Academic English I (27818


(I) Spoken and written academic language (II) Formal and informal language (III) The noun phrase (IV) Nominalisation (V) Verbs in academic English (VI) Qualifications and strength (VII) Personality vs. impersonality (VIII) Cohesive writing (IX) Academic vocabulary (X) Academic genres

(I) Spoken and written academic English 1 What do you understand an “academic text” is? academic writing? And of academic speaking? Which are the characteristics of

2 What type of texts are mostly written and read in your academic and professional context? Which ones do you think you will have to use in your professional field?

3 How would you define the style of those texts?

Academic writing and speaking take place in a variety of contexts. Student essays, presentations, dissertations and theses, lectures, tutorials, conference papers, books and articles by professional academics, all have different formal conventions, but all have a great deal in common in terms of grammar. In general, academic language, especially writing, has quite complex structures and is more formal and impersonal in style than everyday language. Much of the grammar of academic English is shared with that of English as a whole, and there are no special structures which are unique to academic English and never found elsewhere. On the whole, the grammar of academic English is closer (in both its spoken and written forms) to the grammar of general written English than to the grammar of general spoken English. (Cambridge Grammar of English)


Academic English I (27818)

The following are some recommendations for maintaining a formal academic writing style (adapted from Swales & Feak 2001): a. Avoid contractions: Export figures won’t improve until the economy is stronger. Export figures will not improve until the economy is stronger. b. Use the more appropriate formal negative forms: not … any no not … much little not … many few The analysis didn’t yield any new results. The analysis yielded no new results. The government didn’t allocate much funding for the program. The government allocated little funding for the program. This problem doesn’t have many viable solutions. This problem has few viable solutions. c. Limit the use of “run on” expressions, such as “and so forth” and “etc.”. In this section we develop an accounting approach to account for income-based differences in expenditures, taxes and so on. In this section we develop an accounting approach to account for income-based differences in expenditures and taxes. d. Avoid addressing the reader as you (except, of course, if you are writing a textbook). It is considerably less frequent than we in written academic texts. You can see results in Table 1. The results can be seen in Table 1. e. Limit the number of direct questions. What can be done to lower costs? We now need to consider what can be done to lower costs, or We now need to consider how costs may be lowered. f. Place adverbs within the verb. Then the solution can be discarded. The solution can then be discarded. In spoken academic English, however, contracted forms are often used (Cambridge Grammar of English): Maxims usually express a commonsense point of view and Jane Austen’s full of that commonsense. Rhetoric questions are common in oral presentations, and so is the use of you: [virology lecture] We’ll see in some detail a bit, viruses are quite unique in the way that they carry their genetic material and the most important feature is that viruses will only carry RNA or DNA. You will never find both in the same virus particle.


supply of energy required to accelerate the growth . many phrasal verbs can be appropriate when writing or talking about academic subjects. . According to him. . While studying Y zeolite exchange with different cations and silicalite. go into make up point out carry out go through go/look back over set out put forward 1.Academic English I (27818) Also. Pine (1990) saw/observed that vanadium attacks both structures in the presence of steam. Exercise Which of the two verbs do you think is more formal and therefore more likely to be used in academic English? 1. Expert Systems can help out/assist the user in the diagnosis of problems. 2. 4. . the development that is envisaged here needs to be not only sustainable . particularly in middle-aged people who take Amatrozol. other patterns like get-passives are very rare in academic writing. Exercise Listen to Professor Swales’s lecture on written and spoken academic language. 3. Exercise Rewrite these sentences replacing the underlined word in each sentence by a phrasal verb. However. . You can vary your language by using them and their more formal synonyms. much of the work on aggressive behaviors and other forms of antisocial behavior at work has been limited by approaching these behaviors as strictly individual-level phenomena. . In his article on the American Civil War Kingston discusses the reasons why the 3 . Building a nuclear power plant will not get rid of / eliminate the energy problem completely. but are more frequent in spoken academic style: [lecture about the alimentary system] So. what are the main differences between written and spoken academic English? Do you agree with his conclusion? (II) Formal and informal language (Swales & Feak 2001) A feature of most academic writing is a tendency to use formal verbs to express the writer’s meaning accurately: . We conduct a series of experiments to test out our hypothesis. 3. Before the test you should revise chapter 7 and 8 of your text books. . . . they are at a great risk of food poisoning because the bugs which the acid kills don’t get killed and they make it down through the gastrointestinal tract and give them a nasty case of food poisoning. Although a knowledge base is building up/accumulating. . 2.

