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MUMBAI INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND RESEARCH

PROJECT REPORT ON: MIS IN PRODUCTION

SUBMITTED TO:

Prof. Yogesh Kolhatkar
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Submitted by: Md. Abdussalam Shraddha Modsing Vishnu Mudiraj Shraddha Naik Navtej Vinodkumar Shetty Anisha Shinde Ganesh Shinde Ranjeet Singh Devesh Suryawanshi Ammar Kadri 1066 1067 1068 1069 1070 1096 1097 1098 1099 1100 1132

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Acknowledgment

We take immense pleasure in thanking Prof. Yogesh Kolhatkar and Kolhatkar, Dr. R. K. Singh, for having permitted us to carry out this project work.

We would like to express our special gratitude and thanks to industry persons for giving us such attention and time.

During this project we came to know various insights of the topic. We would also like to thank all the people who have helped us directly or indirectly in making this project.

Our thanks and appreciations also go to our colleagues in developing the project and people who have willingly helped us out with their abilities.

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METSYS NOITAMROFNI TNEMEGANAM FO ELOR

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.ON EGAP .ON EGAP .ON EGAP .ON EGAP

SRALUCITRAP SRALUCITRAP SRALUCITRAP SRALUCITRAP

TABLE OF CONTENTS

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6 SIM FO SCITSIRETCARAHC 5 SIM FO SEVITCEJBO 4 SIM FO NOITCNUF 3 SIM FO DEEN 2 SIM FO NOITCUDORTNI .1 TNEMEGDELWONKCA

.ON .S .ON .S .ON .S .ON .S

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SIM tnerruC fO eludoM tnemeganaM yrotnevnI 5.01

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detimiL CCA ta SIM fo erutcetihcrA 4.01

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SIM tnerruC yb dedivorP snoitcnuF SIM 3.01

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DETIMIL CCA – ELIFORP YNAPMOC

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SIM NA POLEVED OT SPETS CISAB

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eloR troppuS noisiceD ehT 3.7

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eloR troppuS lanoitcnuF ehT 2.7

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eloR gnirotinoM ecnamrofreP ehT 1.7

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10.2 Need For Integrated MIS

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noitamrofnI lareneG 1.01 DETIMIL CCA TA YDUTS SIM 41 TNEMEGANAM YROTNEVNI 31 21 YDUTS EHT FO EPOCS 11 YDUTS EHT FO EVITCEJBO 01 9 SIM FO SEPYT 8 SIM FO SELOR 7

45 35 25 Application of MIS 94 6 YHPARGOLBIB 41 TRAHC TTNAG 31 NOITADNEMMOCER 21 11 .

internal reporting was made manually 7 NOITCUDORTNI NOITCUDORTNI NOITCUDORTNI NOITCUDORTNI . data had to be separated individually by the people as per the additional statistic(s). data was distinguished from performance.citametsys a si SIM ro metsyS noitamrofnI tnemeganaM A slennahc noitacinummoc lla fo krowten eht fo gnitsisnoc metsys a" si metsys noitamrofni na taht edulcnoc ot efas si ti suhT .serudecorp . Previously.detacitsihpos ssel era smetsys rehto .metsys eht otni swolf noitamrofni yaw eht fo smret ni yltaerg yrav serutcurts SIM . as a by-product of the accounting system and with some Initially in businesses and other organizations.lortnoc ytilauq .secruoser sti gnisu dna slaog sti gniveihca ni ssenevitceffe s’tcejorp ruoy tuoba stnemgduj demrofni ekam ot stnemele margorp yek tuoba noitamrofni tcelloc yllacitametsys nac uoy woh sebircsed retpahc sihT .elpoep fo gnitsisnoc metsys a si )SIM( smetsyS noitamrofnI tnemeganaM data that is needed by the organization was stored.ot stroper dna noitamrofni deriuqer gnidivorp ni uoy stsissa SIM dennalp-llew dna dezinagro na .secruoser dna seitilibapac . Later."noitazinagro na nihtiw desu information.margorp ralucitrap a tuoba noitamrofni gnitroper dna gnitcelloc rof dohtem mrofinu .noitidda nI .sdeen euqinu sti .senihcam .liated fo level .stnenopmoc sti sa .seitivitca s’tnarg ruoy tuoba noitamrofni ylemit . important and to the point requirement and necessity of the organization.snoitcnuf .noitazinagro na fo secruos lanretxE dna lanretnI morf atad srehtag metsys ehT .etarucca htiW .detareneg stroper fo sepyt eht . and gave limited and delayed information on management and only periodically.ytinummoc eht ot eulav s’tcejorp ruoy fo ecnedive evitcejbo niatbo dna reganam retteb a eb nac uoy .ytivitca ro .stnemeriuqer noitamrofni euqinu s’tcejorp eht ot deroliat si taht SIM na pu tes ot eetnarg wen a rof emit tnellecxe na si noitatnemelpmi tcejorp rof snalp ruoy ezilanif uoy sA no desab si SIM s’noitazinagro na . and so instead of the collection of mass of data.LOD .sledom atad dna sesab atad .yletamitlU SIM rehto dna . .derutcurts .yrtne atad rof ffats deniart ylhgih eriuqer emoS si SIM na yaw eht stceffa taht elbairav a si sretupmoc no ecnailer fo tnuoma ehT eht dna .tneve .gnikam noisiced ni ssecorp eht ni sreganam tsissa ot noitamrofnI tnemeganaM seilppus dna ti sessecorp .

Over time. Philip Kotler "A marketing information system consists of people. Customer applications. timely.Earlier. Information systems include sometimes referred to. storage and dissemination of data in the form of information needed to carry out the management functions. As more and more data was entire management reports from the raw. MIS has also some differences with ERP which incorporates elements that are not necessarily focused on decision support. and accurate information to marketing decision makers. The area of study called MIS is management is a practitioner-focused discipline. resource and people management applications. analyze. processing. inventories. According to procedures to gather. equipment. about sales. the term is used broadly in a number of contexts and includes (but is not limited Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). 8 . which were developed to provide managers with information Today. business computers were mostly used for relatively simple operations such as tracking sales or payroll data. IT service systems that are not intended for decision making. in a restrictive sense. That area of study should not be confused with computer science. as information technology management. evaluate. stored data. The term "MIS" arose to describe these kinds of applications. often without much detail. Supply Chain Management (SCM). project management and database retrieval An 'MIS' is a planned system of the collection. In a way. Relationship Management (CRM). and distribute needed." it is a documented report of the activities that were planned and executed. sort. creating interlinking with previously separate information systems. to): decision support systems. and other data that would help in managing the enterprise. these applications became more complex and began to store increasing amount of information while also stored and linked man began to analyze this information into further detail. and ]3[ The terms MIS and information system are often confused.

but why they are not going as well as planned where that is the case. Design. The life cycle includes Analysis. In effect. These or loss. Requirements. Testing and Implementation. including recruitment and training regimens. and do so in such a way that identifies individual accountability. MIS must not only indicate how things are going.The successful MIS must support a business's Five Year Plan or its equivalent. Development. and in virtual real-time. provide for reports based upon performance analysis in areas critical to that plan. It must feedback loops that allow for titivation of every aspect of the business. 9 . with reports would include performance relative to cost centers and projects that drive profit Anytime a business is looking at implementing a new business system it is very important to use a system development method such as System Development Life Cycle.

irrelevant or obsolete information.syaw ynam ni ynapmoc a rof ffo yap nac smetsys noitamrofni ni gnitsevnI . analyzed.ytiuqe dnarb sdliuB .2 . For taking rational decisions. processing In today’s world of ever increasing complexities of carrying out business.NEED FOR MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM This is a universally accepted fact that all managerial functions are performed through decision making. it may the organization.1 .level tuptuo sti ni ytilibixelf ynapmoc wolla smetsys noitamrofnI sessecorp noitcudorp tsoob nac tnemtsevni TI . On the other hand. organization. if an MIS is poorly planned and constructed. every designed and maintained MIS. by providing the required information at various stages of objectives. which may even prove fatal for . in order to survive and grow. This need is even more increased because organizations now have to compete not only locally but also globally.tnemeganam lennahc noitubirtsid ecnahnE .3 .4 .5 STNEMTSEVNI SIM FO STIFENEB STNEMTSEVNI SIM FO STIFENEB STNEMTSEVNI SIM FO STIFENEB STNEMTSEVNI SIM FO STIFENEB 10 . timely and reliable information is and disseminating to decision makers. decision making and thus greatly help the organization to achieve its goals and MIS assist decision makers. essential and is procured through a logical method of information collecting.ycnetepmoc eroc a troppus nac tI . provide inaccurate. must have a properly planned.

gnissecorp .sesirpretne fo stifeneb cimonoce .evitceffe a sdrawot eb lliw esirpretne a fo tnemeganam dna eciffo ehT .tnetxe tsegral eht ot ygolonhcet noitacinummoc krowten dna retupmoc nredom fo egatnavda gnikat yb sesirpretne fo tnemeganam noitamrofni eht nehtgnerts ot si ti fo ksat niam eht .egarots .ecruoser namuh fo hcraeser eht no desab atad tcerroc eht pu tes dna .stnempiuqe larehpirep rehto dna retupmoc .ot gnidrocca stroper gninnalp etairporppa eht sedivorp dna sesirpretne yb dedroffa snoitcirtser eht htiw ecnadrocca ni tnemtraped lanoitcnuf hcae fo snalp eht ylbanosaer segnarra tI .scitamehtam nredom gniylppa yb noitautis erutuf eht stciderp tI .tneserp tA dna level tnemeganam eht ylsuounitnoc evorpmi dna snoisiced tcerroc ekam ot sa os reganam eht ot atad noitamrofni dezimetsys dna dessecorp fo suoirav ylemit edivorp dna .ecneics gnigreme na sA .noitcerid sselrepap dna dipar .namuh fo desopmoc .noitcelloc od nac hcihw metsys noitamrofni tnemeganam fo mynorca si SIM FUNCTIONS OF MIS 11 .noissimsnart .gnikam-noisiced metsys rof desu yllareneg si SIM .ecnatsni roF .ecruoser laicnanif .tnemeganam tnereffid nalp fo noitcnuF noitciderp fo noitcnuF gnissecorP ataD .noitamrofni fo esu dna ecnanetniam .level tnemeganam eht evorpmi dna ygolonhcet mrofer ot troser niam eht neeb sah sesirpretne fo SIM .egarots .atad fo tuptuo dna gnissecorp .stnempiuqe .tamrof deifinu na gniylppus yb tsoc tsewol eht ot secuder dna scitsitats eht seifilpmis tI .noitcelloc eht sedulcni tI ?swollof sa era SIM fo snoitcnuf niam ehT .sesirpretne yb denwo .cte .noitalumis ro scitsitats .ygolonhcet .segatrohs sti dna ssergorp tnerruc eht dnatsrednu meht ekam ot redro ni sreganam reppu eht ot emit ni kcabdeef dna yltnegru devlos eb ot deen taht smelborp tuo dnif ot SIM fo esu ekam nac eeyolpme esirpretne .noissimsnart .

