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Akram Ayache Material Derivative

:

AUB MECH-314: Introduction to Fluid Mechanics

Final Cheat Sheet

D Π = ∂ Π + (V ∙ ∇)Π Conservation of Mass: 0= ∂ ρd + ρ (V / ∙d ) 0 = ∂ ρ + ∇ ∙ ρV 0 = ∂ ρ + ρ∇ ∙ V + V ∙ ∇ρ

Using ∂ ρ = 0 and Ma < 0.3 we get incompressible continuity: ∇ ∙ V = 0 Conservation of Linear Momentum: ∑F = ∂ ρV d + ρV (V / ∑F − ∙d ) a dm = ∂
/

ρg − ∇P + ∇ ∙ τ = ρD V

/

ρV d +

ρV (V /

∙d )

∑F − ma g ρ g g ∂ τ +∂ τ ∂ P − ∂ P + ∂ τ +∂ τ ∂P ∂ τ +∂ τ

=m u −mu ∂ V +V ∂ V +V ∂ V +V ∂ V =ρ ∂ V +V ∂ V +V ∂ V +V ∂ V ∂ V +V ∂ V +V ∂ V +V ∂ V

+∂ τ +∂ τ +∂ τ

For Newtonian Fluids τ = µ∇V and τ = τ = µ(∂ V + ∂ V ) thus momentum balance yields the Navier-Stokes Equation: ρg − ∇P + µ∇ V = ρD V g ρ g g ∂ V +∂ V +∂ V ∂ P − ∂ P +µ ∂ V +∂ V +∂ V ∂P ∂ V +∂ V +∂ V ∂ V +V ∂ V +V ∂ V +V ∂ V =ρ ∂ V +V ∂ V +V ∂ V +V ∂ V ∂ V +V ∂ V +V ∂ V +V ∂ V

For Inviscid Flow we set τ ≡ 0 thus momentum balance yields the Euler Equation: ρg − ∇P = ρD V g ρ g g Bernoulli’s Equation: This equation applies for frictionless flow along a streamline: 1 ∂ V ds + dp + VdV + gdz = 0 ρ Conservation of Angular Momentum: ∑M = ∂ ρ r×V d + ρ r × V (V / ∙d ) Euler’s Turbine Formula: T = ρQ r V − r V Sprinkler Formula: ω = Conservation of Energy: D E=0=D Q +D W = ∂ ρed + ρ h + 0.5V + gz V / ∙d −
ρ

∂ V +V ∂ V +V ∂ V +V ∂ V ∂ P ∂ P =ρ ∂ V +V ∂ V +V ∂ V +V ∂ V − ∂ P ∂ V +V ∂ V +V ∂ V +V ∂ V

If we assume the flow steady and incompressible and integrate over a streamline we get: p −p V −V + + g(z − z ) = 0 ρ 2