5. (from McCarthy & O’Dell 2008) Regarding nouns and other parts of speech. 6. 7. Women now constitute over half the student population in most universities in this country. Cole presents some fascinating theories on the development of language in his latest book. etc. 6. however. (from Bailey 2006) (III) The noun phrase (Cambridge Grammar of English) 1. disorder. Exercise In the following. 3. you will likely hear less formal speech. etc. English has a very rich vocabulary derived from many languages. drugtaking. Lots of people think that the railways are getting worse. 8. Sadly. but now it’s normal to start at 4 or younger. Years ago. In lectures. You should strive to choose words that are less informal in nature and also precise. Premodifying: classifying and evaluating Academic style. Why is this? One thing is that mums need to get back to work. A few years ago they allowed women to vote. especially in writing. packs a great deal of information quite densely into noun phrases. The second thing is that most kids in that district will become criminals. 4. 7. Please check your work again carefully before handing it in. 8. Some time soon they will find a vaccine for malaria. Is it good for the kids? Jenkins has studied this and says that early schooling causes social problems like stealing. the inflation in Russia led to increased poverty. they began at 5. first underline the examples of poor style and then rewrite them in a more suitable way: 1.Academic English I (27818) situation developed in the way it did. 5. 2. in writing you should use a more formal form if one exists. I think that there’s a big risk of more strikes. In this article Simpson aims to prove that the Chinese reached America long before the Vikings. 4. I think he’s right and we should pay mums to stay at home. Regrettably. there may be more than one way to express an idea. which tend to be complex. 9. illness and so on. serious crime like murder is going up. What were the main causes of the American Revolution? (from Bailey 2006) Exercise Rewrite the following paragraph in better style: These days a lot of kids are starting school early. 4 . You can’t always trust the numbers in that report. Because of this. The psychologist observed that it was very unusual for a young child to behave in this way.

and the culture of public discussion in late Victorian England. The literature of Latina writers. In previous studies the precise measurement of spontaneous activity was not possible in experiments involving the laboratory rat and. Post-head elements: defining and specifying Postmodified and complemented noun phrases are extremely frequent in academic English because of the frequent need for definition and specification. patriotism. Anti-Pamelists were united on what they saw as three serious problems.= very negative In this _______________ study Jones and Wang… __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ unusual small useful careful simple exploratory limited significant traditional remarkable competent __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ ambitious important innovative impressive complex preliminary modest interesting elegant flawed (from Swales & Feak 2001) 2.. Noun phrases in spoken academic English Noun phrases typical of written styles. like other ethnic literatures. All of which pertained to the earlier apparently subversive part of the novel. examines in very commanding and provocative ways the construction of identity in the American context. uncertain or ambiguous . Such adjectives are often gradable and may be premodified by adverbs of degree. Evaluative adjectives are more frequent in humanities subjects. 3.= negative . the energy expended in relation to activity and its role in adaptation to feed restriction could not be assessed.Academic English I (27818) Adjectives of classification and noun phrase premodifiers are frequent. postmodification. Exercise Rate the adjectives as follows: ++ = very positive + = positive o = neutral. Thornes & Shao (1991b) tested the sensitivity of individual meteorological parameters in a road weather information system. especially in scientific and technical writing. occur in formal lectures: with much premodification and [lecture on English literature] But despite the apparent diversity of opinion. therefore. where opinion and personal stance are often foregrounded. (Embedded) prepositional phrases and non-finite clauses are common: This article demonstrates the connection between journalism. 5 .

And it’s one I’m still wrestling with. etc. and the fact that postpositivists IR theorists are keen to display the fact that they are historically conscious. (e. past simple narrating experimental procedures). IR and history continue to be associated uneasily with one another. and this has much to do with efforts in the area of conceptual history. For example: In this chapter we have looked at the process of compound formation. and for stating findings and conclusions. where information is added incrementally rather than integrated into a single noun phrase: [informal literature seminar] It is a fascinating question. using a noun phrase to express a meaning more typically associated with an item from another word class. thus enabling the writer/speaker to integrate a considerable amount of information into the noun-phrase subject slot or noun-phrase object slot of the clause. It is a question of the kind I don’t think we pursue enough. usually have typical tense-aspect patterns associated with them (e. Despite this. [IR = the academic discipline International Relations] The result was an IR canon. IR and history maintain an uneasy association. b) Structuring Particular tense-aspect choices tend to be associated with particular parts of academic texts. c) Reporting/narrating Tense-aspect choices have become institutionalised for reporting and narrating experiments and studies. is called nominalisation. summaries. This process. Nominalistions include nouns which express verb-like meanings and adjective-like meanings. 6 . These include: a) Signposting Tense-aspect choices refer the reader/listener backwards and forwards in the text.Academic English I (27818) In more informal lecturing styles and in informal tutorials and classes.g. (compare an integrated alternative: It is a fascinating and under-researched question which is the subject of continuing investigation. etc.g. papers and presentations. of the ‘Plato to Nato’ variety. (Compare: It was dismantled over the last twenty years. Abstracts. and the keenness of post-positivist IR theorists to display an historical consciousness. Academic language has characteristic uses of tense and aspect which relate to important academic textual functions. Despite this.) (V) Verbs in academic English (Cambridge Grammar of English) The verb phrase is important in academic discourse as the place where a number of textual signals of various kinds occur. which was substantially anachronistic. concluding sections of academic books. Its dismantling over the last twenty years has much to do with efforts in the area of conceptual history. They are more frequent in written academic styles.) (IV) Nominalisation (Cambridge Grammar of English) Noun phrases are often used in academic style as an alternative to longer clausal constructions. present simple in abstracts). typical spoken noun phrases are common.