tnemtraped lanoitcnuf yreve yb dedroffa atad eht htiw ecnadrocca ni nalp dna noitarepo neewteb secnereffid eht htiw sesirpmoc dna snalp fo noitarepo eht stcepsni dna srotinom tI 12 stifeneb cimonoce tnadnuba evitaler ecnatsissa fo noitcnuF .gnieb otni semoc secnereffid hcae ylemit lortnoc ot sreganam ot tnatsissa lortnoc fo noitcnuF .ecruoser laicnanif .rof ecruoser noitamrofni dna ecruoser lairetam .ecruoser namuh yllanoitar gnisu fo epoh eht ni sretupmoc ni derots atad lufitnelp a gnizylana dna edom ’scitamehtam fo suoirav ot gniylppa yb smelborp detaler fo srewsna tseb eht yltnatsni setavired tI eht yhw snosaer eht gnizylana yb dohtem eb dna .

elpmis ro etarobale rehtehW OBJECTIVES OF MIS 13 .1 :LOD ot stroper fo sepyt owt timbus tsum seetnarg .yaw ev tceffe na n margorp ruoy etau ave dna eganam .serutidnepxe tnarg .slevel ffats lla ta sdeen noitamrofni sserdda .sesoprup detangised sti seveihca ti fi ylno elihwhtrow si SIM na .noitca evitcerroc rof emit ni yreviled ecivres ni seicneiciffeni seton dna krow tcejorp dna elbatemit ruoy htiw ecap gnipeek si sdnuf fo erutidnepxe taht ssenerawa setatilicaf noitamrofni sihT .yreviiiilllled eciiiivres eviiiitceffe erom niiii ffats ediiiiug oT .stroper laredef deriuqer eht secudorp taht SIM na deen uoy .etacolla ro hcaorppa rieht egnahc .yaw eviiiitceffe na niiii margorp ruoy etaullllave dna eganam .tnemellllpmiiii oT .raelc htiw uoy sedivorp SIM evitceffe nA .muminim a tA .gn tau ave dna gn rot nom n esu rof stnemer uqer c tammargorp dna aredef teem oT .sdohtem yreviled ecivres dna .dna noitalupop tegrat rieht gnivres yletauqeda era yeht fi enimreted nac ffats ruoY ot derugifnoc eb osla nac atad esehT .tneme pm oT .yrev ed ec vres ev tceffe erom n ffats ed ug oT .2 .tneme pm oT .tneme pm oT stropeR laicnaniF ro lacsiF stropeR margorP ro citammargorP .yaw ev tceffe na n margorp ruoy etau ave dna eganam .gn tau ave dna gn rot nom n esu rof stnemer uqer c tammargorp dna aredef teem oT :desu eb yam poleved uoy metsys eht .sevitcejbo dna slaog tcejorp sdrawot ssergorp gnikam era uoy rehtehw dna gnitarepo si tcejorp ruoy woh tuoba noitamrofni esicnoc .gniiiitaullllave dna gniiiirotiiiinom niiii esu rof stnemeriiiiuqer ciiiitammargorp dna llllaredef teem oT .yrev ed ec vres ev tceffe erom n ffats ed ug oT .muminim a tA .gniffats ni stnemtsujda troppus ot elbaliava si osla noitamrofnI .yaw ev tceffe na n margorp ruoy etau ave dna eganam .yreviled ecivres ot secruoser erom .seussi lanoitarepo eniltnorf tuoba ytinummoc eht dna srentrap mrofni taht ro gniod era stneilc llew woh no kcabdeef ffats reffo taht stroper tnaw osla yam uoy .yllaniF ruoy .yrev ed ec vres ev tceffe erom n ffats ed ug oT .noitidda nI .eroferehT .snoisivorp ytilibatnuocca .ton fi .snoisiced tnemeganam ediug taht stroper dleiy dluohs SIM .gn tau ave dna gn rot nom n esu rof stnemer uqer c tammargorp dna aredef teem oT .

atad elbarisednu eht setanimile dna srebmun llams ni stroper dna stnemucod tuptuo noitcudorp htiw atad rof eht noitamrofni sezilitu eh eht sesu .SIM evitceffe na gnikam ni esicrexe elohw eht fo tcudorp dne eht eb dluohs metsys evitceffe taht os segats noitatnemelpmi dna weiver .level noisiced si SIM : fo noitazinagro cisab ehT .gnillib .gnikam edivorp ot fo lasiarppa morf rof yenruoj sti dluohs evitceffe ot troppus oS tnemeganam noitamrofni BASIC CHARACTERISTICS 14 .VI :swo f atad nommoC detargetnI .e.tnempoleved no osla tub gninnalp fo egats eht ta ylno ton slanoisseforp SIM eht ediug dluohs reganaM .gnihsac rof selas .II :detcer d tnemeganaM .II :detceriiiid tnemeganaM .I evitcejbo detne ro-tnemeganaM detne ro-tnemeganaM detneiiiiro-tnemeganaM detne ro-tnemeganaM .cte .noitcelloc wolf atad atad ycnadnuder dna ycacilpud nommoc a ot dael lliw smetsys bus tnereffid fo noitargetni ehT .noitamrofni lufesu dna lufgninaem erom fo laveirter ot sdael ti esuaceb yrassecen si noitargetni sihT .i noitazinagro na ni tnemeganam fo slevel eht lla sevres ti taht hcus si SIM ehT .detneiro-tnemeganam si SIM nehW rewol dna elddim .ytitne elgnis a sa rehtegot dekrow eb dluohs smetsys bus noitamrofni lanoitcnuf dna lanoitarepo eht lla taht os detargetni eb tsum noitamrofni fo tnempoleveD .noitazinagro na fo slaog evitcelloc ro laudividni eb yam tI .sdeen na tnemeganam .noitazinagro ssenisub trats eht ni eht fo laog SIM eht dna noissim .esle ydobyna naht ylevitceffe erom stnemeriuqer dna sdeen rieht sllet ohw tnemeganam eht si ti esuaceb tnemeganam eht yb detcerid eb dluohs ti .ziv noitazinagro na ni seitivitca ynam rof sisab ni eht era sredro remotsuc eht .pot .III :detcer d tnemeganaM .ynapmoc a fo noitazinagro eht ni smetsys bus eht lla fo weiv etelpmoc ro evisneherpmoc a snaem tI : .emit dna eno serudecorp ylno ecruos gnissecorp lanigiro sti fo morf rebmun tsylana muminim metsys a nehT yb detcelloc si ataD .metsys noitamrofni tneiciffe taht noitacilpud fo noitanimile ot dael lliw pleh :swo f atad nommoC :swo f atad nommoC :swollllf atad nommoC .II :detcer d tnemeganaM .II .elpmaxe gnidiova roF ni .na ecudorp dna snoitarepo eht yfilpmis sihT .gnissecorp rehtruf dna lliw egarots hcihw .

noitamrofni ylemit dna yticapac egarots htiw eht yltneiciffe fo dna ylkciuq erom eht ycneiciffe dez retupmoC dez retupmoC deziiiiretupmoC dez retupmoC .noitca otni steg ti erofeb etelosbo eh osla dna ecnavda ni llew noitamrofni tneme e-gn nna p yvaeH tneme e-gn nna p yvaeH tnemelllle-gniiiinnallllp yvaeH tneme e-gn nna p yvaeH .SIM deziretupmoc eht ehT .IV :tpecnoc metsyS buS .IIIV noitacilpud sdiova esabatad nommoC esabatad nommoC esabatad nommoC .doirep regnol hcum a semitemos dna sraey 5 ot 3 sekat yllausu tI .V .strap bus 2 ni nees si melborp a nehW eb ton lliw SIM sih taht dnim ni peek ot sah s’mrif eht sa llew sa sevitcejbo erutuf peek ot sah eh taht si eno – dnim ni sgniht 2 peek ot sah trepxe metsys eht oS .smetsysbus otni SIM elohw eht nwod gnikaerb ro gnikam elihW .stsoc ni noitcuder tI hcihw egarots dna .metsys eb seireuq dna ssenevitceffe eht sesaercni sretupmoc fo esu eht tuB .snoitazinagro ssenisub ni SIM gnisu fo evitcejbo eht eveihca ot SIM fo erutaef cisab eht si sihT : .retupmoc a tuohtiw desu eb nac SIM : .ysae edam eb lliw noitatnemelpmi fo esahp dna tes eb lliw seitiroirP ..esu evitceffe elgnis .egarots atad ni noitacilpud fo ytissecen eht setanimile .selif atad etarapes ynam ni derots ylremrof sdrocer atad setargetni dna setadilosnoc hcihw ot ”elif sdael retsaM ro elif repuS“ a snaem esabatad selif fo nommoC .esicrexe yad owt ro eno a ton si SIM fo noitaraperp ehT : 15 .IIV esabatad nommoC deweiv SIM hguohtlA :tpecnoc metsyS buS .IV :tpecnoc metsyS buS .elbissop si melborp eht ot noitulos retteb eht neht .ycarucca deldnah era stifeneb rehto nac ehT .elbaeganam ylisae eb dluohs smetsysbus eht taht dnim ni tpek eb dluohs ti .gnitadpu .metsys bus hcae ot diap si thgisni dna noitnetta sti erom rof taht os tub smetsysbus ytitne ro strap a llams sa ni nwod nekorb si eb dluohs ti .suht dna metsysbus hcae yb dessecca eb ot ti swolla esabatad eht fo noitazinagro ehT .noitcetorp dna noiteled .IV .IV :tpecnoc metsyS buS .

