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AP EUROPEAN HISTORY » OUTLINES » CIVILIZATION IN THE WEST, 5TH EDITION TEXTBOOK
Chapter 11 - Renaissance
Renaissance Society Renaissance = re-birth of classical culture
the birth of a NEW spirit of self awareness sense of relief after a disastrous 14th century sense of self assertion & celebration of the human spirit / potential I. Artistic achievement
Renaissance can be dated as 1350-1550, and broken down into three distinct phases:
Phase 1: 1350-1400: declining population, rediscovery of classical knowledge Phase 2: 1400-1500: artistic / literary achievements, population recovered, govt. stabilized Phase 3: 1500-1550: Fr. / Sp. Invasions spread the Renaissance to all of Europe
Italian cities never totally disappeared as the had in the rest of Europe I. II. III. Late Middle Ages Italian cities represented 25% of the population By 1500 7/10 of the largest cities were Italian Developed into City-States, cities function as centers of political and ecclesiastical power
Countryside developed around the city
Rural Society: Landownership / sharecropping distinguished the social structure (80% subsistence farmers) Urban Society: divided by occupation I. Monopolies were standard (guilds)
Economic change in the early Renaissance I. II. Black Death Over production, aggregate demand declined, prices declined, labor supply declined, wages increased
standard of living increased for the poor wealthy consumption pattern became increasingly conspicuous (lack of motivation for investment,
heightened sense of mortality)
Consumption of luxuries placed a higher value on skilled craftsmen (creativity)
large windows. Leading edge of society Technical innovations . Judith Slaying Holofernes (1455).died from disease before you could starve Renaissance Art Art represented a combination of individual talent and predominate social ideals I. as well as a grouping of relatives I. Goal was to overwhelm the viewer with the power and might of god. dowry and status were primary considerations I.due to increased grain supply relative to population and new foods Starvation remained rare . increased the display of human emotion (the human experience became the subject of the painting) I. Marriage was a political / economic transaction Patronage. Elite patronized the arts (investment & prestige) and the skill craftsmen (practical) whob produced it Renaissance Art can be broken down into three mediums: Architecture. Florence Cathedral Sculpture Donatello: created a flowing sense of reality. II. poor experienced high mortality rates I. sculpture and painting Most artists worked in all three mediums Architecture: Designed and built by Renaissance Artists (great buildings increased one's fame and prestige) Middle Ages: Gothic Architecture. pointed arches. women in late teens Married women lived in a constant state of pregnancy (family interests) Wealthy hired help. vaulted ceilings.combined gothic and classical architecture I. Primary economic unit. demonstrated perspective and is free standing Painting Massaccio: used light and shading to create perspective.govt. The Expulsion of Adam and Eve (1425) . Renaissance: reincorporation of classical features Brunelleschi . Portrait painting . flying buttresses. Life for the poor improved (but was still fairly terrible) Health increased . II. especially in the robes and clothes of his subjects I.reflected the importance of individuals (prestige) I. slender spires. II.perspective & three dimensionality Driven by societal demands Civic architecture . III. Men married in their thirties (social dysfunction).
II. The Birth of Venus (1478) Spring (1478) Leonardo da Vinci: Great master famous for observation of detail and use of perspective I. . Emphasis on human achievement Studied and taught “humanities” – liberal arts I. The Holy Trinity (1425) Piero Della Francesca I. IV. V. moral philosophy. Liberal Arts: rhetoric. new representation David: union of classical sculpture and Renaissance style Sistine Chapel: overwhelming accomplishment. philology and history intent: boost the abilities of the individual to reason and think Philology: study of words. grammar. Applied their ideas to spiritual / secular world Petarch: “father of Humanism” – Cicero Bruni: Greek scholar who advanced Platonic ideals Alberti Valla: Restore Latin language. The Resurrection (1463) . NOT NECESSARILY anti-religious I. finished by Michelangelo Renaissance Ideals Humanism: reaction to an intellectual world that was centered on the church doctrine Secular outlook. IV. II.II. Humanists and classical studies Byzantine scholars (fleeing Muslim expansion) were influential Developed new standards for studying classical texts and new educational standards I. The Last Supper (1495-98) La Giocada (Mona Lisa) Michelangelo I. III. III. Pieta: sculpture of Madonna. portrays a narative of the Christian creation myth Saint Peter's Basilica: Begun by Bramante. Hermetic manuscripts … “magi” had knowledge of God and truth. II. II.displayed technical innovations Botticelli: famous for classical themes and bright colors I. their origins and correct usage provided the first challenge of humanist thought to the Church intellectual tradition Valla disproved the Donation of Constantine (tax exemption of the church) Hermeticism: Via the Medici.