a London butcher. novels and plays: Four men once close to Jack Dodds.g. The author focuses on the conflicts. chapters. Jack’s widow. stresses and transformations experienced by members of transnational families. Amy. essays: This article looks at the effect of transoceanic migration on rural Sicilian families. The present simple -Abstracts/summaries The present simple form often appears in abstracts and summaries of academic works such as articles. 65 three-year-olds. -Reporting significant aspects of people’s work The present simple form is often used to report major tenets or central aspects of the work of other academics: As Wittgenstein suggests. 6. and 74 adults viewed video clips of animals or inanimate objects being transported by a person. [lecture on text linguistics] -Creating synopses of fictional plots in works of literature The present simple is used to summarise the plot/events in e. we obtain the limiting behavior of the least absolute deviation estimator and the trimmed mean estimator of the parameters of the nonlinear regression model. yield the limiting behavior of the nonlinear regression quantiles. The present perfect -Citing The present perfect is especially used to emphasise current relevance or continuing debate: Berg and Hudson (ch. These. 2. -Reporting findings The present simple form is often used to report the outcome.Academic English I (27818) d) Citation Tense-aspect choices have become institutionalised for citing and quoting one’s own work and the work of others in different ways. For each clip. The past simple -Referring to the procedures used in individual studies In two studies. 57 five-year-olds. Hudson 1989) have emphasised that modern factories need not have been large. For reasons best known to herself. the child was asked whether the animal or object was moving. especially in concluding sections: 7 . results or findings of a piece of research: This paper discusses some asymptotic uniform linearity results of randomly weighted empirical processes based on long-range dependent random variables. -Recapitulating The present perfect simple is used to summarise or recapitulate points or arguments. there is no such thing as a private language. where the design variables can be either random or nonrandom. theses. dissertations. declines to join them. in turn. yet the factories nonetheless were closely divided in their labour. meet to carry out his peculiar last wish: to have his ashes scattered into the sea. As a corollary. These results are subsequently used to linearize nonlinear regression quantiles in a nonlinear regression model with long-range dependent errors. 3. 1.

The part of the East Midlands studied – Leicestershire. Northamptonshire and Rutland – contained twenty towns.g. And he calls them process options. often holds in the works of Pascal that I shall be discussing. the qualitative analyses in this chapter have illustrated crucial aspects of the lexical characteristics of everyday spoken language. a lecture). As pointed out above. topography. to outline or point to things which are to be found later in the text. [discussing the body displays and vocal displays made by animals] 5. marketing and migratory networks. Active and passive voice in academic discourse Passive voice is common in academic discourse since it is often felt necessary to shift the focus from human agency to the actions. Halliday _______________ (to argue) that there are three basic transitivity choices. social structure. but are more frequent in spoken academic style. and although we have argued against over-generalisation from one-off analyses. it is true that one does not need much data to see the same features constantly recurring. It seems to me that this second case. Okay. ‘Benchmarks’ for placing towns in the hierarchy are explored. and civic and material culture. 3. get-passives are very rare in academic writing. -Be going to Be going to is often used for forward reference in spoken academic style: [law lecture] But do you think that there is a point where the position of consumers has to be looked at very differently from businesses? [pause] We’re going to talk about this more next week because we’re going to be talking about the Unfair Term. 4. Bogren et al (2000) statistically _______________ (to model) the magnitude of such temperature deficits with respect to solar elevation. Exercise Complete the following sentences with a suitable verb tense: 1. 4. occupational diversity. Modal expressions -Will/shall/’ll An academic writer/speaker may use will/shall/’ll to refer forward in a written text or in an academic presentation (e. Schneirla (1966) _______________ (to use) the concept of ‘experience’ to mean all kinds of stimulative effects from the environment. and the stability of the urban system. The conclusion emphasizes the common urban characteristics of all of the towns studied. using both documentary and archaeological evidence. including population. I _______________ (to discuss) different possible mechanisms underlying aspects of display development and their interrelationship. 8 . In the different subsections of this section.Academic English I (27818) What is more. in which coordination gives way to subordination. [lecture on text linguistics] 2. administration. processes and events being described. Passive voice is particularly prevalent in abstracts to academic papers and articles: The urban hierarchy of an English region in the period 1300–1540 is defined. the compatibility of written and unwritten evidence.

