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‘C’ Language

And
‘C’ Program.
Why ‘C’ ?
‘C’
• Implements basic programming languages
concepts.
• Structured programming language.
• Developments of other PL requires core C
elements.
• Unix, Linux and Windows in C.
• Cellular phones and palmtop softwares.
• Gaming frameworks.
• Hardware devices interaction with max
performance.
Alphabets,
Digits,
Special Program.
Symbols.

Constants,
Variables,
And Instructions
Keywords
C Constants.

• Primary Constants.
Integer Constants.
Real Constants.
Character Constants.
• Secondary Constants.
Array.
Pointer.
Structures and Unions.
Enum.
• Integer Constants.
e.g. 426
+756
-588 etc.
• Character Constants.
e.g. ‘E’
‘h’
‘=‘
‘8’
• Real Constants.
e.g. 488.22 +3.211e-4
+85.23 5.6e4
-11.20
Data types declaration.

int a; /* General declaration */


int a = 10; /* Valued Declaration */
float b = 12.6;
float b;
char c;
char c = ‘y’;
Maximum values of Data Types.
• int requires 2 bytes to store in memory.
-32768 to 32767.
• float requires 4 bytes to store.
-3.4e38 to 3.4e38.
• char requires 1 byte to store.
A….Z and a….z also special symbols.
• long int requires 4 bytes to store.
-2147483648 to 2147483647.
• double requires 8 bytes to store.
-1.7e308 to 1.7e308.
• long double requires 10 bytes to store.
-1.7e4932 to 1.7e4932.
Giving variable names (identifiers).
• ‘C’ is a case-sensitive language.
means ‘a’ ≠ ‘A’.
• All the alphabets are allowed.
• All numbers are allowed but not at the
start.
e.g char a9, thyy; /* Valid */
char 5abc; /* Invalid */
• Only special symbol _ (under score) is
allowed. e.g. int min_max;
Keywords.

auto break case char const


continue default do double else
enum extern float for goto
if long register return short
signed sizeof static struct switch
typedef union unsigned void while
volatile near far asm
Operators.
• Numerial operators.

• Logical operators.

• Relational operators.

• Conditional operators.

• Bitwise operators.
Numerical operators.
+ - * / % =
---------------------------------------------
e.g. int a, y = 10, x = 12;
float b;
a = y + 10;
b = x / 2;
a = a – b;
Relational operators.
> < >= <= == !=

Logical operators.

&& ||

Conditional operators.

? :
Boolean operators.
& | ~ ^
Expression and Statements.
int a = 10, j = 26;
float r = 5.22, t = 2.66 + 45.2 * 2;
float b = 1.02 , c = b / 2 + 5.2;
int d, e, f, g;
d = e = f= g = 50;
float alpha = 23.001, beta = 892.00;
float delta = alpha * beta / 3.2 – alpha;
char h, i ;
h = ‘D’;
I = h;
Hierarchy of operations.

int i;
i = 5 * 6 – 8 + 9 – (43 + 2) /5 – 5;
i = 30 – 8 + 9 – 45/5 – 5;
i = 30 – 8 + 9 – 9 – 5;
i = 22 + 0 – 5;
i = 17;
First ‘C’ Program.
#include<stdio.h>
main()
{
int i = 10, j = 12;
float k, m = 12.6;
k = (i + j) / m;
printf(“Input : %d %d %f”, i, j, m);
printf(“\nOutput : %f ”, k);
}
Input : 10 12 12.600000
Output : 1.746032
Basic I/O statements.
• printf.
printf(“<formal string>”,<list of variables>);
e.g. printf(“Hello world”);
int i = 15;
printf(“Value of i is : %d”, i );
¾ %d – integer value.
¾ %f – float value.
¾ %c – character value
printf(“%d %d %d”, 3, 3+5, a+b*c);
Basic I/O statements.
• scanf.
It accepts values from user in the form of
int / float / char / long / double.
e.g. int j,
char m;
float k;
scanf(“%d%f%c”, &j, &k, &m);
Compilation and Execution

• Integrated Development Environment


(IDE).
editor + compiler.
• Compiling ‘C’ program
F9 / Alt F9 – Compiling.
Ctrl F9 – Executing.
Alt F5 – Watching output.
Created By,

• Mr. Tushar B Kute,


Lecturer in Information Technology,
K. K. Wagh Polytechnic, Nashik.
tbkute@gmail.com