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DURABILITY DESIGN AND APPLICATION OF STEEL FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE IN TAIWAN

Chih-Ta Tsai*
Assistant Research Fellow, Sustainable Environment Research Center National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

Lung-Sheng Li
Associate Professor, Department of Assets and Property Management Hwa-sha Institute of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan

Chien-Chih Chang
Research Assistant, Sustainable Environment Research Center National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

Chao-Lung Hwang
Professor, Department of Construction Engineering National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan

:‫اﻟﺨﻼﺻــﺔ‬
‫ﻳـﻘﺪم هﺬا اﻟﺘـﻘﺮﻳﺮ اﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ اﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ اﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻷﻟﻴﺎف اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﻓ ﻲ ﺗ ﺎﻳﻮان. وﻣ ﻦ اﻟﻤﻔﻬ ﻮم ﻋﻠﻤﻴ ﺎ أﻧ ﻪ إذا اﺳ ﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ أو أﺿ ﻴﻔﺖ‬ ً ُ .‫اﻷﻟﻴﺎف اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﻓﺬﻟﻚ ﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰ اﻟﺼﻼﺑﺔ، وﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻻﺣﺘﻜﺎك وﻗﻮة اﻟﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﻟﻠﺼﺪﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻦ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ اﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ اﻟﻤﻄﻮر ﻟﺨﻠﻄ ﺔ اﻟﺨﺮﺳ ﺎﻧﺔ واﻟﺤﻠ ﻮل اﻟﺤ ﺴﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓ ﺔ اﻟﺨﻠﻄ ﺔ ﻗ ﺪ اﺳ ﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﻟﺤ ﻞ اﻟﺘ ﺸﺎﺑﻚ ﻷﻟﻴ ﺎف اﻟﺤﺪﻳ ﺪ ﻓ ﻲ اﻟﺨﺮﺳ ﺎﻧﺔ ، وﻟﺘﻜ ﻮﻳﻦ‬ (SFRSCC) ‫ﺧﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻴﺎف اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰﺑﺎﻷﻧﺪﻣﺎج اﻟﺬاﺗﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺪﻓﻖ ﺳﻠﺲ وزﻳﺎدة ﻟﻠﺪﻳﻤﻮﻣﺔ ، وذﻟﻚ ﺑﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ آﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﺠﻮن اﻹﺳﻤﻨﺖ‬ ‫( ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ اﻟﺤﺼﻮل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﺗﺘﺪﻓﻖ‬super-plasticizer) ‫وﺣﻴﻦ ﻧﺰﻳﺪ اﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺠﺎرة ﺑﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪة اﻟﻤﻮاد اﻟﺒﻮزوﻻﻧﻴﺔ واﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻹﺿﺎﻓﺎت اﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫( ﻓﻲ آﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﻳﻊ ﻣﺜﻞ إﻧﺸﺎء ﺣﺎوﻳﺔ أو ﺻﻬﺮﻳﺞ‬SFRSCC) ‫ﻣﺜﻞ اﻟﻌﺴﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﺸﺎﺑﻚ ﺑﻴﻦ اﻷﻟﻴﺎف اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ. وﻗﺪ اﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ هﺬﻩ اﻟﺨﻠﻄﺔ‬ ‫( ﻳﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﻬﺎ‬SFRSCC) ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺨﻠﻔﺎت اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺘﻮي ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﺎت ، و ﺳﻄﺢ اﻟﻄﺮﻗﺎت، وﻣﺠﺴﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﻨﻴﻴﻦ . وﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎت ﻓﺈن هﺬﻩ اﻟﺨﻠﻄﺔ‬ .‫ﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻦ أداء اﻷﻟﻴﺎف اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ، وﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻷﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ اﻟﻤﺒﺎﻧﻰ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬

*Address for Correspondence: Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University No. 500, Sec. 3, An-Ming Road, Tainan, Taiwan 70955 Email: chihta.tsai@gmail.com Tel: +886-6-3840136 ext. 217 Fax: +886-6-3840960
Paper Received 27 March 2008; Accepted 9 February 2009

April 2009

The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, Volume 34, Number 1B

57

Chih-Ta Tsai, Lung-Sheng Li, Chien-Chih Chang, and Chao-Lung Hwang

ABSTRACT This paper presents the way durability has been introduced to steel fiber reinforced concrete in Taiwan. It is generally acknowledged that steel fibers are added to improve the toughness, abrasion resistance, and impact strength of concrete. However, a locally developed mixture design method, the densified mixture design algorithm (DMDA), was applied to solve not only the entanglement or balling problem of steel fibers in concrete or to produce steel fiber reinforced self-consolidating concrete (SFRSCC) with excellent flow-ability, but also to increase the durability by reduction in the cement paste content. By dense packing of the aggregates and with the aid of pozzolanic material and superplasticizer (SP), concrete can flow honey-like with less entanglement of steel fibers. Such SFRSCC has already been successfully applied in several projects, such as construction of a low radiation waste container, bus station pavement, road deck panel, and two art statues. So it is recommended that the SFRSCC can be used for improving the performance of ordinary steel fiber reinforced concrete in many ways and should be considered for increasing the lifecycle of a concrete structure. Key words: durability, steel fiber reinforced concrete, DMDA, dense packing, lifecycle

