# MIRCEA BECHEANU

BOGDAN ENESCU

R~M~C~
ROMANIAN MATHEMATICAL COMPETITIONS 1999

Societatea de Stiinte Matematice din Romania

SECTION 1
MIRCEA BECHEANU University of Bucharest Dept. of Mathematics Bucharest, Romania BOGDAN ENESCU National College "B.P. Hasdeu" Buzan, Romania

The 50 National Mathematical Olympiad Final round Alba Iulia, April 1999

th

ROMANIAN MATHEMATICAL COMPETITIONS 1999
©1999, Societatea de \$tiinte Matematice din Romania Toate drepturile sunt rezervate Societatii de Stiinte Matematice din Romania. Aceasta lucrare nu poate fi tradusa sau copiata, partial sau in intregime, permisiunea sensa a editorului. All rights reserved. This work may not be translated or copied in whole or in part without the written permission of the publisher.

Jara

PROPOSED PROBLEMS

Distributia se face prin: Distributed by Societatea de Stiinte Matematice din Romania Str. Academiei nr.14, 70109, Bucuresti, Romania e-mail: socmat@math.math.unibuc.ro

ISBN 973-0-00632-6 Telmoredactor: Bogdan Enescu

Tiparit la tipografia EDITURII PARALELA 45 Pitesti, str. Fratii Golesti, nr.29, 0300 tel-fax: +(40) 48-645846

7th

Form

7.1. Determine the side's lenghts of a right triangle if they are integer numbers and the product of leg's lenghts equals three times the perimeter. (***)

7.2. Let a, b, c be non zero integers, a ~C, such that . a a2+b2
::;= ---,:---::-

C
2 2 2

c2 +d2

.

Prove that a + b + c cannot be a prime number. (Stefan Smarandache)

7.3. Let ABCD be a conv:ex quadrilateral with LBAC == LCAD, LABC == LACD, (ADn(BC ={E}, (AB n (DC = {F}. Prove that: a) AB· DE = BC·CE ; 2 1 b) AC <- (AD·AF + AB·AE). 2 (Sorin Peligrad) 7.4. In the triangle ABC, let DE (BC), EE(AB), EF II BC, FE(AC), EG II AD, GE(BC) and M,N be the midpoints of (AD) and (BC), respectively. Prove that: EF + EG =1' BC AD ' b) the midpoint of [FG] lies on the line MN. a) (Eugen Jecan)

5

.Let AD be.1. (Stefan Smarandache) ~.+Xn 9. For a. Let ADnMN={P} Prove that: .. Ion Chesca) 8. (Vasile Pop.. (Romeo Ilie) 6 7 . n ~ 1999}.(a+b) = O. b)EM. 5{ 3abc.b). I. 3 AD = AB·AC·AP (Nicolae Oprea) = 2x3 - 3X2 + 2. B={l+ljpEN}. prove ~at one cannot find four points on the function's graph that are the vertices of a parallelogram. 1).b) j a.. and the sets: A={ P(n) j nEN. Assuming that XI +X2 + . b> 0. a < b. \ix.b) the positive root of the equation (a+b):? ~2(ab-l)x . Prove that x6(a. .~IR!. Prove that ABCD IS circumscriptible if and only if S[AIB] + S[CID] =S[AID]+S[BIC]. Let P(x) 9th Form 9. prove that the planes (ABP) and (SBC) are perpendicular. + Yl Y2 XI X2 Xn Yn b) Let a. Let ABCDA'B'C'D' be a right parallelepiped.. +x" 2:X1YI +X2Y2 + . \i AE(O. the minimum value oft(a. b) If the functionj ° IR!. and M the midpoint of [BC].Yl. such that LMDA == LB and LNDA == LC.h.In th~ convex quadrilateral ~B~D the bisectors of angles A and C intersect m I.1.3.3. for (a.2.4.4. Let M = { (a. (Eugen Paltanea. x~.2. and P. (S[XYZ] denotes the area of the triangle XYZ). One considers the points M..b}. ~-+-+ . a) Let a.8th Form 8. +x"Yn prove that Xl +X2 +". C={ i+2\ qEN}.l) such that x = Aa +(l~A)b. Determine. Q the projections of B' on the lines A'C' and A'C. b. respectively. has the property: j{Ax+(1~A)Y) < Aj{X)+(1-~)f(y). N on the half-lines (AB and (AC. Prove that the sets AnB and AnC have the same number of elements. (Sorin Peligrad) 8.b e IR!. b) 5' J. Prove that: a) the planes (AEF) and (B'PQ) are parallel.Yn positive real numbers. E and F the projections of A on the lines A'D.b) if and only if there exists AE(D. denote by t(a. Gavrea) 9. AM=2·S0..x2. respectively. a) Let n 2: 2 be a positive integer and X. If NE[SA] such that SA = 25·NS and SOnMN={P}. b) the triangles AEF and B'PQ are similar. the bisector of angle A of the triangle ABC. A'C.>!'b and t(a.yEll~. the center of basis ABC..·· "xn... c be positive real numbers such that ab + be +ba Prove that (Dorel Mihel:) (Romeo Ilie) 8. Let SABe be a regular pyramid.

and the roots of the equation (a +C)Z2 +(b+b)z+ (a +e) = O. Wlthj(a»O.x2.PQ·QM 2: AM·BN·CP·DQ.4. Prove that there exists eE[a b] such that the following equality holds: ' f(b)-f(a) b -a 0 < .b. Let k be a positive integer.. U2.3.+Xk 11 ~+-+ XI X . (Mihai Piticari. (BC). .2. < xnYn. . ..1.. Sorin Radulescu) 9 8 . respectively. + Yk' 'v'k E ~... . having increasing derivatives. Yn 11. zi. .+-:-::.•• . P. Uk Z2.1.+-.~.)+ .10th Form 10.. 1. a) Let .xn....such that: < .· <X2Y2 "'Yn EIR/ . 10. (Nicolae Musuroia) Z]. Let MN. (Vasile Pop) a. Prove that 10. such that an=an+Jh 'v'nE N'.. Find the real numbers X. an 1 f(x) = f(.2.2. 2Yl + 12 + .\1Yl .Zk distinct complex numbers complex numbers such that the set ' Z2 be the roots of the equation WI. +-<2. ~et j."g:. Let A be a 2x2 matrix with complex entries and =~ C(A) Show that = {BEGIt2(C) lAB = BA}. with has a finite number of elements. with deg(f) :-::. .. (Marcel Chirita) Prove that if I zII<l and Iz21<1.C. is derivable and f(x). (***) for every real number x. 11.ce.. 11. . at=O..an}c~t B.Y such that: 4. 6 10g27Y ~ log 4 X 2: 6 1 if and only if A2=O.. [det (A+B) I 2 IdetBI 'v'BEC(A) " (Dorel Mihet) (Vasile Berinde) 10.~+-+ xn Yl Y2 z 1 .Cs:. g(b)-g(a) b-a =j " (c)g'(e) (Cristinel Mortici) 111 . On the sides (AB).+27x Y 11th Form 11.. .b ~-->[R two derivable functions.4..NP.\1. i) ii) Prove that . XEB XEC Prove that ~+-+ at 1 1 az . one considers the points M. Prove thatfis a polynomial function.az. n}.. g'(a»O. The functionf:IR-->[R b) Let A={al. and U}. Prove that one can find ps: N*. N.\1 +X2 +". .YpYl.[a. . W2 a~+bz+c=O.then Iw}I=lw21=1. Q. A a set such that for every distinct subsets Lx:t= LX. (CD) and (DA) of the regular tetrahedron ABCD. ..

.f(nx):S ank. and A[X] the associated ring of polynomials. For every a> 0.2. s(G) For every a> 0. qJn{f)=fn.. Letf: IR-+IR be a monotone function and a. Moreover. Let A be a commutative ring.4. th ere IS a fin'rte group G WI Selection examinations for the 40th IMO ith -n(G) < a.and Jx fx+h f(t)dt=cx+d. n?:. For every integer n. 12.12th Form 12. c. Determine whether the following statements are true or false: a) b) . and by s(G) the number of its subgroups. XE SECTION 2 (Radu Gologan) for every Ilt and ne N*.. \J..p.to. s(G) n(G) > a. PROPOSED PROBLEMS c"* O. If G is a finite group. 2 (Marcel Tena) 10 11 . de Ilt with a :. with deg{f)=1.. Prove that there exists an unique prime number p>O such that M-{ p. with 0* 1. (Mihai Piticari) a polynomial function.3. 12. . the following equalities hold: Provethatfis I x+J3 x f(t)dt=ax+b. .oo) for which there exists Ilt and ke: N such that: j(x)f(2x) . Find an continuous functions aE f Ilt--+[l. we define <Pn:A[X]--+A[X]. having no zero divisors.. Suppose the set M={nl nE 7L. n?:.1.2. b. for every XE IR. rp" is an endomorphism of A[X]} is non-empty.p k .. there is a finite group Gwith (Barbu Berceanu) 12.2.p 3. denote by n(G) the number of its elements.

