Psychology Defined Chapter One Psychology Defined

•Behaviorist Perspective

•The scientific investigation of

mental processes and

–Reflects the influences of:

4 Goals of Psychology

•Cognitive Perspective •Describe: •Understand and explain: •Predict: •Control:
Major Psychological Perspectives

•Evolutionary Perspective

•Biological Perspective

•Humanistic Perspective

–Localization of function
•Phineas Gage

•Feminist Perspective •Psychodynamic Perspective

•Sociocultural Perspective


•China One Child Policy


•Gestalt Perspective •Cognitive:
Seven Areas of Research Study



Applied Psychology



•Counseling: •Social Behavior



7 Organizing Themes for Psychology



•Theoretically Diverse

–Continuous Variable:

•Sociohistorical Context:

–Categorical Variable:

•Determined by multiple causes

•Operationalize Definitions:

•Shaped by cultural heritage

•Interaction of heredity and environment

Research Methods in Five Easy Steps Measurement Issues in Research

•Experiences are subjective •Validity:
Psychological Research What do you believe?

Data Collection Techniques


•Direct Observation •Questionnaires

•Interviews •Psychological Tests •Physiological Recordings •Examination of Historical Records
Various Types of Psychological Research Experimental Method

•Extraneous Variable:

•Confounding of Variables:

•Placebo Effect:


•Demand Characteristics:

•Sampling bias:

•Social Desirability:


•Experimental group:

•Response Set:

•Experimenter Bias: •Control group:

•Single-blind Study:

Statistical Relationships

•Mean: •Double-blind Study:
Descriptive and Correlational Studies


Case Studies

•Standard Deviation:
Naturalistic Observation

•Ethics in Research

Survey Method

Guideline 1:

•Correlational Studies
Guideline 2:

•Scale of –1 to +1 •-1: •+1: •0:
Guideline 3:

Guideline 4:

•Sensory or Afferent Neurons:
Guideline 5 (6):

Animals in Research The Brain in Two Parts: How it Works and What it Does The Nervous System

•Motor or Efferent Neurons:

•The Body’s electrochemical communication system •Interneurons: •Divided into two parts:
The Central Nervous System How it All Works: Neurons in Action

•Glial cells:
The Peripheral Nervous System The Structure of A Neuron



•Cell body/soma:

•Axons: •The synaptic vessicles:

•Terminal buttons:

•Myelin sheath: •Absolute refractory period:
Chemical Messengers

•Neurotransmitters: •Synapses: •Receptor Sites: •Increased knowledge about the interaction between
the brain and experiences

•Long-term studies:
Excitatory or Inhibitory Neurotransmitters Communication of Neurons

•Excitatory: •Resting potential: •Inhibitory: •Action potential:
Well-Known Neurotransmitters

–Adrenal hormones:


–Epinephrine and norepinephrine:


•Gonadatropins/Sex Hormones:
–Androgens: –Estrogens:

•Acetylcholine: •Both impact brain functioning/ early development
The Peripheral Nervous System


•Two primary systems
–Somatic Nervous System

•GABA (gamma amino butyric acid):
Endorphins Hormones

•The Autonomic Nervous System

•Chemical messengers :

•A few of particular interest:

•Sympathetic Nervous System:

•Parasympathetic Nervous System:

•PET scans:


•The Central Nervous System:
Spinal Cord

The Brain and the

•FMRI: (Functional MRI):
The Brain Part Two

• Different Ways to Learn about the brain and what it
does… The Brain: The Hindbrain, Midbrain and Forebrain

•Study the disease process

•Lesion method: •Medulla: •Electrode Method (EEG): •Pons: •CT scans:







•Pituitary Gland:

•Reticular Formation: •Limbic System:

•Amygdala: •Tectum: •Hippocampus: •Tegmentum:

•Limbic System


•The Cerebrum: •Thalamus: •Corpus Callosum

•Right hemisphere :

•Parietal Lobe

•Left hemisphere:
•Temporal Lobe:

