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Chapter 4: The Structure and Function of a Cell

Cell Theory:
1. All living things are composed of cells
2. Cell are the unit of structure and function of all living things
3. All cells come from pre-existing cells

Limits to Cell Growth:

1. Surface Area to Volume Ratio (volume increases at a much greater rate
than surface area)
2. Nucleus cannot control a large area
3. The Cell Membrane will rupture

Viewing Objective (4x): the smallest objective; used for centering the field
of view for the specimen before moving on to higher powers
Other objectives: low (10x), high (40x), and oil immersion (100x)
Eyepiece (10x): multiply with objective to get the total magnification
High adjustment: used to fine tune the clarity of the specimen, often on
high power

1. Label the name and power in the lower left corner
2. Draw non-intersecting lines when labeling objects in the field of view
3. Draw the entire field of view
4. Only draw what you see, including color

Organelles: the functional units of the cell, performs specific jobs

11 Major Organelles:
1. Nucleus – Mayor’s Office – “brain” of the cell; controls all functions;
chromosomes are located in it
2. Mitochondrion – Electric Co. – “powerhouse” of the cell; produces ATP
from carbohydrates
3. Endoplasmic Recticulum (ER) – Public Transportation – “freeway” of the
cell; tiny canal that transport chemicals throughout the cell
4. Ribosomes – Factories – produce proteins; take in proteins, break them
down into amino acids, then rearranges them back into proteins that fit
the cell’s species
5. Golgi Apparatus – Mail/Post Office – “wraps and exports” proteins from
the cell
6. Lysosomes – Sanitation – digestive organelle
7. Cytoplasm – Air/Land – clear, jelly-like material inside the cell; fills the
cell and gives it the volume
8. Cell Membrane – City Limits – encloses the cell; selectively permeable
9. Plastids (plants) – Solar Panels – contain chlorophyll (green); produce
energy for plants using water and light in photosynthesis
10.Cell Wall (plants) – Walls – made of cellulose, which gives the cell its
11.Vacuole (plants) – Storage/Warehouse – storage area for food and
water inside the cell

Tissues: similar cells working together to do a specific function (muscles,

glands, stomach wall)

Organs: similar tissues working together to do a specific function (lung,

heart, liver, kidney)

Organ systems: groups of organs working together to do a specific function

(10 systems in human body)

10 Major Organ Systems: circulatory, digestive, endocrine, excretory,

integumentary, muscular, nervous, reproductive, respiratory, and skeletal

Homeostasis: the process of maintaining a constant (steady balance)

Diffusion: molecules distribution themselves equally, because of their

random movement; at an absolute 0, no random movement would occur;
directly related to temperature.

Hypotonic Solution: low salt concentration in water; a solution that contains a

low amount of solute and a high amount of water

Hypertonic Solution: high salt concentration in water; a solution that contains

a high amount of solute and a low amount of water

Isotonic Solution: neither gains nor loses water through osmosis; a solution
that contains a ratio of salt to water that is equal to the human cell’s ratio

Osmosis: the diffusion of water from an area of high concentration to an area

of low concentration