Mekong Regional Water and Sanitation Program (MEK-WATSAN



Summary Report
Survey Design for Kampong Cham Town (C1)



Currently the population of Mekong Basin is around 250 million in which four of six countries have the economic growth approximately 5% since 1980s. The population growth rate is in between 4%-5% per annum. Poor people in Cambodia, Lao and Vietnam have migrated to urban. Currently poor households in urban consist of about 9%-26% of urban population. Most of those poor people live in remote areas or slum areas which are not hygiene (no sewerage system) do not have water supply system, sanitation facilities and other social services. With the high growth rate and lack of proper planning of relevant authorities like potable water supply, sanitation infrastructures, and other facilities has affected their livelihood and health. In general, those poor people have to pay more for water than medium or rich people and the results they are getting poorer and poorer. After a long period of civil war, Cambodia now is developing gradually. The Royal Government of Cambodia has set out Cambodian millennium development goals which are in line with the world MDGs; and water supply and sanitation are mentioned in the CMDGs. They are clearly mentioned that at least 80% of urban population will have water supply and 74% will have sanitation facilities by year 2015. To achieve these goals, the RGC has developed national policies related water supply and a number of measures since 2004. For example, there were a number of reforms in water supply sector like Phnom Penh and Siem Reap water supply authorities were transferred to autonomous authorities. Even then, water supply and sanitation in Cambodia are still big issues which need large amount of investment from the RGC and it is clear that RGC does not have enough budgets to invest in this sector and need support from outsiders, and most of the loans were allocated in infrastructure development like roads, bridges, schools, hospital, etc. So it needs supports from NGOs, IO or UN organizations. Based on the above mentioned CMDG, UNHABITAT with the cooperation from MIME, especially Potable Water Department have implemented water supply extension and sanitation project in four provincial towns: Kampong Thom, Pursat, Kampong Cham and Svay Rieng. This project under the MEK-WATSAN programme has been designed to demonstrate a community based approach which will increase the access by the poor to improve, affordable and sustainable water supply. This project builds on the efforts of the government and the investment already made, and will contribute to strengthening the capacities of MIME in monitoring progress towards achieving the MDGs for water and sanitation as well as the capacities of the Kampong Cham Water Supply Utility and district authorities in improving water and sanitation services through participatory and innovative approaches by 2011, about 6,500 people -out of wich 30 percent are poor-will benefit from the expansion of water supply infrastructure. With the project completed successfully, the coverage of water will rise to 64 percent from the existing 49 percent. MIME has conducted workshops to introduce MEK-WATSAN program to those targeted four towns. The stakeholder workshop was help to disseminate the main objectives and scope of the project, and to coordinate main activities at the town level. In coordination with local authorities, commune council and community representatives, Kampong Cham Water Supplu Utility led a participatory assessment of beneficiaries to identify the poor householders in expansion areas as well as to coordinate implementation arrangements. This activity included the definition of a set of criteria to identify poor households to inform pro-poor water cost-sharing arrangements such as revolving funds for household connection fees. The assessment of beneficiaries also provided preliminary data for water indicators database and support the development of a poverty map. The engagement with the community provided an opportunity to build wide support for the project including its objectives and implementation methodology.


To analyze the situation of water and sanitation the baseline data survey was undertaken using intensive analysis of water and existing relevant water and sanitation condition of target town and a combination of secondary and primary data. The step to collect the primary data was conducted as follows:



Develop questionnaire on baseline data Selection of enumerator for conducting the data collection Provide training to enumerator on questionnaire and method of survey Field work-survey activities Baseline data input Baseline data analysis

The stakeholder workshop was held on 16 August 2010 in Kampong Cham Town. There were total 52 participants from different government institutions i.e. MIME, Kampong Cham Water Supply Utility, Department of Industry, Mines and Energy, local authorities; and 16 NGOs like Symdese, Development Alternatives Inc, Reproductive Health Association of Cambodia, Cambodian Researchers for Development, World Education, Center for Development, Nak Akphivat Sahakum, Cambodian Men Health, Cambodian Plant International, Khem, World Food Program and Phnom Srey Association were invited to attend the workshop. The purpose of stakeholder workshop was to discuss and plan the MDG monitoring strategies for secondary towns follow the framework of the Urban Inequities Survey (UIS). MIME, in a participatory manner explained the rationale and objectives of the envisaged MDG-monitoring; adapt relevant indicator categories to the situation of water and sanitation in secondary town ; oversee the design and development of a survey for monitoring the MDGs; define criteria for suitable enumerators from community, water utility, NGO and municipality; and develop an action plan. After the workshop volunteers were selected to conduct the baseline survey. The objectives of the workshop were: - To introduce the MEK-WATSAN program, - To discus on water and sanitation indicators and survey methodology, - To discus on poor household selection criteria, - To discus on poverty mapping Six presentations were made during the stakeholder workshop: - First presentation was presented by Mr. Sorn Savnin on MDGs and CMDG related to water and sanitation. This presentation focus on the objective of the project, MDGs and CMDGs and the advantage and disadvantage of using safe water, - Second presentation illustrates about the present operation of Kampong Cham Water Supply Utility. This presentation focus on the present condition of water supply in the town and the extension target of water supply under the support from UN-HABITAT and the process of water treatment of Kampong Cham Water Supply Utility, - Third presentation presented by Mr. Teang Sokhom about the water and sanitation indicators for baseline survey. This was the explanation and discussion on the existing baseline questionnaire that established by UN-HABITA, - Forth presentation presented by Ms. Sorn Somoline about baseline survey method and sampling selection. The presentation focused on the method to conduct the survey in target area including sampling method, - Fifth presentation presented by Mr. Teang Sokhom about poverty mapping method. This presentation focused on the method of poverty mapping for poor household in the target area. - Six Presentation presented by Mr. Teang Sokhom about the criteria to identify poor household in Kampong Cham. The discussion topic focused on water and sanitation baseline survey indicators (baseline questionnaires) and the criteria to identify poor household. There were many questions regarding to the water and sanitation indicators (baseline questionnaires) from the participants. There was no additional indicator to add to the existing indicators. The local authority mentioned that there is no poor household evaluation in Kampong Cham Town, so the project has to conduct poor household evaluation and classification follow the guideline and questionnaires of Ministry of Planning but there is minor revised based on the purposes of the project, budget and time