. the number S"= (2nO+l) 2 2 " +(2n2+1}22n-z . 1999 . (Gh. respectively. + n-l+x" :::. M..x". having the sum of its digits divisible by 1L b) Find the first 38 consecutive positive integers none of which having the sum of its digits divisible by 11. Alba Iulia .". Eckstein) Problem 2. Problem 1. (Gh. Let ABC be a acute triangle.+(2~:1}3" (Dorin Andrica) is the sum of two consecutive perfect squares.. a) Show that it is possible to choose one number out of any 39 consecutive positive integers. Eckstein) 13 .April 17th. Show that for all positive real numbers xpx2.• x" = 1.. which satisfy XiX2 •.. Show that for any positive integer n. Prove that there is a point K in the interior of the side Be such that the triangle KLM is equilateral if and only if LA=60°. LC meet the opposite sides in L. The (interior) bisectors of angles LB.1.First selection examination. (Romeo Hie) Problem 3. the following inequality holds: 1 n-l+xj + ]1 n-l+x2 +.3+. Problem 4.

Show that D. Find 3 real numbers such that x]=a and the greatest number of acute triangles that can be considered with n-l vertices in these points. Prove that 2n + 1 ) Xl +xz + .. Jury) (Laurentiu Panaitopol) Problem 6. An be points on a circle. April2S . n be integer numbers. and n positive integers b1.~kxk ... Find the maximum value of the area of ABC. Eckstein) +[ ::::: Show that there exists a positive integer n such that x. .. (Mihai Baluna) Problem 11. Give an example of two such progressions having at least five terms. . F are collinear if and only if OH=2R.Problem 9. (D. integers apa2. A. Let a. Determine all positive integers n for which there exists an integer a such that (39th IMO. E. Let 0. Let a be a positive real number and (x")"-"1 a sequence of Problem 13. 0 its circum center and R its circumradius.b" in geometric progression. (Laurentiu Panaitopol) Third selection examination.. Prove that the polynomial fOf. (Miliai Baluna) Problem 5. n ::::: there exist n positive 3. 1999 OA=4. C be variable points in the plane such that Second selection examination. B.. xn (n + 2)x" . B. IMO '98) Fourth selection examination. < bn < an .)=X"+aX+p cannot be represented as a product of two integer polynomials. Bucharest. +x" :::::-3-(x1 +X2 + . such that: bl < al < b2 < a2 < .. Hits orthocenter. Tereshin) Problem 8. 2 2 2 Problem 10. N be the midpoints of the arcs Be and BD which do not contain the point A. Az. ••• . (proposed problem by France. Bucharest. OB= 2J3 and OC=J2i. respectively. Prove that for any integer n. C across BC. for all n:::::l.. (Ciprian Manolescu) 14 15 . ••• . E. 0. (Gh.. and let K be the midpoint of the segment CD. CA.. May 22nd . Let D. +x" . Let M. Let n ::::: and A].bz. . > 1999! .a" in arithmetic progression. Let Xi. F be the reflections of A. May 15th. x~. 1999 Problem 7. th Bucharest. Two circles intersect in points A and B. A line I that contain~ the point A intersects again the circles in the points C... 1999 Problem 12. xn be distinct positive integers. p a prime number such that p>lal+1. Let ABC be a triangle. AB. respectively. Show that LMKN=90°.

There are native scientists who did not receive a message. Bucharest. such that IA. for every i*j.Fifth selection examination. Find whether there exist three edges in P which can be the sides of a triangle. May 23rd .. Prove that there exists a set S of native scientists such that the outer S scientists are exactly those who received messages from those foreign scientists who did not received messages from scientists belonging to S (Radu Niculescu) The 50 National Mathematical Olympiad Final round th Alba Iuli~ April 1999 three-element Problem 15. . Prove that there exists A~X with subset of A.A/ s is a (***) SOLUTIONS Problem 16. A2. Justify your answer! (Barbu Berceanu) 16 17 .i\'5:1. Let X be a finite set with n elements and AI.:: l\$J. 1999 Problem 14.• Am be subsets of X.nA.. such that none of the .. The participants to an international conference are native and foreign scientists. Each native scientist sends a message to a foreign scientist and each foreign scientist sends a message to a native scientist. IAI:. A polyhedron P is given in the space.

b.(17.9. such that a C =--::---::- a2 +b2 . d+b2+C~3. (15. c c +d Since a#C. c2 +d2 Prove that a2 + b 2 + c2 cannot be a prime number. (Stefan Smarandache) a = a: + b: is equivalent to (a--c)(b2----ac)=O.12. it follows that b2=ac and therefore: a2+b2+c2= a2+ae+c2= a2+2ac+c2-b2= (a+ci-b2= (a+c-b)(a+c+b).8).12). Determine the side's lenghts of a right triangle if they are integer numbers and the product of leg's lenghts equals three times the perimeter. and be = 3( a+b+c).24. We have then: b2+c?=b2+c2+2be-12b-12e+36 <=> bc-6b-6e+l8=O <=> <=> (b-6)(e-6)=18.9)} 7. It follows that d-= p2+a2-2aP-6P. The equality 19 . We have if =b2+e2.24).(25. b. (***) Solution.15. Analyzing the ways in which 18 can be written as a product of integers. clearly. 7. Let a. c be the lenghts oftriangle's sides.8)5).7th Form 7. e) E {(25. then only four cases are possible: Solution.b. so P=2a+6. a=b+c-6. c be non zero integers. Now.2. Let P=a+b+c. Let a. 7).1. that is.(17. (15. if a2+b2+c2 is a prime number. we find the following solutions of the problem: (a. a !Fe. Then bc=3P and b2+c2=(b+c)2-2be=(P----al-6P=P2+a2-2aP-6P. so.

1999}. E and F the pro~ect~ons of ~ on the. if n E H and k ::.!... In the second case..8th Form S.1.1 b2 2' + xzYz +.J. c 8. AnB and AnC both have 33 elements. +X2 + .. hence from the inequality a above we derive contradiction..J+X{Y2+ . X3=a . Assuming that Xl + x2 +. }u {p(0)}. Prove that: 23 . abc' 1 Y 1 = -a2' y 2 = .31 P(n)EC. Arc.. either n=O or 2n-3 is an odd square.. we can fmdpE~ such that (n-l)2(2n+l)+1::c p2 +1. Ion Chesca) . +x" >-+-+ YI Y2 Since Xl X2 A={ P(n) I nE~.. abc a+b+c 3 so that a+b+c?: I11 -+-+abc XI=a ... + x2 +. +X" --+-+ +X .Yn positive real numbers. respectively. +Yi Yz Yn b) Let a. if nE Nand x...?: 2..2. Prove that 22 ?:!+. 3 >1 1 -+-+abc l' (the AM-HM inequality) 9 8. n s. and P.1 y 3 -.. Observe that P(x) (Eugen Paltanea. +X" ?:X1Yl +XzYz + . + xnY n 'N" we can use a) taking ow.) > 2(X..k::.. that Xi +X2 + . On the other }u {P(1)}.. + xn ?: XIYI prove that < Xl X2 Xn X1 Z + . which is a 3. and the sets: Solution. Prove that the sets AIlB and AIlC have the same number of elements.. Let P(x) (Romeo Hie) = 2x 3 - 3X2 + 2 .....+x. lines A'D. .·· . 1 It is known that if a > 0. a) Suppose. which leads to An C = {Pen) I n = 2k2 + 2k + 2...3: L~ ABCDA'B'C'Dr be a right parallelepiped. O::. then a + . 2(Xl + x2 + .»X{YI+ . = b) If ab + be +ba ~ 3abc then ~+!+!::. + xn)..!. there exists ke ~ such that (2n+ 1)=(2k+ 1 hence But since we derive that An B = {p(n) I n = 2e + 2k.(Yn+ P(n)EB. + x. a) Let n ?: 2 be a positive integer and XI'Yl'XZ'Yz.J+ .+. Clearly. 31 On the other hand. Xl (2x - 3) + 2 so. so.. hand. x-=b -. +x"Y" by adding these inequalities we obtain 2(X1+XZ+". P(x) i n= 2~ + 2k.0::. c={ q2+21 qE~}. Solution.. b. by way of contradiction. The conclusion is obvious. B={l+llpE~}. which shows that either n= 1 or 2n+ 1 is an odd square. +~ Y" X = (x - If(2x + 1) + 1. +X.x". Q the projections of B on the lines A'C' and A'C.. c be positive real numbers such that ab + be +ba ~ 3abc.

