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# Thermodynamics 1.

01

## Syllabus Heat Energy Work 1st Law of Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is fundamental.
Mechanics, E & M, Quantum, relativity, can't answer all the questions in the universe.

Why do cold packs get cold? If work can be done to make heat, can heat be applied to make work?

## How would we define, scientifically, some basic properties?

What does 'hot' mean? What is temperature? What is heat?
Heat is energy.

Joule experiments And temperature? Well, an attempt to define it leads to the 0th Law of Thermodynamics: There is a property called temperature. This property is necessary and sufficient to determine thermal equilibrium.

U = W

## 1rst Law of Thermodynamics

U = Internal energy Heat term Work term Q W

You have a system which behaves as a simple spring with k = 2 N/m and a heat capacity = 1 J/K. By how much does the internal energy and temperature change when you a) stretch the system by 10 cm. b) allow the system to snap back to it's original extension quickly.

## For this problem we made the following substitutions:

Q = CF T W = - F x
T, F, and x are state variables

Two.

## Are state variables path dependent?

No.

Note that: dU = Q - W
Two non state variables add up to a state variable!

Thermodynamic Path
What is the thermodynamic pathway taken in the spring pulling experiment?

T1

## F (a) (b) (c) x0 x1

T2

Because we know that the force starts and ends at zero, and we know that the temperature has changed, then the final length must be different from the initial length.

## The most common work term you will see is

F dx = P A dx = P dV

Equations of state are state variables written as functions of the other state variables.
P = P(T,V) T=T(P,V)

The most famous equation of state is the ideal gas equation of state.
pv = RT (Ideal Gas)

Some necessary questions and clarifications: What is the system? Define the boundary. What are the boundary conditions? Open or closed? Fixed or floating? Is the system in equilibrium? Equilibrium or steady state? Is the process reversible? What is work and what is heat? Depends on the boundary definition. What exactly is internal energy, U? As a good start, think Hamiltonian.

Let's say you have a piston which you move from point 1 to point 2 along one or the other of the paths below:

What is the boundary of the system? Are the boundaries open or closed, fixed or variable? What is the work done on path (a) and path (b)? How does U from path (a) compare to U on path (b)?

Carnot Cycle

## Path1,2 - Isothermal Path2,3 - Adiabatic Path3,4 - Isothermal Path4,1 - Adiabatic

Do work, take in heat Q1 Do work Do negative work, lose heat Q2 Do negative work

Carnot Cycle

W Q 1

## (the fraction of heat going in that comes out as work)

Q 1 Q 2 = Q 1

2 Law of Thermodynamics

nd

Can Q2 = 0? No. No system can have a cycle such that all of the heat is transferred into work.

## Carnot Engines in Parallel

Two engines with different efficiencies. Engine 2 is throttled to pump as much heat up as engine 1 lets pass through. T1 Q1 W1 W2 Q1 - W1 + W2

Q1 - W1 T2

Q1 - W1

Total work done: W = W1 - W2 Total heat change in reservoir 1: Q = Q1 - ( Q1 - W1 - W2) = W Thus, the second law is violated. Therefore the two engines cannot have different efficiencies, and the efficiency is a function only of the two temperatures.

Carnot Efficiency
REVIEW
First Law: The cycle returns to the same state, therefore: Implying . . . U = Q - W

U = 0 W = Q1 - Q2

## An efficiency can be defined as:

W Q 1 Q 2 Q 1

=1
Considering two engines in parallel reveals that: Where

Q 2 = f 1 , 2 Q 1

= 'empirical' temperature

## Carnot Engines in Series

Q1 W1 Q2 Considering each engine separately Considering both engines together

Q 2 = f 1 , 2 Q 1 Q 3 = f 1 , 3 Q 1

Q2 W2 Q3

Q 3 = f 2 ,3 Q 2

## Carnot Engines in Series

Q1 W1 Q2

Q 3 Q 3 Q 2 = Q 1 Q 2 Q 1

Q2 W2 Q3

f 3 , 1 =

f 3 , 2 f 2 , 1

Thermodynamic Temperature
f 3 , 2 f 3 , 1 = f 2 , 1
Only possible if:
2

## does not appear in the equation

f 3 f 3 , 1 = f 1
Let's call f( ) the 'thermodynamic' temperature, T

Q 3 T3 = f 3 ,1 = T1 Q 1
Efficiency is a function of temperature:

T low =1 T high

Entropy
From the Carnot Cycle we know that:

Q2 T 2 = Q 1 T 1

Q 2 Q1 = T2 T1 Q 2 Q1 =0 T2 T1

## closed , reversable path

Q i =0 Ti Q S= T

We can therefore define a new state variable called the entropy, S, such that S is given by:

## First Law (again)

Remember that: The work can be written as:
Now that we have a state variable called entropy . . .

dU = Q - W W = P dV
Q S= T

Problem #1
T

?
S

## Path1,2 - Isothermal Path2,3 - Adiabatic Path3,4 - Isothermal Path4,1 - Adiabatic

Do work, take in heat Q1 Do work Do negative work, lose heat Q2 Do negative work

Problem #2
P 2p0 p0

v0

2v0

3v0

What is the change in internal energy as a system moves adiabatically along the designated path from a to b?

Problem #3
You construct two identical systems for performing a Joule experiment, except that one of the experiments is adiabatic and the other diathermal.

For the adiabatic case you drop the mass M a total height H0 and measure a temperature change T. To get he same temperature change in the diathermal case you need a height H. What is the heat transferred in the diathermal case? What assumptions have you made measuring H?

Problem # 4
A small explosion takes place inside a balloon with radius R releasing an amount of energy . Assume that the balloon skin is adiabatic and that it exerts a constant additional pressure of Pb on the gas inside. The explosion increases the balloon volume by 10%. What is the change in the internal energy?

Problem #5
The surface of the sun is about 6000 K. The average temperature of the earth is 15 C. About 120,000 TW hits the earth every day from the sun. Regarding the energy from the sun which hits the earth, what is the change in the sun's entropy? What is the change in the earth's entropy? Why does the sun not 'run out' of entropy? What is the most efficient engine that can be established between the earth and the sun?

Problem #6
A 1 k resistor is heating a fluid with a 100 mA current. The resistor is in steady state equilibrium with a temperature 80C. After 5 minutes, how much has the entropy of the resistor changed?

Problem 7
Can the efficiency of the Carnot cycle below be improved?

Given that an automobile engine is limited in its temperature range, how can the engine be made to get more energy out of each cycle?