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A, 'M:EDIAEVAL MYSTERY CULT' IN BOSNIA ,AND' :HE,RZE,GO'VINA

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separated from one arnotlli,e-r by a :ridge of :narive rock, 'The first; :r'eadi.ng from to right, ,c)on~.is~ts B" man on foot. ca,~,rying a" sw,~rd.~ of two horsemen -wear .. IDg swords but without adler. 'weapons, who face each other, and another man on. foot 'Mdl a, sword, Part of this, scene is enclosed, within a. rope ... like border. ,h ~seton;~ ,group,~ to t'h ~ :ng.u,tt of thee .c,,~,', In clI,U' ~S' a c'~ .'h~~~h ~,-, ~, '~ - -,,~'"d '~'. ', '," "e ,,!'ib. Q': ,. '.' nrst, dl ~, T , ,",e' ~', 111ft"er ,:nrseman ,. a, roe d" hi h rs b '. 'WOni,tu'Y ,R noun d A 'L~, ,. bemg "'""".J b h Co pursmng ueer, W''I,'C ."', bowman races ,tL" , ider ,_~'_LV oeer, cTI: -- 'h' ,=~gJlJjI!, --,-s '" , 1,I;en er and' deer ,O~lS rij1!..oI; i a, cross. 'Th""" motif 'OL h..,,,,,, horsemei O'ppol51ng'. one anot t'h''''er IS, rouno on stecci In ' "'" '."~' ,"",' "" ,. ',' " fi~"'" d" , '" ae ,m,Q,I.__' 'r" 1,,",0 norsemen more than twenty differ,ent places throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina (rig~ ,9 Our illus:tration of' a. g,ton.e' at Garica (Pi.. :[,s,a) is .suffici'ent to show 9).. the simila;rity between ,th,e' cave, carving,s and tm,ese' tombstone decorations, It is commonly .sup " posed that this, is it representation of'jousting~ knights__~' " __\ _ " ~. '~',' ' ~, ,_, '" _~". , __ .," , .__, ,,' ,. _ I, u_ . _, " ,_"