availability, only questionnaires have score were kept. The method for poor household evaluation was followed the following steps: - Interview with looked poor households under the guidance of the villages based on the revised questionnaires - Sum up those questionnaires - Conduct the poor household classification follow the criteria set by the Ministry of Planning. Score in between 59 to 68 was classified as poor category 1, score in between 45 to 58 was classified as poor category 2, and score below 45 was classified as not poor. (Detail methodology is available in Khmer version report). Based on the above criteria for poor household evaluation, there are two categories of poor household i.e. poor category 1 and 2 where poor category 1 is the poorest household and poor category 2 is poor household. The results of household classification were used to map poverty maps. The baseline questionnaire consists of nine main sections as: i) Water and Sanitation Module: have 11 questions; ii) Volume and payment for drinking water: Consumers with piped water connections: have 8 questions and Consumers without piped water connections: have 5 questions; iii) Disruptions to the water supply: have 2 questions; iv) Household treatment of drinking water: have 3 questions; v) Source of water for cleaning, washing and bathing: have 4 questions; vi) Sanitation: have 8 questions; vii) Sewage Treatment: have 4 questions; viii) Solid Waste Disposal: have 14 questions; ix) Health questions: have 4 questions. The baseline questionnaire was modified during the stakeholder workshop as follows: Added the note at the beginning of the questionnaire in order to explain the surveyor to get more understanding about the objective of the project as well as the purpose of survey. The distance of latrine to water sources like well and pond. (added in Sanitation Section) The reason of not having toilet (added in Sanitation Section, on question WS 23A) Did your family get any awareness campaign on health care from the government or NGOs so far? (added in Health Section) Added the code (H1, H2, H3, H4) of each question in Health Section. The training of field enumerators was provided before undertaking the survey. About 21 enumerators including 3 women were selected to provide training on baseline data survey. The training on questionnaire and method of survey was conducted in Kampong Cham Town on 17 August 2010 to build the capacity of the enumerators in undertaking data collection activities. The volunteer come from Provincial Department of Industry, Mine and Energy, Water Supply Utility, local authorities, communities. These enumerators were selected by Water Supply Authority and Commune authority based on the following criteria: i) literated; ii) have experience in field survey; and iii) voluntery. The pre-test was conducted in Boeng Kok 2 village. The participants were divided into two groups working on pretesting of baseline survey. The leader of the group has conducted a demonstration on sampling selection and asking the question about baseline questionnaire. Then each group conducted the survey by themselves. After finished field-test, all groups presented their survey result and raised the problem they have faced during the survey as follows: Difficult to get the answer on total monthly income because some household are labor work and had paid by days ;


Household tried to increase their expense and decrease their income; Question WS1: some household have many sources of water for drinking such as piped, rain, and well. So how to write down the answer? It met the same problem for all sources water use; To refer to this problem, local consultant explained how to ask about the monthly income by asking all the occupation of all household family and calculate one by one then summed up the total household income. Related to the increasing of expense and decrease income, the interviewer should balance the income with the expense. About the sources of water use for every purpose, the interviewer have to write which is the main source of water that family use. There was no modification on the questionnaire after field-test. The questionnaire was already modified during the stakeholder workshop as following: All relevant stakeholders will cooperate with this baseline survey activity. The local authorities especially commune/sangkat, village chiefs and communities were happy to help the program in surveying and implementing. They understood and knew about baseline survey method and how to choose sample for conducting the survey. The enumerators were divided into two groups for conducting the base line survey in the project target areas. Below are the target villages and communes/Sangkat to be surveyed. - Group survey in Sangkat Sambour Meas. The responsible person was Mr.Va Then Sangkat Council. This group was divided into five sub-group and survey in five villages: Roka Leu, Roka Kroam, Prek Deumchan, Neang Konghing and Boeng Snay Village. - Group survey in Sangkat Boeng Kok. The responsible person was Mrs. Sourng Heang Sangkat deputy chief. This group was divided into three sub-group and survey in three villages: Chong Thnol 1, Chong Thnol 2 and Boeng Kok2. The household survey was started on 06 September 2010. These sample household has selected based on the location of water supply extension. The sample for interview is 30% of total household in each target village. The sample households were selected by random method. The baseline data collection covered 743 households over the different terrains of the two Sangkat of Kampong Cham Town of Kampong Cham Province. The numbers of household to be interviewed in each commune were as follows: 1. Sangkat Sambour Meas surveyed in 5 villages: 505 households; 2. Sangkat Boeng Kok surveyed in three villages: 238 households. Table below provides a description on the survey coverage, sample and census statistics for the target Sangkat composing the present report. Results of the household interviews for baseline data collection Sangkat Villages Roka Leu Roka Kroam Sambour Meas Prek Deum Chan Boeng Snay Neang Kong hing Boeng Kok 2 Boeng Kok Chong THnol 1 Chiong Thnol 2 Census HH 365 520 242 536 242 548 252 191 Sample HH interviewed 93 140 62 110 100 122 68 48 Response Rate 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%



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