•Wernicke’s area:

•Temporal Lobe

•Frontal Lobe: •Occipital Lobe:

•Broca’s area: •Occipital lobe •Frontal lobe

•Parietal Lobe: •Prefrontal lobe:

•Behavioral Genetics:
Dominance of the Brain

•Left Brain Dominance: •Chromosomes: •Right Brain Dominance:
The Split Brain

•Split brain surgery :

•Sperm and egg each have 23 chromosomes; they
form a zygote which contains 46 chromosomes or 23 pairs

•Much split-brain research done by Gazzinaga,
Sperry and Bogen

•Homozygous Genes:

•Images sent to the right or left visual fields.

•Heterozygous Genes:

•Right visual field =

•Dominant genes:
left hemisphere

•Left visual field = right hemisphere

•Recessive genes:

•Sperry Research

•Each child has a 50% chance of inheriting a trait
from each parent. Thus the genetic relatedness of parent to child is 50%

•Brain Plasticity
Heredity and Behavior



•Stimulus Detection:

•Polygenic inheritance:

•Absolute Threshold:
Absolute Threshold

•Multifactorial Transmission:
Twin Studies

Sense Modality

Absolute Threshold

•1 in 50 born are twins •Researchers compare similarities and differences
between identical/fraternal twins

vision night hearing room taste H20 smell room apt

candle flame @ 30 miles on a clear

watch ticking @ 20 feet in a quiet

•Look at adoption studies of twins reared apart and
assess the influence of heredity

1 tsp sugar in 2 gallons of

1 drop of perfume in 6(3)

Sensation and Perception

touch from 1 cm

wing of bee on cheek dropped


•Weber’s Law: •Perception: •Just noticeable difference:

•Sensory adaptation (habituation):
Sensory Systems: Vision

•The lens:

•The normal stimulus for vision is electromagnetic
energy or light waves

•Visual System Demonstration

•Light waves are measured in nanometers •Rods: •Our visual system is sensitive to wavelengths
extending from ~700 nanometers (red) to ~ 400 nanometers (blue-violet)


(higher to lower wave lengths)


The Human Eye


•Rods and cones translate light waves into nerve
impulses which pass through the retina.

•Pupil: •These impulses pass through the optic disk and carry
visual information to the brain


•They pass through the optic chiasm :

where the optic nerves from each eye cross over and pass information to the opposite side of the brain.

•Infants are born with a functional/intact visual
system; visual accommodation is not as well developed. Sensory Systems: Hearing

•Audition: •Color Vision •Frequency: •Hue: •Pitch: •Saturation:

•Amplitude: •Trichromatic Theory: •Timbre:

The Ear

•Auditory canal: •Opponent Process Theory:

•Ear Drum: •Dual Process theory:

•This leads to the middle ear.

When the eardrum vibrates it sets in motion the hammer, anvil and stirrups which amplify the sound waves >30 times

•Olfactory Receptors:


Sensory Systems: Taste

•Four basic qualities of taste: •The basilar membrane holds the auditory receptors

•Frequency Theory: •Taste receptors:

•Place Theory: •Humans:

•Development of hearing:

•Taste buds:

•Newborns prefer: •Newborns have been shown to respond differentially
to familiar voices and music Sensory Systems: Smell

•Taste preferences:

•Nutrition and Kids
Sensory Systems: Touch

•Ames Room Illusion

•Tactile sensation: •Ames Room Explained •Temperature: • •Pain tolerance:


•Vestibular: Visual Illusions

•Most visual illusions occur because of perceptual
constancies which usually help us perceive more accurately

http.//psychlab/ Key Terms in Perception

•Perceptual Schemas:

•Form Perception:
Gestalt Principles of Perception

•Consciousness: •Perceptual Constancy:
external stimuli

The awareness of internal and

•Perceptual Set:

•Various kinds of awareness:

Subliminal Perception

•Size Constancy:

•Subliminal Perception:

•Depth Perception

•James Vicary and “Drink Coke and Eat Popcorn”

•Visual Cliff Experiments:

•Krosnick study:

Do we develop depth perception or are we born with it?