and other strategic management 16 . storing. corporate objectives. supply chain data. It involves business processes and operations by: collecting. THE FUNCTIONAL SUPPORT ROLE to monitor results and performances (reach ratios) Business processes and operations support function is the most basic.ROLES OF MIS THE PERFORMANCE MONITORING ROLE MIS are not just statistics and data analysis. They help: to establish relevant and measurable objectives to send alerts. purchase data. storing an processing business intelligence data. Information systems support recording. competitor analysis records data. employment histories. equipment repair and maintenance data. work in process data. storing and processing inventory data. in some cases daily. on all deviations between results and pre-established objectives and budgets. salary data. storing and processing market data. and other production/operations records recording. payroll data and other accounting records recording. advertising data. marketing research data. storing and processing sales data. customer purchase histories. They have to be used as an MBO (Management by Objectives) tool. and basic processing of data. and other human resources records recording. recording. to managers at each level of the organization. storing and processing personnel data. investment data. and other marketing records recording. industry data. customer profiles.

It is an integral part of making decisions. It allows users to ask "What if…?" questions: What if we increase the price by 5%? What if we increase price by 10%? What if we decrease price It also allows users to deal with contingencies: If inflation increases by 5% (instead of strike or a new competitive threat? by 5%? What if we increase price by 10% now.THE DECISION SUPPORT ROLE The business decision making support function goes one step further. then decrease it by 5% in three months? 2% as we are assuming). then what do we do? What do we do if we are faced with a Contingencies: If inflation increases by 5% (instead of 2% as we are assuming). then what do we do? What do we do if we are faced with a strike or a new competitive threat? 17 .

A management information system uses TPS for its data inputs. analyzing making models and thus area capable of performing what-if analysis. strategic and long-range planning. Decision Support System 2. Business Expert System much controversy. Executive Support System 5. DSS tends to be used in planning. which is a matter of degree rather than an absolute one. Transaction Processing System 3. Office Automation System 6. application that assists decision-making. It represents the automation of fundamental. short-range planning. routine processing used to support business operations. Management Information System 4. TPS uses data and produces data. Management Information System: MIS in an information system that processes data and converts it into information. The information generated by the information system may be used for control of operations. We would make an attempt to try to look into different types of MIS Transaction Processing System: It processes transactions and produces reports. 18 Decision Support System: A decision support system is an information system alternatives and trial and error search solutions.TYPES OF MIS MIS CLASSIFICATION MIS is a concept. 1. management control and other managerial problem solving. They incorporate a variety of decision- . In management there are perhaps few other areas other than MIS which gas created so as they have evolved during the course of time. It does not provide any information to the user for decision making.

complex application area to act as an expert. 19 . It is specially tailored for the use of chief executives of an organization to support his decision-making. but it is more specific and person oriented. is a comprehensive information system that includes various types of decision support Office Automation System: Office automation refers to the application of computer and communication technology to office functions. Business Expert System: A BES is a knowledge based information system that uses its knowledge about a specific. Office automation systems are meant to improve the productivity of managers at various levels of management by providing secretarial assistance and better communication facilities. Thus ESS systems.Executive Support System: An ESS is a special kind of DSS.

sehcaorppa . m et s y s g ni t r o p e r a g nit utit s nI • .ssecorp tnempoleved sti dna SIM na fo elpmaxe eno fo weivrevo na sedivorp tuodnah siht fo egap tsal eht no citamehcs ehT .yaw esicnoc .spets etercnoc .sdrocer ecnadnetta edulcni yam ffats ruoy yb yllaunam detelpmoc smroF ot ffats ruoy seriuqer metsys .tnaveler . d et c el l o c e b o t n o it a m r of ni f o s e p yt e h t g n i yfi t n e dI • . ) m et s y s d e t a m ot u a .laitneuqes lareves sevlovni SIM na gningised .metsys )dessecorp-retupmoc( detamotua na ro )dessecorp-dnah( launam a tnaw uoy rehtehw ediced ot si SIM ruoy gnipoleved ni pets tsrif ehT erehw selpmaxe dna metsys ruoy gnivorpmi rof snoitseggus edivorp lliw osla eW niatrec fo segatnavdasid/segatnavda eht dna pets hcae fo stnenopmoc eht ezirammus lliw eW :edulcni esehT . s d o ht e m n o it c el l o c at a d g n i p ol e v e D • d n a .tcejorp ruoy no noitamrofni eht lla niatnoc taht smrof etelpmoc launam A .stnacilppa neercs ot esu yam uoy taht airetirc ecnartne fo stnemssessa eht dna .r e t u p m o c r o l a u n a m ( e p yt m et s y s g n i yfi t n e dI • .stroper otni delipmoc eb nac dna dessecca ylisae si ti os noitamrofni eht sezinagro yllacitametsys taht metsys gnilif a hsilbatse neht ffats ruoY yna fo stluser .raelc a ni noitamrofni eht gnitneserp dna atad laciremun lla gnitagergga rof elbisnopser era ffatS .seliforp tnapicitrap . s e r u d e c o r p l o rt n o c yt il a u q g ni t n e m el p m i d n a g ni h sil b at s E 20 dedeeN metsyS fo epyT eht yfitnedI .trahc eht ni deyartrop sA ..rettam elpmis on si SIM tneiciffe dna evitceffe na gnipoleveD BASIC STEPS TO DEVELOP AN MIS • .

stroper derised eht ecudorp dna atad etagergga ot retupmoc a no seiler metsys detamotua nA 21 .taht od ot redro nI eht fo tnemetats raelc a evah ot si SIM evitceffe na gnipoleved ot spets tsrif eht fo enO taht rof margorp eht ni dellorne evah ohw stnapicitrap fo rebmun eht syalpsid taht troper a ecudorp dna retrauq eht gnirud stneilc no noitamrofni laudividni retne ot ffats ruoy wolla dluohs ngised uoy metsys ehT .g.retrauq tnerruc eht gnirud margorp ruoy ni llorne ohw stnapicitrap fo rebmun latot eht si LOD rof noitaluclac latot ruoy ni tnemele atad deriuqer a .yllaunam smrof era noitcelloc noitamrofni etelpmoc ot ni deen llits yam ta ffats ruoy hguohtlA .detimil si tegdub ruoy .atad gnitalubat ni etarucca erom era sretupmoC .retupmoc eht otni sretne krelc ..atad detalubat gnitagergga morf ffats ruoy eerf ot tnaw uoy fi yllaicepse .reilrae dessucsid sA detangised on sah taht atad tcelloc ot sselesu si tI .tnemelpmi dna eganam retteb ot dna tnarg ruoy rof stnemeriuqer gnitroper laredef eht teem ot :troffe noitcelloc atad eht rof tsixe sesoprup gnihcrarevo owt .retrauq ralucitrap .stroper setareneg dna elbaliava era sretupmoc .elpmaxe roF .decudortni hcihw yeht ssecorp noitcelloc atad eht tniop tahw ot tnetxe eht si SIM na gningised ni noitaredisnoc yramirp A yrtne atad a taht smrof cisab etelpmoc ro retupmoc eht otni yltcerid atad retne yam ffats eniL .noitazinagro ruoy fo sdeen noitamrofni stnemeriuqeR ataD enifeD .e( smargorp erawtfos fo yteirav a dna .desu eb lliw ti woh dna tcelloc ot deen .ylevitceffe meht esu nac srebmem ffats nehw elbaliava era )sseccA dna lecxE tfosorciM .sretupmoc evah ton od seciffo ruoy fi etairporppa erom eb yam metsys launam A yletamitlu dna atad eht senibmoc hcihw .snoitidnoc etisoppo rednu derreferp eb yam metsys detamotua nA .elpmis ylevitaler si tcejorp ruoy ro .esoprup uoy atad eht enifed ot deen lliw uoy .margorp ruoy .retupmoc a ot derrefsnart si noitamrofni eht .

dohtem eht fo sseldrageR .elgnis oN .noissimbus lanif rof atad eht gnitagergga dna gniretne dia evitartsinimda ro .ffats detimil htiw stnarg roF tnereffid sah noitazinagro hcaE .noitamrofni eht tcelloc ot yaw tseb eht enimreted tsum uoy .krow siht rof elbisnopser rotaulave/rehcraeser ro nosrep .stroper eseht elkcat ot stsixe yaw sdohteM noitcelloC ataD enifeD sdohteM noitcelloC ataD enifeD sdohteM noitcelloC ataD enifeD sdohteM noitcelloC ataD enifeD retrauq tnerruc eht fo dne eht ta margorp eht ni gniniamer stnapicitrap fo rebmun latoT margorp eht morf detanimret/detixe ohw stnapicitrap fo rebmun latoT gniniart detelpmoc ohw stnapicitrap fo rebmun latoT stnapicitrap wen fo rebmun latoT sretrauq suoiverp morf revo deirrac stnapicitrap fo rebmun latoT deriuqeR noitamrofnI .erusne ot spets artxe ekat .rotanidrooc tcejorp .detacol era atad eht erehw dna detcelloc eb ot sdeen taht atad eht denifed evah uoy taht woN etad ot stnapicitrap fo gnitsil yrammus ro smrof ekatnI smrof noitelpmoC/tixE sreniart edistuo morf stroper ylhtnom ro ylkeew/snoisses gniniart rof sretsor ecnadnettA smrof ekatnI smrof ekatni morf detareneg stroper yrammuS noitacoL/noitamrofnI fo secruoS .evoba desu elpmaxe eht fo yrammus feirb a sedivorp elbat gniwollof ehT 22 .seitilibapac .sdeen euqinu eht no sdneped esoohc uoy snaem ehT tcerroc .seitilibisnopser dna serutcurts ffats SIM cificeps a etangised yam stnarg regraL yam rotcerid tcejorp eht .tnarg ruoy fo secruoser dna .rotcerid tcejorp tnatsissa na htiw ffats enil ot noitcelloc noitamrofni etageled yam stcejorp rehto llitS .gnitroper dna noitcelloc atad eht fo lla mrofrep .etarucca era troper dna tcelloc uoy atad eht .