(from Bailey 2006) (VI) Qualifications and strength 1. Notice how the claim progressively weakness in these three sentences. The researchers calculated the percentages to three decimal places. 40% of the houses in the port were badly damaged by a storm. It would seem/appear that consumers have less confidence in the economy today than 10 years ago.Academic English I (27818) Exercise Change the following sentences from active to passive and insert a suitable adverb: conveniently regularly optimistically precisely helpfully profitably brilliantly badly Example: A storm damaged 40% of the houses in the port. The simplest is the modal auxiliary. A favorable relative standing might/could affect treatment of acquired executives. Doctors tested over 550 people for the disease over a 3-year period. 5. The Connors family ran the company until 1981. . Probability There are many ways of expressing probability in written academic English. Consumers seem to/appear to have less confidence in the economy today than 10 years ago. A favorable relative standing will affect treatment of acquired executives. They had built the house near the station. Consumers have less confidence in the economy today than 10 years ago. There There There There There Distance Distance is another way of removing yourself from a strong claim. Compare these sentences. 6. Also. we need to use the common linguistic resources to express this caution. 9 . Picasso painted the portrait of the old man. The following phrases also weaken the strength of the claim: It It It It It It It is is is is is is is certain that almost certain that very probable/highly likely that probable/likely that possible that unlikely that very unlikely /highly improbable that is is is is is a a a a a strong possibility /probability that good possibility /probability that definite possibility /probability that slight possibility /probability that remote possibility /probability that a favorable relative standing affects. 4. They provided pencils for all students in the exam. 1. 3. A favorable relative standing may affect treatment of acquired executives. 2. Hedging (Swales & Feak 2001) In our statements or claims we need to be cautious. .

in some senses Weaker verbs Finally. 3. in a way. Based on observations. In their earlier work. Figure 12 depicts/clarifies the genetic relationship. We start with a big claim! The use of seat belts prevents physical injuries in car accidents. Table 9 suggests/shows that Venezuelan scientists may need help with writing English. Exercise Underline the verb making the weaker claim 1. Other expressions: apparently. they failed/neglected to take ambient temperature into account. 5. generally (speaking). The results indicate/establish that there is a link between smoking and lung cancer.Academic English I (27818) An alternative is to distance yourself from the data by showing in some way that it is “soft”. 7. 10 . The test results create/suggest a basis for product modification. 4. several types of qualification are combined in order to construct a defensible statement. The latest series of experiments question/undermine much previous research. seemingly Generalization The basic verb for qualifying (weakening) a generalization is the verb tend. Another way to defend a generalization is to qualify the subject. In the view of some analysts. 9. Combined qualifications Of course. 2. Deregulation contributed to the banking crisis. On the limited data available. The results given in figure 4 validate/support the second hypothesis. in a sense. As can be seen from table 3. 8. in principle. According to this preliminary study. in some/ many respects. 6. in most cases. claims can be reduced in strength by choosing a weaker verb. Many consumers Most consumers In most countries have less confidence in the economy. Other expressions: as a (general) rule. The quantities displayed in the table have been assumed/shown to be about 98% accurate. roughly (speaking). 10. Deregulation caused the banking crisis. more or less. Consumers tend to have less confidence in the economy. broadly (speaking). the new tax laws have encouraged/stimulated industrial development. Here is an example. Changes in ambient temperature may have influenced/distorted the test results. in the majority of cases.

8. Exercise Work with a partner. were one of the causes of f. 5. put the following sentence variations in order from 1 (strongest claim) to 6 (weakest claim). might have been a small factor in 11 . may have contributed to d. were probably a major cause of e. This sentence is a nice example of the writer being “confidently uncertain. Alcohol causes people to become violent. Make the sentences academically respectable and defensible. Economic sanctions are ineffective. ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ a. caused c. 4. Physical attraction is important for marital happiness. see what you can do with any four of the following. 7. 3. 1. Can you think of other verbs or verb phrases that could complete the sentences? How would you evaluate the strength of claim for your alternatives? Vulnerabilities in the design of New York's World Trade Center (WTC) ____________________ the collapse of its two main towers and adjacent buildings. contributed to b. Passive smoking causes cancer. Great novels do not make great films. (weaker verb) (adding probability) (weakening the generalization) (weakening the generalization) (adding distance) Exercise Now. prevents reduces reduces may reduce + in some circumstances + certain types of injury + according to simulation studies So now we have: According to simulation studies. 6. 2.” (Of course you need to be aware of excessive qualification since this may result in your saying almost nothing). Physical exercise lessens the severity of depression. Recycling is the best solution to the waste disposal problem. in some circumstances the use of seat belts may reduce certain types of physical injuries in car accidents. Private schools provide a better education than do public schools.Academic English I (27818) Now see what happens when the following qualifications are added.