•Freud and Consciousness

•Three Levels of Consciousness

•Binocular Disparity:
Cross-Cultural Influences


•Ba Mbuti Pygmies

•Gregory and Gombrich study of North Americans,
Europeans and East African Consciousness Part One

Circadian Cycles Sleeping and Dreaming

•Functions of Sleep

•By age 3-5 it

Sleep Deprivation


•Sleep Labs
Stages of Sleep

•Adolescents have another shift in sleep patterns and
sleep needs

•Non REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep
–Stage 1: light sleep, small irregular brain waves,
muscles relax

–Stage 2: high peaking waves, sleep spindles, burst
of electrical activity

•Middle age and Sleep Patterns:

–Stage 3: Deep sleep, Delta waves, slow with high

–Stage 4: Progressively more Delta Waves (Deep

•The Elderly:

–Cycle: 1, 2, 3, 4, 3, 2, then go to REM sleep
REM Sleep

•Biological, psychological and social reasons:

•Rapid Eye Movement Sleep
Sleep Disorders

•Sleep Apnea:

Developmental Issues with Sleep


•Newborns and Infants: •Narcoleptic Dogs

Interpretation of Dreams


•Manifest Content:

•There are different types of insomnia
–Transient Insomnia:

•Latent Content:

–Short-term Insomnia:

•Common “interpretations”
Consciousness Part Two

–Chronic Insomnia:

Altered Levels of Consciousness

•Hypnosis: •Ways to combat insomnia: •Various factors involved in hypnosis •Sleepwalking:
–Anesthesia –Sensory Distortions

•Sleep Talking:

–Disinhibition –Post-hypnotic amnesia

•Sleep Terror:

•REM Movement Disorders


•Spanos •REM Disorders
Cultural Differences in Dream States


–Physical Dependence: –Hypnotic Subjects:

•Addicted Brain
Categories of Drugs

•Stimulants: •Summation of Spano’s beliefs: •Opiates/Narcotics: •Pain •Depressants/Sedatives: •hypnosis
Altered States: The Impact of Drugs on Consciousness

•Hallucinogens/Psychedelics: •Psychoactive Drugs:
Specific Drugs of Interest



•Short term effects

–Psychological Dependence:

•Health Hazards: •Heavy Users :

•Addictive Potential:

•Addictive Potential:

•Crack and Cocaine:
•Physical Effects •MDMA or Ecstasy:

•MDMA is Neurotoxic

•Faster absorption: more intense the high



(Lysergic Acid Diethylamide) is a major hallucinogen “Acid”

•Heroin Addict

•Effects are Unpredictable and Dependent on Many



•Physical Effects •Long term risks:

•Binge Drinking


Types of Conditioning

•Classical Conditioning:


•Health Hazards of Steroids •Unconditioned Stimulus (US):
–For males:

–For females:

•Unconditioned Response (UR):

–Adolescent risks:

•Cigarettes and Other Nicotine Products

•Conditioned Stimulus (CS):

New models and methods for altering conscious experiences Learning

•Conditioned Response (CR):

•Classical Conditioning #1 •Learning Defined: •Classical conditioning #2

•Practical Application of Pavlov and Classical

–ANV patients:

•Extinction: •Operant Conditioning/Instrumental Learning •Spontaneous Recovery: • Behavior is dependent on its consequences

•Higher Order Conditioning: •Thorndike: •Stimulus generalization:

•Law of Effect:

•Stimulus discrimination:

•B.F. Skinner:

•Little Albert Movie

•Three types of consequences

•Neutral consequence: •Anticipatory Nausea and Vomiting


Response Decrease

positive punishment

negative punishment


•Reinforcement or Punishment which occurs
immediately after a behavior:

•Primary Reinforcers:

