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). Michel de Nostredame
Nostradamus: original portrait by his son Cesar 14 December or 21 December 1503 Saint-Rémy-deProvence, France 2 July 1566 (aged 62) Salon-de-Provence, France
Apothecary, author, translator, Occupation astrological consultant Known for Prophecy Michel de Nostredame (14 December or 21 December 1503 – 2 July 1566), usually Latinised to Nostradamus, was a French apothecary and reputed seer who published collections of prophecies that have since become famous worldwide. He is best known for his book Les Propheties ("The Prophecies"), the first edition of which appeared in 1555. Since the publication of this book, which has rarely been out of print since his death, Nostradamus has attracted a following that, along with the popular press, credits him with predicting many major world events. The prophecies have in some cases been assimilated to the results of applying the alleged Bible code, as well as to other purported prophetic works. Most academic sources maintain that the associations made between world events and Nostradamus's quatrains are largely the result of misinterpretations or mistranslations (sometimes deliberate) or else are so tenuous as to render them useless as evidence of any genuine predictive power. Moreover, none of the sources listed offers any evidence that anyone has ever interpreted any of Nostradamus's quatrains specifically enough to allow a clear identification of any event in advance. Contents
1 Biography o 1.1 Childhood o 1.2 Student years o 1.3 Marriage and healing work o 1.4 Seer o 1.5 Final years and death 2 Works 3 Nostradamus' sources 4 Interpretations 5 Alternative views 6 Popular culture 7 See also 8 Sources 9 Notes 10 External links
Michel de Nostredame was one of at least nine children of Reynière (or Renée) de Saint-Rémy and grain dealer and notary Jaume (or Jacques) de Nostredame. although there is a persistent tradition that he was educated by his maternal great-grandfather Jean de St. Pierre.Nostredame's claimed birthplace before its recent renovation. The latter's family had originally been Jewish. Guy Gassonet. Hector. 1507–77). Bertrand. Jean II (born 1522) and Antoine (born 1523). but Jaume's father. Louis. Little else is known about his childhood.  Childhood Born on 14 or 21 of December 1503 in Saint-Rémy-deProvence in the south of France. where his claimed birthplace still exists. taking the Christian name "Pierre" and the surname "Nostredame" (the latter apparently from the saint's day on which his conversion was solemnized). Michel's known siblings included Delphine. Jean I (c. had converted to Catholicism around 1455. Rémy – a tradition which is somewhat vitiated by the fact that .
  Marriage and healing work In 1531 Nostredame was invited by Jules-César Scaliger. In 1534 his wife and . presumably still as an apothecary. a leading Renaissance scholar. In 1529. to come to Agen.the latter disappears from the historical record after 1504. Nostredame continued working. who bore him two children. rhetoric and logic. After little more than a year (when he would have studied the regular trivium of grammar. after some years as an apothecary. when the child was only one year old. some of his publishers and correspondents would later call him "Doctor". Nostredame (according to his own account) traveled the countryside for eight years from 1521 researching herbal remedies. After leaving Avignon. rather than the later quadrivium of geometry. However. After his expulsion. He was expelled shortly afterward when it was discovered that he had been an apothecary. Register S 2 folio 87) still exists in the faculty library.  Student years At the age of fifteen the young Nostredame entered the University of Avignon to study for his baccalaureate. and became famous for creating a "rose pill" that supposedly protected against the plague. music and astronomy/astrology). he was forced to leave Avignon when the university closed its doors in the face of an outbreak of the plague. The expulsion document (BIU Montpellier. There he married a woman of uncertain name (possibly Henriette d'Encausse). a "manual trade" expressly banned by the university statutes. arithmetic. he entered the University of Montpellier to study for a doctorate in medicine.
