This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
EXTENSION OF WATER SUPPLY, CAPACITY BUILDING AND MONITORING ACHIEVEMENTS TOWARD REACHING CMDGs IN KAMPONG THOM TOWN, CAMBODIA
Survey Design for Kampong Thom Town (C1)
KAMPONG THOM WATER SUPPLY UTILITY
Currently the population of Mekong Basin is around 250 million in which four of six countries have the economic growth approximately 5% since 1980s. The population growth rate is in between 4%-5% per annum. Poor people in Cambodia, Lao and Vietnam have migrated to urban. Currently poor households in urban consist of about 9%-26% of urban population. Most of those poor people live in remote areas or slum areas which are not hygiene (no sewerage system) do not have water supply system, sanitation facilities and other social services. With the high growth rate and lack of proper planning of relevant authorities like potable water supply, sanitation infrastructures, and other facilities has affected their livelihood and health. In general, those poor people have to pay more for water than medium or rich people and the results they are getting poorer and poorer. After a long period of civil war, Cambodia now is developing gradually. The Royal Government of Cambodia has set out Cambodian millennium development goals which are in line with the world MDGs; and water supply and sanitation are mentioned in the CMDGs. They are clearly mentioned that at least 80% of urban population will have water supply and 74% will have sanitation facilities by year 2015. To achieve these goals, the RGC has developed national policies related water supply and a number of measures since 2004. For example, there were a number of reforms in water supply sector like Phnom Penh and Siem Reap water supply authorities were transferred to autonomous authorities. Even then water supply and sanitation in Cambodia are still big issues which need large amount of investment from the RGC and it is clear that RGC does not have enough budgets to invest in this sector and need support from outsiders, and most of the loans were allocated in infrastructure development like roads, bridges, schools, hospital, etc. So it needs supports from NGOs, IO or UN organizations. Based on the above mentioned CMDG, UNHABITAT with the cooperation from MIME, especially Potable Water Department have implemented water supply extension and sanitation project in four provincial towns: Kampong Thom, Pursat, Kampong Cham and Svay Rieng. This project under the MEK-WATSAN programme has been designed to demonstrate a community based approach which will increase the access by the poor to improve, affordable and sustainable water supply. This project builds on the efforts of the government and the investment already made, and will contribute to strengthening the capacities of MIME in monitoring progress towards achieving the MDGs for water and sanitation as well as the capacities of the Kampong Thom Water Supply Utility and district authorities in improving water and sanitation services through participatory and innovative approaches by 2011, 8,250 people -out of wich 25 percent are poor-will benefit from the expansion of water supply infrastructure. With the project completed successfully, the coverage of water will rise to 34 percent. MIME has conducted workshops to introduce MEK-WATSAN program to those targeted four towns. The stakeholder workshop was help to disseminate the main objectives and scope of the project, and to coordinate main activities at the town level. In coordination with local authorities, commune council and community representatives, Kampong Thom Water Supply Utility led a participatory assessment of beneficiaries to identify the poor householders in expansion areas as well as to coordinate implementation arrangements. This activity included the definition of a set of criteria to identify poor households to inform pro-poor water cost-sharing arrangements such as revolving funds for household connection fees. The assessment of beneficiaries also provided preliminary data for water indicators database and support the development of a poverty map. The engagement with the community provided an opportunity to build wide support for the project including its objectives and implementation methodology.