stroper rof atad etagergga ro retne ohw ffats eht morf tnereffid era noitamrofni tcelloc ohw ffats fI .atad tcelloc ot sesu tcejorp ruoy smrof no meti hcae ot gnidnopser .ti tcerid ot erehw dna atad tcelloc ot nehw ot sa ffats smrofni wolf noitamrofni fo noitpircsed A .stroper deriuqer fo noitcudorp eht rof rennam ylemit a ni atad .deriuqer stroper fo sepyt eht fo noitpircsed :edulcni yam spets esehT • a gnidulcni( ssecorp llarevo eht sebircsed taht launam serudecorp a fo noitaraperP • tcelloc uoy serusne sihT .rehtona eno htiw ylraelc etacinummoc yeht erus tops tcudnoc ot rosivrepus a tnaw yam uoY ekam tsum uoy .etarucca si noitamrofni erusne ot yrtne atad eht fo skcehc .tnetsisnoc dna etelpmoc .)smret fo snoitinifed dna .smrof yrassecen fo tnempoleveD • .ffats enil ro tnemeganam ruoy htiw noitamrofni ssucsid dna weiver uoy sa ssecorp gnitroper/noitcelloc atad eht ni srorre tcerroc dna yfitnedi yam uoy .metsys ruoy ni atad retne ot ffats fo tnemngissA • .oslA .serudecorp lortnoc ytilauq fo noitatnemelpmI • .stroper deriuqer etareneg ot ffats fo tnemngissA 23 .sdohtem noitcelloc atad no ffats fo gniniarT • .noissimbus dna noitcelloc atad rof eludehcs a fo tnemhsilbatsE • ..launam serudecorp ruoy ni detaeniled serudecorp detats eht ot erehda dna dnatsrednu tsum ffats ruoY .noitamrofni fo wolf .serudecorp emas eht gniwollof dna snoitinifed emas eht gnisu era ffats lla erussa ot laitnesse si launam serudecorp A .smrof yrassecen eht etelpmoc ot ffats fo tnemngissA • .snoitanibmoc thgir eht ni detagergga era atad serussa stroper dedeen eht fo noitalucitra raelc ehT .

ssergorp tnapicitrap laudividni gnirotinom rof esu .81 fo ega eht rednu elpoep lla no atad ro nemow lla no atad ton .sesoprup gnirotinom dna gninnalp rof sisab ylhtnom a no ffats tnemeganam rof stroper yrammus ecudorp nac uoy .tsartnoc yB .emas eht era stnemeriuqer atad ehT .nalp eht ot ”lautca“ atad emas eht ekat yam stroper ffats eniL ot ffats enil rof sisab ylkeew a no stroper deliated ecudorp osla nac uoY erapmoc ro selbatemit dna slaog tcejorp drawot ssergorp erusaem stroper eseht .tnereffid hcum si troper a otni denibmoc era atad eht woh tub .atad SIM gnisu stroper fo sepyt lareves etareneg nac uoY ..etareneg ot deen yeht stroper fo sepyt eht dnatsrednu ffats ruoy erusne ot deen uoY 24 .stnapicitrap fo noitnetta metsyS gnitropeR a hsilbatsE metsyS gnitropeR a hsilbatsE .ylesicnoc dna ylkciuq noitamrofni taht etacinummoc dna noitamrofni tnatropmi thgilhgih taht esoht era stroper evitceffe taht rebmemer ot tnatropmi si tI eht gnidloh ton era stnenopmoc ecivres hcihw wonk ot sreganam wolla ot tnenopmoc tcejorp hcae yb ecnadnetta yliad egareva wohs ot tnemeganam rof atad ecnadnetta etagergga yam uoy .81 rednu nemow lla ?devres gnieb era 81 fo ega eht rednu nemow ynam ..e( .stuo0pord laitnetop yfitnedi ot laudividni yb troper tub )atad ecnadnetta .troper eht fo esoprup eht no sdneped detagergga era no atad etagergga tsum troper eht .g.os fI woh wonk ot tnatropmi ti si .elpmaxe roF .elpmaxe roF atad woH .

stsilaiceps SIM ro tnemeganam yb yrtne atad dna noitcelloc atad fo skcehc topS • .SIM ruoy pu tes ot deriuqer spets suoirav eht nekatrednu evah uoy retfA metsyS lortnoC ytilauQ tnemelpmI • dna shtgnerts ssucsid ot ffats enil dna tnemeganam htiw sgniteem ylhtnom ro ylkeeW • .ylevitceffe gninoitcnuf si ssecorp eht erusne ot segnahc ekam ot deen uoy fi enimreted ot dna metsys gnitroper dna noitcelloc atad ruoy fo sessenkaew :edulcni yam serudecorp lortnoc ytilauQ .?ti deen yeht nehw deen yeht noitamrofni eviecer ffats oD .metsys eht ssecca dna esu ot woh no gniniart ffats gniognO 25 .metsys ruoy fo noitacifidom ylemit rof wolla dna SIM ruoy rotinom ot metsys lortnoc ytilauq a tnemelpmi ot deen uoy .

Overview of the MIS Development Process Identify type of system Define data requirements Establish data collection methods Set up procedures for data collection Assign staff Set up schedule for data collection Define type of reports to be produced Establish reporting system Conduct data entry into system Maintain files Generate reports Check for data accuracy Complete required forms for submission to DOL 26 Quality Control and Monitoring Procedures .

customer relation management systems and enterprise resource planning systems are types of information management systems. The following are some of the benefits that can be attained from different ]4[ 27 . some of them.Basic flow of information in MIS Information management systems There are many types of information management systems in the market that provide a wide range of benefits for companies. Strategic information management system.

tnemeganaM gnitekraM . employee improve their business processes and operations. (2) The availability of the customer data and feedback can help the company to allign their business processes according performance records etc. The consumer buying trends and behaviors can be predicted by the analysis of sales and revenue reports from each operating region of the company Applications of MIS :rotceS gnirutcafunaM dna tnemeganaM slairetaM .noitcudortnI tnemeganaM gnitekraM 28 . The effective management of customer data can help the company to perform direct marketing and promotion activities. The identification of these aspects can help the company to to the needs of the customers.tnemeganaM lanosreP .tnemeganaM ecnaniF dna gnitnuoccA . (3) Information is considered to be an important asset for any company in the modern competitive world.tnemeganaM noitcudorP .Advantages of information management systems (1) The company is able to highlight their strength and weaknesses due to the presence of revenue reports.

gnillortnoc dna gninnalp .3 .gnitekraM .ecnaniF .3 y t i l a u q d e i f i c e p s n i a t r e c a f o s t c u do r p e r u t c a f u n a m o T .noitcudorP .gnitnuoccA . 2 n o i t a z i n a g ro e h t o t s e c i v r e s g n i r u t c a f u n a m e d i v o r p o T .gnirutcafunaM .4 .7 snoitcejer la mini M . 1 :noitcnuf tne megana m noitcudorp fo evitcejbo ehT depoleved era saera .gnikam noisiced sreganaM .2 lortnoc dna gninnalp .gninnalp ssecorp dna sgniwarD .6 tne mpiuqe dna tnalp fo e mitpu mu mixa M .smetsys troppus sa smetsys gnirotinom dna gniludehcS .noitazinagro ssenisub ni htiw ksat laireganam eht tub gnihton era esehT .selaS sa deifitnedi yltcnitsid eb nac snoitcnuf ssenisub rojaM 29 :sno itaci lpp A TNE ME GANA M N OITCUD OR P l a n o i t c n u f e s e h t f o hc a e r o f S I M t l u s e r a s A f o s n o i t c n uf e h t m r o f r e p y l l a c i s a b ROTCES GNIRUTCAFUNAM ROTCES GNIRUTCAFUNAM ROTCES GNIRUTCAFUNAM ROTCES GNIRUTCAFUNAM .5 yticapac gnirutcafunam eht fo noitazilitu relluF .secruoser namuH dna .gnissecorp lairetam fo lliB .4 emit detalupits a ni ecudorp oT .1 :hguorht de mrofrep si tne megana m noitcudorp ehT remotsuc eht ot nevig sesimorp eht gnillifluF .