as reconstructed after the 1909 earthquake. After their deaths.  Seer .children died. where he married a rich widow named Anne Ponsarde. in 1547. Aix-en-Provence. he continued to travel. presumably from the Plague. and then tackled further outbreaks of disease on his own in Salon-de-Provence and in the regional capital. he settled in Salon-de-Provence in the house which exists today. Finally. Nostradamus's house at Salon-de-Provence. On his return in 1545. Between 1556 and 1567 he and his wife acquired a one-thirteenth share in a huge canal project organized by Adam de Craponne to irrigate largely waterless Salon-de-Provence and the nearby Désert de la Crau from the river Durance. with whom he had six children – three daughters and three sons. he assisted the prominent physician Louis Serre in his fight against a major plague outbreak in Marseille. passing through France and possibly Italy.
Nostredame began to move away from medicine and toward the occult.) He then began his project of writing a book of one thousand mainly French quatrains. and compare Gruber's comprehensive critique of Nostradamus’ horoscope for Crown Prince Rudolph Maximilian. they are known to have contained at least 6. Taken together. though he generally expected his clients to supply the birth charts on which these would be based. Feeling vulnerable to religious fanatics. 1993. word games and a mixture of other languages such as Greek. as is sometimes supposed. as well as at least eleven annual calendars. rather than calculating them himself as a professional astrologer would have done.After another visit to Italy. which constitute the largely undated prophecies for which he is most famous today. Following popular trends. he wrote an almanac for 1550. Latin. and never adjusted the figures for his clients' place or time of birth. (Refer to the analysis of these charts by Brind'Amour. Italian. For technical reasons connected with their publication in three installments (the publisher of the third and last installment seems to have been unwilling to start it in . he always made numerous errors. in March. for the first time Latinizing his name from Nostredame to Nostradamus. It was mainly in response to the almanacs that the nobility and other prominent persons from far away soon started asking for horoscopes and "psychic" advice from him. he devised a method of obscuring his meaning by using "Virgilianized" syntax. When obliged to attempt this himself on the basis of the published tables of the day. all of them starting on 1 January and not.338 prophecies. He was so encouraged by the almanac's success that he decided to write one or more annually. and Provençal. however.
Catherine had made him Counselor and Physician-inOrdinary to her son. was one of Nostradamus' greatest admirers. the last fiftyeight quatrains of the seventh "Century" have not survived into any extant edition." or book of 100 verses). received a mixed reaction when they were published. Nostradamus himself was indeed prone to claim. he feared that he would be beheaded. she summoned him to Paris to explain them and to draw up horoscopes for her children. published in a book titled Les Propheties (The Prophecies). Some people thought Nostradamus was a servant of evil. but by the time of his death in 1566. Catherine de Médicis.  Final years and death . The quatrains. but neither prophecy nor astrology fell in this bracket. the queen consort of King Henri II of France. contrary to a recent royal decree. or insane. which hinted at unnamed threats to the royal family. while many of the elite thought his quatrains were spiritually-inspired prophecies – as. In fact. in the light of their post-Biblical sources (see under Nostradamus' sources below).the middle of a "Century. the young King Charles IX of France. a fake. Some accounts of Nostradamus's life state that he was afraid of being persecuted for heresy by the Inquisition. After reading his almanacs for 1555. His brief imprisonment at Marignane in late 1561 came about purely because he had published his 1562 almanac without the prior permission of a bishop. At the time. his relationship with the Church was always excellent. and he would have been in danger only if he had practiced magic to support them.
 He was buried in the local Franciscan chapel in Salon (part of it now incorporated into the restaurant La Brocherie) but re-interred during the French Revolution in the Collégiale SaintLaurent. "You will not find me alive at sunrise. in trust for her sons pending their twenty-fifth birthdays and her daughters pending their marriages.Nostradamus' current tomb in the Collégiale Saint-Laurent. This was followed by a much shorter codicil. into which his scattered remains were transferred after 1789. In late June he summoned his lawyer to draw up an extensive will bequeathing his property plus 3. lying on the floor next to his bed and a bench (Presage 141 [originally 152] for November 1567.000 today) – minus a few debts – to his wife pending her remarriage.  Works . or dropsy.444 crowns (around US$300. which had plagued him painfully for many years and made movement very difficult." The next morning he was reportedly found dead. By 1566. Nostradamus' gout. On the evening of 1 July. as posthumously edited by Chavigny to fit). turned into oedema. Salon. he is alleged to have told his secretary Jean de Chavigny. where his tomb remains to this day.