Learning Schedules

•Secondary Reinforcers: •Continuous: •Punishments: •Intermittent/Partial: •Positive punishment:

•Negative punishment: •Ratio Schedules:
Stimulus Added Stimulus Removed

Response Increase

positive reinforcement

negative reinforcement

•Fixed ratio schedules:

•Variable ratio schedules:

•Interval Schedules:


•Shopping Pig

•Fixed interval:

•Social Cognitive Theories of Learning

•Variable interval:

•Observational Learning:

•Skinner Rat Box •Bobo Doll Study

•For a response to persist:

•Bobo Doll Two

•Observational Learning: •Shaping: •Lessons from Lassie Study (Sprafkin 1975)


•Pigeon Turning Around


the capacity to retain and retrieve information

•Flashbulb memories: •Recognition Task: •Memories for traumatic events:

•Flashbulb Memories

•Correct List:

•Personal recollections of 9/11 or Columbine
Models of Memory

•Cohort differences

•Information Processing Model: •Encoding:

•How to measure memory

•Levels of Processing:


•Shallow Processing:


•Intermediate Processing:



•Deep Processing:

Three Box Model of Memory

•Sensory Memory •Short Term Memory •Long Term Memory

•Long Term Memory:

•Procedural Memory:

•Declarative Memory:
Semantic Memories:

•Sensory Memory •Short Term Memory:
Magic Number:

Episodic Memories:

•Prospective Memory:

•Retrospective Memory:

Digit Span Test

•Memory and Recall tasks illustrated…


•Primacy Effect: •Super Memorist #1 •Recency Effect: •Frequency: •Super Memorist #2 •Distinctiveness:

•Chunking increases memory •Reconstructed memory needs to be assessed

•Effective Encoding: •Maintenance Rehearsal: •Elaborative Rehearsal: •Visual Imagery: •Method of Loci:

•Ineffective encoding: •Decay theories: •New memories for old:

•Retroactive Interference:

•Proactive Interference: •Mnemonics: •Motivated forgetting: •Dual-Coding Theory: •Cue dependent forgetting:

•Chase and Simon research with chess players.
Eyewitness Testimony

•Retrieval cues:

•Children and adults can report accurately as well as
be influenced in their recall.


•Retrograde amnesia:

•Anterograde amnesia:
4. Aphasia:

•Amnesia Patient

• Post-traumatic Amnesia:
6. Agnosia:

•Childhood Amnesia: •Causes of Alzheimer’s Disease •Dementia:

•Alzheimer’s Disease

–Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s

Symptoms of Alzheimer’s Language and Thought 1. Language: 2.

Benjamin Whorf: Linguistic relativity

•Structure of Language

• Surface structure: • Deep structure:

– Initial phonemes – Middle phonemes

Chomsky believes:

•Expressive Language:

•Receptive Language:

•Children usually have a > capacity for receptive
speech Syntax:

•Stages in Language Development
Gleason Study:


–Cooing: –Babbling: –First Words

Language Acquisition Device: (Chomsky)


–Telegraphic Speech:

•Deaf Children and Language Acquisition

•Thought: •Nonverbal communication:
–Vocal intonation: –Body language: –Gestures –Physical Distance –Facial Expressions –Touch

•Concepts and Categories:



•Prototypes: •Bi-lingualism:

•Rosch: •Critical Periods In Language Development •Reasoning: •Learning Theory and Language


•Inductive reasoning: •Interactionist theory of language development: •Deductive Reasoning:

•Mental Simulation:

•Mental Set: •Problem Solving: •Greeno’s three types of problems
Confirmation bias:

•Functional fixedness:

–Problems of inducing structure:

–Problems of arrangement:

•Distraction by irrelevant information:
–Problems of transformation:

•Problems vary from well-defined to ill defined.