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reference to a tournament beJd at the Hungarian court i:n 1:41'2:,. when high. ,~b~I~:vemlenl w,as:s'hawn, ~,>:the Bosni~ bUgh.~,~~n,.th.elists ..$ ~e ,a~pJication [of this, theory to the steccl is rendered implausible by tWIG cansiderations. . (':[) ,B:v~nif there is reason to suppose that jous,u, 'r:uight be Pll:t on tomb' stones this scarcelv serves to explain the"',rl"""C appearance of a J~[OiIDtat the entrance ,.. "',. I '1' .. x,__,:an,. _. ~=.--_.+10' tJ.":
.. ,. 11 r .. .:'l·~:-I ' stLeCCI,. n.a;mc'1.)7',. ;I,:t.. mose at ' K......x' [T'[ Ur'~()Vl,Ci;I,:. ~ O'.JUIU~ Z'·'fi'!ir L_'!I,'~a" ,I_ ~!~, '.'.. ~e 'Poije,) [Ci,tluk, Ka[ufi", DOl1jii Bratac, Zoor.na, 'Go:mila~ :BiJela Rudina and Tad .., rndil,Orv1,C ..,Du.brava a WI(jn:nan is t~:~'esent~ed. standin,g' b~hveen. "the; two horsemen ('lP1 Igel ~ T,bis last £e'ature 'must be s,tressed,. 'because, wbat one supposes to be jousting scenes ,ap'pe:ar on. mediaeval ob~,eets throughout. Burope, such as marriage "'"as- -'1........ ·..,..,.;~r .... I!iPS~ eh essb n.-:'I1i'\..l"" [~,"'."~'J1;d:! .__ II.:~_.[;., "'B"IJIi,t·· 't"h'",~~, ·dJ to,' 'm" 'y" ······lI.l.:·~..w· ·:~,e-uhl~ 111' textiles" .l""l~ '1·'1i!! "'l1'1li'0'· . ~ ... ..l cA~ILi)" -'.~~.li~ _.~,', 11.0'ether mediaeval exanlp,l.e; wber~' a woman a',ppea.'l·S in, this particular poi,.. 'tion~ It i.s il'UIl,possi to say that the woman is meant to be in the ha,ckgronnd ble because in certain cases, as at; Kalufi, she holds the bridles, 0.£ tbe horses . . . There are" however earlier' objects on w'bich 'this :m.otif is found", ,At 'Gla'mloc"t near Duvno in upper Herz;egovina,*, there were discovered two lead tablets upon which,. among other thlnp, a, [draped, ':figure is represented, with horsemen on e~:tber sjd.e~(,Pl :1,Sib)~iI These tablets are now :in the Salaj:evto'
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menuments, of the Aegean, ,8 In. some of these, the n.orsem,en are r-epresented as being mounted+ while in [others they are on £00t,10 standipg' beside 'tbeir horses, 'Vman t forms of this motif Include those 'where each horseman. has, a, s,w or a rosette over 'his head, lr -..- - . 0·..m ei-ther- ""'-~ ofi;f nl.ac~d[: -- .... ...... e.'. crescen W,nl Jlll .Js v... c·r·' .he ',,""., d 0··.··[;: .. "~~: hich ove hi' ea .he .. _. _.:) .-_ sid ~,.!II., .i['~' . woman: (Pi, :13;C) .,1.1. In ,oertain cases the: woman becomes 'Very s;mlaJjl~) 2 is re1 pI aced 'by an alta;r~:11:3 o,r' disappea'r;S altogether, but the crescent between two, :rO$ette~over ~be ~,eads, of 'the.~ ho~em,en remains a _,oons~m~~s;~bjec,t..o on~ t exception which .I shall m.. ention m due course, On Carthagtman fune.r,al saelae these s,ym,Dols OOC:U'f alone, 1,t: and :1 is generaD,y assumed that they may t he taken to have: tlie same significance as the represented figures, .
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bef r th temnl. e aoors ar S""" " , ·;j1t'i ' , ',", W,mer 1L.", says, are con)~mo~~~y '" ,Tln'l' identierore tne temp 'd.'~':":'~' t ,amChu.f,ace, ,-,',:'b'r,',h'" ne ~,~,,' ioenn fi,~d,with 'Cast()<T' Poll ux, :2;' Itis 'Rot clear whether Varro had acmally seen and these '~b.~,' imaees, bu:t'.. t,"lacii" ii',t,..Q' ·t·'if"m.l':'t:,~1I'1Ii ~ an ;Ql'rI;""'l':_'II'I,t- one l"n'A'~,c':.:iilt,~d;'~.y. ~, remarx 'm ,!!Ii' ,~,iI\. 1U_ !!.r.J]!'~i"'Ji.,~:dl.l't4v,~~ U4 ~ ~"'~i'" IiJ aet tr 'be c..... . '_, , ~e,rodot liS , ......1.1,." ex1S ",eJl,C~ 0:. . .. e statu -' se 0 .. .v nfirmed... 01£: JDi. . vUl,v ..11L :30 and the .g(;. Uilal ,- .~':,i['", ,'I"':'. of the ,S bv":,,, the exeavations '"1"f? K:,-. Lehmann-H Iartleben :tU I .-~. . . Th rengion of Sarnothrace lS 3'SSlOa3ite', WltLj,l, two 'b;h Iiei S h' .. .. d' .,1!.. ~ _Ine :,~:rotj~,en, d ,3; aister b ana "y iIl"'\! ..... .J1 ~ 'h says t:. at D _.-I h 'I dl 'H~ .' th ,c!til1JlI" ren or , 'L.11dl f" LljJl:UtJJ,orus~W,I,() .,';3.I:'Uan.us., Iasnn anc .: .la'rmom,B!" ae Zeus and El,ectr.a" were born in Samothrace. 32 'W,e are told clearly that 'H'" h ,i,;t;; 'hi' ,~eingtm bate;" d ,','" _.~armonia was present at tl~e mysteries, :.lor C-, d •·.'a;'m'llls,) 'wLC.iJ!,e bei .. saw h,er ,and earned her ,off.:9;:3 :D,M1iaDltS 'was the unmortal twin" His brother' 'I":'I~'o,~:'ij'11 early C:e>J]~,~~~ 'Tn~~tro',~·rt,. .une an' nd .W:';;;';'~, :I':'Io'1i1 .. ~':;';l.ro"'" 'ID"'1I11!'"i",-l,;p;'['..,.d'" Deme eer, with Ji.Ji.u.J:,: ,1,1.,., I.u...".,l'j; , luJi,U .... ,,.....· b::'y:'" ,,'\.., ,', '.',' . " , .,,' ~:'~I~m" 'Ji,W,!Q.U, been fam,.Il"l''"'':o;r',:B4 Ye t,. other stories have h. t'il,tl'!:lll'~ ,U, .merelv'I ,. narried ~'~ he '" m~ .. ~ .... Wi .II,,,,,, , , Ihe r;..,'I,'!:II,~1 ,Ji'WJ .l:tA. . lQ. ,. . ilih.,IL . 'v'Lel .. ~.. Ooddess of th. ".e. UI Inden... If'JUJl,~ 35 IS····I~i~.~",:j' ,0' 1", Verail 'C'laims th at ·'o" ~,..iiI C,.I !U'C,. e th e,uu.., hIIhII . . ,. U. ,ILu~" n "10"'.11",
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There are a numher of r-eferences of this kind in. classical literatnre, and wgtthef' 'they s~em tOI hnply that th,e: m,yiSt~ties of Sa'm~)thra,ceinvolved tw"(~ brothers, who, may be compared ,with the rnOSCllln, and, a sister, 'who m;a:,y be com&,ared. with Helen Th~ere is another woman ~n.· volved. ~.~·b. ma·lY or may 0 .. ..]:"~! ~~-_"d ';~~~fi~~'d'~;"h: •.entr er Wlt, ~'ih,' , '''',.1 ·:I~~' •.... 'd"~ :'~h.·..wa ",,~II,d.',I.l~ .. "fY··h·' ' '!.,.n''derwonn. . ~ ,.,,', , VU:i', d,'· -,.:", ;;,,,",11 not~ :e]J., tl ~e sister, ano is) . e 1lS gon ,~essCt t ae 'T"'h~'"~ ~"I'!;ntof Samoth ...,,,:~~, ,"'" ,"':,',"'"",,:37 s'Uglefh~ a cennecuon b ,".. 11':','::..... .... ne ; p:rOX1.ml."'J 0, .' am 0mraee tc our region 1,0 ne tween, the mysteries, of Sa:m,oilirace and the' 'cult represen ted by the 'Glam,Qc, ,bl~s,., _ the .~~. _~d;," ilrv ~. ~~ ·r,~ ..'V.UClllo y , e al " ~~~ _~J",~~ Y '"'"~_~..... ,c·:M,e{·;"1"WIC' .-UiL,,,,.l w~'hI' .h 'iI"'\l"illrt~I"~ ,IU """,,,",tIUa'IIJD,~ '~..:.o' acn ~ ,I, ,' id ,;0,. iL_yI,-ng···c the ~ u' woman an ..,JII ,t,' 'h··"""'IJI:,'0' rsem ' en o'·'Io'1i, e tonnb"stu' nes w· ,::t'h 'th; e go' ad d ess an d ,t;b·e 'D· 'C'1111'11,r:11' , ~' . th '~I'OS'" _J, of the mysteries ]is the time g,ap., The latest ,d._i,caJ! monument we have :m,en.. 'i" ".':, .alel" , .,an Uile ,ui)ur'~I rt ,,',,'"" d the ','t ..... t done· d . :ISno I·"te th , ,,o,-'jl-,~. f, .''t"h cen~ury;, ,an",,~ e ear'1l,es,~~h,eCC1,,d'i' nQ~, ,appear .. 00',,,'.,' 'to be ,earrUer than, the, :[ourb~e.ntb, century ~ Sd~~ i,t is n.ot to be ~gnored that
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imp ortant In the ~11'$~~~1r.~1~monuments the r,..... eseent between '-'1;11. ' " "Ll)" .""" EW"'0' rosettes '1~'~ I ::t.a~~-r' m ost common b'iv the t;o-'~I~"ti;"o,n,IBI'-~t: : u there are one or two 't~. instances whuc: 'the crescent is replaced by a third rosette" There are :also many instances where a, _crescent a:p:pears ,endosing a rosetre, and nanked by , the usu "');'1 two. rosettes ("P, [1 I 3-,'f::)e., Preclselvl similar varia ... ions are to:[ e fou nd on b [IV. _ U u., !L·W iil!l__ l.1 the stecci. It. is :n.ot all"tQ[ether cl'ear 'to"me 'why these variants should exist, "H" ,owever ~ tne f he fact that ttl hree c(lI;i1Stlnct .it ormations 0:f' sym 'h'~O~, eennecten 'with .. 1l..'...l"'...f':.. .1.... ..JI" ," two hone-men and a woman appear both on the, classical and on.the: mediaeval monuments suggests that. the choice of one or the other of them has some sne ial 1, si nifi"" -.... "" 'd-'-;'. ,-.... ," mere.. ,'." in .., . m ·,t---·· ...... oasle~:~a.pollIJ}er ,', ·,tb'~.. ,.. an,_ 1S.nor a, -,-, 'C"'~"h- "" - .. __ psCI__ __ _~~gl__~~cance, ax lrary I__I__~ali[.e:r (:::. t,· , has suggested that the' third rosette, when it r-eplaces the. cr-escent" represents
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over the heads of the: three figures, on a stone at Krsa, in Dnvno iPolj!f:, re three a r~;6,t;,Ii'~~S,8, while elsewhere ;,~ the same rezlo'D,,~~ crescen ,. between tw '0'-,[0'. settee ,Ii"a" .. ,.... " .. t" _ is, commonly placed over the heads of' tn,e' tourneyj:ng ,kni,~>h (pt :ISd) ts,39'
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a,temple devoted to the Dloscu:ri., and th,at 'when thi~ place W,M converted to lUll}." 'D', "v. .: JJ.:.·.'Jl~ :_.;_.~~:.~ C~I'n~:si[~"amtly-~,1L.le-' inscur i were comv e-n'- e-.J1 ....n 'F:Iorus ~~~[~, 'L'allIFUEl'.. :T''he other reference from a Byzantine source is in Anna Comnena's Alexiad'} I]]'"~99, D, H:ere. two 1!emona~'e.s)_, A'!D,p[:hiO[ll and ~eth~~" ar~erepresented as,_the,~buU~.~[S, of D,rya.c(~hiu:m., hich is Durazzo, ]1'nAJ,bam;a~ John Malalas identifies w Amphion and, Zethus with the Dimcun.4&
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not vety strong. But It does Iead us' to :8U;S,POCt diat two female deities may be ru:nvo],vedl. here, one ()f.wbo:m,. is Identifiable with Helen", and "this supports a connection between. the steeci fizures a"':d t'- h e'" d ~~'H,-'~'t- Sam ,. OI"II.U-"""",~", :n .. i .I~_ 1i:J;"", ... It, Is now quite clear: (a) tbat the classical motif or a w'o m an. between two, horsemen is akin. to that on the s'teeci, and (b) 'that it does not represent a joust, im the normal sease•. .. , ,'. , " . 'W'e,now fum to some li.b!r,ary evidence w:hicn beats upon the material just discussed .. J'[ Rendel . ,Harris mentions 'k"~:"'''''''-l~'··jh., F~11''-'I'- .,-, and 'L'"amm,,) , ..""'. ul""" ,D,."" .. _ .. 1 .. :SaJ.n~,t " .I!.orus an.·. ,- ;1,,'1,]: 'whose names fllequ,en,'nJj,y occur in Byzantiae Caill,enda.n of d'ru.[e outh Italian S 't1J"nii"!o . '1 HTi rris ,~,~ to . :id-entify '~:h.~e.·~~!~,'~'n'·\I!I: the 'DI'.·~l'!i.'!\~'l':'M,I,t a ni:r;""'~~I""'~l~~ ch with ,,",n,..., . ... Y"'~ " -. a U es II. ~. _ !J.__ "" r'iI. '","" !IJ,i;]Iia!L whi P , has, attracted severe en tieism from Roman 'Catholic. scholars, tl2: However, it IS not [essential here to Insist upon ,this i.d,entifitatiOlL It :is agreed by both sid[es of 'the argument that these two saints were closelv associated andshared :: '~~m~non"martyli1,o,~,. and 'tbat'th,eY'[li'V'ed'~,~, acit.Y [c~led 'J~ianaJ:in [They were s,tone"ma'sons by' trade, and were enga,g,ed by one Lycinias to build a" pagan temple, WIth the help of angels, they twned this temple into a 'Christian. cbu.rch, thereby i.tlc.u.rring' the resentment of their employer, 'who, threw them into a 'well where th~y peris\b.ed""tC On.e 'possible explanation :fot this fable: is 'that there W~ in fact at Ulpiana
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heroes __ :_'_-~'" Jelena" or Jelica~, Slavom,G for H:elen~,4[6or 'with a. supernatural l!ady called the' '~'vi]a~':~"n the 'ballad of Marto K-ra'ljevic\t 'w:hic~hconcerns, a, focrteenth ... I , .... nturv,1 g .;">,Uith S····.·.,~~l~~ V:!i' M[ 1'ii.,v eu ......•. .lifA'V.....h ~r,,,,, ·.... ·'~."I"l~n, 'mle··iIl'l~:to·:n·' ed as ,~n,m',-','rLJlm",~ beina ii'i'ii' '""0 'm'" e imes .. !Il..oen .. ~ u U "'" OJv ... 'V.l..~, m unication with a vila, On the first occasion when Marko sees the' vila, be is ridin~' all ho~~b~~l:, in '~~ ,comp,my .,af ~,e 'VOJVod,f; MlloS,~ [T.h~ two[ are de - -:,-~ ed ... - pI;PVrUU,W" th'. at ~!II ~ blood I, bre ,thAT\i:j:_A~ M··· ,I'i;,!l) t"II,~c' ··~e. ,. e" ~'.~' , 'a -,r[T~j"'-, _FJi,U, !V·.·!JI:}t h·-' 1I~: 'l.~'JI'.' _~escn_c b e,u, as. 1m," .,rl:Ii,.;._ [L a. lI... .. , .. ,r ..... iQO..IUi his, ,oom:p,anj,<!D to ,.,sIn.~,. ~Uoo is, reluctan t t~~. so for .~earQ[~ ~te 'vUa-'~,.,Yi'h-o ,(1.0 = mavJ" shoot him With her_ bow ,and_ arrow, H-o-wever, M,arko. JJDSlstS" Mllol's 3 .~. . .. ~... ... ~ .. .. ~~~.... . _[~ ._ ~ __ _~ !C";Ii"Ui'iIW r-- ['e s · M~,'II"~', ,. b 'iii 'It disp Ieases th vila --w .. -- -',~ - ·.~·ho-· eakes ui:" her bow and arrow '~!Ik1'JiJio '1- ',a·es ... _-~--... ..... -Y and shoots M'nos~,once in. the 'throat and. again thro-u,gh t ~I,eheart, :Thm an,g;~ts Marko.; 'who persuades the vila, 'by means [ofblows and threats, to bring MiIo~
..... _\li,&~