was printed in 1557. The first installment was published in 1555. with 289 further prophetic verses. In The Prophecies he compiled his collection of major. grouped into nine sets of 100 and one of 42. no two editions turned out to be identical. with three hundred new quatrains. called "Centuries". entitled either Almanachs . located in The P. He often published two or three in a year.I. This version contains one unrhymed and 941 rhymed quatrains. but now only survives as part of the omnibus edition that was published after his death in 1568. Certainly there is no warrant for assuming – as would-be "code-breakers" are prone to do – that either the spellings or the punctuation of any edition are Nostradamus' originals. The Almanacs: by far the most popular of his works. was reportedly printed in 1558. The third edition. Nixon Medical History Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. these were published annually from 1550 until his death. The second. and it is relatively rare to find even two copies that are exactly the same.Copy of Garencières' 1672 English translation of the Propheties. longterm predictions. Given printing practices at the time (which included type-setting from dictation).
a "paraphrase") of The Protreptic of Galen (Paraphrase de C. all of them unfortunately ignorant of the true meanings of the ancient Egyptian script. apparently worked.000 original documents relating to Nostradamus are stored under the aegis of Michel Chomarat. not even the bloodletting. but in this case they have been quite extraordinarily so. which was not correctly deciphered until the advent of Champollion in the 19th century. materials borrowed mainly from others) he included a description of the methods he used to treat the plague – none of which. together with over 2000 commentaries. once again. The same book also describes the preparation of cosmetics. . but a professional healer. mesmement Medicine) . One was an extremely free translation (i. It is a purported translation of an ancient Greek work on Egyptian hieroglyphs based on later Latin versions. A manuscript normally known as the Orus Apollo also exists in the Lyon municipal library. It is known that he wrote at least two books on medical science. where upwards of 2. sus l'Exhortation de Menodote aux estudes des bonnes Artz. GALIEN. Over two hundred editions of them have appeared in that time. Nostradamus was not only a diviner. and in his so-called Traité des fardemens (basically a medical cookbook containing. Prognostications or Presages (more generalized predictions). too.(detailed predictions). Since his death only the Prophecies have continued to be popular.e. Their popularity seems to be partly due to the fact that their vagueness and lack of dating make it easy to quote them selectively after every major dramatic event and retrospectively claim them as "hits" (see Nostradamus in popular culture).
His historical sources include easily identifiable passages from Livy. of the 'quality' (and thus potential) of events such as births. coronations etc. Hence the many predictions involving ancient figures such as Sulla. weddings." Astrology itself is mentioned only twice in Nostradamus's Preface and 41 times in the Centuries themselves. Suetonius. Recent research suggests that much of his prophetic work paraphrases collections of ancient end-of-the-world prophecies (mainly Bible-based). or assessment. Nero. but more frequently in his dedicatory Letter to King Henri II. Plutarch and other classical historians. and then projects those into the future in part with the aid of comparative horoscopy. as well as his descriptions of "battles in the clouds" and "frogs falling from the sky. – but was heavily criticized by professional astrologers of the day such as Laurens Videl for incompetence and for assuming that "comparative horoscopy" (the comparison of future planetary configurations with those accompanying known past events) could actually predict what would happen in the future. In the last quatrain of his sixth centurie he specifically attacks astrologers. . Nostradamus' sources Nostradamus claimed to base his published predictions on judicial astrology – the astrological 'judgement'. and others. supplemented with references to historical events and anthologies of omen reports. Gaius Marius. Many of his astrological references are taken almost word for word from Richard Roussat's Livre de l'estat et mutations des temps of 1549–50. as well as from medieval chroniclers such as Geoffrey of Villehardouin and Jean Froissart.
