steel nail in test tube B and the stainless steel nail in test tube C. 3) A 5% jelly solution is prepared by adding 5 g of jelly into 100 cm of boiling water. A few drops of potassium hexacyanoferrate(lll) solution are then added to the jelly solution. 4) The hot jelly solution is poured into the three test tubes until all the nails are fully immersed.

5) The test tubes are placed in a test tube rack and left aside for three days. The intensity of the blue colour is observed. 6) All observation are recorded in the table.

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Observation:Test tube A B C Intensity of blue colour Very High Low Nil Inference Rusting occurs very fast Rusting occurs slowly No rusting occurs

Discussion:1) When iron rust, each iron atom loses two electrons to form an iron(ll) ion, Fe2+. Fe (s) = Fe2+ (aq) + 2e- (aq) 2) Potassium hexacyanoferrate(lll) solution is added to the jelly solution as an indicator to detect iron(ll) ions. 3) When there is iron(ll) ion, potassium hexacyanoferrate(lll) solution will form dark blue colouration. 4) The higher the intensity of the blue colour, the higher is the rate of rusting. 5) Solidified jelly solution is used to trap and see the blue colouration clearly. This is because diffusions occurs the slowest in solids. 6) Based on the observation, iron rust faster than steel. Stainless steel does not rust. 7) The nail made from stainless steel does not rust. This is because this nail is an alloy of iron with carbon, chromium and nickel.

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8) The nail made from steel will rust slowly. The presence of carbon atoms will make the steel stronger than iron but does not prevent it from rusting. 9) Rusting of iron is an example of corrosion. When corrosion occurs, the metal loses electrons to form metal iron.

Conclusion:y Iron rust faster than steel. Stainless steel does not rust. Hypothesis is accepted.

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COMPOSITONS OF ALLOYS & THEIR USES

Alloy
Cupronickel Duralumin Steel Stainless steel bronze Brass Solder Pewter Magnalium

Composition
Cu 75% Ni 25% Al 95% Cu 4% Mg 1% Fe 99% C 1% Fe 73% Cr 18% Ni 8% C 1% Cu 90% Sn 10% Cu 70% Zn 30% Pb 50% Sn 50% Sn 91% Sb 7% Cu 2% Al 70% Mg 30%

Properties
Hard, strong, resist corrosion Light, strong Hard, strong, cheap Hard, rust resistant Hard, strong, shining Harder and cheaper than Cu Low melting point, strong Malleable, ductile, rust resistant Light, strong Coins

Uses

Aeroplane part, electric cables racing bicycles Vehicles, bridges, buildings Kitchen appliance, watches, knifes, fork, spoons, machine parts Decorative items, medals, artwork, pots & pans Musical instrument, bell, nails, screw, and pots Welding, soldering work Decorative items,souvenirs Tyre rim of racing car, skeletal body of aeroplane

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POLYMER

large molicule that is in the form of long chain with high RMM

POLYMER
two types:- natural polymer - syntetic polymer made up of many monomers which join together through process called polymerisation

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NATURAL POLYMER

y y

Monomer acid amino Eg: in muscle, skin, silk, hairs, wools, and furs

y y

Monomer glucose Eg: in starch and cellulose

Monomer isoprene (2-methylbuta-1,3 diene) Eg: in latex

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SYNTHETIC POLYMER & IT USES


y Synthetic polymers are polymers made in industry from chemical substances. y Many of the raw materials for synthetic polymers are obtained from petroleum, after refining and cracking process.

Synthetic rubber
Styrene- butadlene rubber (SBR) (monomers: styrene & butadlene. eg:- shoe soles & tyres

Synthetic fibres
(long chained polymer that withstand streching)

Thermoplastic
Polyvinyl chloride(PVC) (monomers: chloroethene) eg:- rain clothes, water pipes

Nylon (monomers: diamine and dicarboxylic acid) eg:- synthetic textile, string

Neoprene (monomers: chloroprene) eg:- gloves, electric wire insulator, water pipes

Terrylene (monomers: diol and dicarboxylic acid) eg:- fishing net

Polythene (monomers: ethene) eg:- battery cases, pails, plastic bags

Butyl rubber (monomers: isobutylene & isoprene) eg:- inner tubing of tyre, hoses, shoe soles

Polystytrene (monomers: phenylethene) eg:- toys, disposable cup and plates

Perspex (monomers: methyl metacrylate) eg:- spectacles, car lamps

Polypropene (monomers: propene) eg:- plastic bottles

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WHY USE SYNTETIC POLYMERS IN DAILY LIFE?

Strong & light

easily moulded or shaped & be coloured

Synthetic polymers

can be made to have special properties

able to resist corrosion

cheap

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ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION RESULTING FROM THE DISPOSAL OF SYNTHETIC POLYMERS

AIR POLLUTION - caused by burning of plastic eg: burning of PVC will produce dioxin. (dioxin will destroy human immune system, reproductive system & nervous system

SOIL POLLUTION - plastic thrown on land fill up our living spaces - destroy the beauty of environment -plastic also cause the soil not suitable for planting because plastic inhibit the growth of root

Effects of improper Disposal of Synthetic Polymer


WATER POLLUTION - plastic will stop the flow of river water and drains. this will cause flash floods. - plastic also cause the death of marine organism if they mistaken the plastic as food.