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The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, Volume 34, Number 1B

April 2009

and heterogeneous features by improving the workability using less water and paste. segregation. (2) To improve the volume stability by minimizing the water amount and cement content to reduce the possibility of shrinkage and swelling. the hydration of the cement will cause chemical shrinkage. INTRODUCTION Although concrete is a widely used construction material.Chih-Ta Tsai. to improve the workability of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC). April 2009 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. The Durability Design Consideration of SFRSCC In conventional mixture design. with the aid of pozzolanic materials (PM) and super plasticizers (SP). and the shrinkage rate or expansion rate is in direct proportion to the water and cement amounts [10]. The utilization of fly ash (in addition to the cement paste) to fill the void between blended aggregates will increase the density of concrete. Chien-Chih Chang. whereas the durability is decided by the water-to-cement ratio (w/c) [9]. The brittle nature of plain concrete cannot be neglected and an approach to make concrete a ductile material is necessary. A task force has been formed in Taiwan to develop High Performance Concrete (HPC) and selfconsolidating concrete (SCC) for solving the problems of honeycombing due to improper concrete practices. Volume 34. concrete workability is decided by the water amount and the compressive strength. bleeding. the steel fiber reinforced self-consolidating concrete (SFRSCC) can be obtained from traditional steel fiber reinforced concrete. with improved durability aspects.2. SFRSCC has been successfully used to construct: (1) A high integrity concrete container (HIC) for storing radiation waste. has been developed to produce HPC and SCC mixture proportions. concrete electrical resistivity and its ability to resist chloride ion penetration). moreover. but it will also reduce the workability [2–7]. Research work is being conducted in Taiwan.g. However. Thus the workability of the SFRSCC with the aid of SP is ensured as a result. and it is liable to cracking [1]. With the aid of the DMDA method. it has major disadvantages such as low tensile strength and low strength to weight ratio. The Durability Design Logic of DMDA The most important durability design logic of DMDA is the achievement of “least void” through the utilization of fly ash (to fill the void between blended aggregates) and the cement paste (to fill the rest of the void) as shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2. Densified Mixture Design Algorithm (DMDA). (2) Bus station pavement in Taipei city. steel is no doubt a useful reinforcement material for concrete whether it is in the form of a steel fiber or a reinforcing bar. 2. Regarding the concept of sustainable use of the material. Number 1B 59 . In this regard. 2. A local mixture proportion method. since 1993. The main objectives of the durability design using DMDA were: (1) To avoid any honeycombing. (3) High Performance Road Deck Panel (HPRDP). The workability can be improved by increasing the water amount and the strength can be increased by increasing the cement content. The addition of steel fibers to concrete can improve the tensile strength and ductility.1. Besides. and Chao-Lung Hwang DURABILITY DESIGN AND APPLICATION OF STEEL FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE IN TAIWAN 1. ordinary concrete contains water at least twenty percent of the concrete volume. Lung-Sheng Li. too much cement paste will cause large slump loss and bleeding as well as segregation. respectively. (3) To determine the ability of concrete to resist harmful substances penetration by using electrical and electrochemical techniques (e. DENSIFIED MIXTURE DESIGN ALGORITHM (DMDA) 2. And the addition of the SP (super plasticizers) is helpful to solve the potential problem of tangling or balling of steel fibers. This method combines the past volume method and the current weight method resulting in a densely packed aggregate with the optimization of cement paste. SFRSCC has been identified as one of the future visions [8] of the concrete industry in USA. and (4) Concrete art statues.

(c) variation of dry loose density as mixed aggregates filled with fly ash [11] Figure 2. Volume 34. The procedure of aggregate packing. Number 1B April 2009 .Chih-Ta Tsai. and Chao-Lung Hwang and hence drying shrinkage cannot be avoided. Then. (a) The schematic drawing. To avoid these problems. Lung-Sheng Li. Chien-Chih Chang. Thus the durability of concrete is destroyed. the concrete must be (b) (a) (c) Figure 1. a concrete mixture designed with low water amount and low cement content is suggested. First and foremost the concrete mix design should have a very low water amount so as to minimize the shrinkage rate or the expansion rate of concrete [10]. due to disintegration and crack formation. (b) Variation of dry loose density as coarse aggregate filled with sand. Cement paste acts as the role in DMDA [12] 60 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. Durability design should be considered for improving both the fresh and hardened stages of the concrete and should finally extend their service life.

