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This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only.

It may not be resold. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel. 012 428-6666, email. info@sabs.co.za) for more information on their copyright rules.

DRAFT SOUTH AFRICAN STANDARD (DSS): PUBLIC ENQUIRY STAGE Document number

SANS 10160-3

Reference

7114/10160-3/DL

Date of circulation

2009-10-13

Closing date

2009-12-15

Number and title:

SANS 10160-3: BASIS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN AND ACTIONS FOR BUILDINGS AND INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURES — PART 3 : WIND ACTIONS
Remarks:

PLEASE NOTE: • The technical committee, SABS SC 59I responsible for the preparation of this standard has reached consensus that the attached document should become a South African standard. It is now made available by way of public enquiry to all interested and affected parties for public comment, and to the technical committee members for record purposes. Any comments should be sent by the indicated closing date, either by mail, or by fax, or by e-mail to SABS Standards Division Attention: Compliance and Development department Private Bag X191 Pretoria 0001 Fax No.: (012) 344-1568 (for attention: dsscomments) E-mail: dsscomments@sabs.co.za Any comment on the draft must contain in its heading the number of the clause/subclause to which it refers. A comment shall be well motivated and, where applicable, contain the proposed amended text. • The public enquiry stage will be repeated if the technical committee agrees to significant technical changes to the document as a result of public comment. Less urgent technical comments will be considered at the time of the next amendment.

THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED FOR PUBLIC COMMENT. IT MAY NOT BE REFERRED TO AS A SOUTH AFRICAN STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.

IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES, DRAFT SOUTH AFRICAN STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN LAW.

AZ96.10 2008/08/08 sabs pta

This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. It may not be resold. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel. 012 428-6666, email. info@sabs.co.za) for more information on their copyright rules.

ISBN 978-0-626-

SANS 10160-3:2009
Edition 1

SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Basis of structural design and actions for buildings and industrial structures Part 3 : Wind actions

Published by SABS Standards Division 1 Dr Lategan Road Groenkloof Private Bag X191 Pretoria 0001 Tel: +27 12 428 7911 Fax: +27 12 344 1568 www.sabs.co.za © SABS

This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. It may not be resold. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel. 012 428-6666, email. info@sabs.co.za) for more information on their copyright rules.

SANS 10160-3:2009 Edition 1
Table of changes Change No. Date Scope

Foreword
This South African standard was approved by National Committee SABS SC 59I, Construction standards - basis for the design of structures in accordance with procedures of the SABS Standards Division, in compliance with annex 3 of the WTO/TBT agreement. The SANS 10160 Series consisting of SANS 10160-1 to SANS 10160-8 supersedes SABS 0160:1989 (edition 2). This document was published in XXXX 2009. The SANS 10160 Series consists of the following eight parts, under the general title Basis of structural design and actions for buildings and industrial structures: Part-1: Basis of structural design. Part-2: Self-weight and imposed loads. Part-3: Wind actions. Part-4: Seismic actions and general requirements for buildings. Part-5: Basis of geotechnical design and actions. Part-6: Actions induced by cranes and machinery. Part-7: Thermal actions. Part-8: Actions during execution.

