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EDSC 305 Assignment II CURRICULUM CONTENT & METHODS IN SCIENCE EDUCATION By: Edna Mae D. Cruz Ph.D. in Education (Physics) 1.

Observe a class in an elementary/secondary school in your area. Have a verbatim record of the teacher’s questions. Assess how well each question asked was able to move towards concept development. Analyze mistakes, if any, on the questioning process. Explain how you would have done the questioning and developed the concept as intended by the teacher. The success of the learner in acquiring knowledge depends on the teachers’ accuracy in presenting the lesson. The teacher should know the best method of presentation for a particular lesson 1. However, there is no such thing as “the best teaching method”. Teaching in an inquiry manner may result in students’ learning science in a way that expresses more accurately the true nature of science2. Questioning is an integral part of an inquiry centered classroom. It is a learner’s thinking tool to carry out investigation about a subject matter. Moreover, teacher questioning can bring out more of the students’ knowledge (or misconceptions) and be of great benefit in modifying later instruction3. Physics Class Written below are the actual question-and-answer notes of a fourth year high school teacher in a school in San Ildefonso, Bulacan. (The teacher requested not to identify her).
Teacher What is momentum? Student Momentum is the strength of the object’s motion. It is the product of mass and velocity. The car has greater momentum as compared to the bike. Impulse is the product of force and time. It is the change in the object’s momentum. No. It is not something an object has. Impulse is what an object can give when it interacts with some other object. Yes, but like velocity, in a relative sense, with respect to a reference frame. He will be hurt because its impact is greater. Analysis The question is a factual question because it requires the students to recall specific information they have previously learned. The question is a convergent question because it only requires a single answer. This is also a factual question because it aimed to get certain information on a particular subject. This is an explanatory question because is used to get reasons to give additional information and it broadens discussion.

Which has more momentum a 750-kg car moving at 5 mps or a 100-kg dirt bike moving at 20 mps? What is impulse?

Does a moving object have impulse?

Does a moving momentum?

object

have

Imitate a boxer. What will happen if the boxer moves towards the punch of his opponent? What can the boxer do to lessen the impact?

He can avoid the punch or he may have to move with the punch to prolong the time.

This is a divergent question. The students may give different answers depending on their idea of boxing. This may be a divergent question because students may provide different answers but it broadens discussion and it encourages discussion.

The questions asked by the teacher are diverse questions ranging from convergent to divergent questions. It motivates critical thinking as well as it makes discussion livelier because students tend to reason out and pay close attention to their observation. Oftentimes, mistakes in questioning happen whenever the teacher was not able to solicit the correct answer for her questions. If a teacher is smart, she will be able to formulate question that may lead her to her expected answer.

Leonora C. Dela Cruz. CONSTEL TELECOURSE: Its Effects to the Senior High School Students’ Achievement and Attitude Towards Physics. (Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Bulacan State University, 2000.) 2 Milagros D. Ibe. EDSC 305 Seminar: Issues and Trends in Science and Technology Education. UP Open University, 1999. 3 http://ims.ode.state.oh.us/ode/ims/rrt/research/Content/Classroom_assessment_what_we_know.asp
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Among the nineteen topics given in the NAT. Get a copy the latest data on National Achievement Test (NAT) results of the students in science and mathematics for a school in your community.61 in the percentage score. Science. DepED Division of Bulacan serves the twenty-four municipalities and has seventy-six public and private high schools. They got a raw score of 14. The National Achievement Test (NAT) is an examination given annually in March to assess the competency of both public and private school students.wikipilipinas.2. Upig High School is one of the barangay high schools in San Ildefonso with more than 50 sophomore students who took the NAT last March 10. 2011. while a score of below 50% indicates low mastery3. and HEKASI for grade school and Mathematics. the school was among the top ten schools that got a high rank in NAT result. This result is depressing because in 2010. students easily understand and are familiar with it. this school ranked 74th out of 76 high schools who have taken the test. near mastery. It tackles about illustration or description of the parts and functions of organ system in different organisms to maintain life. Questions number 9 and eleven marked the lowest percentage. Filipino. Students are at ease with questions that require familiarization and memorization while they have difficulty in explaining and critical thinking.php?title=National_Achievement_Test . Science. The results are intended to guide the Department of Education (DepEd) in its efforts towards the improvement of the quality of education in public schools and to provide appropriate intervention for the students. With the availability of materials (teacher may provide visual aids purchased in the bookstore) and ample explanations of the topic. A score of 75% and up indicates mastery of the subject and 50% to less than 75%. English.17 in Science and 39. Assessing the questions. and Araling Panlipunan for high school.org/index. question number 10 marked the highest percentage. including results for its concerned division and region. English. The question is on the explanation of the stages of cellular respiration and the identification of technologies that help the specific defective organ function properly. students of Upig High School were good in illustrations or identifying parts and functions of organ system. 3 http://en. The students’ knowledge and skills are evaluated in the subjects of Mathematics. The test is administered by the Department of Education's National Education Testing and Research Center (NETRC). Filipino. Analyze the results both for science and mathematics by content area and how these compare to the intended curriculum for that year level. According to statistics.