4 lairetam evitanretla fo esU .sloot .seicilop ecnanetniam evitanretla fo noitceleS . 1 30 xi m boj / xi m tcudorp mu mitpo gnivlovE . 6 rekrow hcae fo seiticapac dna slliks no noitamrofni dradnatS cte snoitacificeps .5 ecnedicni n w o d k a e r B . 3 egasu sti dna tnemeriuqer lairetaM .7 sboj fo gniludehcs dna g n i n n a l P .senihcam no noitamrofni dradnatS slairetam fo ytilibaliava no sutatS senihca m fo puorg ro enihca m no sutats d a o L noitelpmoc level dna egats fo smret ni redro ro boj fo sutatS e g a t s l a n i f t a d n a e ga t s e t a i d e m r e t n i h c a e t a y t i t n a u q n o i t c e j e R .2 d o i r e p e mi t a o t t c e p s e r h t i w n o i t c u d o r p f o y t i t n a u Q .8 seitilicaf noitcudorp fo noitceleS . 4 gnitnuoccA . 7 noitazilitu seitilicaf dna enihcaM .6 selba musnoc dna leuf .rewop fo egasU .1 s sy a na no s ce D s sy a na no s ce D siiiisylllla na noiiiisiiiice D s sy a na no s ce D 5 4 3 2 1 yreuQ yreuQ yreuQ sruoh r u o b a L .2 yub ro eka M .3 tcartnocbus ro eka M .5 s s e c or p e v i t a n r e t l a f o e s U .

ycneiciffe .ytivitcudorp .senihcam eht no sboj eht gnidaol dna gniludehcs fo yaw yb semmargorp noitcudorp eht hguorht dehsup eb ot evah hcihw sboj emos syawla era erehT .6 .5 .4 .ecrof ruobal dna yticapac noitcudorp eht fo noitazilitu era .2 .laed ot sah tnemegnam noitcudorp noitcudorp eht hcihw htiw seussi rehto ehT ot .8 .11 sboj fo gniludehcs dna gninnalP .dezilitu ylluf si t n e m t s e v n i h g i h g n i h s t n e m i p u q e d n a s e n i h c a m .b u s r o e k a M yub ro ekaM . s d o i r e p mr e t t r o h s d n a m r e t g n o l rof snoisiced fo rebmun a ekam ot deriuqer si noitcnuf tnemeganam noitcudorp ehT 1) ssecorp ro dna lairetam fo tnuocca no noitcejer tcudorp evissecxE 2) timil niatrec a dnoyeb sboj yek fo pu dloH 3) yrotnevni ssecorp ni krow evissecxE 4) doirep niatrec a dnoyeb ytilicaf gnirutcafunam eht fo nwodkaerb deunitnoC 5) 31 timil a woleb seitilicaf yek fo noitazilitU .9 .noitcudorp depoleved fo era ytilauq dna yticapac esehT .b u s r o e k a M yub ro ekaM sevitanretla fo esU tc a r t n o c .emmargorp noitcudorp lortnoc snoitacilppa ortno C ortno C lllortno C .sisab cimonoce -onhcet no snoisiced ycilop ekam ot pleh snoitacilppa sisylana noisiced esehT seicilop ecnanetniam evitanretla fo noitceleS .01 sboj fo gnidaol dna gniludehcseR xim boj /xim tcudorp mumitpo gnivlovE ssecorp evitanretla fo esU l a i r et a m e v i t a n r e t l a f o e s U tc a r t n o c .3 . s e c r u o s e r l a c i s y h p d n a s l a i r e t a m f o e g a s u d n a y t i l i c a f g n i r u t c af u n a m e h t f o n o i t a z i l i t u reporp .21 seitilicaf noitcudorp fo noitceleS .laitnesse si tnemeganam noitcudorp eht fo lortnoc erehw saera eht era erehT .1 e r a s n o i s i c e d l a c i p y t e h T . t n a l p t a h t e r u s n e o t s a h tI .7 .tsoc no era snoitacilpmi noisiced ehT .era dethgilhgih eb ot deen hcihw snoitpecxe ehT .

sdradnats eht gnisu yb ylreporp noitcudorp eht nalp ot snoitcnuf noitcudorp eht ni sregana m eht gnilbane etad ot pu tpek si noitamrofni ehT sboj suoirav fo tuptuo noitcejer rof nosaer lacipyt a seitilicaf noitcudorp fo emitnwod eht no etad eht .ecnailpmoc yrotutats fo yrogetac eht rednu seitirohtua ot gnitroper rof noitamrofni eriuqer hcihw tnemeganam noitcudorp ni saera wef yrev era erehT 32 .yad rep noitcudorp eht sa hcus .)DTGD( ot sruoh noitcudorp no atad niatrec mrofni ot deriuqer era tnempoleveD lacinhceT eht ot fo lareneG eht rotceriD dna rednu sdoog deifissalc dehsinif era hcihw seirtsudni war fo ehT .edart dna slliks yb sruoh robal elbaliava eht ssessa ot spleh msieetnesba no atad ehT .stneve yad ot yad no noitamrofni edivorp stroper esehT .snwodkaerb enihcam eht .gnitarepo denrecnoc eht ot detroper dna detcelloc si no os dna .noitcudorp rof yticapac elbaliava tcerroc eht ssessa ot spleh emitnwod eht dna snwodkaerb fo sesuac snwodkaerb no atad ehT .no os dna senihcam susrev etadpU egde wonK etadpU egde wonK etadpU egdellllwonK etadpU egde wonK dna lairetam tnuocca ecna pmoc yrotutatS ecna pmoc yrotutatS ecnaiiiillllpmoc yrotutatS ecna pmoc yrotutatS .esu tneuqesbus rof metsys eht ni pu tliub si noitamrofni dezylana noitcnuf noitcudorp eht fo stcepsa suoirav eht no smron dna dradnats gnivlove fo esoprup eht roF .tnemeganam noitcudorp eht ni esu rof esab egdelwonk eht tliub hcihw atad yek elbaulav fo tol a edivorp snoitacilppa lortnoc dna sisylana noisiced gnitnuoccA .tnemnrevog eht gnipeek troper timbus eriuqer hcihw seirtsudni emos era erehT .noitcepsni rof revo dednah dna detelpmoc sboj eht .scitsitats ehT .etadpu tsetal eht sa lanosrep etadpU no tarepO etadpU no tarepO etadpU noiiiitarepO etadpU no tarepO .remotsuc eht ot sesimorp yreviled tcerroc evig ot spleh emit noitelpmoc boj no atad ehT .boj ro ssecorp yb snoitcejer eht .elpmaxe roF .

decudorp ytitnauq no noitamrofni ehT .elpmaxe roF eht yb nekat snoitca eht no stroper noitpecxe sa demret era stroper esehT .eb lliw gnitroper sti .tcerroc si noisiced eht tcerroc si ssecorp wen a ot revo hctiws ot noisiced rehtehw mrifnoc ot senilediug tnacifingis evig ssecorp reilrae eht htiw nosirapmoc sti dna deveihca level ytilauq .noitcnuf noitcudorp eht stceffa hcihw seussi ynam no sisylana suounitnoc edivorp smetsys gniludehcs dna gninnalp .metsys gninnalp tnemeriuqer lairetam .snoisiced ekam ot spleh SSD hguorht sisylana ehT .selur noisiced dna snoitnevnoc .snoisiced lacitcat dna cigetarts fo yrogetac eht ni llaf yehT .snoisiced eht ekat ot tnemeganam eht eht elbane ni ot desu yek ylevisnetxe cificeps era smetsyS eht troppuS edivorp noisiceD ehT .ssecorp dna sloot .slairetam etanretla fo esu .detcejer ytitnauq .snoisiced fo oiranecs noitatnemelpmi-tsop eht no etadpu noitamrofni edivorp stroper esehT .ecitcarp dlo egnahc snoisiced eht fo emoS .detnemelpmi dna devlove si ssecorp wen a .seuqinhcet noitalumis .snoitcnuf noitcudorp ehT snoisiced htiw stroper 33 .xim tcudorp mumitpo sa hcus .smetsys desab egdelwonk dna ecnegilletni laicifitra .dengised sa ecnamrofrep detcepxe otni detluser sah noisiced eht rehtehw mrofni stroper ehT .nrettap gnidaol etanretla .hguorht emoc ot liaf stluser detcepxe eht fi noisiced nwo sti tcerroc ot tnemeganam eht ot ytinutroppo ylrae na sedivorp tI .tnemeganam e no tcA etadpU noiitcA snoitacilppa sisylana noisiced s sy anA no s ceD s sy anA no s ceD siiiisyllllanA noiiiisiiiiceD s sy anA no s ceD .senihcam dna sboj fo stnemngissa etanretla .deunitnocsid taht mrifnoc etadpu noitca eht ecnO .sledom gnimmargorp ehT .ton ro reporp si noisiced detnemelpmi eht rehtehw egdelwonk sedivorp noitamrofni ehT .ton ro .

.erutcurtsarfni dna XINU 1041MBI smetsys en -no gn ssecorp hctaB smetsys noitacilppa eht ni edam neeb evah stnemevorpmi tnacifingiS .noitazinagro yna fo gninoitcnuf eht fo trap largetni na si YRAMMUS EVITUCEXE YRAMMUS EVITUCEXE YRAMMUS EVITUCEXE YRAMMUS EVITUCEXE 34 .yduts ruo ni sucof emirp fo saw eht ot tcepser htiw SIM fo weiv citsiloh dna citsilaer a teg oT .ruoh eht fo deen eht si )SIM( smetsyS no tamrofnI tnemeganaM )SIM( smetsyS no tamrofnI tnemeganaM )SIM( smetsyS noiiiitamrofnI tnemeganaM etauqeda noitamrofni )SIM( smetsyS no tamrofnI tnemeganaM fo wolf retteb etatilicaf oT .gninnalp .snoisiced evitceffe ekat ot redro ni tnemeganam gnikam noisiceD . det m L CCA fo SIM eht de duts ew .noitatnemelpmi margorp . ecnamrofrep eht .ynapmoc eht fo tnemtrapeD lairetaM sesu . detiiiimiiiiL CCA fo SIM eht deiiiiduts ew .TI dna noitamotua tpoda dna ygolonhcet noitamrofni fo ecnatropmi dna laitnetop eht ezilaer ot seinapmoc naidnI tsrif eht fo eno si yrotnevnI yrotnevnI yrotnevnI yrotnevnI a teg oT .ynapmoc eht fo noitcnuf ralucitrap a fo gnidnatsrednu deliated erom det m L CCA fo SIM eht de duts ew .stnemeriuqer ssenisub dna seigolonhcet 3002 swodniiiW dna 3002 swodn W dna elbaliava yb denimreted snoitisnart ylemit edam sah ti senihcam desab 3002 swodniW dna 3002 swodn W dna XINU XINU 1041MBI 1041MBI smetsys en -no gn ssecorp hctaB smetsys en -no gn ssecorp hctaB XINU tsetal eht ot 1041MBI morf .elor troppus lanoitcnuf eht dna elor gnirotinom .gnikam noisiced rof ti esu ohw slevel lla ta sreganam ot ti sedivorp dna )noitamrofni( atad sessecorp dna stcelloc metsys noitamrofni tnemeganam A fo slevel lla yb noitazinagro na ni dewollof SIM eht fo gnidnatsrednu na evah ot tnatropmi si ti suhT .SIM eht fo det m L CCA fo SIM eht de duts ew .deen eht deiduts ew .noitatcepxe dna deen neewteb pag eht egdirb ot emit thgir eht ta noitamrofni thgir eht evah sreganam taht evitarepmi si ti dlrow evititepmoc-reve siht ni gnikam noisiceD etatilicaf oT .lortnoc dna .elor troppus noisiced eht ekil mrofrep ot selor ynam sah SIM ehT .ynapmoc eht fo ecnamrofrep desaercni dna htworg eht ni elor a deyalp sah si taht sleef tnemeganam eht dna noitazinagro eht ni wolf noitamrofni eht dezinorhcnys dna detatilicaf yltaerg sah SIM ehT .8691 sa ylrae sa smetsys det m L CCA det m L CCA detiiiimiiiiL CCA det m L CCA tnemeganaM tnemeganaM tnemeganaM stifeneb dna .smetsys eniiiillll-no ot gniiiissecorp hctaB morF .senihcam gnihcnupyek elpmis gnisu saw ti nehw 8691 ni syad eht morf yaw gnol a delevart sah noitazinagro ehT sti gniziretupmoc detrats noitazinagro ehT . .