hence AD2=AN. If NE[SA] such that SA = 25·NS and SOnMN={P}. 0 the center of basis ABC. the minimum value of {(a. A Solution. ~:= 9. A'C In the plane (A'DC) we have EF L A'C and B'Q L A'C.Now: 3 SO 15 !_SO SP SP 9 --=--. it follows that SO SA the triangles NSP and OSA are similar. In a similar way we deduce that AFIIPQ.2.l SA and SO L AM..4. (Stefan Smarandache) Solution.L SM and BC .ere:~ivc. prove that the planes (ABP) and (SBC) are perpendicular.(a+b) = O.b) I a seb and t(a. b) Clearly. LEFA = LPQB' (the sides of the angles are parallel).======:=----. (Nicolae Oprea) SoC.c) the planes (AEF) and (B'PQ) are parallel. Let SABC be a regular pyramid.1. Since -r-r: ' 25 SA Consequently -=9 ' SO . On the other hand.b).b)EM. .. AP . a) Observe that AE . Finally. The conclusion is obvious. the triangles AEF and B'PQ are right triangles. and M the midpoint of [BC]. 9th Form (Sorin Peligrad) 9.e the sue at LMDA == LB and LNDA = LC Let A Prove that: . for (a.AC. N on the half-lines (AB and (A~. Let M = { (a. Determine.JSO 2 + AO 2 ~SO 2 + 16 SO 2 9 We obtain that 1 15 SP and since LNSP = LOSA. hence the planes (AEF) and (B'PQ) are parallel. DnMN={P}. Y. For a. But MN .r. b) . b) the positive root of the equation P(x)=(a+b)x? -2(ab-l)x . AM=2·S0.l.Let AD be the bisector of angle A of the trian 1 conhslthders points M.L AP imply that the planes (ABP) and (SBC) are perpendicular.hence SO 3 5 SN 1 and _=-.5'.l(A'DC) and EF .ution. denote by t(a. r~m the hypothesis it follows that the triangles AND ~ d an A D are similar. hence P is the orthocenter of the triangle SAM. (Dorel Mihet) 25 24 . AD3 = AB·AC·AP. AM SO := 2 it follows that AO 4 _=-.b > 0. S.b}.==========:=SA . d) the triangles AEF and B'PQ are similar. so it follows that EFUB'Q.

2. Find the real numbers x. it results: MN2 = MB2+ BN2-MB-BN:2: MB-BN.. two inequalities that x-. +XC=XB+XO +(2-1-1)xc=XA = x > ~. = 0. a < b. b) Suppose there exists a parallelogram vertices on the function's graph. Similarly. b) If the fimctionj X eta. By the cosine law in the triangle MEN.!. Then XA +j{xc) = j(XB) + j{xo). b) if and only ifthere exists 10th Form 10. Prove that 1E(O. We will prove that there are no other solutions. a) Let A. respectively. (BC).l) such relations. 10. Q.)xc Then x. P. I < -6 ' which contradicts the second relation. and j{xo) < AJ{xA) hencej{xB) +j{xo)< (1+1'}f{XA) +(2-1-1 is a contradiction. such that x = An +(l-1)b. Prove that MN·NP·PQ·QM ~ AM-BN-CP·DQ. we can fmd AE(O. with from the first relation we deduce that Y < lead to log 27 Y -log4 X Suppose XA < XB < Xo < xc· Since XBE( XA . a) Let a. MQ2?AQ·AM. (Romeo Hie) Solution. Suppose there exists another solution. On the sides (AB).b e iR!. VX.l) if and only if'xeta. b). xc). These 3 XB +XD= (l+A')xA xc)(l. = b -x and it (Vasile Berinde) Solution.and the 'f I I )j(xc) = j(XA) + +j(xc).A. Then A. It follows that 1+1' L On the other +(1-1 )f{xc). Then.CP..YEiR!.:c+(J-1)y) < 1j(x)+ (1-12f{y). prove that one cannot find four points on the function's graph that are the vertices of a parallelogram. one considers the points M. =AXA +(i-1)xc. PQ2? DP·DQ.-0iR!.9. \f 1E(O. j{XB) < N(XA) +(J-A}f{Xc) + Xc. First. N. Analog ous 1y.-1) hand. which 2 3 third relation is not verified. andj{xA) + and A'E(O.l). we obtain: NP2:2: CN. 28 29 . observe that x b-a is easy to see that AE(O. such that XB = = 21 andy =-3 verify the three required 1 ABCD having all + Xc = XB + XD. (CD) and (DA) of the regular tetrahedron ABCD. 1 we suppose th a t x < -. as the property: h j{A.y such that: 4-x +27-Y = ~ 6 iR!.. (Nicolae Musuroia) Solution.EiR!. x.l) such that x = Aa +(1-1)b.l).1. AKA +(l-A. hence (x A - becomes .4.ry. then Y >.

n-l..d - S11DI 1 WI . E. and Now. ~+-+· . 10. 1 w2 +(b+b)::::-+(a+c)=o 1 WI which means that ~1 is also a root ofth WI e secon d equatIon.+(X/r_Yk) have I zlzz 1== B== 1. WI /w 1I-I an.3.icO. otherwise I a I=l c 1=1C I.-+-+ . Let Z].. and since WI i= (a+c)w1 +(b 0.. Prove that if I zll<l and I z21<1. MN2·Np2·PQ2. a:. contradicts By multiplying these inequalities we obtain: On the other hand. . .. . which laj WI contradicts the hypothesis.3" Ci'l a set such that for di .and by direct computation one can show that thi lS . 7= Prove that every millet subsets x + . It foHows that: 31 30 . Z2 _!_+_l with be the roots of the equation WI. (this equality results by applying Menelau's theorem in the triangles ABC with ths secant M-N-T and ACD with the secant Q-P-T). =- XkYk . XEC XEB Solution. and W2 the roots of the equation (a + C)Z2 +(b +b)z +(a +c) = O.. we have: the hypothesis.b.. hence: (a +c)w. 1 If /= 1 ~' then = W 2 . a. (Marcel Chirija) Observe that a + Xl 2 XI] Yl Y2 Y I] b) Let A={a a } ].. 1 Zk 1 1 I hence we a) Let Sk=(X1-Yl)+(X2-Yz)+".MQ2 2 MB·BN·CP·CN·DP·DQ·AQ·AM AM·BN·CP·DQ ""BM·CN·DP·AQ. +-::.+-<2 al az all (***) Solution.. is a root of the second equation. then IWll""lw21""1.ic 0. c :. +(b +b)w) +(0 +c)= O. for every k =1. then we have S > 0 d kan Zk-Zk+l > 0.cECC.. 2.. '1 arly ' )w 2. + J. W 2-- .It follows that: A . 2. It follows that: MN·NP·PQ·QM 2 AM·BN·CP·DQ. we obtain: ( a+c -) I 2 +b)Wl +(a+c)=o.. . Cs A. B Now if ' WI = _1 then .I~ 1 I 1 1 LX LX. a/+bz+c=O.