ceming,' two b,Iro··,~,il.e~r 0" __ I, 'U'!""UJ!,~.'OJ~1 .,[,

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'I ,t': u., 'Ii In, Y'.'.'-, ,ugos.!tav il.'o,l!&-,jJ,ore' conconnecdon ·WI--~·'~'1!.. 'a"m ortal 1- .... ~!y". called .... 1i::U, .,_iWU . :~_v· ""U~~I_~ .....L1I!..,iI'\iI,iI, __ 1,t..U, :.. , ,.,. I
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[T-'-h'"econd 0"·',·- '-. t,t..-*, Markomeets s , '. 'e ,seco:m-_ ,me ...I!.I!a", _ a,:r. ,rne-e~, the ,,:"'1,-,a" l.w.oe:uIi 'invol ed (.- i""nm·...bat wlth .. 'e VI ~I,-"i'-l n'\i'lu..llV'.· ,!I.n!VV'..... ~I , .. · an Albanian, cwl.ed. Musa, M-USBl:iS on the poln t. of overcoming M'arko, when ,'b~e 'l:i·,·I-·.-':_',-,- .----,~~'.:;-' "-,'.," the vila .. -~~'If-,[·.•dist ...r:,....... the att ·'I~-~·.··· iLr-['" ,-, __ ~tt~r. pr.ays to t .• Wdl!" Wu,Q .. lsrac~ , .u,e anen,uon ,~rM~I"-,_' . a, thus enabh ng ~ w . _us_-J . I.~ e __ __ i'-"" ..1'......... ,~.ifio, ~',o'. t.-. _." lh'I!'m,[' 41,8 s ~V.~-liu ~ . ~ ab JlJ This acthiity of 'tn,e:vila, in :hdp,jjn,g a favoured h.ero. 'M'[1. a fight, is not uncommon, 'In the ballad. "The mar,riag,e of Nov.ak?s, son", the vila assists Novak 'to. ov~'rcome a Greek called Manuel. She accomplishes thi s by taJ1dng on the form [o:fa 'beautiful 'maiden.iii' and- castinea ,.,-" arms around the -~--- of 'bier .._" ---- -----.------ - -neck --""---~ ~--' -' . " .._ , 'Manu~l. Meanwhile: she instructs Novak t'O s,ta,b :Ma-nue1in the back, N,ova'k is reluctant to do SID, and inste:ad throws a c1ub at ManueJ. from a distance, .. [. -.I.I,llS, ~pa,t;;Ues,--- L!,-- ·1L an d! th -. _.j,:"",. - t.... rum,' D AlIJl these s,tones concern one: hero, =""'0.' another'- ,'_or one brother kining~: killinz ____~~ese __ 0 . .,' ... . .another ; exeent the first "w-'hila p~,.:.:.r;i'"[iir~!I!I deed y"~,-ij- even here " __ '_[" ..'....... '!;.r.A""'r". "1.1, ,i!,:1.~~-,) Ui~,,,,, "_' __ " ..... I,~'...... ~' the ._...... ""cj~,~ -,,,,,~, -" ..... _.......• Marko is not nurespensible. For although, the u~ortuna.te blood .brother warned Marko that the vila wotdd. shoot 11'im:!i' Marko insisted that he sing, :ii.' stricken rse -h- ~..... 'c.t,~ ~ "", lIi.l!, ~,,~ ,Aft~'- '-[', .-elll,,, -M,' -arJL'v 'Jw!' ,OJ1..11,,&.. u,n,,.,.with rem ..... 'T'-I'_.c_erefore the stories coneern erwra:rus; ..... ~~..c""'''' ~..' iI, ,&,1.." ,', d ..-', .h ·~-f·:' -" .. he --"','.''-.'b-" "-,oIi.,t.. .·. (}I, ,One. [,Item .(~r .. if-QUl,er, -' ,al th ,~~am"_,I ,o~",-OIr :" ,--~,.,+,'_::" ,-_'~', 01.; ,-- [-,,- th..er,t WIith . . -l't !"C_c..ce -"~, ..f.;",' h "'d·' I[ lllS1S[..enee -;£" anot . U~edeatr .-the' vi~a Mding' in, 011' performing, the deed, Ir is possible t9 sngges,~ '~'ha't. ll a "',-'~-",-- ,afie va·nanl~ .'>if···-' ,~lld[::'.i!!"r' verslon..ln ,~ :, ~":~I:';;:'"h- ~,~n~' l~~_·· .'; .'-., .. "., . '_'~'--'--''!"'[~[-['-I ~'m:"I'''lm,'~~'~~'~ jb ~~;t.~,1i' ... _.,ese s",one.s Q,. an OJ-:,...... W.IlUIU., U. IU'~ th 11·!1' ,s . ·· ·:t-h-' er , mo,r:~ one a _ ·t-,hc"e,'In .le;aII.Jl'U,[l VJ.,t a···'··n·,l1,w,,,~·t-'Ihi'~u,,._,,~;,~~..'It:-h:e.·' 'Vl::"'1[,t.iII_ -. , ' [:[" --t"'l~[-['" ,-:..- _ '!'--~s:·t--~".....,~i"ri:',-; ~ ::-,;t,Al. 1'~- 't-h-'e 0 Ul .1 ... *"iIt-,e· h"[el-"p' ,o'l,:' . 1~.',_ -' ."-]" '" ~'' h ,i[il.'e-l" ,Slnl:Ster CapacJl,tlies} a,p,pean, .', tw,_,ce m re ,_~~, the Ito-'~__ ' ., VI_a,. WIt:. '~,'I .. ' i .',~'-c_o~-.::-: _~~,~[_~ry of in '-_'f Th Marko ~ .. ,at ._l~.:,,' ._:__. ,~md·when -[--,~- .~---- -~. tells ;Q"oinff'to die, -" ~,~- "',l'" once _"_," the v'ery,·:"---·'.ll' - ---- - ~'.~b:e n',,~ .- Marko~_'wher,e be~ is .'~' ~I _nob ... _ I,' ill -- w --t~]] w,1l...an ,=~=- ,_:Y_' .~. hoe 1 an,~_ W,ie-n,.[e H· WJ!! cum,e -t-n a. :POOJl, b-,e",n'e"",1il tw~- -0' ' 'Ig ,'~treAi:I' ,~:U''I!r~~ 1.': .. dh
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14