1520 More individualistic forms of art. not just that God did this and that. Madrigal: poem set to music. HOW? Guicciardini: wrote histories of Italy and Florence in vogue with the current thought. The Artist and Social Status: During this period. Northern Artistic Renaissance: Whereas the south paid more attention to the human form. Florentine Painters: Botticelli. Flanders: van Eyck: masters of accurate portrayal of details. Humans CAN be changed by education. worth of “a free man” School in Mantua one of the first schools. Analyzed things. Associated more with the upper class. Value of the liberal arts . Viewed more for their creativity. Not as “deep” as Italian painting? Pages 320-24: ..Education: usually reserved for the elite. and Michelangelo. Brunelleschi: Dome of the Duoumo: The Artistic High Renissance: 1480 . Humanism and History: Believed that the middle ages were barbaric and that the renaissance was a turn to the light. to persuade people of the reality of the event. Helped spread new ideas throughout Europe. Music: Music moved from strictly religious into the secular world of courts and cities. the “master” artists began to be known as divine/heroic. o o The last Supper David Idealized form of figures and nature. Raphael. Art in the Early Renissance: Masaccio: Early masterpieces – more realistic. Create individuals who would follow a virtuous path that would be a practical way to prepare pupils for real life. De Vinci. the north focused more on illuminated manuscripts and wooden panel printing. The Artistic Renaissance: “Imitation of Nature” – naturalistic art. Impact of Printing: Multiple printing with movable metal type – became one of the largest industries. Secularized history – more pragmatic and scrutinized events with analyatical eyes. Mathematical Use: Laws of perspective and geometry used.
Modern Diplomacy: Ambassador: Many small city states began employing their own diplomats to resolve issues with other countries versus the ambassadors being “for the entire Christendom” o Interests of the state surpass the general wellbeing of “everyone” Machiavelli: The Prince: Realistic view of the world. o o o o Furnished a new army for Spain. “fierce like a lion. You must be CATHOLIC. torture. Spanish Unification: Isabella and Ferdinand unified Castille and Aragon. Pages 337-343: New Monarchies: The French Monarchy: o o o Spider King Louis XI: Gained controlled and retained control over nobles via a tax. Eastern Europe: Many different ethnic groups = hard to form monarchies. Italy: Battleground for the French and Spanish monarchies because of the un – unified nature of the city states. o o Russia: Principality of Moscow formed with princes working with Mongols to increase power.. o Warfare: Balance of power: kept all the major players in check. York: War of the Roses: More turmoil in England after the 100 years war. o o o o Florence: medici Papal States: Pope Naples: Poor people. took over Constaninpole and completed the demise of the Byzantine Empire. Urbino: Federigo: made Urbino a great cultural place through patronage. just “good” for the state. Habsburg Family: dynastic marriages secured success because they acquired new territories/alliances. Monarchy Successful because Henry was able to retain control over the nobles via fees and fines and duties. Inquisition: Prosecuted Jews and Arabs. Hungary: King Matthias Covenius temporarily improved Hungary with humanistic ideals. The Church during the Renaissance: England Monarchy: Holy Roman Empire: . Isabella d’Este – daughter of the duke of Ferrara. Women: Many wives were educated and contributed to helping their ruling husbands. sly like a fox” – don’t always have to be “good”. with no one power taking over the rest.- Five major states controlling. or else you’re killed or kicked out. not really in the Renassiance. Ottoman Turks and the End of the Byzantine Empire: Ottoman Turks kept advancing. taught rulers how to rule. Lancaster vs. First Tudor: Henry VII: Court of the Star Chamber .