The fact that they reportedly burned with an unnaturally brilliant flame suggests. Nostradamus was one of the first to re-paraphrase these prophecies in French.The latest research suggests that he may in fact have used bibliomancy for this -. a book on Chaldean and Assyrian magic by Iamblichus.) This book had enjoyed considerable success in the 1520s.randomly selecting a book of history or prophecy and taking his cue from whatever page it happened to fall open at. Authors frequently copied and paraphrased passages without acknowledgement. Joachim of Fiore.. Gothic script and many difficult abbreviations. Further material was gleaned from the De honesta disciplina of 1504 by Petrus Crinitus. (His Preface contains 24 biblical quotations. While it is true that Nostradamus claimed in 1555 to have burned all of the occult works in his library. the Tiburtine Sibyl. all but two in the order used by Savonarola. perhaps owing to its mostly Latin text. which included extracts from Michael Psellus's De daemonibus.. which may explain why they are credited to him.One of his major prophetic sources was evidently the Mirabilis liber of 1522. and the De Mysteriis Aegyptiorum (Concerning the mysteries of Egypt. no one can say exactly what books were destroyed in this fire. and extracts from both are paraphrased (in the second case almost literally) in his first two verses. a 4th century Neo-Platonist. especially from the classics. when it went through half a dozen editions (see External links below for facsimiles and translations) but did not sustain its influence.). It should be noted that modern views of plagiarism did not apply in the 16th century. the first of which is appended to this article. Savonarola and others. . Latin versions of both had recently been published in Lyon. which contained a range of prophecies by PseudoMethodius.
1555 (see caption to illustration above) Not that I would attribute to myself either the name or the role of a prophet – Preface to César.e. 1555 [S]ome of [the prophets] predicted great and marvelous things to come: [though] for me. Nostradamus's reliance on historical precedent is reflected in the fact that he explicitly rejected the label prophet (i. my son. during the same period. The Prophecies reportedly came into use in France as a classroom reader. a person having prophetic powers of his own) on several occasions: Although. thanks to my researches and the consideration of what judicial Astrology promises me and sometimes gives me to know. mainly classical sources. – Letter to King Henri II. that some of them were manuscripts on vellum. which was routinely treated with saltpeter. Not that I am foolish enough to pretend to be a prophet. I have used the word prophet. – Open letter to Privy Councillor (later Chancellor) Birague. I in no way attribute to myself such a title here. 15 June 1566 His rejection of the title prophet also squares with the fact that he entitled his book . so that folk may know that with which the celestial stars do threaten them. 1558 I do but make bold to predict (not that I guarantee the slightest thing at all). Only in the 17th century did people start to notice his reliance on earlier. This may help explain the fact that.however. principally in the form of warnings. I would not attribute to myself a title of such lofty sublimity – Preface to César.
In his dedication to King Henri II. Given this reliance on literary sources.Detail from title-page of the original 1555 (Albi) edition of Nostradamus's Les Propheties (a title that. ritually "sleeping on it"). water gazing or both simultaneously is based on a naive reading of his first two verses. other than contemplation. expression and reapplication to the future. The first of these is reproduced at the bottom of this article: the second can be seen by visiting the relevant facsimile site (see External Links). in French. which. by M. in other words. Michel Nostradamus".. would have been for doing what he never claimed to be doing in the first place. other than in the manner of their editing. The popular legend that he attempted the ancient methods of flame gazing. as "The Prophecies of M. which is precisely what they were. Michel Nostradamus". mind and heart of all care. which merely liken his efforts to those of the Delphic and Branchidic oracles. but his frequent references to the "bronze tripod" of the Delphic rite are . worry and unease through mental calm and tranquility". it is doubtful whether Nostradamus used any particular methods for entering a trance state. meditation and incubation (i.) Any criticism of Nostradamus for claiming to be a prophet. His sole description of this process is contained in letter 41 of his collected Latin correspondence. they were not.e. except in a few cases. Nostradamus describes "emptying my soul. as easily means "The Prophecies.
