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Rain and snow are key elements in the Earth’s water cycle,which is vital to all life on Earth

. Rain is valuable resource and is trapped as little droplets of moisture in clouds, before they drop as rainfall. Rain may also fall as acid rain. Acid rain refers to all types of precipitation of rain, snow, sleet and fog that contain harmful chemicals from factory gases. Acid rain is caused by both sulphurous acid and sulphuric acid present in air and combined with water to form acid rain. The manufacture of sulphuric acid is carried out using Contact Process, which involve three stages to form sulphuric acid. Because of acid rain, many living and non-living systems are harmed and damaged. The living systems include humans,plants and animals while non-living systems include buildings and soil. Acid rain corrodes buildings, monuments avd statues made from sandstone, limestone or marble. Both marbles and limestones contain calcium carbonate, which reacts with sulphuric acid in the rain to form calcium sulphate. Calcium sulphate which is also can be obtained from oxidation of calcium sulphite with oxygen can be used in the building industry. Acid rain also corrodes metallic structures. Sulphuric acid dissolves steel and forms hydrogen gas. Acid rain is caused by smoke and gases that are emitted by factories and cars. These gases include sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen which are released during combustion of fossil fuels. Sulphur dioxide, which is a pungent gas can irritates the eyes and causes bronchitis in human when exposed to it. It is formed when sulphuric compound react with oxygen during combustion. Carbon monoxide can combine readily with haemoglobin and affects the transport of oxygen to body cells, causing fatigue, headaches and impairs alertness. Oxides of nitrogen like nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide cause respiratory infections and dissolves in rainwater to form acid rain. Pollutants are released into the atmosphere and become acid. These pollutants are sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen. Sulphur dioxide gas is released into atmosohere from the burning of sulphur through Contact Process, the burning of high-sulphur coals or fuel oil and from the extraction of certain metals from their sulphide ores. Sulphur dioxide can be rapidly oxidized to sulphur trioxide when the reaction is catalysed on the surface of airbone particles like dust particles or water droplets. It is the sulphur trioxide that causes most of the environmental damage, mainly through the formation of acid rain. Oxides of nitrogen combine with water vapour in the atmosphere to form nitric acid. Moreover, acid rain can make trees lose their leaves. Acid rain increases the acidity of soil. Plants do not grow well in very acidic soil. Photosynthetic tissues like palisade mesophyll and spongy mesophyll which has abundant supply o chloroplast are destroyed. Chloroplast is important in plant cell to trap sunlight for production of glucose. The glucose then will be transport from the leaves to all parts of plants for growth. Destruction of photosynthetic tissues causing less production of food and deficiency of minerals in plants, thus plant leaves turn yellow and fall off. For example, lack of macronutrients like calcium can make the leaves become distorted and cupped. Terminal buds of trees are dead because of deficiency of boron which aids in calcium ion uptake by roots and translocation of sugars. Trees also suffer from stunted growth. Acid rain make the soil very acidic and unsuitable for cultivation of crops. Acid rain causes the leaching of minerals such as potassium, calcium and

Acidic soil releases the ions of certain heavy metal likes like lead and cadmium which may contaminate the supply of drinking water. The plants will die because of malnutrition. Chemicals in acid rain is absorbed by the insects when the acidic rain fell on it . causing the reaction will take too long to complete. mercury. Lack of potassium would reduced protein synthesis and cause premature death of plants while calcium defect causes stunted growth. For example. Fish died because of the toxic and the chemicals that deposited in the river like nitrates. the lakes are also damaged by acid rain. Birds can die from eating toxic fish and insects. cadmium and copper. Acid rain that flows into lakes and rivers make the become acidic. Lead is a highly toxic heavy metal which can accumulate in the tissue of living organism. Fish cannot live and breed in lakes and rivers where the water is very acidic. the dark reaction that is catalyse by photosynthetic enzyme can be stop by lead and mercury. This is because the rain is deposited in the soil. The soil poisons the tree with toxic substances like mercury. Those acid then will be deposited on the land and rivers when the rain fell on it. result in poor intake of minerals and water by the root. These chemicals can not be digested by the body and could impairs the immune system of living organisms. High acidity of soils can destroy the roots of plants. Many fish died decrease in the population of fish will affect population of other organisms like the birds because fish is the main food source for certain types of birds. There are still fish that did not die but have toxic in their body and the chemical that they feed on. Increased acidity in the aquatic ecosystems also kills phytoplankton which changes the food chain. Acid rain are made up of sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen that form sulphuric acid and nitric acid in the air. The river then become acidic and toxic. Chlorosis or yellowing of the regions between the veins of nature leaves also occur. Mercury which is a heavy metal can inhibit growth and metabolic processes in trees by stopping the activity of enzymes in the trees. lead and zinc.magnesium. More than that. Enzymes are biological catalyst that direct or guide almost all cellular activities in humans and plants. This affects the growth of crops.

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