In 1995. Utilities and transport provide a service rather than a commodity. impersonality The choice of (im)personal subjects in academic writing is an important one as it contributes to the (in)visibility of the author(s) and their consequent likely promotion. In academic texts boosting is often carried out by the use of a range of adverbial and prepositional constructions (plus some other types of expressions): Common boosting expressions include adverbs such as: categorically certainly clearly definitely emphatically indisputably inevitably irrefutably observably obviously plainly undeniably undoubtedly unquestionably This is clearly a very restrictive hypothesis. although much of that surplus concentrated in the hands of those in the top 10 per cent or so of the income distribution. 2. FORMAL TEXT The inequity in the distribution of wealth in Australia is yet another indicator of Australia's lack of egalitarianism. Exercise Use boosters with the following sentences: 1. One cause of the difference in formality between the two texts is the use of impersonal language. In the early nineteenth century this was true of much of the Nord region and the Normandy textile area. which requires verification. and Lighfoot suggests that language change represents a useful testing ground. although they offered to approach Catherine II in order to sound her out on a possible settlement. a process which is referred to as boosting. there is an established class system in 12 Impersonal subject used to start sentence Evidence introduced with impersonal language . Look at the model texts. at least in terms of economics. it is sometimes also necessary to assert a claim or viewpoint quite directly and more confidently. Boosting (Cambridge Grammar of English) Less often.Academic English I (27818) 2. (VII) Personality vs. 3. 20% of the Australian population owned 72.1% (Raskall. 1998: 287). Other expressions used in boosting include: for sure/ certain it is/ was clear/ obvious/ indisputable that there is/ was no doubt that without doubt It was clear that the Danes would remain neutral. the economy had a considerable surplus above basic subsistence needs.2% of Australia's wealth with the top 50% owning 92. While most people were poor. Such a significant skew in the distribution of wealth indicates that.

Middle and Working classes. end up staying in that class for their whole lives. believe. Use of pronouns -The personal pronoun I is used in academic discourse for self-reference. 1994). suspect.. creating a sense of an academic community shared by all participants in the discourse (inclusive we). or when contrasting one’s own approach with that of others. other things such as the differences between the sexes and people's racial backgrounds also add to the unequal nature of Australian society. In addition. 1988: 156) despite arguments about the ease of social mobility in Australian society (Fitzpatrick. suggest. it has been shown that most Australians continue to remain in the class into which they were born (McGregor.Academic English I (27818) Australia. The issue of class and its inherent inequity. -We is typically used to refer to more than one author of an academic paper or article. The relative disadvantage of women with regard to their earnings and levels of asset ownership indicates that within classes there is further economic inequity based on gender. advocate. suppose. INFORMAL TEXT Because only a few people have most of the money and power in Australia. Why is this so? Personal language Impersonal subject (Adapted from: Woodward-Kron and Thomson 2000) The following options are used to express personality/impersonality (Cambridge Grammar of English): 1. McGregor (1988) argues that Australian society can be categorised into three levels: the Upper. 13 . I conclude that it is not an equal society. consider. think I consider it unlikely that instruction accounts for anywhere near as much vocabulary growth as does incidental acquisition from context during reading. [paper by two authors] In this paper we report our experience with ear-tattooing in order to compare it with other methods used for marking small mammals. When all three classes are looked at more closely. is further compounded by factors such as race and gender within and across these class divisions. agree. Nowadays it is becoming less frequent for single authors to refer to themselves in the first person plural. It occurs commonly with verbs expressing stance: accept. however. assume.. argue. propose. Middle and Lower class and I think that most people when they are born into one class. Women earn less than men and own less than men. The other characteristic use of we is to refer to the writer/ speaker and reader/ listener together. Society has an Upper. particularly when referring to one’s own stance (one’s position or viewpoint) or conclusions.

Finally. and we provide a way to ask the policy at run-time if certain security-relevant behavior will lead to an interruption (Section 4). Section 5 shows the results of performance evaluation. we define an abstract interface to the run-time policy (Section 3). Exercise In the following fragments (taken from 2 different papers) authors exhibit different degrees of invisibility. we first analyze existing work with a focus on the concerns of the application writer. which indicates a trauma caused by the marking procedure.Academic English I (27818) [virology lecture] We know the molecular biology of this virus in very great detail. Now we know the proteins encoded by that genome. Third person self-reference Academic writers often refer to themselves as “the author”. It has generally been accepted by scientists that models with fewer parameters and which make predictions are better models. The time lag between marking and first recapture was higher than the lag between second and third recapture. This enables writers/ speakers to distance themselves from assertions. We know the sequence of the genome from end to end. 2. The author focuses on the conflicts. we give an overview of related work and we present our conclusions. Before we introduce the check construction in Section 5. Section 4 describes our methods for the rule matching and the investment type recommendation. Section 6 summarizes and concludes the paper. Existential there Existential there constructions are also regularly used instead of personal ones. Next. and most of the tattooed animals did not show any behaviour indicating irritation after being marked. Sections 6 and 7 discuss alternative solutions and describe the implementation status. or “the present researcher”. 3. In Section 2. Finally. It-constructions Anticipatory it is frequently used in passive-voice clauses with or without an explicit agent to create an impersonal structure. b. 4. In your view. there was no evidence of any weight loss as reported for other marking methods. and often refer to their own work impersonally. stresses. and briefly provides the overview of the proposed approach. and transformations experienced by members of transnational families. 14 . The paper is organized as follows. Section 3 presents our methods for building and indexing of the frequent pattern base. Section 2 presents the problem we are going to solve. which one is better? a. This article looks at the effect of transoceanic migration on rural Sicilian families. However.