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GLASS
Glass:y The major component of glass is silica or silicon dioxide, SiO2 which found in sand.ri

Impermeable to liquid

Transparent

Electrical insulator

Properties of glass

hard but brittle

Heat insulator

Chemically inert

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TYPES, COMPOSITION, PROPERTIES, AND USES OF GLASS

GLASS

COMPOSITION
SiO2 70% Na2O 15% CaO 10% Others 4% y y y y y y

PROPERTIES
Low melting point Mouldable into shapes Cheap Breakable Can withstand high heat High density and refractive index Glittering surface Soft Low melting point (600C) Resistant to high heat &chemical reaction Does not break easily Allow infra-red rays but no ultra-violet rays High melting point (1700C) Expensive Allow ultraviolet to pass through Difficult to melt or mould into shape y y y y y y y y y y y y

USES
Glass container Glass panes Mirror Lamps and bulbs Plates and bowls Bottles Containers for drinks and food Decorative glass Crystal glassware Lens for spectacles Glass apparatus in lab Cooking utensils

Soda lime glass

Lead glass (crystal)

SiO2 70% Na2O 20% PbO 10%

y y y y y y y

Borosilicate glass (Pyrex)

SiO2 B2O3 Na2O Al2O3

80% 13% 4% 2%

Fused silicate glass

SiO2 99% B2O3 1%

y y y

y y

Scientific apparatus like lens on spectrometer Optical lens Lab apparatus

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CERAMICS
Ceramics:y Ceramic is manufactured substances made from clay that is dried, and heated in a kiln at a very high temperature y The main component of clay is aluminosilicate (aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide) with small quantities of sand and feldspar. Unlike glass, ceramic cannot be recycled. y Kaolinite is a high quality white clay that contains hydrated aluminosilicate, Al2O32SiO22H2O.

extremely hard & strong but brittle

able to withstand and resist corrosion

Properties of ceramics

has a very high melting point

good insulator of electricity and heat

inert to chemicals

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THE DIFFERENT CLASES OF CERAMIC


GROUP
Mineral Cement material Oxide of ceramic

COMPOSITION
Quartz SiO2 Calcite CaCO3 Mixture of CaSiO3 and ammonium silicate Aluminium oxide Al2O3 Silicon dioxide SiO2 Magnesium oxide MgO Silicon nitride Si3N4 Silicon carbide SiC Boron nitride BN Boron carbide B4C3

Non-oxides of ceramic

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THE USES OF IMPROVED GLASS AND CERAMICS FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES

GLASS OPTICAL FIBRE


A pure silica glass thread that conducts light. this fibres can transmit messages modulated onto light waves. used inmedical instrument, LAN

CONDUCTING GLASS
a type of glass that can conduct electricity. produce by embedding a thin layer of conducting material in glass. adding a layer of indium tin(iv) oxide (ITO) acts as an electrical conductor. used in the making of LCD

GLASS-CERAMIC
Rearrange its atoms into regular patterns by heating glass to form strong material it can withstand high temperature, chemical attacks used in tile, cookware, rockets, engine blocks

CERAMIC SUPERCONUCTOR
superconductor can conduct electricity at low temoerature without resistance, loss of electrical energy as heat used to make light magnet, electric motors, electrical generators

PHOTOCHROMIC GLASS
sensitive to light intensity the glass darken when exposed to sunlight but became clear when light intensity decresase. used in windows, sunglasses ad instrument control

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COMPOSITE MATERIALS
y A composite material is structural material formed by combining two or more materials with different physical properties, producing a complex mixture. y They are used to make various substances in daily life because of the following reasons:a) Metals corrode and are ductile and malleable b) Glass and ceramic break easily c) Metal are good conductors but have high resistant, leading to loss of electrical energy as heat. d) Plastic and glass can withstand heat to a certain level only

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COMPOSITE MATERIAL

COMPONENT
y concrete

PROPERTIES OF COMPONENT
y hard but brittle y low tensile strengh

PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE

USES

Reinforced concrete y steel y strong in tensile strength y expensive y can corrode y Insulator of electricity

y stronger y construction of road y higher tensile strength y rocket launching pads y does not corrode y high-rise buildings easily y cheaper y can be moulded into shape y can withstand very high applied force y can support very heavy load y Conducts electricity without resistance when cooled by liquid nitrogen y Reduce refraction of light y Control the amount of light passed through it auto. y Has the ability to change colour and become darker when exposed to ultraviolet light y Low material cost y Reflect light rays and allow to travel along the fibre y Can transmit electronic data or signal, voice and image y Magnetically levitated train y Transformer y Electric cable y Computer parts y Information display panels y Light detector device y Car windshields y Optical lens

Superconductor

y Cooper(ll) oxide y Yttrium oxide y Barium oxide

y Glass

y Transparent y Not sensitive to light

Photochromic glass

y Silver chloride or silver bromide

y Sensitive to light

y Glass with low refraction index

y Transparent y Does not reflect light rays

y Transmit data using light waves in telecommunications

Fibre optics y Glass with higher refractive index y glass y high density y strong but brittle y non-flexible y y y y light flexible inflammable elastic but weak

Fibre glass

y polyester plastic

y y y y y y y y

high tensile strength moulded and shaped inert to chemicals light, strong, tough non-flammable impermeable to water resilient flexible

y y y y y

car bodies helmets skies rackets furniture

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in the medical field: to replace organs in the form of plastic composite organ

Uses of composite material


car part now use composite material instead iron and steel. this increase the speed of the car and fuel saver sronger buildings are built by using reinforce concrete