Arab) equivalents. and battles – all undated and based on foreshadowings by the Mirabilis Liber. Nostradamus enthusiasts have credited him with predicting numerous events in world history. not least an unpublished collection by Christopher Columbus. others concern a single person or small group of persons. invasions. murders. There is no evidence in the academic literature to . droughts. earthquakes. once again. Some cover a single town. from the Great Fire of London. A major. Skeptics such as James Randi suggest that his reputation as a prophet is largely manufactured by modern-day supporters who fit his words to events that have either already occurred or are so imminent as to be inevitable. floods. All of this is presented in the context of the supposedly imminent end of the world – even though this is not in fact mentioned – a conviction that sparked numerous collections of end-time prophecies at the time.  Interpretations Most of the quatrains deal with disasters. such as plagues. directly reflecting the then-current Ottoman invasions and the earlier Saracen (that is. 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center. Some quatrains cover these disasters in overall terms. underlying theme is an impending invasion of Europe by Muslim forces from further east and south headed by the expected Antichrist. but only ever in hindsight. a process sometimes known as "retroactive clairvoyance". by way of the rise of Napoleon I of France and Adolf Hitler. wars. others several towns in several countries. External References to the original texts). to the September 11.usually preceded by the words "as though" (compare. as well as the prior expectations of the Mirabilis Liber.
and the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster in 1986. and the nuclear destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. from the Apollo moon landings. through the death of Diana. to the French Revolution. Thanks to the vagaries of interpretation. Although Halbronn possibly knows more about the texts and associated archives than almost anybody else alive (he helped dig out and research many of them). general terms that could equally apply to any number of other events. There is also a consensus that he predicted whatever major event had just happened at the time of each book's publication. whether for the past or for the future. other than in vague. Adolf Hitler. Princess of Wales in 1997. though. most other specialists in the field reject this view. and thousands of private websites. At one end of the spectrum. no two of them agree on exactly what he predicted.  Alternative views A range of quite different views are expressed in printed literature and on the Internet.suggest that any Nostradamus quatrain has ever been interpreted as predicting a specific event before it occurred. there are extreme academic views such as those of Jacques Halbronn. to the events of . suggesting not only that the Prophecies are genuine but that Nostradamus was a true prophet. both world wars. Napoleon Bonaparte. for example. suggesting at great length and with great complexity that Nostradamus's Prophecies are antedated forgeries written by later hands with a political axe to grind. Many of them do agree. there are numerous fairly recent popular books. that particular predictions refer. At the other end of the spectrum.
reprinted at least seven times during the next 40 years. he had been educated by his grandfathers. After that came Erika Cheetham's The Prophecies of Nostradamus.9/11: this 'movable feast' aspect appears to be characteristic of the genre. which was reprinted. he had attended Montpellier University in 1525 to gain his first degree: after returning there in 1529 he . With the exception of Roberts. who had both been physicians to the court of Good King René of Provence. but also about various aspects of his biography. Possibly the first of these books to become truly popular in English was Henry C. these books and their many popular imitators were almost unanimous not merely about Nostradamus's powers of prophecy. latterly as The Final Prophecies of Nostradamus. Nostradamus: A Life and Myth (2003). Apart from a two-part translation of Jean-Charles de Fontbrune's Nostradamus: historien et prophète of 1980. most recently. incorporating a reprint of the posthumous 1568 edition. revised and republished several times from 1973 onwards. with brief commentaries. Roberts' The Complete Prophecies of Nostradamus of 1947. This went on to serve as the basis for Orson Welles' celebrated film The Man Who Saw Tomorrow. the series could be said to have culminated in John Hogue's well-known books on the seer from about 1994 onwards. including Nostradamus: The Complete Prophecies (1999) and. which contained both transcriptions and translations. This was followed in 1961 (reprinted in 1982) by Edgar Leoni's comprehensive and remarkably dispassionate Nostradamus and His Prophecies. He had been a descendant of the Israelite tribe of Issachar.