and the required final finished result. material selection.Chih-Ta Tsai. roller compacted concrete) or high slump concrete (e.g. W ca is the weight of coarse aggregate [kg]. (5) Assign a lubricating paste thickness (t ) and calculate the volume of cement paste (See Figure 2): V p = nV v where n is a multiplier for lubricating paste. respectively.e. The addition of pozzolanic materials is necessary to help the self-healing of cracks if they are generated. W cs is the weight ′ of sand [kg].3.g. self-consolidating concrete. 2. W fly is the weight of fly ash [kg]. (2) Obtain the maximum dry loose density by iteratively packing aggregates (i. Volume 34. A certain amount of steel fiber should be included in the concrete mix to absorb energy and in the case of crack formation. trial batch. (2a) Fill coarse aggregate with sand and then obtain: α= ′ W cs ′ ′ W cs +W ca (1) ′ where α is the ratio at maximum dry loose density as coarse aggregate is filled with sand. In the plastic stage. (3) Select the volume of steel fiber (η) added into concrete. Vv shown in Figure 2 [12]: W i′ −η Vv = 1− ∑ γi (3) where W i ′ [kg/m3] and γi [kg/m3] are the weight and density of i material in blended aggregates. (2b) Fill the rest void between coarse aggregate and sand with fly ash under fixed α. The basic quality information of the ingredients of concrete is necessary for the purpose of quality control. (6) Calculate the factor of volume variation (υ) [12]: (4) υ= 1 − η − nV v 1 − η −V v (5) April 2009 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. The SFRSCC Design Procedure by DMDA The following steps can be used to provide computational basis for design of the SFRSCC mixture employing the DMDA procedure. fly ash) shown in Figure 1 [11]. high performance concrete). Lung-Sheng Li. and curing are required to lower the possibility of crack formation. Number 1B 61 . type of construction work. A strict standard operation procedure for mixture proportion. the fresh concrete is designed to prevent the occurrence of plastic shrinkage cracks due to excess water evaporation from the concrete surface. (1) Select proper material resource and gather material information. sand. This is an important step for the mix design of SFRSCC. to stop their propagating. and Chao-Lung Hwang designed to satisfy the construction needs such as low slump concrete (e. quality control. Vp is the volume of cement paste. Chien-Chih Chang. (4) Calculate the least void. coarse aggregate. and obtain: β= ′ W fly ′ ′ ′ W fly + (W cs +W ca ) (2) ′ where β is the ratio at maximum dry loose density as blended aggregates filled with fly ash.

respectively [kg/m3]. cement. Wfly . fly ash. sand. γw . respectively [kg/m3]. Chien-Chih Chang. 62 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. and Wca are weights of steel fiber. and mixing water: Vp = Ww γw + Wc γc + W sl γ sl (10) If ξ is the ratio of replacing cement with slag by weight. and Wsl are weights of water. Number 1B April 2009 . Lung-Sheng Li. the SP dosage can be estimated according to past experience (See Figure 3) [12]. (8) Calculate the amount of cement. The dosage of SP is determined by its quality and the total water content. Volume 34. then: W w = λ × (W c +W sl +W fly ) (12) (13) Using Equation (11) and Equation (13). γc . fly ash. and Chao-Lung Hwang (7) Calculate the weight of coarse aggregate. slag. Wfiber . (9) Determine the dosage of SP and amount of water. Substitute Equation (11) into Equation (10) to obtain: ⎛W w ⎞ ⎛ ξ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟W c ⎜ ⎟W Wc ⎝1− ξ ⎠ c Wc ⎠ Vp =⎝ + + γw γc γ sl If the water-to-cementitious material ratio (w/cm) is λ. Under fixed total amount of water and w/cm ratio. respectively: W fiber = η× γ fiber ′ W fly = υ×W fly ′ W cs = υ×W cs ′ W ca = υ×W ca (6) (7) (8) (9) where γ fiber is the unit density of steel fiber [kg/m3]. cement. and steel fiber. Wcs . and slag. and coarse aggregate. Equation (12) can be used to solve for Wc : W fly Vp −λ γw Wc = ⎡λ 1 ξ ⎛ λ 1 ⎞⎤ + ⎢ + + ⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎣ γw γc 1 − ξ ⎝ γw γ sl ⎠ ⎦ (14) The calculated Wc can be substituted both into Equation (14) and Equation (11) to obtain Wsl and Ww .Chih-Ta Tsai. respectively [kg/m3]. sand. and slag. Wc . respectively. then: ξ= W sl W sl +W c (11) where Ww . and γsl are densities of water.

(b) mixing in the batching plant [12] 3. The SP dosage based on past experience. and class F fly ash supplied by Taiwan Power Station are used in this study for making the concretes. a NF based lignin– sulfonate. Chien-Chih Chang.Chih-Ta Tsai. (a) trial mixing in the laboratory. Constituent Materials The Type I Portland Cement produced by Taiwan Cement Company. Volume 34.1. was purchased from a local factory. and Chao-Lung Hwang (a) (b) Figure 3. The steel fibers made by HAREXE Company in Germany were purchased from an agent in Taiwan. April 2009 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. Number 1B 63 . blast-furnace slag (BF slag) provided by China Steel Company. All materials conform to the related ASTM standards and their physical properties as well as chemical compositions are shown in Tables 1–3. Type G superplasticizer. Crushed coarse aggregate and natural sand were provided from local quarries. Lung-Sheng Li. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM 3.