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............................................... 5..................................... Pressure and force coefficients....................................................................co........ Design situations............................................................................................. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel............................. 3 ...................................... 6................................................ 012 428-6666..............................................................................2 Asymmetric and counteracting pressures and forces......................................................................................... It may not be resold....................... 7........................................................2 Representation of wind actions............12 Lattice structures and scaffoldings....................................................... 7.......................9 Structural elements with regular polygonal section......................................................................4 Peak wind pressure......................................................................11 Spheres....... 3..................... 4 5 6 7 Annex A Effects of the terrain on wind speed...................................................................................8 Structural elements with sharp edged section....................................................................................................................................................... 7......................10 Circular cylinders......................2 Basic values....................1 Basis for calculation......................... 7............................................. Contents Foreword 1 2 3 Scope............................................................................ 7.................................................................. 6............................................................................................................................................................za) for more information on their copyright rules...........3 Pressure coefficients for buildings.................... 5....... 7............................4 Canopy roofs............... 7.......................................................................................................................... 6...............................................13 Effective slenderness and end-effect factor...................... Wind speed and wind pressure....... fences and signboards.5 Wind actions.................1 Nature of wind actions...................................................................4 Characteristic values......................................................................................................................................................................................... Definitions and symbols............................................................................................3 Peak wind speed..................................................................... 7.......... Annex C Wind tunnel as a design tool........................................ 6. 6........................................................................................................................ email.............. 7.................................................................... 5......................................................................................................................... 7...... 7.................... 3................... info@sabs.................... 7......................7 Structural elements with rectangular sections...6 Friction forces......... Annex B Design of buildings and structures which fall outside the scope of the code..................3 Classification of wind actions............ 5.................................................. Modelling of wind action............. Normative references .................................................2 Symbols....... parapets.......This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only................................. 7...................................1 Aerodynamic coefficient...............................................................................................................1 Definitions.............................5 Models........................................................................... 5..............5 Free-standing walls.......................................................................................................................................................

It may not be resold. 012 428-6666.za) for more information on their copyright rules.co.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. info@sabs. . Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel. email.

which are not fixed permanently but are designed to accommodate movement (for example. It may not be resold.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. part of the structure or elements attached to the structure. Basis of structural design and actions for buildings and industrial structures Part 3: Wind actions 1 Scope NOTE See also clause 1 of SANS 10160-1. for example tornadoes or micro-bursts. 1.4 It does not cover wind loads and wind effects due to high intensity winds. revolving antennas. chimneys). 1. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel. 012 428-6666. 5 .2 This part of SANS 10160 is intended to predict characteristic wind actions on land-based structures and covers the following : a) buildings and structures with an overall height of up to 100 metres b) elements of building and structures having a natural frequency greater than 5 Hz c) chimneys with circular cross-section. telescope dishes or movable roofs).za) for more information on their copyright rules. email.1 This part of SANS 10160 gives guidance on determination of natural wind actions for structural design of buildings and industrial structures including the entire structure.5. e) structures and buildings of unusual shapes. with heights less than 60 m and a height to diameter ratio of less than 6. d) bridge structures. g) high-risk structures (for example those containing nuclear or biological material). 1. c) off-shore structures. info@sabs.co. and h) transmission lines. f) structures or their components. 1.3 This part of SANS 10160 does not cover the following structures: a) structures and buildings higher than 100 metres. b) dynamic effects and design of dynamically sensitive structures (for example slender .

structural element or component per unit area 3.1.za) for more information on their copyright rules.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only.1.1.2 basic wind speed fundamental value of the basic wind speed modified to account for the return period of the wind being considered 3. therefore. 012 428-6666. For dated references. 2 Normative references The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. Information on currently valid national and international standards can be obtained from the SABS Standards Division. NOTE The high intensity winds are particularly rare and localised events. NOTE 1 Design standards are not able to consider the infinite permutations and combinations of building forms used in the modern design. 1. For undated references. SANS 10160-1 . Basis of structural design and actions for buildings and industrial structures — Part 1: Basis of structural design 3 Definitions and symbols 3. 3. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.02. info@sabs. The degree of applicability of the generic information included in the loading code to specific cases of structures to be designed. only the edition cited applies.5 It does not cover designs assisted by testing and measurements where wind tunnel tests or properly validated numerical methods (or both) are used to obtain the load and response information. However. NOTE 2 In these cases the designer could consult appropriate standards such as EN 1991-4 or specialist literature.co. it is advisable to seek expert advice or design by testing (or both). It may not be resold. at a height of 10 m above flat open country terrain and accounting for altitude effects (if required) 3.1 fundamental value of the basic wind speed mean wind speed of 10 minute with an annual risk of being exceeded of 0. email. irrespective of wind direction. having a very small probability of occurrence at specific geographical location. the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.4 peak wind speed 6 . topography and the boundary-layer wind conditions.1 Definitions For the purpose of this document the definitions and symbols given in SANS 10160-1 and the following apply . In cases in which the agreement between the loading code information and the structure to be designed is poor. based on appropriate models of the structure.6 It does not cover designs where the wind parameters appropriate to the specific site (for example a site which is significantly influenced by topography) as well as load response data has to be obtained from appropriate full-scale measurements. needs to be assessed. wind forces generated by short duration gusts can be significantly greater than those considered in the international standard design practice. 1.1.3 net pressure coefficients resulting effect of the wind on a structure.