metsys a hcus fo emoctuo eht YDUTS EHT FO EVITCEJBO .niamod siht fo pleh eht htiw dna .dtL CCA fo noitatnemelpmi SIM eht yduts ot si tcejorp siht fo evitcejbo ehT 35 . SIM fo pleh eht htiw CCA yb desu dna thguos si ti woh dna sesoprup gnikam noisiced rof sisab raluger a no dedeen si noitamrofni tahw fo egdelwonk poleved lliw eW .eht ta ecalp ni SIM eht fo ssenevitceffe eht sevitucexe eht htiw noitcaretni ruo hguorhT .dtL CCA dna detnemelpmi yltnerruc si taht noitulos TI eht .SIM eht yb demrofrep snoitcnuf suoirav .CCA ni SIM fo deen eht dniheb snosaer eht dnatsrednu ot si yduts ruo fo epocs ehT .noitazinagro tuoba thgisni na tog ew .devlovni sksir eht dna metsys a hcus fo tuo devired stifeneb .SIM eht fo stnemeriuqer lanoitcnuf derised ro segnellahc yek .detimiL CCA fo YDUTS EHT FO EPOCS YDUTS EHT FO EPOCS YDUTS EHT FO EPOCS YDUTS EHT FO EPOCS .ssenisub eht ot stifeneb laer sreviled noitulos eht erusne dna ygolonhcet eht ot tnemnorivne lanretxe eht htiw noitcaretni dna sessecorp lanretni pam ot SIM seriuqer .ynapmoc eht fo tnemtrapeD serotS lairetaM eht ni decitcarp tnemeganaM yrotnevnI no sisahpme laiceps htiw elohw a sa ynapmoC eht ot troppus SIM eht yduts lliw eW.elacs gib a no sputes ssenisub ni SIM fo sdeen eht otni thgisni na teg ot .noitazinagro eht fo sdeen ssenisub eht gnizylana ta yduts ruo mia ot dnetni eW .

secivres ycnatlusnoc dezilaiceps dna tnempoleved tcudorp .9 revo fo krowten noitubirtsid ediwyrtnuoc a dna snosrep 0009 tuoba fo ecrofkrow a sah tI .6391 ni noitpecni sti ecniS .seciffo selas 91 .stnalp etercnoc xim ydaeR 31 .noitcudorp sti fo tcepser ni yrtsudni tnemec eht rof kramhcneb tnatropmi dna rettesdnert a neeb sah ynapmoc eht .etercnoc dna tnemec fo rerutcafunam tsomerof s'aidnI si )detimiL CCA( 36 CCA DETIMIL CCA EHT – ELIFORP YNAPMOC DETIMIL CCA EHT – ELIFORP YNAPMOC DETIMIL CCA EHT – ELIFORP YNAPMOC DETIMIL CCA EHT – ELIFORP YNAPMOC .seirotcaf tnemec nredom 41 htiw yrtnuoc eht tuohguorht daerps era snoitarepo s'CCA .hcraeser evitavonni fo drocer kcart euqinu a sah ytilicaf tnempoleved dna hcraeser s'CCA .seciffo lanoz lareves dna .srelaed 000.sessecorp tnemeganam lennosrep dna gnitekram .lacihte hgih sti .ssenildneirf-tnemnorivne ot tnemtimmoc stI .

aidnI ni recudorp tnemec tsegral eht sA .sessecorp tub ytilauq tcudorp ni ycnetsisnoc tsuj ton .tnemevorpmi dna ssecorp fo gnidulcni ygolonhcet etercnoc tnemec dna tnemec fo erutcafunam eht ni reenoip a neeb sah CCA .esitrepxe sti gnirahs dna secivres .saera noitacilppa dna .nezitic etaroproc elbisnopser a sa mialcca ti now evah smargorp eraflew ytinummoc ni stroffe gniog-no sti dna sgnilaed ssenisub ni sdradnats 37 .syawliaR naidnI eht fo sremotsuc tseggib eht fo eno si ti .laoc fo sresu lapicnirp eht fo eno osla si ti dna .yrtsudni tnemec naidnI eht ni dnik sti fo eno ylno eht .daorba stnalp tnemec fo ecnanetniam dna noitarepo eht ni spleh osla dna .enotsemil fo resu tsegral eht gnieb .tekram naidnI eht ni ytiuqe fo level hgih a syojne dna tnemec htiw suomynonys si eman dnarb s’CCA dna noitavresnoc ygrene .tsaE elddiM eht ot saesrevo secivres sti dednetxe osla sah CCA .acirfA .ecnetsixe sti fo sraey 07 eht nI .lufrewop a yb detroppus era sessenisub suoirav s'ynapmoc ehT ..stcudorp ytilauq fo yaw yb ssecorp gnidliub noitan eht ot snoitubirtnoc tnacifingis edam sah CCA .aidnI fo sdnarB repuS remusnoC fo tsil eht ni serugif taht ynapmoc tnemec ylno eht si tI .stcudorp ni stnemevorpmi suounitnoc osla serusne sihT .noitazilitu ynam lairetam ni war ni a stnemevorpmi dna etercnoc saera rettesdnert .ytilicaf pukcab ygolonhcet dna hcraeser esuoh-ni .aciremA htuoS dna .sremusnoc fo yteirav a ot ycnatlusnoc laireganam dna lacinhcet dedivorp sah ti erehw .gninim ni ecneirepxe hcir sah CCA .setercnoc ecnamrofrep hgih fo tnempoleved .stcudorp dna slairetam fo tnemevom drawtuo dna drawni rof secivres krowten tropsnart daor eht fo resu tsomerof eht dna .

seirotcaf sti raen gnivil sessalc degelivirp-rednu eht fo snoitidnoc gnivil eht evorpmi ot seitivitca fo egnar ediw a gnikatrednu nezitic etaroproc doog a gnieb fo secitcarp eht setartsnomed CCA 38 .DTL CCA EHT FO ERUTCURTS LANOITAZINAGRO ..

noitacol yrotnevni ot gniniatrep noitamrofni etarucca ylemit gnidivorp yB niahc ylppus eht ni enoyna taht noitautis laedi na si snoitciderp ylppus dna dnamed etarucca gnikaM .ffo maerd dluoc anera tnemeganam TNEMEGANAM YROTNEVNI TNEMEGANAM YROTNEVNI TNEMEGANAM YROTNEVNI TNEMEGANAM YROTNEVNI .sdoog fo tpiecer .egatnavda evititepmoc dna eulav .krowten a tuohguorht elbisiv si yrotnevni .eganam ot tluciffid ylemertxe yllausu si dnamed evissecxe ni si taht tcudorp A 39 .noitaulav dna tnemevom .ylsuoires tnemeganam yrotnevni redisnoc seinapmoc hcus taht evitarepmi semoceb ti sdnamed remusnoc no desab esnopser remusnoc tneiciffe etatilicaf ot niahc ylppus eritne eht stcapmi sihT .etaerc dna esu ot seigolonhcet eseht tup ot yaw a dnif ot si egnellahc ehT .trac gnippohs a ot noisufnoc yrassecennu tneverp nac siht dna reppohs eht ot deyalpsid eb nac elbaliava ytitnauq ehT .kcots ni ton era taht stcudorp edih ot golatac tcudorp ruoy tes nac uoy tnemeganam yrotnevni htiW ruoy taht erus ekam nac uoy stiforp dna sdoog fo nruter dna elas .esuoheraw eht ni elbaliava stcudorp fo tnuoma eht no desab secirp egnahc ro .slevel yrotnevni wol tuoba deifiton yllacitamotua elbaliava ton smeti sdda reppohs eht nehw .noitcnuf ssenisub cigetarts a otni gnisahcrup fo noitamrofsnart eht ni relbane yek a si )ygolonhceT noitamrofnI( TI eb nac reyub erots ehT .laitnesse si tsacerof dnamed etarucca na taht seilpmi stcudorp fo tnuoma thgir eht gniylppuS .

