MATHEMATICAL ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA

MAA

Solutions Pamphlet
American Mathematics Competitions

26th Annual

American Mathematics Contest 8
The

AMes

Tuesday, November 16, 2010
This Solutions Pamphlet gives at least one solution for each problem on this year's exam and shows that all the problems can be solved using material normally associated with the mathematics curriculum for students in eighth grade or below. These solutions are by no means the only ones possible, nor are they necessarily superior to others the reader may devise. We hope that teachers will share these solutions with their students. However, the publication, reproduction, or communication of the problems or solutions of the AMC 8 during the period when students are eligible to participate seriously jeopardizes the integrity of the results. Dissemination at any time via copier, telephone, email, internet or media of any type is a violation of the competition rules. Correspondence about the problems and solutions should be addressed to: Ms. Margie Raub Hunt, AMC 8 Chair 2169 Madero Dr., The Villages, FL 32159 Orders for prior year exam questions and solutions pamphlets should be addressed to: American Mathematics Competitions Attn: Publications P.O. Box 81606 Lincoln, NE 68501-1606
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1. 1 nickel. The sum of the mean. a Note that for every 5 minutes Emily rides ~ miles per minute x 5 minutes = 1 mile. 90% of 40 = 36. For 10 to be the smallest number of coins. Freddie will still need at least 4 pennies and 1 nickel to make any amount up to 9. and 3 quarters also satisfies the requirements. 4 pennies + 2 nickels + 1 dime + 3 quarters = 10 coins worth $0. ¥ Note that 4 pennies. He would need at least 11 coins.0. 2 dimes. She can reach 46 centimeters above the top of her head. non-square rhombus 2.99 3. Freddie will still need at least 1 more nickel and 1 dime to make any amount up to 24. and mode is 2 + 2. This takes hour. .. and 7 is 70% of 10. one must prove that 9 coins will not work. Emily will be ~ mile ahead of Emerson.l/f_ /1' 1 I . - 2.4. and Emerson skates fl2 mile. 5. because there are more 3's than any other number. median. Answer (E): A square has four lines of symmetry. Answer (C): 2 26th AMC 8 2010 Solutions 3 The total number of students taking the test is 11 + 8 + 9 = 28. The mean is the sum divided by 8. Answer (B): The ceiling is 2. . and 4 pennies) to reach 99 cents.. Answer (C): Arrange the numbers in increasing order: 0.3. 4. Adding a dime extends the efficiency up to 24 cents.1/ / / I / / / _ . so the stool is 90 . Answer (B): Four pennies are needed to make small change. then he would need at least 9 other coins (4 dimes.26th AMC 8 2010 Solutions 1. The mode is 3. which is 15 minutes. and the light bulb is 10 centimeters below the ceiling.4 . 7. .4 = 100 = 84% 10. 5 * 10 . I -0.5 + 3 = 7. The number of lines of symmetry for the other figures are: equilateral triangle 3. isosceles trapezoid 1. The median is halfway between 2 and 3.9 meters = 90 centimeters above Alice's head.!Q 3. Eventually. Answer (B): If six pepperonis fit across the diameter. Answer (D): Emily gains on Emerson at the rate of 12 .5. Answer (D): 5xl0 _ 5'1'10 - . Notice that happens after 15 minutes. If Freddie chose only 2 quarters.5. :t OR :r\iJake chart that shows the position of Emily and Emerson every 5 minutes. Thus 10 is the smallest number of coins as shown above.2.99. non-square rectangle 2..!ill _ 15 - 5x 10 5x3 - . or = 2. Adding two nickels means that change up to fourteen cents can be made as efficiently as possible. The area of each .-8I I 9. -/ - . Ryan correctly answered 20 + 36 + 7 problems. Answer (C): The highest price in January was $17 and the lowest in March was $10.8 = 4 miles per hour. - 5 1 11 6 10 15 3 21 2 2 12 6 / / '" . for a total of 63 problems. To get from ~ mile behind Emerson to ~ mile in front of him. 8. The $17 price was $7 more than the $10 price.5 = 0. 1 nickel. Ryan received 80% of 25 = 20. The percent of problems Ryan answered correctly was: 63 21 21·4 84 75 = 25 = 25.10 = 34 centimeters high. Adding three quarters permits any amount of change up to $0.3. Answer (D): The three tests contain a total of 75 problems. she ~ust gain 1 mile on him. then each pepperoni circle has a diameter of 2 inches and a radius of 1 inch.3.46 . Time (minutes) Emily's Distance (miles) Emerson's Distance (miles) 0 0 2 1 6. 1 / .1. or 2. and 70% of 10 = 7.