.. If B is not invertible.. It follows that the polynomial Q(x)= det( xA+B) is nonzero for every complex x.+ Y n X2Y2 - Xn XIY] X"Yn = -SI (z. which means det( A +B)= det B. . Since we can perform such a partition in 2k ways..zn) .. . . for each n :?:L We have 32 33 . Az are zero. b) We can assume. .. the sum of the elements of the first subset is different from the sum of the elements of the second one.-= Yn 1 1 xn 1 1 Y2 . assuming that A2=O. one can fmd a sequence of real numbers (X )n8.(S" . +---= y" 11th Form = 11. and 1. such that del( xJ2+B) then I1 ¢ 0.. .-+-+ . - = -SIZI . =Yk...2.az. it follows that k al+a2+ ~ 2 -1. Let Al and Az be the roots of the polynomial P(A)=det(A-Alz} Then we have (A-Alh)(A-AzI2}=0. If B is invertible. n. hence 11 111 1 1 -+-+"'+-<-+-+"'+-1 =2~-1 <2. i=I.x2 + ..··. with no loss of generality that 0<al<a2< .a. -----+ X1 1 1 1 1 1 =---+---+ X1 Yl x2 Xz 1 1 x" 1 YI Y2 .Sn-l (zn_l . Let A be a lxl matrix with complex entries and = YI - Xl + Y2 ... This implies that x. (Dorel MiheJ) i two Solution. 'r. with xn--»O. But then Q(O)=Q(l).ad into subsets...2n 1. with equality if Sk = 0.S])Z2 . Since -Ad2 and -Az12 belong to C(A)..2. n .S2(Z2 .2..1.Z3) . Clearly.Sn_l)zn = Show that C(A) = {BE 0Iti«() lAB = BA }.. we will prove the equality det(A +B)=det(B). for every BE C(A). if and only if A2=0.. . . it follows thatA2=0. Z2) .. from the hypothesis it follows that for any partition of the set {a1. It is easy to check that the conditions (i) and (ii) are fulfilled.. n.+ak We now apply the property a) for the numbers a1. .. whence it is constant. 0.. . n al «. Now. V k =1.22... it follows that · that I 0=1 det (A-AJ2) I ~ lAo 1 is AI and 2 . . \j k =1.Snzn ::.j k =1... an 1 2 22"- [det (A+B)I:?: IdetBl. <an.2. .. .2. \fBEC(A)..az.. + Conversely..(S2 . then for every 0* det(-B2)= del(~A2-B2)= XE <[ we have: det( xA+B) det(xA-B).

ftx:)g{x) Therefore the It is function F:[a. Cz E(a. 1"1 .-z):..xk .f(a) b-a Solution.2. We obtain: = f'(C1) whence U1z'(Z( -1) +u2zi(zf u1ztl(Z( -1) +uzztl(zf -1) + . zi.. +ukz%(z[ -1) =0 =0 and g(b) -g(a) b-a they = g'(cz) . such that an=an+p. qe: N such that aq=ap+q. points Ct..b]-+lffi. 11.for each n ~1.f(a) b-a. 11. with deg(f) s.. . we obtain det( A +B)= det B.z.Zl.g:[a. is continuous. considering all sequences of k consecutive eventually Solution. It = 1. are continuous. ' distinct complex numbers.. Prove that there exists cE[a. one can find p. Sorin Radulescu) 34 35 .=1 k. having increasing {an := UtZ: +U2Z. aq+l=ap+q+t.b]_"'R. ._".3. .?.lffi. withf(a»O. 2. U2. Z2. Using Lagrange's theorem..4. and us.. TI(z.u. and. ~z'( llt4_q+l q+k-1 = z[ Uzzi Uzzil -1 as unknowns. . an=an+p..O. it follows that terms of (an).b) Considering the above equalities as a linear homogenous system with Xi = z( -1.. complex numbers such that the set for every positive integer n. +UkZ_tI(Z[ -1) The functions f' and g' are increasing and have the intermediate values property (Darboux).. for every i=l.. Let k be a positive integer. F(x)=ftCI)gtC2)such that F(c) =0. its determinant is 11.. . g'(a»O.. In E ~f} 'linE ~I* has a finite number of elements. = TIu. so there exists a point cE(a.. that is. derivatives. . lltZ:t Uzzik-I U!?i+k-l (Mihai Piticari. -1) + ..Ukz. hence the system has only the trivial solution follows that z! Xl= Xz= '" = h"'O.b] such . Prove that f is a polynomial function. k. f'(x) . aq+k-l=ap+q+lc-I. +.t:O bj<i\$k for every real number x. . g(b) . 1. . we obtain the existence of the feb) . Since an takes a finite number of values. Prove that one can find pE ~ * . .g(a) :::f'(c)g'(c) b=a (Cristinel Mortici) that the following equality holds: (Vasile Pop) feb) .b) such that: two of these sequences coincide. two derivable functions. easy to check that F(a)~O and F(b)s. The functionf:lffi.is derivable and f(x) uA U ~k q+t = f(~)+.. and letting n_"'oo.. Let f. consequently.

for every x < 0. I Ilt-)[l. so ftx) = ftO). v nE v a> 1"1 • The left-hand sum is a Riemann sum for the function log f on the interval [0. The condition equivalently: n Therefore to=O.oo) for which there exists . j=l log a + klogn. In a similar way we can prove that f{x)=l. a polynomial function and deg{f) ::S. 2)ogf(jx)::s.. Find all continuous functions aE Ilt and kE f. Vx<O. a]. which is a contradiction (cEM and c<to).. Since f' is if we take a sequence (tn)n~l with tn-)to. M is bounded from below. if n-sco. which means that [oEM. Now. we get: Jlog f(x)dx a =0. it follows thatfis f{x)j(2x) . that to> O. taking a> 0 and x = a/n.:::O. Solution. \lXE and. on the other hand ftx)= fttn). it and. f(nx) :5: ank can be written Ilt .1* n n' < aloga+kalogn n . a]. whence follows that fVn)-)ftto) 12th Form 12. to) such thatftc)= ftto) =ftx).. I t ~o andftt)=ftx)}. Since f is continuous.Solution.IOga+klogn. Vx. Suppose. we obtain ftx)= fro). (Radu Gologan) Ilt and ne f. by way of contradiction. Clearly. we get (from Lagrange's theorem) the existence of a point cE(tol2. But then. so it follows that log f{x)=O.. hence. for every x > O.V ne f. Vx. Analogously. 36 37 . so let to=inf M. 1.f(to 12) ::::'(f ) f fo 12 0. we obtain : ~lOgf(-': ~a -log f(/a) ~ j=1 )::S. since f' is a constant function.1. We want to prove that (0=0. We fix x > 0 and we defme the set M={t obviously continuous.::J*. o But a > 0 was arbitrarily chosen. or 1>. wOw ..::J such that: f{x)j(2x) for every XE ftx)= ftfo) . since f(to) .::J*.f(nx) :5:ant. it is integrable on [0. that isf{x)=l.:::O.

..w}.hex) + g1(X)- 'dXE!R!. We can find two polynomial functions of second degree that.. hence n(lLp)/s(7Lp)=p/2. hence also has the period are both constant. jx+J2 x f(t)dt=cx+d. then clearly G'xH' is a subgroup of GxH. The set of such points is dense in IR!. they must be equal. Let A be a commutative ring. neG) > a.)oA[X]. with 0*1.. we define lPn:A[X]--.(x) .p. th ere IS a fin'rte group G·th WI . for every positive a we can find a prime number p such that p > 2a. s Indeed.j{x)=2mx+n. the group having the following table: 0 Let us consider the function F:IR!. {e. for some CE IR!. J2. It is easy to derive from here that gl and g2 This group has 5 subgroups: {e}. It follows that gl(X)= g2(X)+C.2. which ends the proof. xK (n times).4.<X+J2)functions.2. c. From these equalities we can derive that the functions gi =F-fi. Determine whether the following statements are true or false: . we have: We obtained that F(x) n(Kn) :s (n(K»)n = (~Jn s(Kn) s(K) 5 It is known that the function F is derivable in each point x in which f is continuous. the group (1. Letf:Iffi. Clearly.F(x) = J f(t)dt x .. for every XE IR!.and that f is a polynomial function. Moreover.v}. h -h must be constant. n. it is easy to see that s(GxH) . e u v w e e U U U v v e W v w e U w w v U J3 and.amonotone be C * 0.v. and by s(G) the number of its subgroups. i=1.. hence gl w v e {e.t.. s(G) Solution.(x) =ax+bandh.. {e. let's consider the group of Klein K. b) Observe that if p is a prime number. For every integer n.\fXEIre.12. It follows that j. c) . for some m. Denoting by K"=KxKx . on the other hand . ((being monotone) and . if G' and H' are subgroups of G and H. with periods g2(X) fi and h such . the following equality holds: Prove ~- Jx f(t)dt=ax+b. (Barbu Berceanu) Solution. respectively. with a *0.u. that is. n22. p e IR!.\fxE!R!.J3)are periodical J.w}. and A[X] the associated ring of polynomials. o Then Fverifies: F(x+ fj) -F(x) = ax+b and F(x+J2)-F(x) =cx+d h(x)=cx+d . . Now.)oIR!. they are bounded. +) has only two subgroups: {O} and itself. denote by neG) the number of its elements. and since (~r --. Both statements are true: a) IfG and H are finite groups. d) For every a> 0.)0 0. having no zero divisors. we are done. rx+~ function and G. For every a > 0. dEIR!.::: (G)-s(H). 12.--. In condusion. lPn(f)=fn. {e. If G is a finite group. if two monotone functions coincide on a dense subset of IR!. s(G) 12. IR!.(x+..J2. = 0.. 'dXE = mx: + nx+ p . (Mihai Piticari) with deg(t)= 1.3. respectively. and that in these points we have Ftx)=2mx+n =j(x).. But since gl and g2 are continuous and periodical.--. there IS a finite group Gwith WI neG) < a. b.)o1R!. Suppose the set 39 38 .u}.