.8691 sa ylrae sa smetsys sti gniziretupmoc detrats noitazinagro ehT .elpoep cigetarts dna i9 evom siht sti no htiW .smetsys ni edam enil-no neeb ot gnissecorp hctaB morF .yrotnevni fo lortnoc etelpmoC snoitacilppa tnemeganam yrotnevni fo stifeneB ytivitcudorp desaercnI tnemtsevni yrotnevni decudeR ecivres remotsuc devorpmI :era tnemeganaM yrotnevnI ni sevitcejbO niaM ehT MIS AT ACC CEMENT 40 .dediova yrotnevni ezidnahcrem ssecxe no diap smuimerp ecnarusni dna sexaT yrotnevni gnizidnahcrem fo ezis tcaxe eht fo egdelwonK selas desaercnI decuder segnahc dnamed ot emit esnopseR dlos seititnauQ dna dettimmoc seititnauQ .senihcam dna smetsys noitacilppa gnisu evah stnemevorpmi tnacifingiS saw ti nehw 8691 ni syad eht morf yaw gnol a delevart sah noitazinagro ehT.wollof ot detcepxe era saw noisiced sihT taht stifeneb ssenisub PRE eht dna na a ot i6 sevitcejbo repoleveD sah CCA desab gnisu ylelos elcarO smetsys depoleved esuoh-ni .TI dna noitamotua tpoda dna ygolonhcet noitamrofni fo ecnatropmi dna laitnetop eht ezilaer ot seinapmoc naidnI tsrif eht fo eno si CCA .dnah no seititnauQ no ytilibisiv etelpmoC yrotnevni eht fo eulav eht tuoba noitamrofni etelpmoC .dengila era yrtnuoc eht ssorca seigolonhcet dna sessecorp ssenisub .noitulos morf desab pmuj mutnauq edam gnihcnupyek elpmis NOITAMROFNI LARENEG .erutcurtsarfni .stnemeriuqer ssenisub dna seigolonhcet elbaliava yb denimreted snoitisnart ylemit edam sah ti senihcam desab 3002 swodniW dna XINU tsetal eht ot 1041MBI morf eht .

ynapmoc eht fo ytivitcudorp rof noitulos PRE fo noitatnemelpmi ehT ..snoisiced gnikam ni sreganam eht gnitroppus fo elbapac metsys eht gnikaM .woleb erugif eht ni nwohs si lortnoc ssecorp 41 SIM DETARGETNI NA ROF DEEN .noitazinagro na ni atad fo emulov egral eht fo gnissecorp retteB era SIM detargetni na htiw detaicossa stifeneb ehT eht gnivorpmi suht .metsys nommoc a hguorht tnemtraped yna tuoba noitamrofni deriuqer eht lla fo ytilibaliavA .metsys eht fo srorre eht gnivomer dna ytilanoitcnuf eht gnivorpmi no gnikrow ylsuounitnoc llits si tnemtraped TI .dtL CCA ta lortnoc ssecorp rof noitatnemelpmi PRE ehT .segakcap etarapes fo esac ni srucco taht ataD fo ycnadnudeR eht gnicudeR .yad-yb-yad retteb gnimoceb si metsys tluser a sA .

tnalp niam eht htiw gnola eciffo etaroproc eht dna ynapmoc eht fo seciffo lanoiger suoirav eht neewteb noitacinummoc eht etatilicaF • noitisop kcotS .erawtfoS ecnanetn aM ev tneverP dez retupmoC erawtfoS ecnanetn aM ev tneverP dez retupmoC erawtfoS ecnanetniiiiaM eviiiitneverP deziiiiretupmoC erawtfoS ecnanetn aM ev tneverP dez retupmoC • tnemyaP thgierf nallahc muc eciovni htiw detargetni si tnemhgieW stroper tnemevoM kcurT .kcots yliaD etaG ytiruceS dna egdirB hgieW htiw noitargetnI metsyS tnemeganaM s a retaM waR metsyS tnemeganaM s a retaM waR metsyS tnemeganaM sllllaiiiiretaM waR metsyS tnemeganaM s a retaM waR • eludoM ecnamrofrep tnalP dna nwod kaerB no tcudorP no tcudorP noiiiitcudorP no tcudorP )ecnanetn aM & gn rutcafunaM( tna P )ecnanetn aM & gn rutcafunaM( tna P )ecnanetniiiiaM & gniiiirutcafunaM( tnallllP )ecnanetn aM & gn rutcafunaM( tna P SIM TNERRUC YB DEDIVORP SNOITCNUF SIM TNERRUC YB DEDIVORP SNOITCNUF SIM TNERRUC YB DEDIVORP SNOITCNUF SIM TNERRUC YB DEDIVORP SNOITCNUF .eludoM egappots dna stropeR SIM • smetsyS tnemyaP thgierF tropsnarT • etaG ytiruceS htiw detargetnI • egdirb hgiew lacinahcem eno deppotS • yad elgnis ni erat dna ssorg rof hgiew nac skcurt 005 • .stropeR tnemeganaM emiT 0001 = 2x005 egd rB hg eW egd rB hg eW egdiiiirB hgiiiieW egd rB hg eW • gnissap llib dna noitisop eussi .tnalp eht edistuo dna edisni noitisop kcurT • eludom siht gnisu era tnalp htoB • eludoM nwod kaerB dna ecnanetniaM evitneverP • yrotnevni htiw detargetni dna eludom nwodtuhS • eludom egasu slliks dna seraps fo gnitsaceroF • • • 42 .

tegdub dnA • metsys gnissap lliB ruobal rotcartnoC • .stnemtraped lla ot dedivorP nosrep dezirohtua yb deraperp eb lliw redrO kroW s sy ana dna redrO kroW s sy ana dna redrO kroW siiiisyllllana dna redrO kroW s sy ana dna redrO kroW yt ruceS s a retaM drawtuO & drawnI yt ruceS s a retaM drawtuO & drawnI ytiiiiruceS sllllaiiiiretaM drawtuO & drawnI yt ruceS s a retaM drawtuO & drawnI • sdoog elbanruter no lortnoC • .yrotnevni ecnanetniam & riapeR • • • • • • 43 .yrotnevnI noN & yrotnevnI serotS yrotnevnI noN & yrotnevnI serotS yrotnevnI noN & yrotnevnI serotS yrotnevnI noN & yrotnevnI serotS • tpieceR yawliaR .noitpmusnoC lautcA s/V tegduB .stnemeriuqeR tekraM eerF noitcurtsnI hctapsiD dna snoitamrifnoC redrO eludom gnissap lliB tropsnarT eludoM xaT selaS dna eludom esicxE metsyS s sy ana dna gn tnuoccA gn tekraM metsyS s sy ana dna gn tnuoccA gn tekraM metsyS siiiisyllllana dna gniiiitnuoccA gniiiitekraM metsyS s sy ana dna gn tnuoccA gn tekraM s a cremmoC snoitacilppA llaiicremmoC • stroper sisylana ylraey/ylhtnom/yliaD stnemeriuqer nwodtuhs dna cohda .tnedni eniL nO • eludehcS yrevileD • yrotnevni eht gnillortnoC • yrotnevni desaercni eht gnillortnoC • yrammuS noitpmusnoc .setoN tiderC .raluger tsniagA tnemyolped ruobaL rotcartnoC fo ylppus yliaD metsyS gn tnuocca dna tnemyo peD ruobaL metsyS gn tnuocca dna tnemyo peD ruobaL metsyS gniiiitnuocca dna tnemyollllpeD ruobaL metsyS gn tnuocca dna tnemyo peD ruobaL • retsaM etaR htiw detargetnI .etoN tibeD .stroper SIM • egakcaP laicnanif htiw detargetnI • .sesnepxE esiW tnemtrapeD .eciovnI laicremmoC • slairetaM tpieceR dna eussI .regdeL serotS • .

cte gniniarT gnidneP .esiw eeyolpmE noitcudeD yticirtcelE sutats gnisolc dna deliava .ecivda tnemyap otuA .nemkroW fo ANT • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 44 .srettel gnidrawrof knaB .ixaT no gnillortnoC • noitamrofni erafleW .ecnavdA( metsyS ecivdA tnemyaP • .emmargorP ssenerawA lareneG .stroper SIM redro esahcrup fo tsil gnidneP noitamrofni esiw ytraP .tegdub tsniaga noitpmusnoC lautcA • .I sutats evaeL enil nO tuoba sresU ot dedivorp noitamrofnI metsyS no tamrofn areneG en nO metsyS no tamrofn areneG en nO metsyS noiiiitamrofniiii llllareneG eniiiillll nO metsyS no tamrofn areneG en nO tnemevoM e c heV tnemevoM e c heV tnemevoM ellllciiiiheV tnemevoM e c heV • stropeR SIM eludom lloryaP dna yrotnevni htiw detargetnI .sraey laicnaniF owt fo ecnalab lairT dna regdeL buS .e.regdeL lareneG eludoM SDT dna gnissap llib sesnepxE rehtO gnissap llib thgierf dna esahcruP gnideef rehcuov fo sepyt llA metsyS gnitnuoccA laicnaniF • retsigeR tnednI / esahcruP .gniniarT .yriuqne enil nO tnedni htiw noitargetni redrO esahcruP metsyS tnemeganaM esahcruP metsyS tnemeganaM esahcruP metsyS tnemeganaM esahcruP metsyS tnemeganaM esahcruP • )raluger .tnempo eveD ecruoseR namuH tnempo eveD ecruoseR namuH tnempolllleveD ecruoseR namuH tnempo eveD ecruoseR namuH • cte latnedicca .metsyS tnemyap .WCL fo ANT .gninepo .tegduB hsaC • cte raC .stroper sisylanA daehrevO .snoitalugeR dna selur erafleW esiw tnemtraped sutatS emit revO esiw retrauQ .sesruoC cipoT • tni/txe fo drocer laudividnI .tsil enohpeleT .

sunoB .gnidaol ataD metsyS tnemyaP tneR .emiT revO egakcaP laicnaniF htiw detargetnI esiw eeyolpmE xaT emocnI dna SIP .CIL eludoM ytiutarG .noitcudeD & yrevoceR .tnemyaP thgierF • ssaP etaG deziretupmoC hguorht dnes sdoog llA • .)sdoog e banruter-noN& e banruteR( metsyS ssaP etaG )sdoog e banruter-noN& e banruteR( metsyS ssaP etaG )sdoog ellllbanruter-noN& ellllbanruteR( metsyS ssaP etaG )sdoog e banruter-noN& e banruteR( metsyS ssaP etaG • .ffatS fo pilsyaP e udoM SIP & oryaP e udoM SIP & oryaP elllludoM SIP & lllllllloryaP e udoM SIP & oryaP • )OH morf derrefsnarT( tnemtrapeD gnitekraM fo lloryaP • SAF ni gnirrefsnarT .loohcS .DTC .FP rekroW lausaC & ildaB .FPV .smetsyS gnitnuoccA selaS smetsyS gn tnuoccA se aS smetsyS gn tnuoccA se aS smetsyS gniiiitnuoccA sellllaS smetsyS gn tnuoccA se aS • eludoM ffo-C .metsyS etaG htiw detargetnI • • • • • • • 45 noitamrofni smeti riaper gnidneP .rekroW .SIM .eludoM secnavda evitarepo-oC .yteicoS tfirhT .metsyS tnemyaP sesnepxE .