Linking adjuncts (Cambridge Grammar of English) The use of linking adjuncts is important in academic language. in in in in conclusion its/ in their turn short sum in summary lastly respectively subsequently finally firstly. more rapidly. • Contrastive: contrasting. results and consequences. reasons. Household income gained additionally from the higher proportion of women in paid jobs.5 times between 1945 and 1990 and earnings in real terms grew. but in sum this is a fascinating and thought-provoking book. • Resultative: expressing causes. if anything.Academic English I (27818) (VIII) Cohesive writing 1. and hence is easy to incorporate theoretically – both in calculations and in computer simulations. and on the other hand -First(ly) and at first -Last(ly) and at last 15 . Problems with linking adjuncts Certain linking adjuncts typical of academic style are often misused (Cambridge Grammar of English): -On the contrary. hence in consequence in (the) light of this/that in view of this/that therefore thus accordingly as a consequence as a result consequently The behaviour of dark matter is governed entirely by gravitational forces. listing. opposing. secondly. The following adjuncts occur frequently in academic contexts: • Additive: adding further ideas. by contrast. to give coherence to a text and to organise it. • Organisational: organising and structuring the text. in addition likewise moreover similarly additionally equally furthermore The national income grew roughly 2. thirdly in brief This reviewer might wish to question particular judgements here and there. nevertheless conversely on the contrary on the one hand… on the other hand by/in contrast nonetheless however Histories of literacy and print culture had also cultivated an interest in visual media. These studies nonetheless generally focused on print rather than writing. especially in writing.

(from Chalker 1996) 2. chemists. Modern society. and lastly/ at last by those not dominated by any single activity. historically informed. 9. they are the result of powerful. This occurs even though peak sensitivity is shifted to relatively low temporal frequencies. or even a result of substituting home production for imports. On the contrary/ On the other hand. Such complex impressions on the part of teachers by no means arise from ignorance or prejudice: on the contrary/ by contrast. on the contrary/ by contrast. New industries were lastly/ at last replacing the old staples. the upsurge has been interpreted as being the structural change that the 1920s failed to achieve (Richardson 1967). For example. this and that (Cambridge Grammar of English) The impersonal pronoun it and the demonstrative pronouns this and that are used in different ways to organize references to text segments. 8. Tobacconists. 16 . We then discuss the ways in which genotypes are identified within the Annett studies. By 1937. the multiple-function centres were the first to acquire the innovation. Much more than a recovery from the depression. grocers. choose the best connector from the underlined alternatives: 1. Employment had first/ at first been only too full. 6. shared perspectives on musical reality. activity was 70 per cent higher than five years earlier. 7. But by the end of the period the very idea of full employment seemed illusory and even Keynes’ view that 5 per cent was a reasonable level to aim for would have seemed highly optimistic. Criminality in pre-industrialized Europe is thus characterized more by violence against persons than by property crimes such as theft. and then describe a more powerful and sensitive method that we use in our own empirical study. then by industrial towns. is thought to experience more theft than violence. but if it is part of an overall language learning plan. and the economy was overloaded. the British are concerned much more with industrial efficiency and short-term profitability at the expense of long-term market performance. Low-luminance flickering patterns are perceived to modulate at relatively high rates. In this paper we firstly/ at first review the empirical studies carried out by Annett. we show this is inefficient. they were followed by the prefectoral towns. On the contrary/ On the other hand. Housing prices did not skyrocket that quarter as predicted. they remained stable for the third quarter in a row. 5. interacting with native speakers is obviously a Social Strategy. As a rule. On the contrary/ By contrast. 2. 4. booksellers. It has been suggested that the success of the Germans is due to their ability to develop long-term relationships with their customers based on product quality and reliability. Signalling with it.Academic English I (27818) Exercise In each of the following pieces of text. shoe shops and leather stores all said business was better than in January. and stationers also reported falling activity. 3. it could also be a Metacognitive Strategy.