The publication in 1983 of Nostradamus's private correspondence and. he had engaged in scrying using either a magic mirror or a bowl of water. Most of them had evidently been based on unsourced rumours retailed as fact by much later commentators such as . when dug up at the French Revolution.35 that her husband King Henri II would be killed in a duel. including identifying a future Pope. he had bequeathed to his son a 'lost book' of his own prophetic paintings. having published the first installment of his Propheties. he had been buried standing up. however. he had travelled to the north-east of France. where he had composed prophecies at the abbey of Orval. in the course of his travels he had performed a variety of prodigies. he had supported the heliocentric view of the universe. during succeeding years. he had gone on to lecture in the Medical Faculty there until his views became too unpopular.had successfully taken his medical doctorate. The academics made it clear that not one of the claims just listed was backed up by any known contemporary documentary evidence. From the 1980s onwards. of the original editions of 1555 and 1557 discovered by Chomarat and Benazra. he had been summoned by Queen Catherine de' Medici to Paris in 1556 to discuss with her his prophecy at quatrain I. he had examined the royal children at Blois. to be wearing a medallion bearing the exact date of his disinterment. together with the unearthing of much original archival material revealed that much that was claimed about Nostradamus simply did not fit the documented facts. and he had been found. an academic reaction set in. especially in France. he had successfully cured the Plague at Aix-en-Provence and elsewhere. he had been joined by his secretary Chavigny at Easter 1554.
but it was only in 2003 that he accepted that some of his earlier biographical material had in fact been apocryphal. by function of the dates when they were writing and. admittedly.Jaubert (1656). seemed to display little or no knowledge of 16th century French. Hogue. at worst. complained that the English translations were usually of poor quality. Cheetham and Hogue on the posthumous edition of 1568. None of them. 55 years after the event. or on pure invention. However. and on earlier pages indicated that much of his biographical material was unsourced. Guynaud (1693) and Bareste (1840). were based on the original editions: Roberts had based himself on that of 1672.35 had successfully prophesied King Henri II's death did not actually appear in print for the first time until 1614. certainly. Meanwhile various of the more recent sources listed (Lemesurier. who themselves tend to eschew any attempt at interpretation. were tendentious and. Gruber. were sometimes twisted to fit the events to which they were supposed to refer (or vice versa). was in a position to take advantage of it. Even the relatively respectable Leoni accepted on his page 115 that he had never seen an original edition. Wilson) have been particularly scathing about later attempts by some lesser-known authors and Internet enthusiasts to extract alleged hidden . of the language it was written in. on modern misunderstandings of the 16th century French texts. the academics. to some extent. On top of that. none of this research and criticism was originally known to most of the English-language commentators. Even the often-advanced suggestion that quatrain I.
Nostradamus enthusiasts pointed to Quatrains VI. and his life and writings continue to be a subject of media interest. which led both to hoaxes and to reinterpretations by enthusiasts of several quatrains as supposed prophecies. where quatrains in the style of Nostradamus have been circulated by email as the real thing. Nostradamus's life has been depicted in several films and videos. There have also been several well-known internet hoaxes.87 as possible predictions. 2001. but none of the listed sources supported this suggestion (compare the Snopes website listed under External Links).  Popular culture Main article: Nostradamus in popular culture The prophecies retold and expanded by Nostradamus have figured largely in popular culture in the 20th and 21st centuries. numerical codes.97 and I.meanings from the texts. As well as being the subject of hundreds of books (both fiction and nonfiction). whether with the aid of anagrams. 2001 attacks on New York City led to immediate speculation as to whether Nostradamus had predicted the events.  See also . graphs or otherwise. The September 11. The best-known examples concern the collapse of the World Trade Center in the attacks of September 11.