Renaissance Art Art represented a combination of individual talent and predominate social ideals III. the Popes didn’t agree with them and so they never passed. He was burned at the stake. IV. increased the display of human emotion (the human experience became the subject of the painting) .- John Wycliff and English Lollardy: Denounced papal authority because of corruption and wanted everyone to be able to read the Bible independently … rejected rites and practices that the Church had. o The popes were very secular and were patrons of the arts. Leading edge of society Technical innovations . especially in the robes and clothes of his subjects II. Even though the Council of Constance issued reforms.reflected the importance of individuals (prestige) II. Florence Cathedral Sculpture Donatello: created a flowing sense of reality. Portrait painting . large windows. vaulted ceilings. pointed arches. flying buttresses. Elite patronized the arts (investment & prestige) and the skill craftsmen (practical) whob produced it Renaissance Art can be broken down into three mediums: Architecture. Judith Slaying Holofernes (1455). Renaissance: reincorporation of classical features Brunelleschi .govt.perspective & three dimensionality Driven by societal demands Civic architecture . sculpture and painting Most artists worked in all three mediums Architecture: Designed and built by Renaissance Artists (great buildings increased one's fame and prestige) Middle Ages: Gothic Architecture. but in the process they lost much of their credibility. Reform of the Church: Failed. making Rome a great cultural center. slender spires. - Hus and Hussites: Angry with the corruption of the Church.combined gothic and classical architecture II. - Renissance Papacy: “warrior popes” led armies … used nepotism to give jobs to their relatives to extend their family line’s papacy. o Popes finally succeeded in stopping the calls for change. Goal was to overwhelm the viewer with the power and might of god. demonstrated perspective and is free standing Painting Massaccio: used light and shading to create perspective. attacked the excessive powers held by the Pope.
using a scientific methodology Key axiom was Machiavelli’s association of the Prince and peoples interest as the same Thus virtuous Prince was defined as a one who gained and maintained power Any action that increased a Prince’s virtue was good. etiquette book for the elite seeking power and influence. The Birth of Venus (1478) Spring (1478) Leonardo da Vinci: Great master famous for observation of detail and use of perspective III. IV. I. VI. thus power became an end that justified any means The Politics of the Italian City-States Background: The collapse of the HRE and the Great Schism left no unifying force in Italy . First attempt to explain the actions of govt. new representation David: union of classical sculpture and Renaissance style Sistine Chapel: overwhelming accomplishment. IV. VII.displayed technical innovations Botticelli: famous for classical themes and bright colors III. advocated the moralistic and traditional exercise of power Nicolo Machiavelli: The Prince (1513). removed divine authority 4. portrays a narative of the Christian creation myth Saint Peter's Basilica: Begun by Bramante. discussion of amorality in civic leadership and Discourses on Livy (1519) I. The Last Supper (1495-98) La Giocada (Mona Lisa) Michelangelo V. looked at newly emerging civic virtues Baldesar Castiglione: The Courtier (1528). finished by Michelangelo Civic Humanism Leon Battista Alberti: On the Family (1443). The Resurrection (1463) . VIII. IV. Impact: Intertwining of Classical and Renaissance worlds Explained how and why Princes gained and maintained power Represents the first purely secular understanding of govt. Pieta: sculpture of Madonna. The Expulsion of Adam and Eve (1425) The Holy Trinity (1425) Piero Della Francesca II.III.
significance is that it ends the Renaissance in Italy . Mehmed II Conquered Constantinople in 1453 and threatened Eastern Europe Cut off much of the profitable trade that the Italian City-States relied on Wars of Italy (1494-1529) I. Florence & Rome v. Instead they gobbled up the rest of Italy Massive mistrust developed Rise of the Ottoman Turks I. II. cotton and silk) and finance Established bank branches throughout Europe External conflicts led to a financial crisis Cosimo de Medici financed govt. Milan provided manufactured goods to the French and HRE Dominated for much of their history by the Visconti despotism and fear of Germanic invasion Sforza took over during da Vinci’s stay in Milan Naples: Hereditary monarchy. but came under the control of the Medici faction. III. ensured profitability Impact: Italy exported manufactured goods. II. (predicted French invasion due to paganism and moral decay of Italian city-states). glorification of Florence Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498) – theocracy in Florence 1494-98. and took control Lorenzo the Magnificent: assassination attempt. Naples. II. Politics dominated by the Pope and a collection of powerful families. capital resources and cultural innovations. Florence: Republic on paper. Maritime power Oligarchy of wealthy merchant / guilds people (hereditary elite) Special treaty with the Byzantine Empire that allowed them exclusive trade rights Government controlled trade. Eventually taken over by Spanish Venice: Key to their success was their role in Mediterranean trade. Guilds and powerful families took over regional governments: I. Milan + France (secret alliance) Venetians allied with Spain / HRE Result: Almost everyone in Europe is fighting in Italy. burned at the stake Milan: Located just south of the Alps. but he Italians (like WWII) Germans Sack Rome in 1527. Mediterranean trade enriched guild members and merchant families HRE provided a vast market for manufactured goods of the Italian guilds City-states had enough agriculture to sustain their populations Five Powers of Italy: Papal States: Rome. Major industries were textiles (wool. Decline of Italian City States: Established the Peace of Lodi: Major powers would not fight one another I. II.