74 0. Physical and Chemical Analyses of Cement. Types and Properties of Steel Fibers Type A B C Shape Double hook-edge Double hook-edge Straight Diameter (mm) 0.05 0. BF Slag.64 2.64 0.61 0.99 - Table 2.86 4350 34.86 13.51 3.31 6.3 0 2.52 7.5 0.01 5.85 SP 1.9 60.61 0.5 11.20 3110 51.3 36.70 0.Chih-Ta Tsai.1 90.40 0.51 BF slag 2.4 65.59 2.31 1.8 1576 Sand 100 99.23 24.52 0.29 4. Number 1B April 2009 .18 1. Lung-Sheng Li.14 1. Chien-Chih Chang.5 Length (mm) 50 30 10 Aspect ratio (L/D) 100 60 20 Tensile strength (MPa) 900 850 750 64 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. and Chao-Lung Hwang Table 1.5 0. Volume 34.0 1649 Table 3.7 5. and SP Item Physical properties Specific gravity Surface area (m2/g) SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 MgO Chemical compositions (%) SO3 P2O5 Na2O K2O Solid content Loss on ignition (%) Cement 3.03 0.18 42.7 2.44 2.4 1. Fly Ash.15 2970 22. Properties of Coarse Aggregate and Sand Sieve size 3/4 in 1/2 in 3/8 in #4 #8 #16 #30 #50 #100 Specific gravity Absorption (%) Dry loose density (kg/m3) Percentage of passing Coarse aggregate 100 97.31 Fly ash 2.

5 0. cylinder splitting strength. B1.0 0. and ability of concrete to resist chloride ion penetration tests follow ASTM C192 [15] and those specimens are cured in saturated limewater at the temperature of 23 ± 2.5 mm C2 is a control mixture A1~C4 use normal weight aggregate and steel fiber D1 uses lightweight aggregate and polypropylene (PP) fiber. casting of the SFRSCC cylinders with dimension of 150φ × 300H mm were conducted compressive strength test at the age of 3. and concrete art statues).32 0.25 0.3.2.32 0. and Chao-Lung Hwang 3. 28. Every SFRSCC mixture has its utility or construction requirement (e. Workability Test The slump and slump flow of SFRSCC were measured according to ASTM C143 [13] and CNS 14842 [14].7 30 30 50 30 30 30 30 & 10 964 950 734 767 755 745 427 Remark: Diameter of Steel Fiber is 0. and D1 mixes are respectively applied to the high performance road deck panel (HPRDP). casting of the SFRSCC cylinders with dimension of 150φ × 300H mm were conducted for cylinder splitting strength test at the age of 28 days. Volume 34.3.5 0.5 0. Chien-Chih Chang.5 1. A1. and two types of steel fiber lengths 3.0 0. 56. w/cm Fiber Content (Vol. C3. 7. concrete electrical resistivity. C2 is the control mixture. and aspect ratio (L/D) of steel fiber) on the properties of SFRSCC are shown in Table 4. C1–C4 mixture proportions are adopted to discuss properties of SFRSCC.1. Lung-Sheng Li. the bus station pavement.3.g. The flow time is different from ASTM C995 “Standard Test Method for Time of Flow of Fiberreinforced Concrete through Inverted Slump Cone”.32 0. Cylinder Compressive Strength Test The preparations of SFRSCC specimens for cylinder compressive strength. Cylinder Splitting Strength Test According to ASTM C496 [17]. Table 4.3.29 0. 3. April 2009 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. %) Fiber Length (mm) Coarse Aggregate Proportion (kg /m3) Binder Sand Cement 819 775 924 1014 995 982 878 300 300 300 274 265 255 235 Pozzolan 204 160 235 202 220 235 233 127 135 171 152 155 157 150 Water + SP A1 B1 C1 C2 C3 C4 D1 0. the high integrity concrete container (HIC). respectively. Herein the flow time of SFRSCC is defined as the passing time from the slump cone lifted to concrete stops flowing in slump flow test.0 °C.32 0.32 0.2. respectively. Testing Program 3. According to ASTM C39 [16].3. Mixture Proportioning The mixture proportions of SFRSCC designed by DMDA in this study for investigating the effects (including water to cementitious material ratio (w/cm). steel fiber content. Number 1B 65 . 3.Chih-Ta Tsai. and 90 days. Mixture Proportions Mix No.