1972 (the seminal biographical study) Dupèbe. Traite des fardemens et des confitures. Michel: o Orus Apollo. Galen sus l'exhortation de Menodote. Dr Edgar. Ein Erschrecklich und Wunderbarlich Zeychen. de Salon de Craux en Provence.. 1555.. Nostradamus: Lettres inédites. 1545 (?). 1557. 1568. Les Propheties. Lettre de Maistre Michel Nostradamus. Nostradamus.Century I. 1555. 1983 . A la Royne mere du Roy. Nuremberg. Quatrain 1: 1555 Lyon Bonhomme edition For comparison with another predictive protoscience see Alchemy.. 1557. sa vie. 1550–1567. Jean. 1556. Paraphrase de C. 1557. Presages and Pronostications. 1566 Leroy. unpublished ms. Almanachs. Lyon. son oeuvre. 1554. ses origines. Divination List of astrologers Mysticism Postdiction Roger Frontenac Vaticinia Nostradami  Sources Nostradamus.
Nostradamus: Interprétation des hiéroglyphes de Horapollo. 1594) . 1999 Chevignard. Peter. 1993 Brind'Amour. 1996 Lemesurier. (Lyon. Dr Edgar. 2003 Gruber. James. ^ Chavigny. sein Werk und die wahre Bedeutung seiner Prophezeiungen. Pierre.. Peter. Prophéties de Nostradamus. Robert: Répertoire chronologique nostradamique (1990) Randi. ^ a b Guinard. 1972. Michel. Jean-Paul. The Mask of Nostradamus. 2003 Prévost. The Unknown Nostradamus. Dr Patrice. 1997 ISBN 0-312-17093-9 5. Ian. Nostradamus: sein Leben. 2003. 2002 Clébert. ^ a b c d e f g h i Leroy. Nostradamus. 1997. 1993. 2003 3. de: La première face du Janus françois. The Nostradamus Encyclopedia. J. Roger. Nostradamus: The Evidence. sa vie. Pierre: Nostradamus astrophile. 'The Nostradamus Encyclopedia. Dr Elmar. Bernard. 2003  Notes 1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Lemesurier. ses origines.A. Peter. le mythe et la réalité. son oeuvre. The Unknown Nostradamus. 1993 ISBN 087975-830-9 Rollet. Les premières Centuries ou Prophéties. ^ a b c d e f Lemesurier. Nostradamus. CURA Forum 2. Chomarat. and Laroche. Nostradamus. ISBN 2-86276-231-8 4. Présages de Nostradamus 1999 Wilson. Jean-Paul: Bibliographie Nostradamus (1989) Benazra.. Nostradamus: The Illustrated Prophecies.
6.it. Pierre. cited in Leroy.. 2010 19. Propheties. Nostradamus: sein Leben. The Unknown Nostradamus (O Books. ^ Lemesurier. P. 1556. ^ See Savonarola and Nostradamus text comparison 18. Michel. 2003 12. ses origines. Bergerac.. J. Nostradamus astrophile. 1993 7. 17. Trillaud. 2003) 15. P. Traite des fardemens et des confitures. 1557 9. ^ a b c Gruber. Bibliomancer.. ^ See comprehensive charts supplied here . 2003) 16. ^ Lemesurier. dans un esprit . Nostradamus. ^ Guéraud. La chronique Lyonnaise (1536–1562). sa vie. Mercure de France. ^ Mario Gregorio. ^ Anonymous letters to the Mercure de France in August and November 1724 drew specific public attention to the fact(Anonyme) Lettre critique sur la personne et sur les écrits de Michel Nostradamus.83 14. ^ Benazra. Nostradamus. Retrieved 2010-03-20. 13. http://www. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Brind'Amour.html. p. Présages de Nostradamus 1999 11. août et novembre 1724 (Comment in the French Wikipedia article on Nostradamus : "Relève.. Dr Elmar. P. The Unknown Nostradamus (O Books. Bernard. E. 1972. ^ Lemesurier. son oeuvre. sein Werk und die wahre Bedeutung seiner Prophezeiungen. Espace Nostradamus 8..it/no/nostradamus. R. ^ Maison de Nostradamus at Salon 10. ^ a b Chevignard. Dr. "Centuries of Nostradamus". ^ Nostradamus. 1555.propheties.