; Q=VnA

DW =−

ρ V/

∙d

DW =

τ ∙ V/

∙d

get V and hence Re. then get a better f. Then guess f.hf): Get the dimensionless head loss parameter. +Pipe Length Problem(V. h= Power ρgQ This motivates defining the Hydraulic Grade line which shows the energy head minus the velocity head. get Re in terms of d (2).7 Re√f √f Haaland Formula: 1 ε ÷ d 1.775 ζ Re = − 8ζ log10 + = 3.5L µRVr ρ2 − ρ1 gh dF = dL .d.9 = −1.d. Reynolds Number: It is the ratio of inertial to viscous forces thus gives a measure of the turbulence: Re = mV ρV A ρV ρVL VL = = = = τA μVA ÷ L μA μ ν yields ρVr L L L 0.hf): Get hp by dividing power by ρgQ.V): Get Re. Finally set hp and hf equal and get L. get roughness in terms of d (3). dE = dA 2 Manometery and Surface Tension: pA + ρ1 gh − ρ2 gh = pB pA − pB = How to use the Right Equation: In essence we have Linear Momentum: +Frictionless or Inviscid Euler’s Equation +Integration over streamline Bernoulli’s Equation The Nabla Operator in Cylindrical Coordinates: 1 1 + ∂r ∂ (r ∙) r r r 1 1 ∇= = ∇2 = ∂θ ∂θ r r ∂z ∂z A Fluid becomes rotational if ζ = 2ω = ∇ × V ≠ 0 : *It is Viscous *Non-Inertial forces act upon it 1 ∂ (r ∂r ∙) r r 1 2 ∂ r2 θθ ∂2 zz +Incompressibility Head Equation +Irrotationality Uniform Bernoulli Constant 1 Dt Π = ∂t Π + (Vr ∂r + Vθ ∂θ + Vz ∂z )Π r *It feels Entropy gradients *It feels Density gradients Laminar Flow Equations and the Friction Factor: Without pumps and turbines and applying the energy head equation in a pipe we get: p − p2 32µLV 128µLQ π∆pd4 hf = z1 − z2 + 1 = for laminar only = and note that Q = ρg 128µL ρgd2 πρgd4 Moreover the momentum equation equates the right hand side to 4τL L V2 hf = hf = f where f = fcn Re. +Pipe Diameter Problem(L.8 log10 + 3.7 32 ζ Laminar↑ Turbulent↑ Pipe Flow and Design Problems: +Head Loss Problem(L.hf): Using ii to relate f and d (1). then find f by formulas or charts then get hf.OR: Get f by (i) which gives a relation of the type V=(C÷f)0.7 Re √f Dimensionless Head Loss Parameter: gd3 hf f Re2 ζ= = Lυ2 2 ε ÷ d 1.V. . compute Re and the shape factor then get f by Colebrook or Haaland formula.11 6.5 . Then guess f. finally get V from Re.5ρVr Inertial ρVr ∂r Vr = = = = Re 2 2 V R Viscous µ ∂zz r µ R 0. ε ÷ d. get d from (1) get Re from (2). then deduce Re by the second formula.d.51 = −2 log10 + 3. and the surface roughness from (3) then compute a better f. +Flow Rate Problem(L.Under steady state the energy equation for an incompressible flow becomes similar to the Bernoulli’s Equation: p αV2 + +z ρg 2g = in 1 up p αV2 + +z ρg 2g out 2 down + hfriction − hpump + hturbine . shape ∗i ρgd d 2g Equating at first then assuming laminar flow gives: d 2g π2 ghf d5 8τ 8(8µV ÷ d) 64 f = hf = = ∗ ii flam = = ∗ iii 2 L V2 8 LQ2 Re ρV ρV2 Moody Chart Formulas: Colebrook Formula: 1 ε ÷ d 2.

5 = −2 128β π3 0. Then find the total head loss for the system as a CV by getting ∆z+∆p÷ρg and set it equal to the sum of individual head losses in every portion of the system.8 128β ÷ π3 0. Reservoir Turbulent Modeling: u 1 ρR = ln ∗ + 5 ∗ u 0. Then we calculate the dimensionless head loss parameter ζ and deduce Re. get the all Re of the system and figure a better estimate of the friction factors by Haaland’s relation. Weight Conductivity Expansion ML-3 Θ L2 T-2Θ-1 ML-2T-2 MLT-3 Θ-1 Θ-1 V2 fL + ΣK 2g D Solving Multiple Pipe Systems: In Series the first equation would be setting the flows equal.51Re1. Then set this head loss equal to individual head losses in every portion. The problem now is just as the Flow Rate Problem above where we solve for the individual friction factors and velocities one at a time. for each member this yields a relation between the individual friction factors and velocities. Heat Sp.5 2 hJ (guessed) zi .85u ∆p = 2τw ∆L for horizontal pipe (see ∗ i) R πσRe 2.5 + 14.5 log10 . Force Moment Power Energy L2 T-1 MT-2 MLT-2 ML2T-2 ML2T-3 ML2T-2 Density Temperature Sp. Repeat the iteration till the sum of flow rates converges to zero. Estimate the individual friction factors. speed Viscosity MT-1 ML-1T-2 T-1 1 T-1 ML-1T-1 Kin Viscosity Surface Ten. Fill out the following table and sum the flow rates: if the sum is positive increase the guess of hJ and if the sum is negative use a lower hJ .Piping Systems: ∆h = hf + hminor = Dimensions: Length Area Volume Velocity Acceleration Volume flow L L2 L3 LT-1 LT-2 L3 T-1 Mass flow Pressure Strain rate Angle Ang.41 u Where u is the centerline velocity then to get other parameters: τw = ρ u∗ Extra Formulae: β= ghf Q3 Lυ5 σ= ευ Q Re2. In parallel again find the head loss for the system as one CV. In a junction we set the HGL height at the meeting point to be hJ (initial guess would be the intermediate value of zi)and so ∆hi=zihJ .hJ fi Vi Qi V = 0. get one velocity. Afterwards we get the friction factor and hence the velocity and we do that for every element.