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Autosome Centromere Chromatid

-- All of an organisms chromosomes, except


-- The
for the
area of the chromosome where the--two
Onesister
copy and one original chromosome held
two sex chromosomes chromatids are held together together by a centromere

-- Determine the traits of an organism that


-- are
Links
not
two chromatids together -- Attached to spindle fibers during mitosis
sex-linked or gender related
-- a.k.a. Protein Disk

Haploid Histone Homologous Chromosome


-- Human sperm and egg cells -- A protein molecule that DNA wraps around
-- One
during
pair (two copies) of each autosome
chromosome formation
-- Have only one chromosome of each homologous -- Same size and shape
pair -- Helps maintain the shape of a chromosome
-- Carry genes for the same traits
-- Half the number of a diploid cell -- Aid in tight-packing DNA
-- May differ in views on trait(s)
Sex Chromosome Cell Cycle Centriole
-- A chromosome that determines the sex--ofThe
an repeating set of events that make up
-- In
the
animal
life cells, a small pair of cylindrical bodie
organism and sex-linked traits of a cell in each centrosome

-- Normal Human Male: XY -- Growth, Synthesis, Preparation, Cell Division


-- Only appear during mitosis

-- Normal Human Female: XX -- I M C

Cytokinesis G0 Phase G1 Phase

-- The process of the division of the cytoplasm


-- Cells
in do not copy DNA or prepare for division
-- First period of a cell's life (I)
order to form two new cells
-- Last step of cell cycle -- Fully developed cells in the central nervous
-- Cell growth (cell doubles in size)
-- Animal Cells: cell membrane pinches inward system don't divide
-- Plant Cells: cell plate forms on mid-line eventually -- Gap following cell division and preceding DNA
divides -- The human body has many cells in this phase
replication

Meiosis Mitosis S Phase


-- The process of nuclear division that reduces
-- Eukaryotic
the nuclear division -- Second period of interphase during which
number of chromosomes in a cell by half replication of DNA occurs
-- Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase

-- Nucleus breaks down, chromatids line up on


mitotic spindles, they break away, two new nuclei
form, and spindle / centrioles break down
Asexual Reproduction Crossing-over Gamete
-- Production of offspring from one parent-- Exchange of genes by reciprocal segments -- Result
of of meiosis in humans
homologous chromosomes during meiosis
-- Does not involve meiosis or union of gametes -- Reproductive cells (haploids)
-- Permits exhange of genetic material between
-- Offspring genetically identical to its parentmaternal and paternal chromosomes -- Human: sperm and egg

-- Results in genetic recombination


Sexual Reproduction Spermatogenesis Synapsis
-- Production of offspring through meiosis --and
Thethe
production of sperm cells -- Pairing of homologous chromosomes during
union of a sperm and an egg Prophase I (Meiosis I)
-- Development:
-- Genetically different from parents 1. Diploid reproductive cell divides
-- Does not occur during mitosis
meiotically into four haploid cells
-- Enables adaptation to new conditions 2. Cells mature into sperm cells
Diploid
-- A cell that contains both chromosomes of a pair
of homologous chromosomes

-- All human cells, except for reproductive cells

-- Includes sex chromosomes

Karyotype
-- A photomicrograph of the chromosomes in a
dividing cell in a normal human

-- 46 Chromosomes in a Human

-- 22 Pairs of Autosomes / 1 Pair of Sex

Centrosome
-- A dark body containing a centriole in animal cells
but not in plant cells

-- Spindle fibers radiate from it in G2

G2 Phase

-- Final period of Interphase

-- Rapid growth and preparation for mitosis


-- Represents time gap following DNA synthesis and
preceding cell division

Spindle Fibers
-- Made of microtubules

-- Radiate from centrioles in preparation for mitosis

-- Form mitotic spindle

-- Equally divide chromatids between offspring


Oogenesis
-- The production of mature egg cells, ova

-- Diploid reproductive cell divides meiotically to


produce one mature egg cell (ovum)

Tetrad
-- A pair of homologous chromosomes

-- Chromatids of homologous chromosomes are


aligned length wise, so that genes of one are
adjacent to corresponding genes on the other