•Unnecessary Constraints:

•Framing: •Insight: •Classic Problem Solving Task

•Decision Making: •Hypothesis Testing: •Compensatory Decision Models:

•Noncompensatory Decision Models: •Newer tests were developed with •Heuristics:
norms for all age groups based on a standard distribution

•Stanford-Binet and Wechsler Intelligence Tests are
still used today

–Availability Heuristic:

•Wechsler Intelligence Tests:
–Representative Heuristic:

–WPPSI: (preschool) –WISC: (Children) –WAIS: (Adults)


•Results in a Verbal IQ, Performance IQ and Full
Scale IQ score

“measure” it

historically defined by how we

•Based on norms for the population;
Normal range: 85-115.

100 is the mean;

•Alfred Binet: developed intelligence tests to identify
slow learners

•Verbal Subtests

–Mental Age:

–Vocabulary: breadth of concepts, ideas and
experiences; + correlated with overall IQ

–Information: basic fund of information; culturally

• However, this formula for IQ was flawed.

–Comprehension: awareness of socially appropriate
behavior, rules and roles

–Similarities: verbal concept formation, level of

–Arithmetic: concentration/attention; mathematical

•Study with teacher expectancy and student

–Digit Span: attention and rote memory


For the entire school the children for whom the teachers expected greater intellectual growth averaged significantly greater improvement than did the control children; especially for grades 1 and 2.

•Performance Subtests •Rosenthal Video Clip
–Picture Arrangement: social interactions and

–Picture Completion: Visual organization and

•Possible explanations for the findings re: younger

–Object Assembly: visual-motor coordination,
principles of whole from the parts

–Block Design: perception and analysis of patterns –Digit Symbol: imitative behavior and learning

–Younger children are easier to change –Younger students have less developed reputations –Younger children may be more susceptible –Teachers of children in lower grades may differ
from the teachers of older children

•Video Clip

•Rosenthal and Jacobson Study

•Culture Free Intelligence Tests
–Raven’s Progressive Matrices:

•Self-fulfilling prophecy:


if we expect something to happen in a certain way our expectancies will make it occur




•Multiple causes of retardation
–Organic: over 100 single genetic traits can result in
mental retardation

–Environmental: teratogens (cocaine; fetal alcohol
syndrome; poor nutrition, disease)

•Draw A Person:

Positive Correlation with

(Tadpole Person)

•Giftedness: •Mental Retardation:
a condition of limited mental ability; IQ lower than 70 on a traditional test, difficulty adapting to everyday life; onset during the developmental period

Generally believed to be those with an IQ of > 130 (Upper 2-3% of the population)

–Precocious; master things earlier –Teachers may not identify them correctly –Gifted vs “Profoundly Gifted” distinction

•Mild Retardation:

IQ: 50-70 (85%)

– May have exceptional potential in
visual/performing arts, leadership traits or empathy

–Acceleration not current recommendation

•Moderate Retardation: IQ: 35-50 (10%)

•Severe Retardation:

IQ: 20-35 (4%)

•Terman: •Profound Retardation:
IQ: >20 (1%)

long term study of gifted individuals

•1500 youngsters (average IQ=150)

•Found to be above average in height, weight,
strength, physical health, emotional stability and social satisfaction throughout adulthood.

–Componential: good problem solving strategies;
“book smart”

–Experiential: creative and insightful

–Most are socially successful, above average in
psychological adjustment

–Contextual: practical application; knowing when to
adapt or modify the environment


Multiple Intelligences: (8)

–Logical Mathematical


Two Factor Theory of Intelligence

–Linguistic –Musical –Spatial –Bodily-Kinesthetic –Interpersonal

–g factor or general abilities: comprehension or
spatial skills, verbal abilities

–s factor or specific abilities: numerical reasoning,
rote memory skills


Two types of g factor of intelligence

–Intrapersonal –Naturalist

–Fluid Intelligence: innate skills not dependent on
the environment; more biologically based

Emotional Intelligence:

–Crystallized Intelligence: academic learning, ability
to use information learned in problem solving; Related to environment and experience

•ability to motivate oneself • control impulses

•Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence

•persist in the face of frustration

•regulate moods to keep distress from overwhelming
the ability to think Motivation

•Ventromedial Hypothalamus

Various Factors which Impact Eating Behaviors

•Biological Factors •Motivation: •Social Factors

•Evolutionary Theory: •Psychological Factors
Biological Needs/Motivations

•Homeostasis: •Obesity: •Hunger/Food:
body weight greater than 20% (30%) of expected body weight based on height


•Three Main Reasons for Obesity Rates in the U.S.