To analyze the situation of water and sanitation the baseline data survey was undertaken using intensive analysis of existing relevant water and sanitation condition of target town and a combination of secondary and primary data. The step to collect the primary data was conducted as follows: - Develop questionnaire on baseline data - Selection of enumerator for conducting the data collection - Provide training to enumerator on questionnaire and method of survey - Field work-survey activities - Baseline data input - Baseline data analysis The stakeholder workshop was held on 19 August 2010 in Stung Sen Town. There were total 32 participants from different government institutions i.e. MIME, Kampong Thom Water Supply Utility, Department of Industry, Mines and Energy, local authorities; and two NGOs like Environment Support Social Development and Center for Development Organization were invited to attend the workshop. The purpose of stakeholder workshop was to discuss and plan the MDG monitoring strategies for secondary towns follow the framework of the Urban Inequities Survey (UIS). MIME, in a participatory manner explained the rationale and objectives of the envisaged MDG-monitoring; adapt relevant indicator categories to the situation of water and sanitation in secondary town ; oversee the design and development of a survey for monitoring the MDGs; define criteria for suitable enumerators from community, water utility, NGO and municipality; and develop an
action plan. After the workshop volunteers were selected to conduct the baseline survey. The objectives of the workshop were: - To introduce the MEK-WATSAN program, - To discus on water and sanitation indicators and survey methodology, - To discus on poor household selection criteria, - To discus on poverty mapping. Five presentations were made during the stakeholder workshop: - First presentation was presented by Mr. Sorn Savnin on MDGs and CMDG related to water and sanitation. This presentation focus on the objective of the project, MDGs and CMDGs and the advantage and disadvantage of using safe water, - Second presentation illustrates about the present operation of Kampong Thom Water Supply Utility. This presentation focus on the present condition of water supply in the town and the extension target of water supply under the support from UN-HABITAT and the process of water treatment of Kampong Thom Water Supply Utility, - Third presentation presented by Mr. Teang Sokhom about the water and sanitation indicators for baseline survey. This was the explanation and discussion on the existing baseline questionnaire that established by UNHABITA, - Forth presentation presented by Ms. Sorn Somoline about baseline survey method and sampling selection. The presentation focused on the method to conduct the survey in target area including sampling method, - Fifth presentation presented by Mr. Teang Sokhom about poverty mapping method. This presentation focused on the method of poverty mapping for poor household in the target area. The discussion topic focused on water and sanitation baseline survey indicators (baseline questionnaires). There were many questions regarding to the water and sanitation indicators (baseline questionnaires) from the participants. There was no additional indicator to add to the existing indicators. The local authority and community proposed to conduct the poverty mapping based on the Government's poor household classification. There are two categories of poor household i.e. poor category 1 and 2 where poor category 1 is the poorest household and poor category 2 is poor household. The criteria for evaluating the poor categories were defined by Ministry of Planning and were advised to use for the whole country. The poverty mapping was followed the following steps: - Collect poor household data from Sangkat authorities - Go to collect poor household location by using GPS with the guidance from village chiefs - Use existing high resolution aerial ortho-photo acquired in 2005 for mapping roads, rivers, houses and water supply pipelines - Overlay poor household location from GPS on the aerial ortho-photo - Create household database - Prepare poverty maps - Verify poverty map with local authorities. The baseline questionnaire consists of nine main sections as: i) Water and Sanitation Module: have 11 questions; ii) Volume and payment for drinking water: Consumers with piped water connections: have 8 questions and Consumers without piped water connections: have 5 questions; iii) Disruptions to the water supply: have 2 questions; iv) Household treatment of drinking water: have 3 questions; v) Source of water for cleaning, washing and bathing: have 4 questions; vi) Sanitation: have 8 questions; vii) Sewage Treatment: have 4 questions;