M. ^ Garencières. the expression Pau. ^ Dupèbe.maar. pp. Prophecy and Discovery: On the Spiritual Origins of Christopher Columbus' 'Enterprise of the Indies' in: American Historical Review.. Retrieved 2010-03-20. Les Propheties. February 1985. 73–102 26. ^ "CI. ^ It is true that in several quatrains he mentions the name Hister (somewhat resembling Hitler). 28. par exemple. 29.us/first_century_nostradamus. as he himself explains in his Presage for 1554. le rapprochement entre le quatrain VIII. Similarly. http://www.. ^ a b Preface to César[dead link] 22. 1672.html. des coïncidences entre certains quatrains des Prophéties et des évènements antérieurs à la publication de ces quatrains.fr. 21. Théophile de: The true prophecies or prognostications of Michel Nostradamus.M. 1983 .rationaliste. Tout n'est pas également convaincant. ^ Actually the 13th–14th century Vaticinia de Summis Pontificibus in a misascribed version sometimes referred to as the Vaticinia Nostradami 30. ^ See Free. ^ Nostradamus Repository 23. Q81". Ramkat and Free. ^ Nostradamus.fr.") 20.us. mais on repoussera difficilement. ^ Watts. P. CURA 27. Nay. Maar. ^ See facsimile of letter 24. 72 et le siège de Ravenne de 1512. but this is merely the classical name for the Lower Danube. Nostradamus: Lettres inédites. 1568 omnibus edition 25. Jean. Loron – often interpreted as an anagram of "Napaulon Roy" – simply refers to three towns in southwestern France near his one-time home.
Nostradamus: The Evidence. not with others that are mainly speculative or purely fictional in character and thus not complementary to it.htm. Ian. ^ "False prophesy". Timeline Facsimiles of original editions with translations Facsimiles of many contemporary texts Facsimiles.com/rumors/predict. 2002  External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Michel de Nostredame Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Nostradamus Wikisource has original works written by or about: Nostradamus French Wikisource has original text related to this article: Nostradamus This section is for links to sites consistent with the established facts reported in the article only. reprints and some translations of a huge range of Nostradamus texts. 2002 33. 1993 32. Facsimiles of the first four editions of the Propheties compared (downloadable) . Snopes. info etc. http://www.31.snopes. ^ a b Randi. Nostradamus: The Evidence. ^ Wilson. ^ Wilson. James. 34. Retrieved 2010-03-20. The Mask of Nostradamus.com. Ian.
Historical origins of the Propheties Espace Nostradamus Benazra's French website and major academic forum CURA's major international academic forum Nostradamus Research Group World's largest online library of Nostradamus facsimiles Logodaedalia Scientific and Medical French website (Dr. translations. 2005) Selected English translations from the Mirabilis liber. FAQs. general information and illustrated tour of Nostradamus's Provence Retrieved from "http://en. Lucien de Luca) Anna Carlstedt (La poésie oraculaire de Nostradamus.org/wiki/Nostradamus" Categories: Nostradamus | 1503 births | 1566 deaths | 16thcentury French writers | Deaths from edema | Divination | French occult writers | People from Bouches-du-Rhône | Prediction | Apocalypticists Hidden categories: Articles containing French language text | Articles with dead external links from March 2010 | Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages | Featured articles | Articles with hCards Personal tools New features Log in / create account Namespaces .wikipedia. quatrain search engine. Texts.
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