–Lateral (near side)

1. 2.

–Ventromedial (lower, middle) is the hunger.



Self-starvation resulting in loss of 2050% body fat; fall to less than 15% body fat over all

•Sexual Response Cycle is a predictable cycle for
men and women.


•Need for Affiliation •Anorexia


repeated episodes of bingeing followed by self-induced vomiting, laxatives or enemas

•Achievement Motivation


Motivated by success:

Motivated by fear of failure:

•Kinsey Survey:

•Assessment of Achievement Motivation

•Masters and Johnson

Emotion: Cognitive, Physiological and Behavioral Components

•Masters and Johnson Research Study




–Facial Feedback Proponents:

•Polygraph Video

–Display Rules:

•Polygraph tests:

Different Theories of Emotion


•James-Lange Theory:

• Polygraph Results:

•Cannon-Bard Theory:


characteristic overt expression of

•Schachter’s Two-Factor Theory:

Development Part One Six basic emotions generally able to identify:

•Developmental Psychology:

•Explores physical, cognitive, social and emotional
development –5th month: Lanugo:

•Physical Development
–Cephalocaudal: –Proximodistal:
–6th month:


•Prenatal Development
Germinal Phase:

–Zygote: –Placenta:
–7th month:

–8th/9th month:

•Embryonic Stage: •Teratogens:

•Fetal Stage:

–3rd month:

•Important concepts with teratogens

–4th month:

–Basic Heredity:

–Multiple Determination:


–Age of organism at exposure:
Teratogenic Agents


Leading teratogen in the United States.

•Drugs or Chemicals •Fetal Alcohol Syndrome:
–Physical Symptoms:

–Behavioral Symptoms:

•Fetal Alcohol Effects:


•Toxins in the workplace


•Sperm may also be impacted by teratogenic

•Heroin: •
“90 day rule”

Reflexes and sensory abilities of newborns and infants

•Vision: •Gross and Fine Motor Development •Hearing:
Individual Differences exist, normative expectations for these skills and abilities often called milestones

•Ages 2-3: •Taste and Smell:
–Gross Motor:

–Fine Motor:


•Reflexes: •Ages 3-4 •Rooting reflex:
–Gross Motor:

•Stepping reflex:

–Fine Motor:

•Sucking reflex:

•Ages 4-5
–Gross Motor:

•Eyeblink reflex:
–Fine Motor:

•Babinski Reflex

•Ages 5-6
–Gross Motor:


–Fine Motor:

•Goodness of Fit:

•Interaction between genetics and environment is key
with temperament

•Gender Differences:

boys ahead of girls in force and power; girls ahead in fine motor and gross motor skills which involve good balance

•Attachment: •Temperament: •Studied by Ainsworth in her attachment paradigm
still being used today

•Thomas and Chess:

•The “strange situation” allows researchers to assess
attachment relationships

•Difficult: •Basic premises regarding attachment


• •Resistant Attachment: •Separation anxiety: •Disorganized/Disoriented Attachment:

•Baumrind’s Parenting Styles •First object of attachment •Authoritarian: •Initial attachments:

•Permissive: •Stranger Anxiety:

•Structure of the Strange situation •Authoritative:
Based on Ainsworth’s research there are 4 types of attachment patterns.