the compressive strength of SFRSCC is not directly proportional to the fiber content. Although the slump of C4 mixture still is 220 mm.25 MPa/kg cement.Chih-Ta Tsai. 3. 3. but also minimizes the detrimental effect of mechanisms causing crystallization. and hence may increase the service life of concrete. Workability of SFRSCC Figure 4 presents the workability including slump (see Figure 4(a)). slump flow (see Figure 4(b)). Due to the light weight aggregate applied to D1 mixture.1. The addition of excessive amount of steel fiber will again result in tangling of fibers and hence more lubrication paste is needed to improve the concrete workability. flexural strength. the energy consumption and CO2 footprint during the production of cement can significantly be reduced to environmental advantage. Chien-Chih Chang. 28. As expected each mixture type had excellent workability except the C4 mixture with 1.6.5.0% volume fiber content). 56. Compressive Strength of SFRSCC Figure 5 shows the relationship between strength development and fiber content.6 times higher than that of traditional concrete (0. 7. Strength Efficiency of Cement of SFRSCC The strength efficiency of cement implies the yielded strength per kilogram of cement and denoted as MPa/kg cement. 66 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. Such result indicates that the cement consumption is only about one quarter of the normal usage based on the same compressive strength. and 20]. abrasion resistance. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 4. and so forth [2. 3. the strength efficiency of cement at 28-day and 90-day is in excess of 0. Flexural Strength Test According to ASTM C293 [18].7% volume steel fiber still had excellent workability close to C1 mixture. Number 1B April 2009 . sulfate attack and alkali aggregates reaction. and 90 days.07 MPa/kg cement). 3. Ability of Concrete to Resist Chloride Ion Penetration Test According to ASTM C1202 [19].20 MPa/kg cement and 0. D1 mixture with 0. casting direction. Consequently Figure 4 also indicates that the dosage of steel fiber should not be greater than 0. the slump flow significantly lowers down to 400 mm because of insufficient lubricating paste on the fibers. In such manner. and distribution as well as the property of interface between steel fiber and cement paste among others. Volume 34. it not only saves cement usages.0% volume steel fiber.4. Consequently. and 20]. and fiber crack-control effect. preparation of the SFRSCC specimens with dimension of 100φ × 50H mm sliced from the cylinders of 100φ × 200H mm were conducted for chloride ion penetration test to assess the ability of SFRSCC to resist chloride ion penetration at the age of 90 days. 4. For the C4 mixture (with 1. and flow time (see Figure 4(c)) of each SFRSCC mixture type.3.2. and Chao-Lung Hwang 3.3. This is because the compressive strength of SFRSCC is affected by a number of steel fiber factors including the shape. Figure 7 shows the higher amount of steel fiber the higher compressive strength and the higher strength efficiency of cement. 4.5% for SFRSCC using normal weight as well as crushed coarse aggregate to achieve high flow-ability. Figure 6 shows that the compressive strength increases with increase in the aspect ratio (L/D) of fiber and with decrease in the water-to-cementitious material ratio (w/cm).3. casting of the SFRSCC specimens with dimension of 75 × 75 × 280L mm were conducted for flexural strength using simple beam with center point loading test at the age of 28 days. respectively. Concrete Electrical Resistivity Test A concrete electrical resistivity meter manufactured by the CNS Company in UK is used in this study for conducting the concrete electrical resistivity test to measure the SFRSCC electrical resistivity under saturated condition at the age of 3.3. respectively. The 90-day value is 3. Lung-Sheng Li. Even if the result indicates that the higher the fiber content. the spherical particles are helpful for workability of concrete [2. the higher will be compressive strength. 4.

Chih-Ta Tsai. Lung-Sheng Li. (b) slump flow. Number 1B 67 . (a) slump. (c) flow time April 2009 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. Volume 34. Workability of SFRSCC. Chien-Chih Chang. and Chao-Lung Hwang (a) (b) (c) Figure 4.

Effect of fiber content on the compressive strength 68 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. 21 MPa ≤ f'c ≤ 85 MPa.4. increases the sustained load and energy absorption capacity of SFRSCC. Figure 8 shows that the curve for SFRSCC mixtures is above one recommended by ACI 363.0% steel fiber will finally reach the desired concrete electrical resistivity of over 20 kΩ-cm proposed by Taylor Woodrow [23]. but also improved crack resisting ability. Concrete Electrical Resistivity of SFRSCC The measurement of concrete electrical resistivity gives an indication of durability of the concrete [22. make the microstructure dense as well as fill the conductive channel.e. A modified equation for determining the cylinder splitting strength resulting from the compressive strength of SFRSCC mixes is given in Equation (16). and it indicates the reduction of concrete electrical resistivity with increase in the steel fiber content due to conductivity of the steel fiber. Cylinder Splitting Strength of SFRSCC ACI 363 [21] describes the relationship between the cylinder splitting strength and the compressive strength for ordinary high strength concrete (i.. The fiber combined with pozzolanic material for SCC provides great improvement in the bonding force surrounding fiber and withstands large deflection (i. and hence it decreases the effect of steel fiber conduction.Chih-Ta Tsai.59 × f c′ (15) f sp = 0. f sp = 0. The gel formation from cement hydration and pozzolanic reaction will.e. This implies that the SFRSCC mixtures designed by DMDA method achieves not only increased cylinder splitting strength. as expected. Flexural Strength of SFRSCC (16) Figure 9 shows the load-deflection curves obtained for different fiber contents. (i. which improve the bonding strength within SFRSCC materials. and Chao-Lung Hwang 4. which is greater than the value obtained from Equation (15) recommended by ACI 363. Figure 5. This is because of the pozzolanic reaction and densification of the interface.e.737 where f'c is the compressive strength [MPa]. Volume 34. The increase in the fiber content. compressive strength exceeding 21 MPa). In the long run. 4. the addition of 1. fsp is the cylinder splitting strength [MPa]. it sustains more force to resist the deflection and also sustains an external load. 4. crack arresting effect).5. however. The addition of pozzolanic material contributes to the increase in the cylinder splitting strength. Since the configuration of the fiber is the double hook-edge type.6. Lung-Sheng Li. Number 1B April 2009 . the area under P-∆ curve). Chien-Chih Chang.738 × f c′ − 0. 23]. Figure 10 shows the relationship between concrete electrical resistivity and curing ages.