(f)!Pn(g). We have !p. We prove that p is a prime. }.: ~:~ :~. . Conversely. so (f+g) "= f"+gn.. with s ? 1. Let p be minimal element of this set. . V f. Since M is nonempty.. .j f. We prove now that M={ p. p3.. 2. n"22. n. p2. we obtain 1)"=X"+ 1. it is easy to see that if kElL.. .)xn-2 +'''+(n~2)X +(n~I}I=O. Hence the set of integers k "22 for which k ·1 =0 is also nonempty.pk. . gEA[X].(fg) = !P. gEA[X]..j f. Furthermore.)x nJ - + (. there is a n for which this holds. take n = r'. Let nEM. Takingf= X and g = 1..L It is known that in this case n = pS. The unicity of p is obvious. Indeed. Prove that there exists an unique prime number p>O such that M={ p. This shows that !P" is an endomorphism of the ring A[X] if and only if rpll (f+g) == rpll(j)+ rp.]i. \. we obtain (Z"-2) ·1=0. . rp" is an endomorphism of A[X]} is non-empty. gEA[X]. /. (Marcel lena) Solution.. or. that is The selection examinations for the 40th IMO SOLUTIONS (X+ (.. . for some integer s.M={nl nElL.. }. It follows that (~) = 0 (mod p). 2.... Note. We have again (~) = o (modp) for k =1.. }{ 40 n~ 1)J = t i.. equivalently. . k ·1=0 if and only if k =0 (mod p). \. We used in the proof the following well-known result: gcd((~}( . Then we have (j+g) "= f"+g".. \. (f+g) n = fIJ+g n. . with 1< a < p and 1< b < p then it follows that (a·l)(b·l)=O. gEA[X]./. hence a·l=O or b·l=O (since A has no zero divisors) and this contradicts the choice of p. V f.:stinctprime divisors 41 .(g).jk = 1.. Taking f =g = 1. if p=ab. n-l.

then In the following l Oxl O matrix. 1234 1234 5 23456 34567 45678 56789 6 7 8 9 10 7 8910012 89100123 9 10 0 1 2 0 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 6 789 7 8 9 10 8 9 10 0 9 10 0 1 10 0 1 2 _. the entries are the values of r(n) . .. (Gh. n+ 38. b s. 1999 Problem 1. . Let's consider the numbers n. 0:-:. If xy is a number obtained by writing s(:ZY)=s(x)+s(y). Eckstein) Solution. a) Show that it is possible to choose one number out of any 39 consecutive positive integers. having the sum of its digits divisible by 11. b) Find the first 38 consecutive positive integers none of which having the sum of its digits divisible by 11. n+ 1.First selection examination. together the natural numbers x and y. We have two possible cases: 43 . a.. 9. April 17th. Alba Iulia .J 1234 345 456 34567 We notice that the reunion of any consecutive rows contains all remainders modulo 11. for n=10a+b. a) Denote by s(n) the sum of the digits of the natural number n and by r(n) the remainder of s(n) modulo 11. n+2. 0 1 2 .

we have LAML+LALM+LA=180°. suppose LA=60°. So.. The remainders r(b). Since r(lOOm+a)=r(m)+r(a).. If k < 20. 99982. For this. hence m-l=9999 and the numbers are: 999981. . .. n+l. r(b+38) cover entirely two consecutive rows...Since BL is the bisector of LB. the remainders r(lOO-k).. and. with r(z)=9 and r(z+ 1)=1 and z= 1Ow+9. r(1). . n+k= 100m.. This is possible only if m-l=10x+9. 100(m-I)+ lOO-k+ 1. IOOm+l. hence LALM=LBKM or LALM+ LBKM= 1800. r(lOO-k+l). ..that is n=100m+b... . . Since r(81). LC meet the opposite sides in L.. 100m+l.a S.. . r(b+l). Conversely.Case 1. We derive that LA=LMKL=60° .61.. The least w with such property is. then 39-k 2: 20. we see that we must have r(m-1)=3 and r(m)=l. we have LALM=LBKM. . (19 numbers) followed by 100m. so we can choose one such that r(m-I)+r(lOO-k+i) is divisible by II. it follows that BL is the perpendicular bisector of MK. 100m+38-k (39-knumbers). with r(x)=5 and r(x+1)=1. . we can choose a such that r(m)+r(a)E{O. M. AI bisects LA and a short computation shows that 45 44 .. . then either LOPM=LOQM. . On the other hand. In the triangle AML. for instance. X X o 0 Returning to the problem. . Let ABC be a acute triangle. 39 can Solution. QEOY such that MP=MQ. If k ~ 20. and we apply the same argument for the second part of the list. 100m+18 (19 numbers). Let KE(BC) such that MKlBL.. with r(y)=7 and r(v+1)=1. we must have y= lOz+9.Analogously. the matrix. n+38 is divisible by 100. . 100(m-l)+99. Then we have in our list the following numbers: 100(m-I)+ 100-k. with Os. . it follows that the quadrilateral MKCL is cyclic.. so LM=LK Denote by I the intersection point of BL and eM.. Let us first notice that if M is a point on the bisector of the angle XOY and PEOX. r(82)... r(99) cover all remainders except 8 and r(O). r(18) cover all remainders except 10.Then M lies on the bisector of A LACB and ML=MK. 100(m-l)+82.. in this case. x=1Oy+9.1000018. b) Any 38 consecutive numbers with the requested property have the form: 100(m-l)+81. obviously w=0. . respectively. . Case 2.99. n+2. let's suppose such a point K exists .. (Romeo Ilie) which is a contradiction since the triangle ABC is acute. Prove that there is a point K in the interior of the side BC such that the triangle KLM is equilateral if and only if LA=60°. . 100(m-l)+99 (knumbers) 100m. r(99) cover the last two rows of. in a similar way. be replaced with 29). One of the numbers n. All numbers are of the form 100m+a. or LOPM+LOQM=180° (see figure below). so LC=180o-LKML=1200. . But in the last case. Problem 2. LBKM+LLKC+LMKL=180°. Suppose.b s.. LLKC=LLMA. Clearly.ll} (in fact. with r(w)=O and r(w+l)o:"l. The (interior) bisectors of angles LB. . with Os.