•Securely Attached:


•Avoidant attachment:

development Development Part Two

–Early maturing males:

•Attachment Deprivation:

Harlow Monkey Studies

–Early maturing females: –Isolated monkeys:

•Attachment and Contact Comfort:


•Adolescent Egocentricism:

•Imaginary Audience:
Peer Relationships

•Personal Fable:


•Storm and Stress:

–Adolescent growth spurt:


Puberty impacts social & emotional

Function of Peers in adolescence:


(2-7 years)

•Developmental Theories as Stage Theories •Flaws of thinking in Preoperational Children
–Individuals must progress through stages in a
particular order, stages build on each other


–Progress is strongly related to age


–Development is marked by discontinuities that result
in dramatic transitions


•Jean Piaget and Cognitive Development
–How a child thinks, including reasoning,
remembering and problem solving

•Concrete Operations:


•Development involves two processes:
–Assimilation: –Accomodation:

•Formal Operations (12-up)

•Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

•Criticisms of Piaget:
Erik Erikson and Lifespan Development

•Sensorimotor (birth-2 years)

•Theory of lifespan development: •Langer and Rodin study:

Piaget and Moral Development

•Heteronomous Morality (ages 4-7)

•Ways to Promote Healthy Aging


•Autonomous Morality (7 years and up) •Personality:

•Kohlberg studied moral development using the
Heinz dilemma.

•Personality traits:

•Lifespan Issues in Development

•Cattel’s Theory of Personality:

•McRae and Costa:
personality traits.

Developed the “Big Five”

Intellectual Functioning and Age:

Fluid Intelligence: Crystallized Intelligence:

•Psychodynamic Theory

–Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory

Freud’s Basic Structures of Personality

Individual Psychology





•Defense Mechanisms:

Social Cognitive and Behavioral Theories

•Examples of Defense Mechanisms
–Displacement –Rationalization –Denial

•Reciprocal Determinism:



•Locus of Control (Rotter)

•Internal Locus of Control: •Congruence: •External Locus of Control: •Incongruence:

•Mischel’s Person by Situation Interaction •Unconditional Positive Regard:

•Humanistic Perspective
•Personality “Types”

•Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:



Ectomorph: Stress and Coping

•Carl Rogers: •Stress:

•Pressure: •Stress has both psychological and physiological

•General Adaptation Syndrome (Selye)



•Three general types of


–Approach-approach conflicts:

•“Daily Hassles”:

–Avoidance-avoidance conflict:


–Approach-avoidance conflict:

•Adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies exist.


•Maladaptive Coping Strategies

–Displaced Aggression:

•Holmes and Rahe Social Readjustment Scale:


–Type B personalities:

Defense Mechanisms

•Stress and Personality Style: •Constructive Coping Strategies:

•Problem focused:

•Emotion focused: •Additional health issues associated with stress: •Optimism: •Road Rage and Stress:
individual implications public health issues and

•Social Supports: •Therapeutic interventions •Sense of self-efficacy: •Exercise •Personality Traits and styles also impact response to
stressful situations.

•Pets and Plants
–Type A personalities:

•Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder:

Parent and Child Interactions indicating possible abuse

•Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Natural Disasters

•The Trauma of Child Abuse

•Risk Factors for the Child:

•Child Abuse:

non-accidental physical attack on or injury to children by individuals caring for them

•Child Protective Factors •Child Neglect:
absence of adequate social, emotional and physical care

•Risk Factors for the Parents/Family

Characteristics/Symptoms of Abuse (nccanch)

Child focused symptoms:

•Family/Parental Protective Factors

Symptoms/characteristics of parents in abuse situations

•Risk Factors in the Community & Society

•Community & Societal Protective Factors


•Cycle of Violence:

Findings that those who are abused are at a greater risk for abusing

–Social Learning Theory:
DSM-IV TR: 5 Axes or Dimensions

–Biological/Genetic Theory:

•Primary Clinical Problem •Personality Disorders •Medical Conditions relevant to disorder

–Interaction Theory:

•Breaking the cycle of Violence:
help Psychopathology

What we can do to

•Social and environmental problems •Global Assessment of Functioning

•Mental Disorder: •Problems with the DSM Classifications •Legal Standards: •Disorders of Childhood
Classifying Mental Disorders