It may not be resold.e Fw.6 force coefficient overall effect of the wind on a structure.1 Latin upper case letters AC Agk Afr Aref Ffr Fw Fw. 3.5 pressure coefficient external pressure coefficients give the effect of the wind on the external surfaces of buildings. basic wind speed modified to account for the effect of terrain roughness.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only.1. structural element or component as a whole. internal pressure coefficients give the effect of the wind on the internal surfaces of buildings. email. topography and the conversion factor of 1.1. NOTE The external pressure coefficients are divided into overall coefficients and local coefficients.2 Latin lower case letters b cf cfr cpe is the breadth of the building is the force coefficient for a structure or structural element is the friction coefficient is the external pressure coefficient 7 .2. including friction. 012 428-6666. if not specifically excluded.co. Local coefficients give the pressure coefficients for loaded areas of 1 m2 or less.2. info@sabs.za) for more information on their copyright rules.j K L Re is the area enclosed by the boundaries of the face projected normal to the face is the area of the gusset plate is the area of external surface parallel to wind direction is the reference area of the structure or structural element is the frictional force is the wind force calculated from pressure or force coefficient is the external force is the internal force is the shape parameter depending on the coefficient of variation of the extreme value distribution is the length of wall is the Reynolds number 3.2 Symbols NOTE The notation used is based on ISO 3898. 3. for example for the design of small elements and fixings. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.4 3. 3. overall coefficients give the pressure coefficients for loaded areas larger than 10 m2.

3 Greek lower case letters α ρ λ θ is the pitch angle of a roof is the air density is the effective slenderness is the wind direction is the blockage ratio φ 8 . info@sabs. email.co.0 vp(z) is the internal pressure coefficient is the probability factor is the roughness factor is the structural factor is the topography (orography) factor is the along-wind dimension of building is the height of a building is the height of horizontal strip is the equivalent surface roughness is the probability of annual exceedance is the peak wind pressure is the basic wind speed defined at 10 m above ground in terrain category B is the fundamental value of the basic wind speed corresponding to the specific geographical location is the peak wind speed at height. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel. It may not be resold.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. cfi cprob cr cscd co d h hstrip k p qp vb vb. terrain roughness and topography is the external wind pressure is the internal wind pressure is the height above ground level is the height below which no further reduction in wind speed is allowed is the gradient height is the height of the reference plane we wi z zc zg z0 3. 012 428-6666.za) for more information on their copyright rules. z is determined by the basic wind speed vb .2.

4. μ ψmc ψr ψλ ν is the opening ratio or permeability is the reduction factor is the reduction factor for square sections with rounded corners is the end-effect factor for elements with free-end flow is the kinematic viscosity of the air (ν = 15·10-6 m2/s) 4 Design situations 4. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel. 4. which may modify the effects of wind) shall be taken into account. 5. 4. email. 5. info@sabs. result in forces normal to the surfaces of the structure or individual cladding elements.4 Characteristic values The wind actions are determined from the basic values of wind speed and wind pressure. In the case of open structures.za) for more information on their copyright rules. which is equivalent to a mean return period of 50 years. The basic values are characteristic values having annual probability exceeding 0.4 If in a design the external skin of a building is assumed to be sealed under storm conditions.1 The relevant wind actions shall be determined for each design situation.02. It may not be resold. which act over surfaces. a situation of unforeseen or accidental openings shall also be considered. 012 428-6666. 5 Modelling of wind action 5.2 Other actions or elements (foe example the presence of traffic or the addition of large screens) which will modify the effects of wind. when large surfaces of structures are subject to wind flow directed along the surfaces. substantial friction forces develop.3 The changes to the structure during various stages of execution (such as different stages of the form of the structure.3 Classification of wind actions Wind actions shall be classified as variable and fixed actions.co. they act both on external and internal surfaces.1 Nature of wind actions Wind actions fluctuate with time and act directly as pressures on the external surfaces of enclosed structures and because of porosity of the external surfaces also act indirectly on the internal surfaces.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. shall be taken into account. 9 .2 Representation of wind actions Wind action is represented by a simplified set of pressures or forces whose effects are equivalent to the extreme effects of turbulent wind. NOTE All coefficients and procedures used to derive wind actions from basic values are chosen so that the probability of the calculated wind action does not exceed the probability of these basic values. Pressures. Additionally. 5.