2.... the number s.. the assertion is true.... Let us denote a. E]=2.. (Dorin Andrica) Solution: It is easy to see that: Sn = :l(2+~t+l :s.n. the inequality becomes (1) P'(n-I):S. " x" ) the fundamental symmetnc polynomials in x.-1 .LMIL= 120°. The discriminant of this equation is . Show that for any positive integer n...xn X1'X2'·· .. The property now follows by induction. = (2no+l}22n + (2n2+ 22n-2 1}3n I} . we obtain: 47 ._lx + an' Clearly.. Let us denote Em=(l+. For ErF2. Em is an integer. Problem 4. = (x + X.)(x + X2)"'(X+ x.-I + aMI _1 11-1 + .-1 n n1 k=l Ia.1=4(2S.-I). +al... . after usual computations. k=l 11-1 + . + :S. Therefore. hence the quadrilateral AMIL is cyclic...._l(n -I) +a" After reducing similar terms..-1 n-I al + ....3+. . the following inequality holds: Problem 3. Show that for all positive real numbers which satisfy :l:ih .-l + (n -1)a1x. +a .+ak.xn' = 1. .. the numbers Em satisfy the relation: Em=2Em-l+ 2Em-2. equivalently. and.. for k=1.J3T m Then. so we have LKML=60°. Eckstein) = a. Then Li\flJ=LMAI=30°..-1 • + . ..-3 + .... . We shall prove that 2[ divides Em..+a.-l k=1 " 1 After solving the equation. Then ala2 . s (n -1)" +a1(n-W-1 +a2(n _1)"-2 + ... n .....=O.._l :s. .._1 ak+1 al . Moreover.. P (n-l).-1 + +a... It follows that KLM is an isosceles triangle... E2=8..l.. 2_kl-2k+ I-S. an=l and is the sum of two consecutive perfect squares.-I + +a...). which are also the coefficients of P: P(x ) =X n +a1x .1+ XI . n .. X" . = S. " 1 - (n-l)La. Let P(x) be the polynomial P(x) 2"+1+(1+J3t+ + (1_J3yn+1 +(I-J3T. +ann-1 n LI~((1+ F3t'2+ F3t' J 1 =_1_~ a] n -1 L..-2 + +a"_l and the inequality (I) becomes: n(n-I)"-1 +a1(n _1)"-1+a2(n- 2)(n _1).I-~---~-::----= k~l n 1 The required property says: there exists k > 0 such that S. we obtain (n -1)a tl n-I+----~--~--~------~ .=(k-li+_kl. we find that k= 2. (x] . it is sufficient to prove that k is an integer number. +a. where is a positive integer.+(2~: +(2-~t+IJ.1+ x2 n -1 + x" Solution: Let us note we have: Xk (Gh.....+2 Alternative solution. having a 60° angle. hence it is equilateral. 46 T] Hence P'(x) = nx.. or.-1 + . 1 1 ___ 1 + +..

. .. after canceling similar terms..3)a"_3 + (n .. Xn.=Ofor k= 1. )+ . that is: (3) (n-l)"-I = (n-l)"-3(~ )+2(n-l)"-4(. +xJ . April 25m. (Laurentiu Panaitopol) Solution.2.. 1999 When Xl = Xz =... . 48 49 .. We may suppose xJ< xz< . then we get an equality..2. Since Xk:+l-Xk ~l. Let x..• . a3 ~ ( . X" be distinct positive integers._1+a" Second selection examination. Then 1::s: 2::S:X2. Otherwise.. . Let Xl' Xz. . Prove that 2 2 2 2n+1 Xl +X2 + .... so the right-hand side of (2) is greater than the right-hand side of (3). . +X" ~-3-(XI +X2 + .n.... Xl.n.=k+ak. ...(2) (n-W-1 ::s:(n-W-3aZ +2(n-ly-4a3 + ... Bucharest.).. .+ + (n -l)(n . Thus. +(n -2{: -1)+(:) Pro blem 5. Using AM-GM inequalities.. .2)a. for k=1..= x.. n" n 3Ia. < Xn. the inequality is verified and the equality holds if and only if the given numbers are 1. we obtain the equivalent inequality n n 32>: "~1 +6Ikak k~1 +32)2 k~l n n n ~(2n+l)Ik+(2n+l)I:ak' k=l k=1 and.2.. •. we have: az ~ ( ~). ~ 1 we have equality in the inequality above and also in the given inequality. The given inequality can be rewritten as follows: " 3:2)k+ak k~l Y n n k~l ~(2n+l)Ik+(2n+lYIak' k=1 If a.. it follows that ak+l~ as.n. ns. k=1 +6Ikak k=l ~(2n+l)Iak' k=1 Using Tchesyshef's inequality we have: hence 3I:a: "n k=l n +6Ika" k=1 > (2n+l):2>k k=1 .

. 0 lies on the Xl < X2 < . respectively. there exist n positive integers apaz. .B' and C' 2x+k+I>-. . By Simson's theorem.b)n geometric progression. 2 2 2 . such that: b. h(E)=E'.. remark that ftl. <a] <b2 <az < .+ (x+k+ll. The second step B"C".. .. A"B". AB. + . CA. over the set of ordered systems of positive integers 0 < Xl < . circumcircle if and only if OH=2R. . Let G be the centroid of the triangle ABC. respectively.. B.n)= .. C across Be..x+n) > f(x. n ~ 3.b2.. Then G is the centroid and H is the circumcenter The given problem consists in proving that the lower bound of of the triangle A"B"C". (Mihai Baluna) +k) < f(X}. A". . .xp'x"". -»... C. IMO '98) Solution. We conclude that h(D)=D' and. C"A" and The proof is obvious.2 + . . where x-xp22. E' and F' denote the projections of 0 the function on the lines B"C". and n positive integers b[.2. b be positive real numbers and k be a positive integer.. C"A" and A"B". E' and F' are 3 collinear. B'....the required result follows. x+n. similarly... F be the reflections of A.x +1)..+ xp +(x+ I) + . Band C.. . 0 its circumcenter and R its circumradius. respectively.. C. +(x+k It follows that f(xl. is Note that A'D'j_BC which implies AD:A'D'=2:1=GA:GA' and (2n + I) LDAG=LD'A'G. .x+ 1. h(F)=F'. and N. 1).. a if and only if b=x. be the midpoints of BC.. E..x+ 1. A. respectively. .. x+2. E' and F' are the projections of 0 on the sides (2n + I) First.Xl + X2 + .Xn ) Xl +X2 +........ Show that D. We shall use the following: Lemma: Let a. respectively.an in arithmetic progression..x +2.. E and F are collinear ifand only ifD'. <an' Give an example of two such progressions having at least five terms. Since the circumradius of A"B"C" is 2R. respectively. (proposed problem by France. Now. D'. Fare collinear if and only if OH=2R. . ••• ... we obtain: f(x+l. E... D. Let D'. . equal to . Prove that for any integer n. Problem 7. CA and AB.+ Xn Consider the homothety h with· center G and ratio -112. B. C"A" and A"B".. < xk+k+I. . Let D.. they are ~ 3 collinear if and only if 0 lies on the circumcircle of the triangle consists in applying the lemma for an ordered system of the form A"B"C". Then Problem 6. Let A"B"C" be the b triangle for which A. and taking a= X..x+k+ By induction it follows that the lower bound is realized on a sequence of the form x+l.xp. Applying once again the lemma.+ x! +(x+ 1)2 + . Let ABC be a triangle.+Xn maps A.n)= (2n +1) 3 .. <xp<x+1 < .. B" and C" into A'..x+n-l) From ftl. Band C are the midpoints of B"C". Hits orthocenter. 50 51 . . < Xn. It f( XPX2"".Alternative solution.2. Thus..