(p. 97)

a-Tombstone

from Boljuni, Sto]ac,rcgion,

Herz,egovin3.

Radimljn, Stelae region, Herzegovina (p. 103)

b-West

end of tombstone from

c-wcs~ sideof tombstone from Zg(lRca"Bo~llia., Zemaljski M uzej (p. ! ()~) ci----:TomlZJstone from Radirnlja, region, H(:rzegollln:a (p. 97)

Sarajevo, e-Nor!h end of ZgQsea tombstone (,1'..


102)

Stolar;:

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(;,~ 117 ':t'[hU warninz ,;~~~IeRaviioila vila -, who '--- generally ~'~lIfl!'·u'~~'~ resnonsible fot_' ,ol''"',islim,O'' U~,_ -·_e.lv.~,,·-·:~r~A '_ .. l~_j~"" is, ,~~\.rt_~_.lI.': _'_ -~--.-_-~~ 'ri', ,, B·: rt l: appears ,.L .... ~,,~... ,·1.."...:,·,·'1 ,Ul.ere d ,,"":111'1 ano trier-',,Klll._, of vila . i·t ,. .' - '... h _: - ~ ,w,~ '1-" ,., -' oth - f!_!' "d,~'0: V1_ 1 'S'h~,c' nrm, ,aut ~.U41,l, lin. ~.ue poo,-.. -~ --"-~~----~l I. ~
._.J .....

'0'

I_~.,

Is an ugly Oll.d. hag, who rides a d,e-er with a snake for a 'bridle", and who takes out the eves of ,aU travellers ~-~ . i03!SS the: nond, Once before when Ma;riko . ~~.. ~~. ""'I ~ ~ , ... _, _v .. , W ho ,r'.r....'~ ~~ .. .~ ed th"',"- _r:. . . " ,"f',-·" ,..UIe, " .".,' .-d,- sne rose 0111h.~) b·-~..1i11,~~ he -.-:t:--I:' - ,:- '-',d;,~ hase ...'. .m~ __ ne " L,., pone, --L." '1''' "To rume surtace 0_ meueo er. SI_ an, ~_~ ,d' ag Marko, who was saved only by the Intervention of the ,Ravijojla vila, 6:1 But this .m, ... time no, stag-riding ~VIa need appear, 'M'arko merelv loob, into the sUi"-, ~'. """""D" l,~, --:~r, e . y ,_. ~~~ ~~~ face iI""II:r 'I.tho e non"d n d ...::J1_ ~Q-.;.:..: .')~"'.: _r:" The' great similarity between. the vila and ,Arte'mis :0000, ,sca.'t{oely be :f~~ ,,-,.,.'-.·--:k·· d'-~ 11""" pamcuiarv - ·t'h-· 'VllC,3.\ is represenre .. ,-", ,-- sid·..··.-· th ~,-,h,',-; ...;'i~i~l~ &,2; '-'~"'=~r~I' 1'.>-- "'''-d'~1 ..· ,~,mar,e_,",n me . "~. as resJ",lug~,-, me metmrar ...... 10 ~, carrying a bow; ,and, ridiFllg upon a" deer, She is, asseciated with s]s,ter vilas, Artemis is, Iik,ewi.se~ represented Iiving In the :m.oun.tairtS.),car.ry,i'ng: a bow, and ·1~"Ijll:f U,rU a d eer ~ - mon' ~ .......... ~..!Iilli, . ,~ assoclaited 'i~~·rh!nymphs, .A''-·.emis .i~,~ course. ss She ,,': I ~~J .1m~ ~" rt ...... ~ ~!lII" ,4 n~d· ~~,. ....... __ . ~ ~~~_ also claSsi-caUy associated W,~,dl'ttbe:lunar crescen t.' .,and,; ultimately, M.th, the
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otcher decorations =: .~~,. ;~di~.. bang present. At Toplica and ,at Boljurn, a, figure In, man s ,~:IotlUmtg ts n: .1Dg " dee ~11~,,_., "" ,iLII,: h , d of - --"-.',", ,~ancers (~ "-,'f;' . , .. : :~'I')" ..::~." -'~'-l": t'r ,. -,~ . lb··,l a .. eer-' aise at 't~~eneao o· ·R row (t d--'I:' '1-"·, '-- .~~- Ill"'" 1~ I,4a ]-',-t se-ems reasoname .. to __ to id,e-n.tifY this personage with the vila, at least ..in 'the case where she is clearly
'~:i , ,~ ,,-,,, .. .'i .' ~ "'~~

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'i,

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three kno .c· nnles riding lilU-ee , now,n e.xmn,p ... ::,-.~ the ~,.~"".-'!·O·,·ir:'" 'a' p,·'e·lt""!·o···jtji; on ........j,1I·ii.e-eCl .. \'. .' I -:·
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thP~-'''''''''''''''o~''n m' 'of'i'u"n+-ed'",' deer ,::~ E'.~:.,,""~:~':__:" mounted horse 5,5 a nd woman ~~J,'I.i·:~~_'~,.':.:~:_ .. _~.Ir~ a. -'an\i9lo'n- ~,~~..'~:._~.. )~~U nne yl hole I~ngaloft: a large ring., &8 'The .ew travellers in this. region ~n the eigh teenth ,~Ljtji,1I nin..etee nth ... U. centuries report that the da nelng ,U..·. .. ~ ..... o:n the_ tombsrones _ .tg:lgu n . ill . ~= . ~~ . _ ~~~ ~ ~ . _ _ wer-e identified 'by local, peasan ts with the vilas, ..6,7 It m wortch, ou.r notioe t'hat '-~'I•:-~, - - 'I"~ . ',.-." .• d""I: .. " ,.. ,.-."', '.,.:' place o~,VLaB IS :", -.• d.·~'-,,.-.:~' .',.,. ,A.,.." - :~, a co.mm.on,~,a.:n{:lng-...,11,: .•.-,. '-'if':" -::··'~l.>·· .~, laSL_e caves,. 5,8 .("U! W~ ~~': ~.-.. ·t··h····.·· ·~,,'··d.· , 0: _.e - , saw,~e n _er 'I::f thi' d,~1' who I'eads the ctanc,e may' be reIated to' the' vila'i' 80-"1tn.e: rider of th,le d.eer rna''v lilceltVise be· oonnected. with. 'tltu~woman. with tbe: :rin~~ Th.e sing····Je d.eer" w'h~n. :it appea'f,s on th,e to:mbs,b):n,es, ,is. ,a)'mos,t ,always p'lctured with,' a siog),e
l~_ I!I.;= :~ ~";.-~ _,,~_, O'1Ili11 .l~
"l; e.I