rather than select.traditional assessments requires the student to perform. Performance-based assessments are considered to be more appropriate for use with inquiry-based scientific learning than are paper and pencil tests.com may be helpful in objectively assessing their performance: 1 2 Brady.net/INTASC/INTASC8/Assessment/nontraditionalassessment_files/nontraditional. Non . Performance assessments require that students construct.ode. create. Traditional assessments are usually done through paper and pencil test and are generally confined to measurement in the cognitive domains2. this approach does not capture the full potential that a comprehensive assessment process can provide teachers and students.us/ode/ims/rrt/research/Content/Classroom_assessment_what_we_know.learning process. performance-based evaluations. L. UP Open University. produce or do something. Vernier and Micrometer caliper One of the important lessons in physics is the use of measuring instruments such as meter stick. in Education (Physics) 1.D. 1999. Assessment is an integral part of the teaching . EDSC 305 Seminar: Issues and Trends in Science and Technology Education. 3 http://audreymerrell. Administering a paper and pencil test at the end of a lesson to evaluate students provides one measure of student achievement. (2009).). The following rubrics from www. predict-and-explain assignments and concept mapping. Develop three non-traditional assessment models and use them in your class (or have a teacher use them in his class). K. meter stick. Celebrating student achievement: assessment and reporting (3rd Ed. & Kennedy. Cruz Ph. performance-based assessment can measure students’ scientific inquiry skills and content knowledge. Vernier and Micrometer caliper. Frenchs Forest: Pearson Education Australia.traditional assessment methods allow the knowledge or understanding of a concept to be measured using alternative strategies3. responses.oh.state.EDSC 305 Assignment III ASSESSMENT OF STUDENT LEARNING By: Edna Mae D. ruler.asp . However. It is defined as the evaluation of student’s achievement on a particular subject or a process of collecting evidence of what students know and can do. Using of Measuring Instruments such as ruler. the teacher will administer the activity on using the different measuring tools. Performance items allow teachers to observe student behavior on tasks. Describe in which particular lessons/activities/situations would these models be best used effectively. The identification of its parts and functions commence and after demonstrating how the instruments are used. Non-traditional assessments use additional approaches such as portfolios. Ibe. Assessment is the means by which this learning can be monitored and improved1. A. Scoring can reveal patterns in student learning and thinking. These assessments require the student to approach problems as a scientist while handling equipment and materials. time-series design assessments. Milagros D. Whether used as a preassessment.teach-nology.html 4 http://ims. These approaches provide more comprehensive measures of students’ cognitive abilities and are often more successful in measuring the student’s ability to integrate concepts and perform specific skills4. Non . How the students accurately and precisely measured the given objects to be measured and how they will fill up the activity sheet will be the basis of the performance based assessment. formative or summative assessment.

The owner of the chosen project will have a chance to participate in the event so their performance will be graded accordingly.psysc.5 meters from the tower.  Does not survive signal 1: +0  Survives signal 1 (15 sec): +10  Survives signal 2 (15 sec): +20  Survives signal 3 (15 sec): +30  Survives signal 4 (15 sec): +40  Survives signal 5 (15 sec): +50 B.  Signal 4: Fan (set at # 2) is 1. Concept mapping assessments that require students to create their own linking phrases between nodes may be more useful as formative assessments than are techniques in which the terms are provided. 5 http://www. Sliding will be prevented by a stopper during the test. Concept mapping is an illustrated representation of a student’s cognitive understanding. The scoring system to be applied is as follows: 1. The level of student autonomy in design and construction of concept maps also can vary. Survival means that the tower does not slide or overturn during the test. Testing Guidelines 1. 3. 2. Points for survival will be given for every condition.5 meters from the tower. And as a teacher. Design Guidelines 1. formative or summative assessment. equilibrium. it is my task to choose a project that may compete with other organization’s project either in the National Science Club Month Summit or Math-Sci-A-Ka. 2. The following conditions will be applied:  Signal 1: Fan (set at # 1) is 2 meters from the tower. The tower must be able to stand on its own.5 meters from the tower. The mass of the tower includes the masses of the drinking straws and the small roll of tape used.  Signal 2: Fan (set at # 2) is 2 meters from the tower. Building Requirements o Pieces of drinking straws o Small roll of tape 2. we dutifully participate with their activities. Concept maps are particularly useful as assessments because they can measure both factual knowledge and conceptual understanding. depending on the purpose of the assessment. The height of the tower must be at least 80 cm and its mass must not exceed 40 grams. The weight and height of the tower will be checked before the test for endurance. with labeled nodes indicating concepts and labeled lines between nodes indicating relationships among concepts. and stability in building the tallest. Written below is an example of an engineering project: Straw Tower Challenge5 Objectives The participants are expected to apply the concepts of force. It may also be useful to conduct concept mapping in cooperative groups to facilitate formative assessment by the teacher and to encourage student self-assessment.php . Concept mapping can be used as a pre-assessment.  Signal 3: Fan (set at # 1) is 1. windresistant tower.org/nscm2008_engsci.  Signal 5: Fan (set at # 3) is 1. It should not be taped to the ground.Science and Engineering Projects From the time our high school science organization becomes affiliated with the Philippine Society of Youth Science Clubs.