Rise of skepticism Religion: also on Later Middle Ages Religion dominates Medieval thought. Boccacio) Covered wider variety of subjects (politics. Literature: Based almost solely on religion. Myscticism: belief in personal relationship with God Contrasting the Renaissance and Later Middle Ages (from on-line source) Renaissance Philosophy: Humanism – Emphasis on secular concerns due to rediscovery and study of ancient Greco-Roman culture. secularism Northern Renaissance focuses writings of early church fathers Vernacular (e. dissenters dealt with harshly . Church is supreme to the state. “New Monarchs” assert power over national churches. propaganda Religion: The state is supreme to the church. Ideal: Man is well-versed in one subject. Ideal: Virtù – Renaissance Man should be wellrounded (Castiglione) Literature: Humanism. but to achieve harmony and order people have to sacrifice individual rights Northern Renaissance Art Low Countries produced especially important artists Jan Van Eyck – Flemish painter. Written in Latin Church was greatest patron of arts and literature. sought unified Christian Europe. Hand-written Dominated politics.Northern Renaissance Christian Humanism: emphasis on early church writings for answers to improve society Desiderius Erasmus (Erasmus of Rotterdam) (1466-1536) – In Praise of Folly most famous intellectual of his times criticized the church: “Erasmus lay the egg that Luther hatched” Thomas More (1478-1536) – Utopia – creates ideal society on an island. detailed realistic works Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) German – foremost northern Renaissance artist.g. Little political criticism. Petrarch. art. Inquisition started in 1223. short stories) Focused on the individual Increased use of printing press. Scholasticism: Thomas Aquinas – reconciles Christianity with Aristotelian science.
Stiff. Increased use of oil paints. extremely detailed. Patronized largely by merchant princes Renaissance popes patronized renaissance art Architecture: Rounded arches. Patronized mostly by the church Sculpture: More gothic. Use of perspective. Brighter colors More emotion Real people and settings depicted. clear lines. 1-dimentional figures. Church encouraged cult of paternal care. Classic Greek and Roman ideals. Lack of perspective. Free-standing (e. Greco-Roman columns Domes (e. Michelangelo’s David) Use of bronze (e. Donatello’s David) Art: Increased emphasis on secular themes. Il Duomo by Brunelleschi) Less detailed Focus on balance and form Technology: Use of printing press New inventions for exploration Marriage and Family: Divorce available in certain cases More prostitution Marriages based more on romance.g. age for men: mid-late twenties Avg. spires Flying buttresses Elaborate detail . Woman was to make herself pleasing to the man (Castiglione) Sexual double standard Marriage and Family: Divorce nonexistent Marriages arranged for economic reasons. Less emotion Stylized faces (faces look generic) Use of gold to illuminate figures. Relief Architecture: Gothic style Pointed arches. nearly totally religious. Prostitution in urban areas Ave. Renaissance popes worldly and corrupt Sculpture: Greek and Roman classical influences. barrel vaults.g. age for women: less than 20 years old. Technology: Depended on scribes Art: Gothic style Byzantine style dominates.g.
Relative sexual equality Status of Women: Legal status of women declined. New Monarchs assert control over national churches. Machiavelli African slavery introduced. Increased infanticide Many couples did not regulations on marriage. Few blacks lived in Europe. Politics: State is supreme over the church. Status of Women: Legal status better than in Renaissance . Most women not affected by Renaissance Educated women allowed involvement but subservient to men. Crusades Politics: Church is supreme over the state. observe church Manners shaped men to please women. Rape not considered serious crime. Exploration and expansion.
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