fem~... e I ...." Th, ~ stri-'~Igsof dane ]~nk' figures on the,R torn bstones~ E,~,) shown._ho~.d]nghands·d·'.. .:,e,,~~,I1' ..~.. ~,L~' 1,-~ :.-- ,':- ,hands LiS ,c~i'11~~1l (Pl, ar-e '. '0>' _,~~:~·f: ,",~~ . ~ .. and. sometimes In. t.,u,e1[ linked tre:.l]01J" ,'--~ ances o ,'t1f.l: .....no, U.IllS, 'Ci):mpI,ete with tr-efQils;, can. be: found elsewhere in. ,Elu~opeat the same time" but without the, Ieadli.ng fi,gures common to the S't'eCct6tl .. The dancers on _ the to;~,bsto,nes have three main types of leader, There is
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'. :·iL..· ,"," ·z··· , 11. '~·t.-~'~'i oe k . eturnmg .. I' na IL;e nunnng R·· .:. """ "-'"to-. tne cave at_ ,~,avw,a,,ill Wlu. b. ooserv ed ·th t ehe h +:.. scene. leXhfbi.ts,certain peculiarities, On t'he:left we have a horsemen ,a"md, a, bound ...-..,. -) ".. d··· " ' -II·· .,.1j,·,,:· pursumg ,., a ceer, anc·d'· ,_'0 I_I._"e. ht o· ,,~,:iI1"l- deer stands,5 a. man armea W,hh a. .. to the :.r.tgIIl. '·f' U],e '..eer 8, an · " .;,~'].g~ Ioj. bow ('-'F'~· -,.-")., .
l,.·

c,

I·.··

~I··

.·,"·.C.'C

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A well-known method of hunting deer throughout the Middle A,ges, 'was tD r 1D<unu,e: them on horseback, _aided by hounds, The hounds eveamallv I €lIver. . I'

100,

took... .....deer,',.. pulling them ,d,'vIIW",",'_" , W,,-,'h'~~e' h-' ~e,'.m'."',~ "ca:'-'m:'--.'I~U'P'" andIJL diseatched ","" ,the _ e I"' D Ul ~"I,,", . ,Ullit. ~'~'~I.o.~ 0.!!i.,n,,,,"., UI...iJlt'"lRou... i them with spears. ,Th,ere a,re' ,ex;.amples of wh..a',t appears to bel,this,method,~J 0. r hun.ting on the to:m,Ds-ion.es,",6,a,· ,Another method", how,ev,er, was; ,a]SQ in U$;6 in the M.·.·····'u, , Ie Aees In this case a number of bowmen W, ~ were statio ,t··, ,e _, ...I,-lld' "'"0' .• -'l,W., til, ~". 'I..JI .. distance, The deer were driven towards these by' horsemen, and hounds, and shot down, bY' the bowm,en as they approached, 69, It: stems obvious that this latter' method, of hunting deer could have 'been a good d.eal, more dan ... , gerous than the '.rst method, If ODiehad, an inefficient bowman, he 'W-D1Illd. 'be endangering not only the deer, but also the hounds, and the 'PllnUill,g ho-rnemen, Such ,ap"pe,ar,s to he tbe. situation at: Zav.ala~ ,Deerilun.ts, the type uti~'izjng bowmen are d:e:pic.ted on several of the tom'bgIUH},es,,?O' and the 'bowman is 'so:nle,times sibo'WTI,lnrhlng behind ,R tr-ee:.,71 Yet there are several cases 'which do not fl:t in wi:tll, 'the simple depiction of a deerhunt, At ,Bija,~a.;the' archer himself disappears; and 'the: deer Is faced ~ere~y .'Iw.ith a. drawn, '~ow ..~'I At M:Olkro" ~w,e~ljSe'IVe' that o~er 'fi~· :ur~s ha','Ve been nlacedUl between'-- the d.eer and.' ehe" lurkins bowman (P~ '1,~L)'.73, Thre 1- J ".I. ... -~--. F"--'" ... _ ',!Iir _" .... .. .. _- 1. ." .-_ '... _.. _- 1 - . 1l1iJl_.la:a. UU1._" 1 .'. __ figures in questi,on consIst of a man carryi'p._g a child who bears a CI\OSSlt while 'Wl'th his left hand h,e holds, the tree behind' which 't;b,e bowman lU.rts., Both figures, are represented with haloes, 't: I," ~', Iml :oPJl.w,e~' i per aps . . I' I,ne most ~ ",' .. ''~ .. --- --. '.' - -'-. .. I S'I,~ ,C"'b" It····L. ([' ,~S uerh .~ ... one . IO'J the """ ,', m,ys,"t·enous S3U),ts '0 f"~tne be .- .. '74~:'I; ':, Clal;andar- hut --'""" did-_J ~~:~his- name ]nl1flli.~~ ~.",..,.,'"' J '''b~ infant G<h'i~;tj:'~ a.nw h.e -- -"" --_._, .. --. -. -- -- - .... - ... ~r.'. ...,""1 ~.::n·1"\l' ~-~,e ~u.I,~u, ,. did have a :st8;'ff' which b~oss(j,med .int·o a t[iee~'i St. 'Chmt'opber was the patron. s,runt of people~, such M 'trave]~,e~~ 'whose ~alety was uncertain 'th'fOU,gh.out the day,., He protected them, In fact" ,ag,ains,t sudden death, ',6 ·-I-h . '"i . '''" .... ~ ,~-" .. th ..... 1!.... -=-! "IL udd _...l T.ne ancien ·t'I' assooanon , 'O'lr rne arcner W~:tI.I,sncuen-- d"· - th·,I nee d h.... 11 b lea II'WYJJ-¥ ne i'l I' 'i, 'Iti""~l..n~ _. Artemi .and A'<ll__ '- '.~ '.; . iaf earn , ,(iIr ",'-{(iIr '1~'~I"'1 ~:~, -=-<~-,~' ,'I .an d n&l!S~. upo _'. e ....s a _ ",po o are assoc_a '''di '-b Wl,tt~.I, lutS weapon. ~'r ..
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man, such as Prlluka near Livno," or where he is t~r-e'attening' one ~f'th,e: oplP~osingborsemen1 ~ at Gorica (P:L~Isa)" ~l-II',.It seems, th,en~that there 1S some evidence £or ,a;ssoclatmg the figure ofthe archer at the Zavala, cave' with. the :fi,gur'e' of' Death, ,~ Mediaeval legend contains a number of references to sudden. death, or , ,·--'t rior di'.alar·· . "h-I "I t h -·t-!,····· u"ee,I_.'~~ A···.·· ''jII ~I.,a.lve: me~,·loneu.~,. ... ,.'lI .. 'If jL-- ·~tc~. --.a t'L,! , m.ysl.:el_'l__ou~ •.d)....~PIl .. I.:,e:."'!'a."-nce, W.' ,.1..:5, ". unnng J1 ;~U.!I~ need not have. been an uncommon event, considering how mediaeval deerhunts _ W)9'm' conducted , and__need not. have had a relisious ~;'~llfic:~cQ;n".. e~ O. 1k.. .. c ~_ •.•u ·•· . ._ . ~'... . _. _. _ .... _ _"" _... . _ _..... __.,...... v 1 '0''''' iiJil~ .._ 'ijI'~.f1i.-'i"':'~y if you had ""!>. 'p'-",;r.J;I'rb~,C--.-I';-:~O'it enem y"-, you ... '~I~'a'h-' 'J!~. ~n····V1""'t' e '~':'m'", out ,11.1, li..-un't"l"-ng'·"'~.ll""",lUjiJIL" .~-U, ~ I: _;~1AJi, .lIiJiJLl,o-_ ,~.uU_J
S!
,"~I

mrectly- threatening

'iii"·''':I~,'l..1 ':o.'~I!I", ,".I!,~:JJi. UDg lWJl"~

fnnctio ..n'"' T,i'h' ere are s~:1'~r-"'I~l~'n-terestinz' steeei ,....g,.u,o ,!......~~ .