6 http://www. A portfolio (or a work folio) is an organized collection of a student's work that features the very best that he or she can do. Six hours a week of Physics is too short to discuss all the required competencies and deviate from the traditional mode of evaluating students. On the part of students. the following rubric from www.ncrel. It "documents conceptual understanding. Portfolio assessments may include reflective journals. Most teachers who use portfolios have students organize and display work in language arts.org/sdrs/areas/issues/content/cntareas/science/sc7port. teachers like me will find the new models of assessment time consuming and dreadful. and communication abilities". T. interests.com may be helpful but a little adjustment may be made for this rubric is used for location maps. date. scale / symbol Concept mapping in physics may be used in any topic. reasoning.To assess concept mapping.S. It may be used to summarize ideas after a topic is discussed or it may be used to review certain concepts. collections of laboratory reports or reviews of student investigations. The use of portfolios is one of the educational innovations that can help round out traditional assessment techniques.teach-nology. what are the key constraints in the use of the news assessment models on the part of teachers? on the part of students? In the Philippines where there are large classes.A. stands for title. author. and attitudes6. problem solving. Answer SAQ 7-3 (page 87)  Based on your experience as a science teacher/supervisor. But with a readymade rubric on how to score students. Their verbal ability can also be a constraint.htm . some may reject the new mode of assessment.D. Example: SCIENCE has two division NATURAL It is further divided into SOCIAL PHYSICAL SCIENCE are LIFE SCIENCE BOTANY Is either or ZOOLOGY PHYSICS Branches are CHEMISTRY OPTICS & ACOUSTICS EARTH SCIENCE THERMODYNAMICS Explains different topics like MECHANICS Has three sub-branches ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM DYNAMICS STATICS KINEMATICS HEAT ENERGY CONSERVATION OF ENERGY C. orientation. 2. More and more teachers also are considering the use of portfolios in science as one way to get a fuller picture of students' progress. These assessments may help illustrate student progress during an instructional unit or over a longer period of time. and art for inclusion in their portfolios. mathematics. Students are more comfortable with expressing themselves through writing than expressing themselves orally. using it is possible and helpful.O.

It will be time-consuming and it needs much effort to keep the class in order while doing it.net/fulltext/?doi=ajim.ac. It becomes boring when most materials are improvised and teachers have poor training in laboratory works.asp . Hence. In the Philippines. Teachers can take advantage of the benefits derived from laboratory works.materials. classrooms. inadequate facilities and equipment.2008. or when creating something that actually works8. But researchers have found science laboratories to be central to the teaching of science in secondary schools. especially in the far flung places still suffer on lack of teachers. and lack of instructional materials. our country still faces financial dilemma. Students can also be motivated to learn in the laboratory context if they can feel a spirit of excitement when investigating a scientific phenomenon.23. it is never a joke. Laboratory works then may become a big joke when teachers use it in their teaching routines. 7 8 http://scialert. Laboratories have been found to be the scientists` workshops where practical activities are conducted to enhance a meaningful learning of science concepts and theories. Refute or justify this statement in the context of science teaching and learning in Philippine schools: “Laboratory work in Physics/Biology/Chemistry is a big joke”. Among the school-related cases are the unqualified and poorly trained teachers.30 http://www. In the laboratory students can explore their understanding of the subjects being taught by placing their learning in context. thereby enhancing desired learning outcomes in students7.uk/guides/labclasses. They have also been found to be a primary vehicle for promoting formal reasoning skills and students` understanding. Many schools. many problems are overwhelming education. chairs. and textbooks.While there are so many state-ofthe-art technologies to complement physics teaching. It may be a tedious task but regularly conducting laboratory works would mean valuable time spent and meaningful learning for students.

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