•Pervasive Developmental Disorders


•Panic Disorder:

–Asperger’s Syndrome:

•Fears and Phobias:

•Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

•Social Phobia:

•Agoraphobia: •Conduct Disorder •Specific Phobias: •Tourette’s Syndrome
spiders, squirrels, dogs

•Tourette’s Syndrome

Anxiety Disorders

•Generalized Anxiety Disorder:

•Obsessions and Compulsions

•Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)


•Schizotypal Personality Disorder

•Borderline Personality Disorder

•Histrionic Personality Disorder
Mood Disorders

•Narcissistic Personality Disorder



•Compulsive Personality Disorder

•Bi-polar: •Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder •Personality Disorders:

Psychotic Disorders

•Schizophrenia: •Paranoid Personality Disorder

•Typical age of onset: •Schizoid Personality Disorder •Strong genetic component •Sociopathic Personality Disorder:

•The Three Faces of Eve
Treatment Modalities

•Positive Symptoms:

(Presence of a distortion or bizarre behavioral symptom)

•Biological Therapies

•Charles Manson and Positive Symptoms of



•Negative Symptoms (loss of functioning or ability;
behavioral deficits)

•Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT):





•Free association:

•Fugue state:

•Dream Interpretation:

•Dissociative Identity Disorder:


•Psychodynamic Therapies:

•Group Therapy:

•Cognitive Behavioral Therapies •Normalization:
–Systematic Desensitization:

•Psychotherapy Outcome Research:
–Aversion Therapy:
Social Psychology Part One

•Aversive Therapies

Social Psychology:


•Humanistic Therapies: •Attitude Strength: •Cognitive Therapies:

•Family/Couples Therapy:

•‘Identified patient” : •Social Cognition
–Initial Impressions:

•Situational Influence on behaviors:
–Asch’s study found:

•Social Influence:

•Social Influence Video
Asch Conformity Study

•Social Norms:

•Asch Conformity Studies

•Social Role: •Results:

•Factors which affected conformity •Role Conflict:
–Group size:


–Presence of a dissenter:

•Informational social influence:

•LaPiere Study

•Normative social influence:

•Attitudes and Behavior are influenced by several

•Stanley Milgram’s Obedience to Authority research

•What percentage of subjects would obey and
administer shocks up to 450 volts? Social Psychology Part Two

one’s attitude

the deliberate effort to change or impact

•Milgram’s results: Variables which influenced

–Remoteness of the victim

•Persuasion Tactics:
–Norm of reciprocity:

–Closeness and legitimacy of authority figure –Cog in the wheel –Personal characteristics: differences were weak or

–Door in the face technique:

–Cultural differences:
Ethical Issues of the Research

–Foot in the Door:


helping behavior

•Kitty Genovese
–Low-balling: –Diffusion of responsibility:


–Bystander Effect:

•Bystander Apathy


Walster and Berscheid

–Passionate Love: intensely emotional and physical

•Latane and Darley:

Bystander Research

–Companionate Love: deep affection, share
emotional intimacy and friendship

–Bystander won’t help if they don’t notice –Decide if it is an emergency –If an emergency: intervene or not –Take on responsibility: begin to question
self-efficacy and confidence

•Sternberg’s Three Components of Love

–Intimacy: –Passion: –Commitment:

–Intervene regardless of cost

•Who we are more willing to help:


negative attitudes towards people based on membership in a group

•Stereotypes: •Factors that influence Attraction to Others

characteristics we attribute to people based on their membership in a group

•Prejudice and stereotypes impact our impressions
and attributions



treat people differently and unfairly based on group affiliation

–Matching Hypothesis:

•Self-serving bias:

•Group Membership:

We categorize ourselves as “in group” or “out group” and view our members in more favorable terms

•Homogeneity Bias:

•Sherif Study

•Working on a common task or goal (superordinate
goal) is an effective way to reduce in/out group conflict

•Zimbardo and the “Stanford Prison Study”

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