The phrases in italics contain a noun or word that refers back to the idea in the previous sentence and summarizes what has already been said. This ________________ has been substantiated by numerous studies. you’ll learn more about the genetic codes which relate GAG to glutamate and GUG to thyamine in one of the other lectures in the course. number amount improvement assurance trend risk fall drop support proposal increase measures 1. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) officials are concerned that if this ________________ continues. That is another way of expressing the flow of information from DNA to proteins.000 cases of cancer annually. The EPA states that individuals living near chemical plants have a higher than normal chance of developing cancer. 17 .Academic English I (27818) [Genetics lecture] As I say. Lawmakers in Southern California are proposing banning the sale of new charcoal grills. Right. such as methanol. This + summary word (Swales & Feak 2001) Another way to maintain flow is this / these + a noun to join ideas together. while the number of places available has remained constant. Exercise Choose a summary word from the list below to complete each sentence. the air is still contaminated by many carcinogens. The Chemical Manufacturers Association has decided it will more strongly support the pollution control efforts of the EPA. However. The EPA has revealed that 20 of the 320 known toxic chemicals in the air probably cause more than 2. In the United States. it is still a cause for concern. serious environmental damage may occur. 5. This ________________ was a major factor in the drafting of new regulations. the number of students applying to PhD programs has increased steadily. and an additional 10% from 1988-90. This situation has resulted in intense competition for admission. Ozone levels in the United States increased 5% from 1986-87. While this ________________ may not seem high. Despite this ________________. requiring sophisticated pollution control devices. this understanding cannot usually be acquired quickly. These ________________ may indeed become law in the near future. and demanding that by the next century 40% of all cars and buses run on clean fuel. 3. 4. In recent years. Consider the following sentences: ESL lecturers know that students need to understand the differences between formal and informal language. 2. 3. the levels of lead. and sulphur dioxide have fallen between 1978 and 1987. another 15% from 1987-88. 6. carbon monoxide.

The study of statistics is highly relevant to economics. The following are examples of some of the more common items. 2.Academic English I (27818) (IX) Academic vocabulary 1. 4. First results ____________________ that this treatment benefits patients in 70–80% of cases. Common words (Bailey 2006) To read and write academic texts effectively students need to be familiar with the vocabulary generally used in this context. All the animals ____________________ to the noise by becoming agitated. Most ____________________ need to be made with care. Her study of women’s social position was criticised for being too subjective. Professor Strauss wrote the ____________________ work on spiders in the Balkans.500 questionnaires were ____________________ in terms of social class. 3. The metaphorical use of the word ‘key’ is probably more common than its literal one. Three ____________________ need to be considered when predicting. Adjective analytical creative correlative definitive evaluative generalised hypothetical indicative predictive responsive significant synthetic variable Noun analysis creation correlation definition evaluation generalisation hypothesis indication/indicator prediction/predictor response significance synthesis variation/variable Verb analyse create correlate define evaluate generalise hypothesise indicate predict respond signify synthesise vary Exercise Complete each sentence with a suitable word from the table. 5. Over 3. 1. 6. 18 . hope and charity are all abstract concepts. The following adjectives are best understood and learnt as opposites: absolute abstract logical metaphorical precise rational relevant subjective theoretical absolute abstract logical relative concrete illogical literal vague or approximate or rough irrational irrelevant objective practical or empirical or pragmatic relative concrete illogical Faith.

as Peter Huber has observed. Heffernan (1972) found that adaptation to prison was facilitated by . 8. A barcode scanner is a device used at supermarket checkouts. The National Institute for Clinical Excellence is a body created to assess medical drugs. 11.’ Most of these verbs are followed by a noun clause beginning with that. 1. The second factor in the accident was the cold weather. . 2. . Umbrella nouns (Bailey 2006) A range of ‘umbrella’ nouns is used to express basic ideas in academic writing: Molecular biology is an interesting new field. 12. are still popular. 6. 3. ‘Coal itself is yesterday’s landfill . . 4. The President’s resignation gave a new aspect to the national crisis. 5. It is sufficient to give ____________________ figures for national populations. . 3. Freud developed a new approach in his second book. The ____________________ number killed in the war will never be known. The concept of class was first discussed in the eighteenth century. Their new system allows errors to be detected in 12 seconds. Their main concern is to prevent pollution in rivers and lakes. such as astrology. 2. Snow is a rare phenomenon in Rome. 7. process event views organisation types feature machine consideration cause theory area problem 1. Wilsher argued that the single play had been consigned to television history. They may also be used to introduce a quotation. Her field is the history of life insurance. Exercise Read the following and find a synonym for each word in italics from the box below. 2. 6. 9. Mendel’s work on genetics provided new perspectives for biologists. 7. The survey identified three categories of bus user. 5. Cathedrals are a ____________________ example of religious faith. 4. 10. His ____________________ approach led him to ignore some inconvenient facts. They are rather formal and need to be used accurately. Although he was a qualified dentist it was ____________________ to his new job as a priest. The most serious issue raised at the meeting was student accommodation. Only after 200 years could an ____________________ biography be written. Harvey’s concept of the circulation of the blood was first presented in 1628. . Referring verbs (Bailey 2006) Referring verbs are used to summarise another writer’s ideas. 19 . . 3.Academic English I (27818) Exercise Complete each sentence with a suitable adjective from the table. Many ____________________ ideas. .