A. (Ciprian Manolescu) Solution. Solution. Show that there exists a positive integer n such that x... + 2! 3[ k! 1·2 2·3 which holds for k 2:2._l > .. a+r . sufficiently large n. S2) > 3r > t (t 2 S2)..!. -b3=t _S2?. a+2r. Ifwe define A" 1 III . it follows that: > (n + l)xn+l + 2Ikxk k=l . we deduce n t xn+l > Lkxk k=l >nx".+-+ k m [1 2! n(n-l) n(n-l)(n-2) + m 31 m2 1 + n(n-l)(n-2) 31m3 + +..+-'-. Taking s =2.J3 and OC=Jfi .Jfi and MN.•• k! I n(n-l). > 1 and a .... it is sufficient to multiply by m" and then define ak=m"Ak.. the xn+2 definition gives n X2 2:3Xl > X]. let S4. It follows 3s2 > t2 2:(s + 1)2.we obtain the progressions: 16<17<24<34<36<51<54<68<81<85.<An. k k we shall prove the corresponding formula for 2:(n + 3)xn+1 .. k-1 III +---=1--<1.a =r = 17. k kl m 2!m 2 klmk Observe Third selection examination. OB= of ABC. Taking into account the formulas for Bs.J3... it follows: B" <1+~+(J_+_!_+. t =3.> n!a.(n-k+I)] mk-t = .+--=1--+---+ (k-l)k 22 3 .. a+4r be the arithmetic progression. HQ=. Obviously. Solution.Ikxk k=l n n = (n + l)xn+1 + 2xn+l n Itt" > k=1 n+l n = 1+ k + ."Lkxk = (n + I)xn+l + "Lkxk k=] k=l = "Lkxk· k=l B1<A1 <B2<A2 <..+_!_)_!_<1+ k+l. k n(n-l) B k: <I +-+ m 21m2 -1 . + +. We will prove by induction that Ifwe take m > n2. s\ S2?. properties: 2.. 1999 Problem 8. Let a be a positive real number and (Xn)n.::1+-+ k(k -1)+... HN=4. we have n!a > 1999! Problem = a2 - a1 < b3 2 - - bl = s2t2 4 - S4 9. B.>1 a sequence of real numbers such that Xl=a and that Bk > 1 + -. <B. Suppose Xn+2: X"+l > 2)xk and k=l n 11 III -+-+ ... 53 52 . >1999!. MP.(n-k+l) klmk n(n-l) . Note that r and hence 3s S 2 «(2 - By induction: xn+l > nx" > n(n -1)X. m 2! 3! k! m m The last inequality is a consequence of the condition m > n2 and the well-known inequality: For n=I. 1 \$ k m 1 \$n. -\$-+-+.. st3. for k T \$ n. . for all ne 1.1 m xn+! 2:(n + 2)xn - I kx n-1 k. May rs". We look for a tetrahedron H=prNPQM. Bucharest. hen. s a+3r. Let 0. In the case n=5. for progression of positive integers with the ratio. be a geometric From this. m for k 2:2. (I Let Bk = 1+m k )k :.. .. Find the maximum value of the area (Mihai Baluna) MNPQ with the following 2:2. HP=2. so OA=4. bk=m"Bk. C be variable points in the plane such that 3r = a5 -a2 > b.

It follows that MN=.t2 .JX2 +16.lMN. so (X2 + 16)2 16 _(x2 +16) '~X2 respectively and find the position of 1 for which maximum value.f) and C( . therefore the only solution is y =6. (1) and (3) we obtain respectively B( . From the intersections (1) and (2). vol [ABCD]=(1I3)area [ABD]-CD::::. MQ=..lMP . we get the required MN=. Then J2i. which intersects the two circles in variable points B . figure 1 figure 2 y = Replacing x2+ 16=4y. 2 We study the variation of the function! The derivative is: !'(t)=}_(4-t)(..J24.t2)(12 _t2) = t2 -4t <=> (t+ 2)(4t2 - = 0. the line OA is p~rpendicular on the side BC.6)(4y2 + Y .J12-t2)[I2 Its roots are given by the equation: ~ 1'-41 (22 . this is the Since area [NPQ]=(MN.JX2 +22. area(ABC) has A I B +12+x2 +22 =~X2 +12 '~X2 +22. hence max(area[ABCJ)=area[NPQ]. . . hence x = (4y- 4)(4y +6). perpendicular to OA.J22 .OJ. Denote l\1H=x.Jl2.lMQ. respectively.l(ABC). 54 P . It remains to find MNPQ. If such a tetrahedron exists then taking DO. such that area(ABC) has maximum value (see fig.(l/6}AB·BCCD= =(1/6)·MN·MP·MQ=vol [MNPQJ. we remark that in such a triangle ABC.r ). The equations of the circles are respectively ~+l= 12.J"S. wehaveMRPQ=MP·MQ.MP. That is a consequence of the following: given a segment BC and a circle of center 0.J22 _t2 +~12 _t ) = f(t).J2 required maximum. tetrahedron.JX2 +12. NR=(1/4)(f+l6) (where R=NHnPQ) and. we have to consider a variable line I. MH=. C on two circles with center 0 and radii JIi. we obtain the equation (y2 _ 4y)(8y+ 2) which is equivalent to (y . MP=J20.MQ are pairwise perpendicular.t2) 33t+ 66) l. First..I). we get: ' . We may assume the segment OA fixed and look for the positions of the points B. since MR is an altitude in the right triangle MPQ.t2)(12 . We must have y >4.. 2 area (ABC)=!_(4-t)(.~12 Alternative solution. C . The line 1 has the equation (1) where fE[-. It is simple to work in coordinates.2) = 0.. Thus. with DO=MH. 55 J(22.Ji2 .2). J.MQ)/(2'MH)=IS. it is sufficient to take te: (2) (3) -Jl2 t =. It is easy to check that by taking MQ= Fa and MN. Considering the altitude AD of the triangle ABC and by symmetry with respect to the line y = 0.J22-t2+. ~+l=22. the point of the circle at a maximal distance to the line BC is one of the endpoints of the diameter perpendicular to BC (see fig. [-.

.. nd Bucharest. Observe that if n =2k. . we have. In conclusion.2.1z"-II+lal 1+Ial. . we deduce: p = I zn+azl == Izllz"-l+al:::. fit) has maximum value for t = -2 and a Fourth selection examination. then i -1 \$: 1 (mod 3).. Solution..2. zk\=1 zlllz21 . Let I'll be the symmetric point N. and let K be the midpoint of the segment CD. Now. . which is a contradiction. Let z be a complex root of the polynomial.. each 1=1... since the numbers 22 + 1are pairwise relatively prime. there exists a positive integer c such that C=2 21 I ) (mo d 2 2'+1 +1. Two circles intersect in points A and B. . This gives Ig(O)1= or Ih(O)I=L 1 Suppose Ig(O)1= If zr. respectively.(22k~1+ 1) +9. which do not contain the point A. Z2.::: we have i-l==-l 3 (mod 4). of N with respect to K. Then p=g(O)h(O). it also divides m2+9.This equation has a negative root t = -2 and two positive roots which cannot be considered.foreach/-l. we will prove that every power of 2 is a solution of the problem. D. and since 21-1 divides 2n-l. suppose f=gh is a decomposition of f in integer polynomials. (D. Show that LMKN=90°.k-2. Then. Let a. it easy to check that if a :# b. . p a prime number such that p>!a!+ 1. As it divides m2 +32. Prove that the polynomial j{X)=Xn+aX+p cannot be represented as a product of two integer polynomials.. . Problem 12.2. then n has an odd divisor 12 3. if this is not true. and so 2-1 0 divides (3C)2+9. (Laurentiu Panaitopol) Solution. roots off and we have: 1= 19(O)I=1 z] 22.k-2. then p has to be 3. Conversely. May 22 .k-1. for every I . Suppose !zl:::. then we have = 2" -1 = 3(22 + So if r-l divides m 2 lX22i + 1). Thus CN 1=ND and LN1CK=LNDK=180o-LABN. Adding these last two equalities we obtain LN1CM=LMBN. Tereshin) Problem 10. . and so i-I has a prime divisor p==-1 (mod 4). by Fermat's theorem. A line I that contains the point A intersects again the circles in the points C. Problem 11. if 1 exists...fi . since zn+az = -p. Jury) Solution. Using 57 56 . Then the triangles KCN1 and KDN are congruent. Determine all positive integers n for which there exists an integer a such that (39th IMO. Now. then so does 22' + 1. N be the midpoints of the arcs BC and BD. Suppose p :# 3.1. then n must be a power of 2. 1zkl >1. 2'+l .. This also leads to a contradiction: if I is odd. Let M. for Now. By thr Chinese remainder theorem. First we prove that if 2"-1 divides m2+9 for some integer m. Zk are the roots of g then they are also 1.. Observe that we also have LMCK=180o-LABM. 1=mP-1 ==(m2 f p1 .. We shall prove that !z!>1. 1999 j{-2) = 15. n Hence c2 + 1== ( mod 2 +1) for 1 =1. = which contradicts the hypothesis. Hence. 2"-1 divides m2+9 for some integer m if and only if n is a power of 2.. n be integer numbers. then 22" + 1and 22b +1 are relatively prime.)/2 = (_9)<P-l)/2 =-1 (modp) Since this is impossible.