terrain roughness and topography. 6. from the peak speed pressure qp. shape and dynamic properties of the structure.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. It may not be resold.1.3) 10 . 6 Wind speed and wind pressure 6.2 The basic wind speed shall be calculated from equation (1).0 (see 6. adopting a structural factor.0 where νb νb.2.5.2. measured at 10 m above ground level in open country terrain with low vegetation. Tall and dynamically sensitive structures are not covered in this part of SANS 10160.5. NOTE: The effect of wind on a structure depends on the size. The effects of non-simultaneous occurrence of peak wind pressures are also ignored.1. which shall be taken from figure 1. 5.3 The peak wind pressure q p ( z ) is a function of peak wind speed νb(z) and air density ρ and shall be determined in accordance with 6.2 Basic values 6. (1) is the fundamental value of the basic wind speed corresponding to the specific geographical location.1 The basic wind speed νb depends on the fundamental value of basic wind speed νb. the pressure and force coefficients.2.za) for more information on their copyright rules. vb = cprob × vb. 6. This part of SANS 10160 is based on a static representation of wind action in which the dynamic properties of structures and the dynamic response are not considered. at the reference height in an undisturbed wind flow. info@sabs.3.2.3. cscd = 1. 012 428-6666. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.1. with separation of at least 20 obstacle heights.1 The fundamental value of the basic wind speed νb.1 Basis for calculation 6. 6.0 is the basic wind speed defined at 10 m above ground in terrain category B. The peak wind speed pressure qp depends on the wind climate.2 The peak wind speed νp(z) is determined by the basic wind speed νb. email.2. 6.5 Models The response of structures shall be calculated according to the procedure outlined in 6. This assumption may lead to a certain degree of over estimation of loads for low-rise but large structures. NOTE This terrain corresponds to category B in table 2. terrain roughness and topography and shall be determined in accordance with 6. such as grass and isolated obstacles.2). irrespective of wind direction and time of the year.co.0 adjusted for return period probability factor directional and shall be determined in accordance with 6. cprob (see 6.4.0 is the characteristic 10 min mean wind speed.

11 . These two types of strong wind events cannot be fairly represented by a single value of mean wind speed in terms of 10 min averaging time.98 )) ⎠ where K n n (2) is the shape parameter depending on the coefficient of variation of the extreme value distribution with a value of 0. in particular in regard to the dominance of frontal winds in coastal areas and intense thunderstorms inland.2. 012 428-6666. also the wind climate) is complex. In order to overcome this problem an actual magnitude of wind speed of 28 m/s was obtained for coastal areas. the mean wind speed is determined by multiplying the basic wind speed νb in equation (1) by the probability factor cprob given in equation (2). Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel. It may not be resold. The South African climate (i. For inland areas of the country an effective speed of 28 m/s was adopted.0 NOTE For most areas of the country a basic fundamental wind speed of 28 m/s is stipulated (see figure 1). is the exponent with a value of 0. email.02.co.2. refer to SANS 10160-1. NOTE The return period may be taken as the design working life of the structure.e. For the 10 minute mean wind speed having probability p of annual exceedance. info@sabs. ⎛ 1 − K × ln( −( ln( 1 − p )) ⎞ cprob = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1 − K × ln( −ln( 0 . 6. which is equivalent to a mean return period of 50 years.3 The basic values are characteristic values having annual probability of exceedance of 0.za) for more information on their copyright rules. Figure 1 — Map of the fundamental value of the basic wind speed νb.5.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. based on a conversion factor between hourly and 10 min mean wind speeds.