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'the Orana£h eles V :-:,' 'IU:'-',> ·"h-,urg , new.,-: "-- ib,le jD-"'...l.-, '","-.1',,-,,41 ~~ - ,~.,~ '-', i'f.:' JI",1;~O:l!,.LCVUJ.wI.w,., at , \ontz,_. m "00 As " a,t ~dim1~"··a' N. iU.'..._ bv' S'jo\o":[ac 2;h,.... _ ' '".... .,. ,J ..-,', -;-"~';~V1' .if" mi~]jit'Ceril1l, and: la'reVl.Ste. _ n 'W:est s~de' of the~ cJh~-t. .from, ~~njia
,c' . '/ ',!!,A,,;I\ - -,,,' '.....

~!i:~~=e~~~~sJ: v;~Ro:;f~~/t~~~~r:,s'I:~ d_.·~~."",_tct~ ~61~{d:, I" rn"- ~',":'and-;~"'~ - ~,-.'.~ b .-~~p ,.~~., 3 I~' ,4.,
n,'.f'ih.tI1l~J~na'.'.ii!i : Co paintmg~ 'The: ¥'Oiung 'c',
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'·I'~~"ho·.·.·.·It;,.,.' -n,~# ..t "T"",........ 'nl I' 'I"',~ .. .-;4:~, , l"'i0u·1iJo _. 'ii.. ~ .tiI,n U;ll~~~I, .I. ~!<I>!'", ,Ii"" . ~ "" 'I ,,,,X 1j;~·O'iIM'~I"-i~'u. ""'";:~'" '.L' ,'V~'~ '~"9',;i'{), .G~'''''i\iI'_ -" """''':JI~'' ':f~n poLV'~ fig'~ :Q'9\' .. -' ., '--". 171'The 'bow ,and ,arrlOIW' ·pllay ,an Important
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Ibid~, 'LiPl'
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"ili"V egot ,L~~ :u6m~:~ p'~~ X'XIII" fj_g'~ 43,", ~':S: m--I1Ii· .. ·· B""~"- ~aI';~Jevo, ,,195!2', '-'1 '", -. ,~~~a~ ''ii'- ... L.: ,.nJfg, C,' ""'.'~ .ro'/!io. iP""'
I

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l'SI:34~ pp~I :Q'g:,

~a'k;e'S-pirit 'iti ,EurfJ/J$tm


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C····-:cU·LTI·' I'N': I' 'S:O,":··c'N· "1·A:'·· A' .]Pl:.l·~D-·"'· luR-I' Z~~OO'.:.,._'._.__!.~~'"IN-~A' -HC' ':-'.:'V1.:.:.' ·,,:.,"."'-'IJL
I!l' I_'·'-"·'b\:·[_':". '~~~l"'':____'" ~.~~_,_.___:~ ... ~,..

15

,A 'MBDIJ\'EV:AL,~S.TB'RY

'CU'LT IN' BOSNIA ,AND HERZEOOV,INA


w' ·,jLlA'O: he ~~",,--,J'Ii;:;I'
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lOS

ti~.,t'IL"D'P, ~ ~lQ, n ,nwe

Oslds, the _~ulg._~ d. eitv. lar Thus W"'~ may ,eanj-oc:htr,e: that the ,even.ts represented on, the IG~amo~ tablets concern successive stages of Initlatien, ViI hich "finally issue in it 'transfiguration of 'the' ,r; nd Idsa t~ In... nto '. sol ~I'r-_' d ,~'hI a" I!;.,oan.1· 'On, Icertam;[1i, s.t:ecci in theregion of Radimlja, there are' represented sta'nding male figures 'with the righ.t; hand raised (pt 1: 4b)" The bandIs greatly enlarged,
1 ~'\r.IU~"~_'·'·rt··
'Il4JI:t.

~a'd' lulta m £~'C\e:m. ,et eaout -r palmae ,candid-me foliis in modum radiorum peosissolis exornato 'me et in vicem simul acri 'comtitu.'tu.) re'pen'te V..... redu~·~~U·!:J~,..... '~t"~~' _' ',' '., P "."rlu=ll~~ errabat ", lIl~": .. IC>*:D l~'n-e asneetnm , _. ' ' _ ", -' t I, n_ thiss '.~,~-t re ,..':e·.·· ':"',d~' .... ... 1r'1l:-lt: ~" de"'~ Isis who was, of'c:01Illrse,~ a lunar po.s:_ur h stoo I, ''L fore ""u.. eod ...... ... iUC--lb, dei ty-", It fairly clear that the effect' of this, particular ritual was death and
d'~' -'''t·· ., " ,e~,-.era:i' decore 'c-o a, cinxerat, ron tentibus : sic ad instar'
~;'~A>t:· " . - manu
1'.' '. -~"" ....... ~_ :. ".'·[~.:J.I
I('!

·'1'~·.d'1~:- U.e ,Ii,1Ill. '[\0' ,:jb-I'~l81' wonderful es Ca In,,!U' = . ._

~',~~ a pu blic W,Q;iilI",~.·l


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ev ent
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m Ieius, o".Ji.'u.ilI"
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a'. raisedU ',p..'1"tform , ' "Q,lUi.""_,~,~._;,


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hee; " '.'.' ~ '--, eba I-;~ ~: ,1 is '__ ,says" ",!;g~e:'re, ,"-.m Ri~ 'm"1m·"·
-:'orniirii'~[iI'jI;:]'

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the 't).tJHJ!.--,~ 1J'i",;-..Jidl;es·

0" .;!Il'

that
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II.. "'-'

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these d,etwb; tbern is a strong connection between this particular _g,eS'ture: nd a representations of the sun In-human form, We~have already remarked how, G'.' bl 'iL. fi H",,1i" 'IL. on - thae :>.'I amoc .x ta_"_,e:tts:)'t1,II;engure 0 f ,I,: ;alOS, or tne sun, h Id 'iL~: ng,~.~'t d ~_,OI_.,~S ,~.UlS,.. 'iL h nano aloft" showing the .inner side of 'the palm, lNi.tch, fingers outstretched. This g,eg'w.re:was an Important element of'the late Roman sun c'U],tand was in fact, - d' - d e: -'.' f' ~ "E So,1 Invi .. ill' I,op,te,~. representations 0:.'- th e "~ lor mperor as > ().. ,I.nvictus. 90 'Ff'lh ,.' ,jL .~·il1IS, on a" eoin ~f'C'~r.ae·:'~lla- - . ". , ., o ' a, .ca .".the Empoeror appears in the scheme of the, sun on the sun wazon, 'h~'t~'h'_'1'~,i'I,~Ln,'_'Jl~n1\a"ired .,- n t.he ap prop::r··ate g,' '~~Ii'llr'\A .~ res (n, On I a. me d '''J;~l-'P __ of_ Co_ n '"' 1''' ,W,W,Q. .. ,d,I e _1 on .. stautine ]1; thegesture is r-e:tain,ed" although the tr.apP,i'llgs of tbe: sun ehariot do not applear ~'9~ __ ~'. tur --,'-m"· '1-; ,-,~C!!,OII'n~"'l'-: ust '" ,Althouzh ", ,(!iO'~~~ conie .... ,J,I,'!UI U,i!::) ·m,...... L.·· :;,eL'l,'l..Il.e ....,~ . ,nll,.,""~~,~" ...y be l nvolvev .d .. ~, ,....".. UUJI, ,0 e 1[-',''0.. ILl ,v.... ,,~, I,' shm ~'~,~'~f'.k.-'·-.._ suggest that the single figures v;]itb. the raised enlarged hand at Radlmlja each represent a deceased, penon, who, has, during his lUetime, been, thr.ough some form of ri,~tlla.lni,tiat~ion i.d~<n,tiryi.ng :him. 'Wi,fL, fh,e sum, and there by securing i for himself Immcrtality ~ J further propose that the actual process of ini tiadon i~ _'''Ir.":~,_!,.=--_.~th_G north ~Iill;'_ 'ut ... l'··~O,~~:·':~-'~[~-'VJlil.['··:I! ::':~~~~._:~ ..~·t'· the scene 'W·-"hich ,l:"t'1!..··e- l ,~~ renresent... ~-J.. ed Oil ~.J,~.i_,.-~~ end __ ~.IJ,.. :Z'm....I!:.(a ston e '3,. nd ,,..:[ Ul~,.~ a:ppeats 'WI take' place inside' 'the hill is the 'nnal part of the' ~.'mitiattiion~ 'which und.,oubtJed~.y included a lind of vis,iou~perhaps of the tvi:in deities represented
1 : 1 , , , ., .. , .. , ". ".. ,. -, . "... . . . 1~ -"