3) x . The fraction of the pizza covered by pepperoni is ~:. /\ /\ 335 1005 67 The sum of the prime factors is 2 + 3 + 5 + 67 = 77. The 24 pepperoni circles cover 247r square inches of the pizza.20)(500) = 100. (1 + QY) ~.lx = 1. Answer (D): The area below PQ is 1+ 0. f Note: The "squaring of a circle" is a classical problem. 5. which is 36. Answer (C): The prime factors of 2010 are: 2.26th AMC 8 2010 Solutions pepperoni is 7r(1)2 = 7rsquare inches. 2010 3 5 12. or of the number in the bag.1 =4 = l+QY 5 8 . and the number of brown gum drops is 20% of 120. then the longest side is 11. the 100 blue balls must be 25%.9x . which is 24. OR Let x represent the number of red balls removed.3(x + x-I +x - 2) '2 .4x The number of red balls removed is x = 100.3x = 1600 . Then the area of the circle is 7r(1)2 = 7r. t. Answer (D): The number of blue balls in the bag is 20% of 500. Answer (E): One strategy is to try the choices: 5 + 6 + 7 = 18.x 4500-x 3(500 . After half the blue gum drops are replaced by brown ones. Setup and solve the proportion: 75% = ~ = 400 . The area of the pizza is 7r(6)2 = 367r square inches. 13. 17. 14. After some red balls are removed.>. x-I.80(500) = 400 is the number of red balls that were ·originally in the bag. y7i.x) 1500 . Remember that 0. = ~. (1 + QY) 2 1 =5 x . If the shortest side is 9. The ratio of the side length of the square to the radius of the circle is = y7i. 5 6 7 9 =1= =1= =1= 8 =1= = 30% 30% 30% 30% 30% of of of of of 18 21 24 27 30 16. so there are 120 gum drops in the jar. x. so 500 . 3. 7+8+9 = 24. Answer (C): The 30 green gum drops are 100%-(30+20+15+10)% = 25% of the total gum drops.2 = 0. The taller tree has 4 parts so its height is 4 x 16 = 64 feet. 5 . 26th AMC 8 2010 Solutions x The longest side is 1L 5 = 11 11.3(3x . 9 + 10 + 11 = 30.0. 8 + 9+ 10 = 27. Answer (B): Let the radius of the circle be 1. 67 .2 = and x . There must be (4)(100) = 400 balls in the bag. 6 + 7 + 8 = 21. The number of blue gum drops is 30% of 120. -e. In the latter part of the 19th century it was proven that a square having an area equal to that of a given circle cannot be constructed with the standard tools of straightedge and compasss because it is impossible to construct a transcendental number. 15.2.9 O.2 = O. OR Let the three consecutive integers be side lengths x. Answer (B): The sum of the heights of the two trees can be divided into 7 parts where one part is 16 feet.x) = 4(400 .2 . which is (0. g. the number of brown gum drops is 24 + ~(36) = 42.. The area of the square is 7r. so its side length y7i.400 = 100 red balls must be removed.

367r = 647r.i1. If % of 20 people are wearing hats. By the Pythagorean Theorem. Answer (C): In the right triangle ABC. _ 375 _ 3' QY -2 IS.20 = 3 people are wearing both a hat and gloves. then 8 + 15 are wearing gloves and/or hats. Answer (C): The given ratio implies that AD = ~AB = ~ .5 . then 15 are wearing hats. OR If 8 are wearing gloves and 15 are wearing hats. Answer (C): Reason backward as follows. leaving her with 62 pages left to read. fh . then S people are wearing gloves. The minimum number wearing gloves and hats occurs if the 5 not wearing hats are each wearing gloves. If ~ of 20 people are wearing gloves..5 = 3 people wearing both gloves and hats. 30·45 6 me es. AB is S.1 . so the minimum number of people in the room is 20.AD = 30· 45 square inches. Hui reads! of the remaining pages plus IS more. 21.h Th . = 1· 7r 7r 19. There is a minimum of 20 people in the room. 20. On the third day. so 23 .26tl' AMC 8 2010 Solutions QY=3 5 6 3 2 2/5 Then XQ . so the area of the rectangle is AB . The least common multiple of 4 and 5 is 20.1 . The area of the circle is 1527r square . 82+BC2 = 102 so BC = 6. The area of the outer circle is 1027r = 1007r and the area of the inner circle is 627r = 367r. The 2 semicircles make 1 circle with radius 15 inches. Answer (A): Because ~ and % of the people in the room are whole numbers. 30 = 45 inches. The area between the circles is 1007r . This means that 62 + 18 = 80 is ~ of the number of pages remaining at the end of the . the number of people in the room is a multiple of both 5 and 4. e ratio 0 t e areas IS 5 15 = .QY . This leaves 8 .5' so!S.