(a) Fiber aspect ratio. (b) w/cm ratio April 2009 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering.Chih-Ta Tsai. Lung-Sheng Li. and Chao-Lung Hwang (a) (b) Figure 6. Chien-Chih Chang. Volume 34. Number 1B 69 . Effect of fiber aspect ratio and w/cm ratio on the compressive strength.

Lung-Sheng Li. Volume 34. Chien-Chih Chang. Number 1B April 2009 .Chih-Ta Tsai. Effect of fiber content on strength efficiency of cement of SFRSCC Figure 8. Relationship of compressive strength and splitting strength of SFRSCC 70 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. and Chao-Lung Hwang Figure 7.

is not significantly generated. This result also illustrates the condition that fiber entanglement or balling within the SFRSCC does not necessarily occur and thus the perceived accommodation of a conductive channel. Volume 34. Chien-Chih Chang. Effect of fiber content on loading –deflection curves of SFRSCC Figure 10. Ability of SFRSCC to Resist Chloride Ion Penetration The ASTM C1202 [19] method is adopted in this study for assessing the ability of concrete to resist chloride ion penetration. Effect of fiber content on concrete electrical resistivity of SFRSCC April 2009 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. Figure 11 shows that the charge passed by ASTM C1202 method increases with increase in the steel fiber content. due to the conductivity of the steel fiber and the interface between steel fiber as well as cement paste in SFRSCC. Lung-Sheng Li. and Chao-Lung Hwang 4.Chih-Ta Tsai. Number 1B 71 . However the level of chloride ion penetration for all of SFRSCC remains in the “Low” range of the charge spectrum and thus indicating that the SFRSCC has a good ability to resist chloride ion penetration. Figure 9.7. which would otherwise increase the charge passed within the SFRSCC.

shrinkage crack. Bus Station Pavement in Taipei City Due to the heavy traffic and exposure to severe environmental conditions.5 5. as shown in Table 5. Table 6 shows the flexural strength of SCC and SFRSCC at different ages. Table 5. Chien-Chih Chang.0 72 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. Furthermore. Results of ASTM C1202 method on SFRSCC 5. Volume 34.0 SFRSCC 230 ± 20 500 ± 50 28 49 70 4. abrasion.Chih-Ta Tsai. 3 day Compressive Strength (MPa) 28 day 56 day Flexural Strength (MPa) 28 day 56 day SCC 250 ± 20 600 ± 50 28 49 70 4.1. the road pavement in Taipei city is observed to be performing well without fracture. Number 1B April 2009 . Requirement for Bus Station Pavement of Concrete in Taipei City Property Slump (mm) Slump Flow (mm) Time Up to 45 min. After 5 years of exposure to heavy vehicular traffic. and it indicates that the concrete has sustained stable quality throughout the concreting period. or any other defects with limits of normal maintenance routines. the top pavement layer of bus station used the B1 SFRSCC mixture (See Table 4) with excellent flexural strength. and Chao-Lung Hwang Figure 11. Figure 13 shows the compressive strength development of hardened SCC and SFRSCC constructed in August 28. The concrete selection was made to meet the requirement of JRCP [24] and to satisfy the design requirements. SFRSCC PROJECTS 5. 1998. Figure 12 shows the quality control chart of both fresh SCC and SFRSCC. Lung-Sheng Li. the flexural strength of the SFRSCC mix designs at 28 and 56 days are respectively higher by 102% and 115% than the specified (required) value shown in Table 6. Up to 45 min. But the bottom pavement layer was made with only SCC. Due to the combined usefulness of steel fiber and pozzolanic material.5 5.

and Chao-Lung Hwang Figure 12. Volume 34. Lung-Sheng Li. Number 1B 73 . Quality control chart of SCC and SFRSCC in bus station pavement April 2009 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering.Chih-Ta Tsai. Chien-Chih Chang.

The application of the SFRSCC to HIC was successful and satisfied the prescribed strict specifications as shown in Table 7.3 1998/8/28 7.3 10. 9.Chih-Ta Tsai. 4.9 11.1 10. The standard processes of mixture design.15 5. but also reduces the possibility of corrosion of steel rebar and the associated material cost.7 8.5 Ave. 4. Strength development of SCC and SFRSCC in bus station pavement Table 6.0 1998/8/28 9. was used for the HIC project. Flexural Strength (MPa) of SCC and SFRSCC (Mixture B1) in Bus Station Pavement SCC Age 28 56 SFRSCC Age 28 56 Construction date 1998/8/27 7.66 Construction date 1998/8/27 8. Number 1B April 2009 . Precast High Integrity Concrete (HIC) for Low Radiation Waste Since 1996 research has been conducted in Taiwan for developing HIC for storing low radiation wastes.3 Req.02 2. and Chao-Lung Hwang Figure 13. The C3 mixture (in Table 4) that has been developed in the laboratory. Chien-Chih Chang.0 Ave/Req.75 Req. 1. as shown in Figure 14. 74 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. volume stability.6 8.70 1. Table 7 compares the performances of HIC between French and Taiwan specifications. durability of the storage structure.5 5. 2. and prototype test have been completed.65 8. Lung-Sheng Li. 7. Meeting these specifications not only increases the safety.5 5. material inspection.0 Ave/Req. Volume 34.2.3 Ave.