::.:~::dafi:::a: h::fl~'~::1o:J~1t:nI:ei!:ie~;sA:!~~'= le
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'There is one other local monument which 'Qoldd 'be connected vvith 't'ms ,·s:o·· t o':.(;:-' incr.'" 11)Je; to :n' "'(;:-'JI 'ajce, , ~m,"ill.l fiftv m,:,:·_lJi,~... from Z~~,o··.· IS b .lUiI. 0',.'..'n. ".., r th t) .'• ~J::.....~'~:, "~'~t,- -'. oQ. ,.......... .. 1'!'11!fl'C!' ,ill 0 . ,5'~;Q" small mDU,:n,e'u a, 'waterfall" At 'th"e top of the hill :sta.nd;~ die castle ,00f'DuK.,e
,1:," ... ,
1
1

be~,O,¥t.,913i

= = ,.

W!'-'!,

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IYf.A,RJAN'WEN:ZEL

Hrvoje Vukfic Hrvatinic, 'who lived from 1350 U) 14;1:6" About a quarter of' a mire below the castle 'til,ere:has been excavated downwards, from a :eiec,e of leve] gf\ound an underground clul.m,ber, or cave, This has 'been descnhed by T'[' helk~IM:, ",.s,~' "'_,,",,' and .. others 9." as (GUam. A"botb9'& ,.m: .. a,; ' '='~""' ", One descends a fhg,ih'tof SIXteen, steps" Into ,8\ small chamber about seven feet broad and seventeen feet long (PIt 15C)~ On, tche :rigbt side oftbi$ chamber t~ere . is a l?'w .d?orway; through which.' one caD, P~ ~:n.to8" much I,~er chamber, about fourteen €eet by twenty-seven feet, T,M.s chamber eontams a complicated series 0'£ niches and cells attached to ~,t, the whole having a gJoo,my and d,nngeon",like appearance, A,t each side of the cha~mber there are cells partly sim,e~d,edby acreens of rock, intO' w:iu,tJJ, are cut holes in 'the form of a cress ftanl~d. by a circle and crescent, or 'by two spears~ .If 1igbu, were to be p]'H~ed. ~tbi~, 'nh.~se, nl~'~,es't~,ey !lou'~d,s~n.~: t~,rougb. the holes, producing' a singular lU,umlnatlon of the chamber lI.tseH'~ Beside one of these ce]~s, along the northern w,aD, is a" chest-like :hollow big enough fbr it man In the: middle of th nOOI". there ,..~,~.~~~~'~111~tr hole throuzh w·,,'~lioli"'h·[.' steos 1[~-·-:1 d.·o'Y",1'JII~'n'~'('t crvnt ' a ~ '''''i~ s: 0., ene ,IS "" 'I,;,-..lI:,&,,_UJiAoli, . Veil. .. ~I,Ji,~ ""'10,~~iIiJl)~~, ',1'"""'" ~,,",,!i!.U',,",~~ ~~~V .. about fifteen feet square", In, tbe' middle o{"tbU: [cryllt there [extends from. ceiling [0'" f ro _:'t~ thro'~.' zh which .." oles :·c. [ ,FD' t in the ,I.t,r m" r,;.f,' fo .. o JJ,u' ~1I1·, '0'_ ,,1.1 ,..._". h . JI. . t·,' £I!;:"i;O', . a th in ~iI!'C, ,R rather elaborate cross, 'with a efts-cent on one slde, and a, [circle on the other .. , 11 lUi rn ;CI'~'~'Ung' sted 10' ,'= tm;CI[ remarkable - [excavation.".... such S;'·"~:;~·''-~ ;[,1.1, , have . ~eve-raJ, :e,.. .. ~~"'~'o'.:.~n's',...-' , """'' ' '-a ...'C"' ,....., _ .~ ["__ u,_ - - - - -... . as, tha,t} in earlier tbr~es:, ~,twas ~ed.··as a prison, Orras a" torture cham ber ,; and ' It. Is quite possible 'that: it was, ,in fact, used :for these pnrpo~ses,. ~.'uch purposes, ~. ·.....11 " -.., bowcv'~r· can '1............1'1 h ave 'L....... the ongmai mtenuon 0:f" t h e b "'Iders. Th'.e hard y r been 'L.. mn ".: '!', (reiails·~,'w:e' have, descrihed, th,e~, and Siev~Ta.],oth~r' r~a,tU"~~'of th~ ,0bvi[omly of ,a. religious character ~ '" ,A suggestion more ~:naccordance with the, facts is ,tbat '~b,[e place 'was a hermit's cell, T'nere is '[1[,0 w,ay of disproving this suggestion, Am excavation of :this magnitu:d,e 'w()~ld dema'md g'rea't zea'(,and ind,~s.f~ i ~b~,E o~d.ou bt :h.ernl~,ts, :m' possess these qualities, Or it 'may have' been that some rich pt;~n, caused the place' to be constructed so' that be: coUld retire u:o:m, 'wlorldly affairs, The: doorway is, in rac:t docoratecl with the ~u',ms, f Duke Hrvuj[e, 'who was noted for o 'unortnoc .. XY ,~., .. ev:e:irY -w,ay~ nut re'rea ..from woeldlvtemotationa " .. , ·'·:'l..···d·····,,· .In. , ,.~ .. '~, tr ····t rO~~ob w~Jtr.L_y ·e,,_,PII..<:~_O~~,':'was :nOE ,in , O ..... ' I", .... ,ke~pjng' wi.th, his character, Furthermore, if th.[e place was, in ~):rigina. hernti,tage~one would have expected some tradition to this e'ffect. to-have survived, However, no such tradition has 'been recorded by any writer known to me, There is also the possibility that :it: was a :m,a,usoleum,t as is implied by Jts, modern title, ,thg' ,ct),ta€<'Om,.bs ~ This may certainly have _been the case .. 'Yet , ~,thou,gh. 'WIlK and [soot fr~,m, candles haV'~ b~~n noticed upa~,the w,~; the discovery of bones has :00'£ been, remarked, However.it may be that funeral services, were h.el.din here, 'while bodies were buried elsewhere, ;i!:I![ll"";n'~\il1;fr.~i(l,'I[1:D, c'-" ~.v':e··~n".~·. the others.~~ w~'~h': ][1: ha ,1:"',~: m entioned ."9U 10'm': JU~ ... U~.,.... d.··.· ~_~-~ ~- 'L.,y~:c' _.~'. u.' ~,Jl. A1""~'o."'ug'h~' are subs,taritially a,ccurit:e' so far as tbey gil" there is one matter whieh they :a~·' . '~to' af~e"overlooked . This is that the -'p·~''la,ce·-18-0bviously~.~design:.: d , .e !.rpe . h . v. .., . . -"
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what I may call a, theatrical manner, A. skilled :iUusionist wonld be provided his effect ,. '_ ,.. , __ 0_ tJli[, A __ s e,u~,ec~~ ,grea ',t, deal of 1I..!U,e ,11 ,t"~l~'~Ift the eonstructie".~. plainly fu-nctio .'.~""~' nd some ,tiI;fth.;'K'!.JiIi: fin: _ _ __ are notions _._.. !.ii,e.iQi;IiJi, ~ U ,In is ,Ji!A;l".J .. ~ ,I, I __ . u, \U,i'tIJ, a ~~ _ "".. _ .... v _ __ "'~~ __ __ made partiaIlly evident. n' One' 'm,eftdy walks round the p,lla.ce'canyin,g a lantern",
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':', >'-,-,r'::",:,·,,:,:''':'-,,-I tnousan _ye:aES Il)e :--gap',' o. over ,3, ~jI"-,-,, '-'7- --"d-['.~ :--- 'It-~h,n,:-een the 'G·::-~-i'""'~:X: t'-I't-,11I',,:,ts: ':-d,-'I !l!l.e_llll!ulLVl;:, l3,Il)Jle,__ m", a the: ,- ,i5!V.i1 - tombstone' It miehe - he SiliIlll"P' osed - that'_',n, an area- so close to 'Ro-me' ' I -rlm"l , " 'Zo"iY"o'~ca ..'. ---- , ----.il!> ,-, -' -- 1-- .. .. ,-'- .' - -',' '- " --"" "tnt' d yea.[s waUl, ..• b ampee nme""~'Qr thie complete 'eJJ]'mdnati-on 0--_,- un ..' lld-' ne . 1 ;; 1.r ,., '" f a 't~.~ousan:··.' o,rt::hodox. belief That this is, not :80 .is. P.~c,lain :£tom, tb.e reports of ~ajl'l!,aJl g·· a .~ ::mts. 1 ~ lr r o.po,n. fbi! r-egi,on.. The heresy referred 'to has been called the B;o;gfimii heresy, as hev .'~e··· b[litl.'~' the re : is not m uch indene ~ld,'le',t evid ence th at the ,P'o,.-:g':'o,:~~'~~[ 't· -W=WI~JI W·. re-', ~!I. . ~W~Wl. ~j,r' m L1 .. ' ~~Wti'l • ~. existed __ ~. ~ 'I'l"",~, lr_. mn ~'~~ ... ~'iy,:'.' k''~'~rV __ l~~~l,t~ Cosmas the'.': P~:nrA,i:!,~'i[7 ev.··'er··I~~ ..~_l b~~e.···.9:8",[1" ~!Ae-m-I"-I'"s .... more UJfi.c.Ill. l.~l"j ... 1,_l~r,,-,~W~Wl