there must be 2 + 4 + 7 = 13 ways to climb 5 stairs and 4 + 7 + 13 = 24 ways to climb 6 stairs. 1-2-1-1-1. leaving 2 stairs to go and 2 ways to climb them or with 3 stairs. Thus the desired ratio is IT . (58) < 25.e = 2.~2 = -2 . leaving 3 stairs to go and 4 ways to climb them. The difference is 198 and the units digit is 8. Thomas Butts. 1-3-1-1. 1-1-3-1. On the second day she read of the remaining pages plus 15 more. 23. Norbert Kuenzi. On the first day she read of the pages plus 12 more. Steven Dunbar. Answer (E): Take 452 as the original number. < (28). The number of ways Jo can climb the stairs is 1 + 5 + 10 + 7 + 1 = 24. 2-1-1-2. Jeganathan Sriskandarajah. The total number of pages is ~ x 192 = 240. with a . 2 stairs in 2 ways: 1 + lor 2. Q. and subtract 254. The difference is 99a . 1-1-2-1-1. Joe Kennedy.9ge = 99(a . This means there are 1 + 2 + 4 = 7 ways to climb 4 stairs. (216) = (28). and 3 stairs in 4 ways: 1 + 1 + 1. 1-1-2-2. R. OR The original number is 100a + lOb + c. So the units digit is 8. Margie Raub Hunt. The same result will be obtained with any number that meets the criteria.c) = 99(2) = 198. Answer (E): Jo can climb 1 stair in 1 way. By the same argument. Number of stair moves 6 5 4 3 2 Stair move sequence 1-1-1-1-1-1 1-1-1-1-2. (58) = 512. So 180 + 12 = 192 is ~ of the number of pages in the book. LeRoy Wenstrom and Ron Yannone. Jo can start a flight of 4 stairs with 1 stair. So the areas of the two semicircles will equal the area 1 of a circle of radius 1. (48) (54). and 2-2-1-1 1-2-3.26th AMC 8 2010 Solutions 7 26th AMC 8 2010 Solutions 8 second day. and 2-2-2 3-3 Count 1 5 10 7 1 i OR Setup a chart working backwards through the days. 3-1-1-1. (58) = 108 = (44). 2-3-1. David Wells. Steve Davis. She had ~ x 135 = 180 pages left to read at the end of the first day. Answer (B): By the Pythagorean Theorem. 71"( v 2)2 24. Given the coordinates P. Sister Josanne Furey. the radius OQ of circle 0 is J2. leaving 1 to . 1-2-1-2. She had! x 80 = 120 pages left to read at the end of the second day. 1 + 2. ! go and 1 way to climb it. 2-1-2-1. Day 4 3 2 1 Extra Pages Read 0 18 15 12 Fraction Read 1/3 1/4 1/5 Fraction Left 2/3 3/4 4/5 Calculation (62 + 18)/(2/3) (120 + 15)/(3/4) (180 + 12)/(4/5) Pages to be Read 62 120 180 240 22. Answer (A): 224 = (28). so 120 + 15 = 135 is ~ of the number of pages remaining at the end of the first day. The reversed number will be 100e + lOb + a. John Cocharo. Melissa Desjarlais. to show the number of pages that Hui has left to read each day. and S. 3-1-2. and 2-1-1-1-1 1-1-1-3. or with 2 stairs. the diameters PQ and RS of the semicircles have length 2. 1-3-2. 1-2-2-1. 2 + 1 or 3. 3-2-1. The problems and solutions for this contest were proposed by Steve Blasberg. 1-1-1-2-1. 2-1-3. OR Making a systematic list is another approach.

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