’ 2. B: ‘I did not say that sheep were faster than horses. I’ve found that pigs can’t fly. 1.Academic English I (27818) a) The following mean that the writer is presenting a case: argue claim consider hypothesise suggest believe think state Martins (1975) claimed that many mergers led to lower profits. I may have made a mistake in my estimate.’ A small group of verbs is followed by (somebody/thing + for + noun/gerund) (all except commend have a negative meaning): blame censure commend condemn criticise Lee (1998) blamed foreign investors for the panic. E: ‘I’m not sure.’ 4. . Example: Z: ‘My research shows that cats are cleverer than dogs’.’ 6.’ 7. .’ 9. Z claimed/argued that cats were cleverer than dogs. J: ‘There may be a link between health and the seasons.’ 10. c) Others include: assume indicate conclude maintain discover presume explain reveal imply show Patel (2003) assumes that inflation will remain low. 20 . F: ‘After much research. G: ‘On my travels in the jungle I found a new type of frog.’ 3. Exercise Write a sentence referring to what the following writers said (more than one verb may be suitable). but cows probably get cold in winter.’ 8. b) A second group describes a reaction to another writer’s position: accept admit agree deny doubt Handlesmith doubts Martins’s claim that lower profits resulted from . Borovna implies a close relation between the Queen and her minister.’ 5. A: ‘You could be right. C: ‘Whales are very intelligent animals. Use the past tense. I: ‘Somebody should compare mouse behaviour with rat behaviour. H: ‘I think it unlikely that cats can learn to talk. A final group is followed by (somebody/thing + as + noun/ gerund): assess evaluate characterise identify classify interpret define portray describe present Terry interprets rising oil prices as a result of Asian recovery. D: ‘I support A’s position on cats and dogs.

’ K blamed X’s work for many of our current economic problems. P: ‘Trying to estimate the number of animal species is like shooting in the dark. Exercise 3.’ 5.’ 6. X’s hypothesis is based on the ________________ that … 2. We refer to these combinations as the phraseology of academic discourse. they can have an appreciable impact on the effectiveness of a piece of writing. S: ‘Queen Victoria was a short. The following example from a nonnative student's essay should illustrate the point: How much and to what extent can one accept the findings reached by Gardner and Lambert. Both quantitative and ________________ data were used. and their cumulative effect can be a serious loss of precision. L: ‘She was very careless about her research methods. The structure of the interview and the sampling methods were similar to those ________________ by … 6. There is a frequent type of error. The research evidence ________________ that … 21 . … it is difficult to ________________ conclusions from … 7.’ 4. Try these: 1.’ 3.’ 4. 4.’ 8. rather fat woman with dark eyes. O: ‘I’m sure that dogs bark because they are nervous. M: ‘There are three main species of bees.’ 2. T: ‘Gregor Mendel can be considered the founder of modern genetics. Some common phraseological patterns in academic discourse are the following: Recent research has focused on … Increasing demands are placed on… The contribution X has made to the field of … This definition implies that Y is concerned with … These data were analysed to identify issues related to … Broad categories were used to reduce the potential for … A slight reduction in the mean number of … … experienced large fluctuations. resulting from a lack of phraseological competence. … to develop an interview schedule for a random ________________ survey of… 5.’ 7. Although these errors are not all major errors in themselves and the degree to which intelligibility is affected varies. 1.’ 9. Academic phraseology (Swales & Feak 2001) Words that tend to go together in academic discourse. Q: ‘Darwin was the greatest naturalist of the nineteenth century. R: ‘An insect is a six-legged arthropod. From the foregoing discussion it ________________ that … 3. Example: K: ‘X’s work is responsible for many of our current economic problems. N: ‘The cat family are the kings of the animal world.Academic English I (27818) Exercise Rewrite the following statements using verbs from the previous lists.

Academic English I (27818) (X) Academic genres (Bailey 2006) Below are the most common types of written work produced or used by students. MI: Michigan University Press. (1996). and their usual approximate length. London: HarperCollins Publishers. Swales J. R. of Modern Languages. M. McCarthy. & C. CDRom. Ann Arbor. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 22 . & E. Academic vocabulary in use.M.F. Academic writing for graduate students (2nd edition). Academic writing: A handbook for international students. Complete the table to show the main purpose of each. Collins COBUILD English Guides 9 – Linking Words. (2006). Dept. Chalker. & F. Thomson (2000). S. Carter. A text based guide to academic writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. London: Routledge. Woodward-Kron. Cambridge Grammar of English. S. & M. R. McCarthy (2006). O’Dell (2008). University of Wollongong. Type Letter Email Blog Notes Report Book/film review Project Essay Thesis/dissertation Article/paper Purpose for formal and informal communication Length usually fewer than 500 words References Bailey. Feak (2001).

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