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""'~!Ii." under the"roots of some: '~p'~."-;~""I'~~V'selected tree, ~ lil\-', ., ... ~ _ ~~"~. \Aii~iL, "'cu_"" usually near a n,ver' bank, or b,Y' some other 'water ~ :An tid,t is made on d1.e~ :fa'l" side of the excavated chamber, ,o£ten 'Wi.d,e: nough fot two" cattle to 'Pass e 'to"ilH"vUg,. iL'~:' i,","h;,"~:~,::,: v '-"1 e'··""'T:, ~'~n~: are ch osen, I,'f;' ,there are =:':n '0·., ~,W::::1""'~C!', two people..': " mu,e b if ,Blu. ~ [ ~.,u," , ",' v , , " .. wi th identical names" or pohrati'm" are selected instead ..Q'~ All the' fires in the l ,~~"~". . .. ,+= .. ." h"" d and", Ul,r st ~, t . ,t s~cre:cy; th."."." rnatk'e fi fie. T1h" ,en" ,...li '., ". "., .~""." ".'. . vluage a.r-e: eX,I.4'lii__.gtJls"I:Wte.· ..,. S"'D'CI}e5I" ~.•··~es~ l"v"O in 'tD,e'dead. of n.i,gnt;, 'tb,ley go to the tunnelled cavern, where each twin stands beside his ~~·~'hted .. either side of, the .. entrance, ~ 'Cattle are . ,led through " bv ["e5l. ""6 s~,." .. " fire 1... ,. I .. ..' ,.,., , ." .~~~ , ,.'J . ",.... .. 1 "....,. ,. th r", '1".'fIt '.', 'n.d, '··",1', :..' '. naxe ed men, or m,en go t ..oug,~,il ,al,o;ne,~ Th"I"],e fir e rna k·''" .~'. ~~~ · ···' _em" ,a"~ I p~:. peop._ e•.'pas," .., in.g through the tunnel, must be' m,oraUy sound, No murderers can pass ·"'h",mu.grh 1< ana everyone .. ""1 It, ,,m,~e: a ro.ul.esS1Q.R the e way, Ur""... " "eme.r~ng:t """d"I"" ... ",' muse . ,~~I~.· .' .., ,,_C." ."', 'pan '"'"'"'~"~' ilL . .... ",' . on " '"~. .,'. "'. ked "' "'h'" L".""" "'lh" ... " .. : "'h ... "... . nick .'"i ,.. . 'bile: parncipants ". are marxea o,n. the toreneaa.J witth a Co uarre d sncx, g;1i,Ven, a " in of ~'Iilk S ~ 111 "' ... L cake .. tifi> eat" or , O'1ve:n S! Sin ,0;:" 'f;llUw:c :o,metimes a ~a"~e' nng ' :ts a d'd d to tne ...,. "'e; ".. _1\_ ~.~ _-- ~~'J.~ _tu"I."I.nel.throng CD' which ,r .. . . must ..s;tl~''..,' or a tina' ma'V' be. su.bs,ti.tuted for the people ,~~ .. " :0 iIll," .. ..~ ~ ~~'"'b ~"Ii:~~I ' ~~ ~ ~" ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~"~ ~ ;iI altoeether W",:···· , s~e,, he e-rl9;, then '.......... e '.... ..r.e, .'-' __ ".., 1_"ien, I'I,OW ' the ,,1~n.eU,e_ :.; _ nnnelled cavern '0:"1"" the ~'n,a ILuIU:~!el, wo.geu.er,. ." l cave: " n,. , ." .~ ':,.. ,. re ...".. ,:"~""'h··'. ,,0 A ~', " " ; "1""""' ,rep~ac~s,anu d represents t.,. ,Ie God ness ue,meen ,"'iIt, cD",~":" tne anoscun, excavation ,li.l! Iu. . east 41-o ' '~'~ ~ung:" ..~.
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kn~gll.ts~ Of these, the bow'~,the dee!' ,a;·md.the Diost.uri, af16 an :£onnd, at the ,entr,ance to- 'the ,Z:avaJa -cave~ Neither tJ:u~ wo,man; n.or the C"T-escent, mor the
It JJg, n.ot Slltp,nSln,g' that th.e' cave ,a~tZavala ~,as~~m~agllJ1ed be an entr,anct: , to ·nil~'·n:·e··t'e···n:·.t.·h. . "~,..,.I MmJmalllo··~,6 " r,P.1I'¥l,rts, tha.t " a c.on.,.., ..•e. =~ "''''''~~ . oi"'O"i""t'urv' ~ ~ """:lI' t"~, e 'Un ,'ILoJi,nr:",""ld~:" I,'~ t~'hl:e.··' v. t"h:.~"~1"""d'·I~if"'!i: .. or . ~ ." ""'r""'" " ;s,tant w.ind. b],ew' from the 'en:tra.nce' to the C8!V~:j and "tha.t fto:m, time to tim,e ,R
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1'·'f' '1"1i:'i'" mad ...~ I Joi'i · ,OUI" ,. .......


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b",····~·.'·'c t'h' ,,,J.;.,: ue u,eer" '~'h' CI'e""ce"," an_,d: th.e 'toum-'~::!'n":' .:."~e, ······'·s.····nt "eyIg
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lea ,f,·.. th e····. .Ii"'~ . duble til....·. >r".Olnn~;~ti:'i'n_" "" ~,i'ii!d,·I~('!l'!o. . " w'nich il.. ...... . ~ ""_~.........."" v
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,A :MB'D'IAHVAL MYSTEIlY

[CULT IN' 1808NI'A AND HERZEGOVINA


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n~)ise'came forth" as of (h,e: bea;ting' of a, drum"


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~:~~~~~~\~~~tt;:n:d~~lfbi!~I11fr!:i~h~ e=~rt!e:h~n~re=~ cave, but that, far as I could 'tell", the drumbeats are ne longer
heard,
,s~a:lf f the Archaeologleal Insti'tuJ'tt~,~ o .'~,grad~,~ ~:~;u::Zem.al~ski Mu~ej, SaJraj,ev,'Q\j and 'the Yugoslav Fede[,al I:'n5,ih.u;te::for the: P:rote(,tio~

W,be;l), this happened, the

,~f '~~,llIne[~;b1t
researches.

rot

their ass~siltance ~o my