Lung-Sheng Li. (a) Slump and slump flow measurement. Photographs of HIC.5 9. Number 1B 75 .Chih-Ta Tsai.5 > 4.8 > 50 > 56 63 Cp 55 > 370 Taiwan specification Portland Type I 250~350 C3 SFRSCC Portland Type I 265 (a) (b) (c) (d ) Figure 14. and Chao-Lung Hwang Table 7. Chien-Chih Chang. (b) L-flow test. Volume 34. (d) dropping test April 2009 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. (c) placing and casting. Specification of Low Radiation Waste HIC for France and Taiwan French specification Cement type Cement amount (kg/m3) At 56-days compressive strength (MPa) At 56-days tensile strength (MPa) At 56-days Shrinkage (µm /m) < 300 < 300 245 > 4.

(a) (b) Figure 15. higher flexural strength. The A1 mixture as shown in Table 4 was developed for this project. Comparison of the deflections: (a) Precast HPRDP. Figure 16 shows the demonstration of the field abrasion test conducted by a 50-ton bulldozer. respectively. It was found that the HPRDP made with SFRSCC had higher energy absorption capacity. Volume 34. Figure 15 compares the deflections of the HPRDP developed in Taiwan and the Metro-deck panel developed in America [25]. and higher impact strength when compared to the Metro-deck panel.3. High Performance Road Deck Panel (HPRDP) Precast HPRDP elements of dimensions 1 m × 2 m × 150 mm and 1 m × 3 m × 150 mm with SFRSCC were designed to replace the traditional steel road deck panel having 50 mm concrete topping. and Chao-Lung Hwang 5. Number 1B April 2009 . The initial crack load of HPRDP is four times more than the initial designed value 12 ton. (b) Metro-deck panel 76 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. No abrasion or scratches were observed after the test. Lung-Sheng Li. Chien-Chih Chang.Chih-Ta Tsai.

(a) (b) Figure 17. One is “Xi Men” in Ying-Ger Ceramics Museum.4. Number 1B 77 . which not only reduces drying shrinkage. as shown in Figure 17(a). The D1 mixture SFRSCC (as shown in Table 4) was used to cast the badge. The SFRSCC used low water and cement content. a 50-ton bulldozer on precast HPRDP element 5. (b) badge in NTUST April 2009 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. Taipei County. SFRSCC applied to statues in Taiwan. Filling SFRSCC inside ceramic tiles without steel reinforced bars made the Xi Men statue.Chih-Ta Tsai. Chien-Chih Chang. and Chao-Lung Hwang Figure 16. but also avoids the ceramic from stripping. as shown in Figure 17(b). The badge statue was made with lightweight aggregates and hybrid fibers consisting of blended short and long steel fibers as well as polypropylene (PP) ones. Volume 34. (a) Xi Men. Lung-Sheng Li. Field abrasion test. Concrete Art Statues There are two famous statues made by SFRSCC in Taiwan. The other is a statue of the badge of the department of Construction Engineering in the National Taiwan University of Science and Technology.