)=360°.= m(An-IAn) = 3600/n+1. 2 +-- n-4) n-2 n n(n-2/ +-_. if n is even. 'f .. Az. if n is odd and when m(AIAz) = m(AZA3) =.Aj.Ak for which LAk corresponds to the arc A. Eckstein) Solution..2. Problem 13..:: 2 ?:n ( 1+2+"'+-2- N. An+2=Az. . A.+ xn-3 ·2+ xn_2·1 +X.1 . for instance. Az. .. We can assume the points AI..2)n(n . Clearly. The equality holds only if there are no diametrically opposite points Ai. In conclusion.. and m(AnAI) = =3600In-(n-l)E.:: O·(X.+ --(X(n+l)/2 + \n-l)/2) ... .. thus MNl""'MN. Let Xs be the number of the obtuse arcs A.4. .we obtain that the triangles MBN and NICM are congruent. 24 + 2) 1 n IS even.A})+m(Aj'4.Af the arc of the circle starting from Ai and ending in Aj (in the counterclockwise direction).. It follows that the number N of non-acute triangles is N=XjCn-2) +x2(n -3) + .. An are ordered counterclockwise on the circle. Denote by A..Aj obtuse if m(AA)..AJ having s-} points in the interior. hence it is also the perpendicular bisector of the segment NNI. when m(A1A2) = m(AzA3) =. m(A. We call an arc A....-= 22 8 if n is even. dd n IS 0 "'::""____:'---'---'-.::180°. Obviously. the number requested is [n)_N _ { 3 min - (n -l)n(n + l)'f 24 (n . This happens.. ..::':O· eXn-] + Xj)+ 1· (X.A. Find the greatest number of acute triangles that can be considered with vertices in these points.. such a triangle has exactly one angle corresponding to an obtuse arc. we deduce that for every s = 1. We will count the number of non-acute triangles A.Al) =360o/n. Equalities in the above inequalities are obtained only if there are no diametrically opposite points and Xk =0 for k < n12.. (Gh. namely those with AkEInt A.= m(A. . By regrouping terms and using (*) we obtain n-3 N.+s.. For each obtuse arc having s-1 points in the interior.A_. with 0 < E <3600/n2.::3 and At.. An be points on a circle... is obtuse...Ak. hence at least one of the arcs A...the obvious equalities CM""'MB and BN""'ND""'CNl. We will consider An+I=AI.A.+s)+m(AH._z + Xz) + . n-l. M ~+~~._2 + n-4 X2) +"'+-2-(X(n+2)12 +x(n-2)/2) n-2 +-2-XnI2 2:: >n ( 1+2+ . the line MK is a median.._l ·0. Since m(AA.. .::~ n-3) n(n-3)(n-l) 8 if n is odd and 58 59 ..Aj and A. Let n . In the isosceles triangle NIMN._l + Xl) + 1·(x.)=360°. there are n-s-l non-obtuse triangles AA_.

for every xEX-A there exists i=itx).. There are native scientists who did not receive a message. all the Lx's are distinct. Proof It is sufficient to prove that Xl + Xz + . 1999 that there exists A~X with subset of A.... Therefore.frY) ~ B-f(X). We have to prove that there exists a subset S !. Each native scientist sends a message to a foreign scientist and each foreign scientist sends a message to a native scientist..l....+xn_l .'2n J Problem 16. the mapping which sends x to L.. +x4)+".::: 2. The answer is afirmative.xn-1 +X. Justify your answer! (Barbu Berceanu) Solution. .nAJ 1.zk . 1 .< ik . . Xz. The set M is nonempty since clearly A EM. < iz < .+ xn-Z . x n . A such that A-S=g(B-j(s)). Bucharest.f(Y)) !.X'". Notice that k .:::l~J... then f(X) ~ frY). Since I A.. Prove Fifth selection examination. Denote An A.+xn-l S h(S) ~ S From the monotony of h it follows that h(h((S)) c h(S).Find wh~erthere exist three edges in P which can be the sides of a triangle.+ x. ._Z ".+ (xn-3 +x.. 61 . ism..f(X)) ~ A-g(B-f(Y)) and. i. for every jctj. for every i¥j. IAI... 4 . g(B-f(x)).. From the definition of S we have that XEM Solution...+(xn-4 +X. By the maximality of A. Let P(A) be the set of parts of A and h : P(A) -).+X" . n Then x. such that Ai(x) ~ A u{x}. Indeed... if XcY. So we find: n-k ~(~)~ n-k ~ k(k1-l) => k? --k >: 2n=>k 2l. finally.. Letf: A~B and g :B~A be the functions defined as follows: f(a) is the foreign scientist receiving a message from a and g(b) is the native receiving a message from b.. ~. If n is even....(x)I=2. . Let S = nX...._3)+Xn-z .. x.2 . then ("1 +X2)+(X3 60 "...'s is a (***) Problem 14. . x. It is given that g is not a surjective function. Let A be the set of native scientists and B be the set of foreign scientists.. A polyhedron P is given in the space . n .. such that IA. Xn_Z + xn-l s X".. for every X~ A.. .X i+ 1. The function h is increasing.nAjl". be positive real numbers such that Xl S Xz and < X i-I +X i .Problem 15. A-g(B.'s and set k=1 A [.P(A) defmed as follows: h(X)= A-g(B-j(X)). May 23rd .. Let X be a finite set with n elements and A!...l... for every 1'=3. so B. Let M = {X ~ A I h(X) ~ X }. Take a subset A~ X with a maximum number of elements which contains no A. + x 12 + . If n is odd.l . The participants to an international conference are native and foreign scientists. then we have: (Xl + XZ)+(x3 +X4) + . We will need the following Lemma. h(X)~ h(Y).Am be three-element subsets of X.. Thus h(S)EM and therefore h(S)=S +x j) + x7 + ._z) S (X4 s X3 +xs + ".. This shows that I An A. (X6 + X7)+X9 + .(x)=L. for every sequence 1. g(B... Prove that there exists a set S of native scientists such that the outer S scientists are exactly those who received messages from those foreign scientists who did not received messages from scientists belonging to S (Radu Niculescu) Solution. . Az.. such that none of the A.. is one-to-one. .1. Let xl.

The points which are symmetric to D with respect to the line BC and the circumcentre are denoted by E and F.. Hence the numbers Xl. Let 3 -1 I x.. Consider now the two faces of the polyhedron sharing the side of length x.. Given an acute triangle ABC..fn.and Xi+l form an isosceles triangle) and Xi_l+Xj::. 0::. ::. < x...4 (Albania) 62 63 . X" verify the hypothesis of the lemma. Finally. if Xt=Xt+h with t > I. let D be the midpoint of the arc AB belonging to the circumcircle of the triangle not containing A. (Bulgaria) s={l-x Problem 3.< t.x.From the lemma. May 1999 with il < i2 < . (otherwise. M. Xii +Xh +".. BC. b) the line passing through K and the midpoint of [Be] IS perpendicular to AF.y sp-I }. we deduce =t. Prove that at most p-l elements of the set S are divisible by p.... We have then xjl +Xj2 +". (Turkey) Problem 2. < ik and that ik oflength t. respectively.and the lemma is proved. n. then XI. Xn_l. Now.. = n~l. let K be the midpoint of the segment [EA].. for i=3. X2 < X3 < . .N and P be the feet of the perpendiculars from the centroid G of the triangle to its sides AB. . . respectively. Prove that: 4 ~< 27 area(lv1NP) area(ABC) 1 ::. 16th Balkan Mathematical Olympiad Ohrid.. . x. Xi+}. Let p>2 be prime number such that 3 divides p-2. . suppose that the polyhedron's sides have lengths xt.. Let ABC be an acute triangle. If no triangle can be formed with three of these sides.+Xi~ >xn. Macedonia.+Xjp >X". the two faces also have in common the side which is a contradiction. yare integers. CA. with Xl::. .. < j2 < . X2 ::. Prove that: a) the circle passing through the midpoints of the sides of ABC also passes through K. Probleml.. then Xl::. that is. xn.

=0 (Romania) Note. Societatea de ~tiinte Matematice din Romania.Problem 4. Bucharest..00/year. the number of terms of the sequence which are less than or equal to k is finite.. The subscription orders should be sent to: . str. Prove that for all positive integers m. Sxn::S: .::::O.14. Let O::S:Xo::S:Xj::S: . 64 . the following inequality holds: Ix + j n m IYj~(n+l)(m+l). j=O ... k. Solutions of the problems of the 16th Balkan Mathematical Olympiad can be found in the journal "Gazeta Matematica". Romania. The current subscription rate is \$60. be an increasing sequence of nonnegative integers such that for every k. say Yk. issued by the Romanian Society of Mathematical Sciences.n. Academiei nr. for 12 issues. 70109.