viii) Solid Waste Disposal: have 14 questions; ix) Health questions: have 4 questions. The baseline questionnaire was modified during the stakeholder workshop as follows: Added the note at the beginning of the questionnaire in order to explain the surveyor to get more understanding about the objective of the project as well as the purpose of survey. The distance of latrine to water sources like well and pond. (added in Sanitation Section) The reason of not having toilet (added in Sanitation Section, on question WS 23A) Did your family get any awareness campaign on health care from the government or NGOs so far? (added in Health Section) Added the code (H1, H2, H3, H4) of each question in Health Section, The training of field enumerators was provided before undertaking the survey. About 24 enumerators including 9 women were selected to provide training on baseline data survey. The training on baseline questionnaire and method of survey was conducted in Kampong Thom Water Supply Utility Office on 20 August 2010 to build the capacity of the enumerators in undertaking data collection activities. The volunteer come from Kampong Thom Provincial Department of Industry, Mine and Energy, Water Supply Utility, local authorities and communities. These enumerators were selected by Water Supply Authority and Commune authority based on the following criteria: i) literated; ii) have experience in field survey; and iii) voluntery. The pre-test was conducted in Kampong Rotes village. The participants were divided into two groups working on pretesting of baseline survey. The leader of the group has conducted a demonstration on sampling selection and asking the question about baseline questionnaire. Then each group conducted the survey by themselves. After finished field-test, all groups presented their survey result and raised the problem they have faced during the survey as follows: Difficult to get the answer on total monthly income because some household are labor work and had paid by days ; Household tried to increase their expense and decrease their income; Question WS1: some household have many sources of water for drinking such as piped, rain, and well. So how to write down the answer? It met the same problem for all sources water use. To refer to this problem, local consultant explained how to ask about the monthly income by asking all the occupation of all household members and calculate one by one then summed up the total household income. Related to the increasing of expense and decrease income, the interviewer should balance the income with the expense. About the sources of water use for every purpose, the interviewer have to write which is the main source of water that family use. There is no modification on the questionnaire after field-test. All relevant stakeholders will cooperate with this baseline survey activity. The local authorities especially commune/sangkat, village chiefs and communities were happy to help the program in surveying and implementing. They understood and knew about baseline survey method and how to choose sample for conducting the survey. The enumerators were divided into five groups for conducting the base line survey in the project target areas. Below are the target villages and communes/Sangkat to be surveyed. - Group survey in Sangkat Damreiy Cheankhla. The responsible person was Mr. Chok Thor -Sangkat Deputy Chief. This group was divided into two sub-group and survey two villages: Balang Keut and Balang Lech Village.
Group survey in Sangkat O Kunthor. The responsible person was Mr. Seng Vean Ky Sangkat deputy chief. This group only one sub-group and survey one villages: Prek Sbov Village. Group survey in Sangkat Kampong Kroboa. The responsible person was Mr. Heng Kimhuy Sangkat deputy chief. This group only one sub-group and survey one villages: Kampong Krobao Village. Group survey in Sangkat Kampong Roteah. The responsible person was Mr. Tob ThaiSangkat Deputy Chief. This group only one sub-group and survey one villages: Kampong Thom Village. Group survey in Sangkat Kampong Roteah. The responsible person was Mr. Khhim DinSangkat council. This group was divided into two sub-group and survey two villages: Kampong Thom and Kampong Roteah Village.
The household survey was started on 06 September 2010. The sample household has selected based on the location of water supply extension. The sample for interview is 30% of total household in each target village. The sample households were selected by random method. The baseline data collection covered 766 households over the different terrains of the four Sangkat of Stung Sen Town of Kampong Thom Province. Most of the places could be reached. The numbers of household to be interviewed in each commune were as follows: 1. Sangkat Damreiy Chean Khla surveyed in 2 villages: 247 households 2. Sangkat O Kunthor surveyed only one villages : 120 households 3. Sangkat Kampong Krabao surveyed only one villages : 80 households 4. Sangkat Kampong Roteash surveyed in 2 village: 317 Households Table below provides a description on the survey coverage, sample and census statistics for the target Sangkat composing the present report.
The Sample of the household interviews for baseline data collection Sangkat Damreiy Chean Khla O Kunthor Kampong Krabao Kampong Roteash Villages Balang Keut Balang Lech Prek Sbov Kampong Krabao Kampong Roteash Kampong Thom Census HH 273 545 325 251 301 815 Sample HH interviewed 83 164 120 80 96 223 Response Rate 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.