Lu. pp. Tsai. in 3rd RILEM International Conference on High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites.F. P. Plenge. W. Germany. 1991. “Properties of Fiber Reinforced Concrete: Workability. E. Concrete.C. G. 3(3)(2006). Concrete —Structure. and C. The usefulness of combined steel fiber and pozzolanic material improves the bonding strength as a result of which a modified equation for determining the cylinder splitting strength from the compressive strength has been derived for the SFRSCC. Mindess and J. pp. Li. pp. 85(3)(1988). H. The SFRSCC designed by the DMDA method reduces the entanglement or balling problem of fibers. P. 1999. Ltd. Young. 23(03)(2001). 12(3)(2000). Orange. Englewood Cliffs. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] P. “The Effect of Aggregate Gradation on Engineering Properties of High Performance Concrete”.. Concrete International. Ltd. Hwang.W. the content of steel fiber should not be greater than 0. Test results reveal that higher fiber content has brought about increased compressive strength. flexural strength. Ramakrishnan’s continuous support and technical assistance as well as Dr. CONCLUSION According to the results in this study. S. Number 1B April 2009 . “A New Generation of UHP Concrete: Dual Damage Resistance and Micro Mechanical Analysis. a number of conclusions such as the following can be drawn. H. Kao Cheng Industrial and Commercial Co. 1. NJ: Prentice-Hall Inc. 5. 891– 902.L. 478– 483. 436 – 439. Hence the addition of steel fiber within SFRSCC is more helpful for the flexural strength than the compressive strength. Concrete International. 1981. Farmington Hills. Journal of the Chinese Civil and Hydraulic Engineering. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors greatly appreciate Professor V. and art statues. “The Effect of Paste Amount and Water Content on the Volume Stability of Concrete”.. and C.C. and fiber crack-control effect. 3. “High-Performance Multi-Modal Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites (HPMFRCC): the LCPC Experience”. L. Properties and Materials. Mainz. Acker. “Effect of Steel Fibers at Two Stages: The Material and the Structure”. G. Michigan: American Concrete Institute. Hwang and H. The grant from National Science Council and Atomic Energy Council as well as the financial support from RSEA Engineering Corporation. Rossi. P. Vernet. abrasion resistance. Despite the use of highly conductive fiber.T. and Bayton Enterprise Co. pp. High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites”.Chih-Ta Tsai.T.1-91. Materials and Structures Journal. Acker. P. 189–196. Sun Tech Enterprise Co. Volume 34. ACI Committee 211. and Y. Standard Practice for Selecting Proportions for Normal. 20(1987). Rossi. pp.. P. 94(6)(1997). ACI Materials Journal. 27–34. P. Heavyweight and Mass Concrete. 621– 626. Balaguru and V. Rossi. 78 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering.S. 101–111. Englewood Cliffs. comprising road pavement. Naaman). NJ: Prentice-Hall Inc. Chien-Chih Chang. and Chao-Lung Hwang 6. Ramakrishnan. “Introducing Vision 2030: Our Industry’s 30-Year Map to the Future”. precast products. [7] [8] [9] [10] C. 2. The application of the SFRSCC designed on the basis of the DMDA has already been successful across a number of projects in Taiwan. pp. the range of concrete electrical resistivity as well as the level of chloride ion permeability has remained in the passive range. pp. ACI Materials Journal. 46 –52. 4.K.L. by virtue of the dense microstructure gains brought about by the DMDA.5% for normal weight SFRSCC made with crushed coarse aggregate. (ed. and Air-Void Characteristics”. Kung’s assistance in English revision. are gratefully acknowledged. pp.. “Ultra High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concretes”. 23(12)(2001). in Taiwan. Lung-Sheng Li. To attain high flowing capability. Journal of ASTM International. Malier. 1986. Reinhardt and A. (In Chinese) [11] C. Behavior Under LongTerm Loading. Mehta. Ltd.

USA. Taipei: Zan’s Publisher Inc. Volume 34. Marine Durability Survey of the Tongue Sands Tower. Philadelphia. Philadelphia. (In Chinese) [15] ASTM C192/C192M-07. (ed. [16] ASTM C39/C39M-05e1.Chih-Ta Tsai. Philadelphia. 2003. Tsai. Journal of the Chinese Civil and Hydraulic Engineering. Chien-Chih Chang. S.C. [24] AASHTOWare: DARWin 3. 2005.L.T. Standard Test Method for Electrical Indication of Concrete’s Ability to Resist Chloride Ion Penetration. Chen and C.. Concrete in the Oceans Technical Report No. “Study on Electrical Resistivity and Chloride Ion Penetrability Behavior of Concrete Materials”. Philadelphia. 1980. 13(2)(2001). (In Chinese) [23] T. 2007. Pennsylvania: American Society for Testing Materials. D. Chicago. 2008. Hwang and C. Lung-Sheng Li. “The Application of Geometry Concept to Solve Algebraic Solution DMDA Method”..C. [17] ASTM C496/C496M-04e1. Hwang. [25] Introduction of Metor-deck. 3rd edn. Guide to Quality Control and Testing of High-Strength Concrete. [13] ASTM C143-07. Pennsylvania: American Society for Testing Materials. 2007. [18] ASTM C293-08. [20] C. Pennsylvania: American Society for Testing Materials. Standard Test Method for Splitting Tensile Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens.L. METRODECKs Inc. Standard Test Method for Slump of Hydraulic-Cement Concrete.E.O. 2005. 293–302.P. Pennsylvania: American Society for Testing Materials. 1227–1233. Guide for Design of Pavement Structures. Standard Practice for Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Laboratory. April 2009 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Concrete (Using Simple Beam with Center-Point Loading). 1993. Philadelphia. Canada. Property and Behavior of Concrete. Taylor Woodrow Research Laboratories. Michigan: American Concrete Institute. 8 –12.Y. Washington. 2004. in Proceedings of Combining the 2nd North American Conference on the Design and Use of Self-Consolidating Concrete and the 4th International RILEM Symposium on Self-Compacting Concrete.O. 2005. and Chao-Lung Hwang [12] C.: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. [22] Y. M. Hwang. 1980. Ashburn. Philadelphia. USA. pp. Virginia. Metrology & Inspection. Farmington Hills. 2007. [19] ASTM C1202-07. Method of Test for Slump Flow of High Flowing Concrete. [14] CNS 1482. Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens. Shah). Pennsylvania: American Society for Testing Materials. 1998.2R-98. Number 1B 79 . (In Chinese) [21] ACI Committee 363. Taiwan: Bureau of Standards.1. pp.. 5. L. pp. R. Taipei. Pennsylvania: American Society for Testing Materials. Woodrow..A.