Weigh Bridge & Gate System CMMS (Computerized Mines Management System) Co-operative Management System Inventory System MAAS (Marketing & Analysis Payroll & Leave Managem ent System Costing Package Financial System Production Package det m L CCA ta SIM fo erutcet hcrA det m L CCA ta SIM fo erutcet hcrA detiiiimiiiiL CCA ta SIM fo erutcetiiiihcrA det m L CCA ta SIM fo erutcet hcrA 46 .

cte noitadpu kcots .eussi yrotnevnI edulcni strap niam stI .:)DFC( margaiiiiD lllleveL txetnoC egakcaP yrotnevnI :)DFC( marga D eveL txetnoC egakcaP yrotnevnI :)DFC( marga D eveL txetnoC egakcaP yrotnevnI :)DFC( marga D eveL txetnoC egakcaP yrotnevnI :smarga d gn ssecorp ataD dna sDFD :smarga d gn ssecorp ataD dna sDFD :smargaiiid gniiissecorp ataD dna sDFD .wol si yrotnevni nehw gnimralA otuA ekil seitilanoitcnuf fo elbapac dna seludom rehto eht htiw detargetni ylhgih si tI .ynapmoc eht fo snoitcnuf niam eht lla gnirevoc seludom niam 11 fo sesirpmoc tI .gnissap REO rehto .metsys eht fo strap tnatropmi tsom eht fo eno si eludoM tnemeganaM yrotnevnI .srepoleved edistuo morf thguob segakcap erawtfos edamydaer dezilaiceps wef fo gnisirpmoc osla .gnissap llib .metsys depoleved esuoh-nI a yllacisab si ynapmoc eht fo SIM tnerruC SIM TNERRUC FO ELUDOM TNEMEGANAM YROTNEVNI SIM TNERRUC FO ELUDOM TNEMEGANAM YROTNEVNI SIM TNERRUC FO ELUDOM TNEMEGANAM YROTNEVNI SIM TNERRUC FO ELUDOM TNEMEGANAM YROTNEVNI 47 .gnissap thgierf .esahcrup .syaw deriuqer tnereffid ni sreganam pleh ot stroper fo sepyt tnereffid 002 naht erom gnitareneg fo elbapac si tI .

48 :DFD esahcruP yrotnevnI :DFD esahcruP yrotnevnI :DFD esahcruP yrotnevnI :DFD esahcruP yrotnevnI :DFD eussI egakcaP yrotnevnI :DFD eussI egakcaP yrotnevnI :DFD eussI egakcaP yrotnevnI :DFD eussI egakcaP yrotnevnI .

49 )e udoM yrotnevnI uF( gn ssecorP ataD )e udoM yrotnevnI uF( gn ssecorP ataD )elllludoM yrotnevnI lllllllluF( gniiiissecorP ataD )e udoM yrotnevnI uF( gn ssecorP ataD .

1 NOITAERC EDOC METI . • metI eugolataC noN ni puorg meti fo sepyt 9 era erehT – 608 senicideM – 708 yranoitatS – 808 redrO riapeR – 908 redrO noitatropsnarT – 018 slairetam waR – 118 sredrO latipaC – 218 sredrO boJ – 318 smetI yrotarobaL – 50 418 sredro koob tceriD .1 NOITAERC EDOC METI .NOITAERC EDOC METI .1 PREPARATION APPLICATION USED FOR WORK ORDER PREPARATION AT THE ACC LTD.

5 no taraperP redrO .3 gn no tcnaS tnednI .5 noiiiitaraperP redrO .2 gn tsoP tnednI .6 no taraperP redrO .51 gn tn rP redrO .3 gniiiinoiiiitcnaS tnednI .3 gn no tcnaS tnednI .5 no taraperP redrO .2 gniiiitsoP tnednI .2 .6 gn tn rP redrO .3 gn tsoP tnednI .6 gniiitniiirP redrO .4 no tadpU epyT tnednI .4 noiiiitadpU epyT tnednI .4 no tadpU epyT tnednI .2 gn tsoP tnednI .5 no tadpU epyT tnednI .4 gn no tcnaS tnednI .

elbaliava stroper fo sepyt 002 naht erom fo tuo stroper fo sepyt 51-01 ylno sesu reganam a .seitilanoitcnuf erom dna erom gnidulcni yad-yb-yad gnivorpmi si ynapmoc eht fo SIM sA .noiiiitargetnI beW fo kcaL .3991 ni desu .troppuS krowteN ycageL • .wols yrev emoceb ydaerla sah krowten eht .smelborp laminim yrev fo gnitsisnoc dna level llarevo na ta enif gnikrow si metsys taht noisulcnoc cisab a ot emac ew .seitilanoitcnuf dedda wen htiw ylsuounitnoc metsys eht ni stnemevorpmi eht gnikam .:swollof sa era hcihw .meht fo wef eht nwod toj ot deirt ew llitS .snoisiced retteb ekam ot meht troppus nac taht yaw ni snoitcnuf eseht esu ylevitceffe ot sreganam ot gniniart fo kcal si ereht tub .metsys dna krow repap ekil fo deen si ereht eht lla llits tuB .no targetnI beW fo kcaL .etisbew sti ot metsys sti fo noitargetni on evah dna bew hguorht gniredro .ynapmoc eht ta tlef ew taht melborp rehtona si sihT .metsys yllacisab si tnemtraped TI .ydaerla meht rof smelborp gnitaerc detrats sah hcihw .neht morf troppus krowten eht dedargpu t’nevah yehT .no targetnI beW fo kcaL .htap erutuf sa detats eb nac daetsni dna smelborp hcus sa detats eb t’nac smelborp esehT .elpmaxe roF .level a retfa no targetn metsys fo kca tS no targetn metsys fo kca tS noiiiitargetniiii metsys fo kcallll lllllllliiiitS no targetn metsys fo kca tS • ro sredro gnikat fo tpecnoc eht deyolpme llits t’nsah CCA .emas eht llits si CCA yb desu krowten enobkcaB .ylreporp metsys eht gnizylana retfA SMELBORP FO NOITACIFITNEDI SMELBORP FO NOITACIFITNEDI SMELBORP FO NOITACIFITNEDI SMELBORP FO NOITACIFITNEDI • si eludom tnemeganam yrotnevni hguohT .egareva na no ..yllacitamotua redroer ot derugifnoc eb tonnac metsyS .deriuqer si gniredroer nehw eht noitnevretni suht launam .no targetnI beW fo kcaL • yeht hcihw .lairetam war gnivom tsaf eht rof neve .ycnadnuder detargetni gnicuder laicnanif seludom rehto htiw llew .metsys fo seitilanoitcnuf troppus noisiced eht esu ylevitceffe ot sreganam ot gniniart fo kcaL 52 .

esoprup siht roF .smelborp nevig eht gniredisnoC SNOITADNEMMOCER SNOITADNEMMOCER SNOITADNEMMOCER SNOITADNEMMOCER • a no metsys eht gnitargetni sdrawot krow won dluohs ynapmoc eht fo tnemtraped TI • ot elba eb ot taht os .enod eb dluow SIM ni stnemevorpmi erom sA • tuoba ynapmoc eht fo sreganam eht ot gniniart tseggus ew .ssecorp yad -ot-yad eht ni deziminim eb noitnevretni launam eht taht yaw a ni metsys eht gnitargetni yb enod eb dluohs sihT .yrtsudni gniworg eht htiw pu hctac .siht poc oT .ynapmoc eht rof snoitadnemmocer gniwollof gnitneserp si puorg ruo .yaw retteb a ni meht fo esu dna seitilanoitcnuf dedda eht gnisu ylevitceffe .seirtsudni fo dnik ralimis eht ni desu smetsys SIM evitarapmoc no hcraeser dna sisylana rieht .krowten sti edargpu ot sdeen ynapmoc .gnilles dna gniredro desaB-beW trats osla dluohs ynapmoc ehT • .detaroprocni osla eb ot troppus-beW dna .hsarc ot gniog si elbaliava krowteN tnerruc taht erus naht erom si ti .eciffO sseL-repaP ynapmoc eht gnikam dna level rehgih ..noitadarg pu hcae htiW 53 .noitadarg pu hcae htiw gnola koobdnah a gnidivorp yb enod osla eb nac sihT .krowten rieht niatniam dna edargpu ylsuounitnoc ot OCSIC ro MBI ekil srotcartnoc edistuo emos htiw ynapmoc fo pu-eit eht tseggus ew .

54 TRAHC TTNAG TRAHC TTNAG TRAHC TTNAG TRAHC TTNAG .

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6 moc.www 5 derrefer setisbeW .V.2 .www .5 moc.P.1 secruoS yradnoceS .D .sct.C – smetsyS noitamrofnI tnemeganaM LAYOG .detimilcca.W -smetsyS noitamrofnI tnemeganaM YHTRUM .pas.S.NEIRB’O A SEMAJ -esirpretnE ssenisuB nI metsyS noitamrofnI tnemeganaM RAKEDAWAJ.evitcepsreP laireganaM A – smetsyS noitamrofnI tnemeganaM BIBLIOGRAPHY 56 moc.3 .S.4 .www .