info@sabs.3.2.3.2 Terrain roughness 6.0 unless specified otherwise in 6. zc is the height below which no further reduction in wind speed is allowed (table 1) α is the exponent defined in table 1 Table 1—Parameters of wind profile 12 .peak where νb.5.1 The terrain roughness factor cr(z) accounts for the variability of the mean wind speed at the site of the structure due to: a) the height above ground level b) the ground roughness of the terrain upwind of the structure in the wind direction under consideration.36 ⎜ ⎜ zg − z0 ⎝ where ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ α (5) z is the height above the ground level z0 is the height of the reference plane.3.1.3.3. given in 6. as defined in table 1. in terms of which the basic wind velocities νb.3 Peak wind speed 6.1.4 and Clause 6.co. The factor cr(z) shall be determined as follows: ⎛ z − z0 cr ( z ) = 1.3.za) for more information on their copyright rules.1 Variation with height 6.4νb cr(z) is the roughness factor.3 NOTE: In equation (4) a conversion takes place from the 10 minutes mean wind speed. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel. 6.2 The influence of neighbouring structures on the wind speed at a specific site should be considered as described in Clause 6.3. It may not be resold.peak=1.3.0 and νb bare defined. as defined in table 1. 012 428-6666. taken as 1. to 3 sec gust wind speed.1 The peak wind speed νp(x) at a height z above the terrain depends on the terrain roughness and topography as well as on the basic speed νband should be determined using equation (3) vp ( z ) = cr ( z ) × c0 ( z ) × vb. 6.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. email.2 (3) (4) c0(z) is the topography (orography) factor. 6.3. zg is the gradient height.

2. the wind profile (i.5 which takes into account the vertical displacement of the peak wind pressure profile. magnitude of the cr(z) factor) is strongly influenced by local surroundings. suburban terrain. within an environment with closely spaced obstructions. buildings) with separations of at least 20 obstacle heights C Area with regular cover of vegetation or buildings or with isolated obstacles with separations of maximum 20 obstacle heights (such as villages.za) for more information on their copyright rules. 13 .e.5) by using a procedure described in annex A.120 0.e.095 0. It may not be resold.2. Table 2—Terrain categories 1 Category 2 Description 3 Illustration A Flat horizontal terrain with negligible vegetation and without any obstacles (for example coastal areas exposed to open sea or large lakes) B Area with low vegetation such as grass and isolated obstacles (trees.3.co. 1 Terrain category A B C D 2 zg 250 300 350 400 3 Z0 0 0 3 5 4 zc 1 2 5 10 5 α 0. permanent forest) D Area in which at least 15 % of the surface is covered with buildings and their average height exceeds 15 m NOTE 1 A certain amount of a reduction in loading for category D can be obtained (see 6. which are site specific and which may introduce acceleration of the wind flow.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only.070 0. 012 428-6666.3. 6.3. This is especially relevant within developed areas i. info@sabs. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel. email.150 6.2 Various terrain categories are specified in table 2.3 At low elevations above the ground level.

71 0.3. 6.22 1.12 1.09 1.17 1.77 0.za) for more information on their copyright rules.co. It may not be resold. 012 428-6666.85 0. are permitted.98 1.26 1.15 1.14 1. email. cr(z).73 0.20 1.27 1. rough terrain categories.28 3 Category B 0.3.07 1.09 1.90 0.02 1.71 0.4 The variation of the roughness factor.78 0.21 1.05 1. with a deviation in the roughness.17 D 0.98 1.05 1.71 0.23 1. which constitute less than 10 % of the overall area.12 1.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only.95 0.00 1.10 4 5 Figure 2—Variation of the cr(z) factor with height above ground level 6.85 0.01 1. No further reduction in the wind speed below cut-off heights zc which are stipulated in table 2.04 1.73 0.5 The terrain roughness to be used for a given wind direction depends on the distance of the terrain covered with a uniform roughness within an angular ± 15° sector of this direction.71 0. 14 .12 1. with height is given in table 3 and in figure 2 Table 3—Variation of the cr(z) factor with height above ground level 1 Elevation m 0 2 4 6 10 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 2 A 0.10 1.14 1.17 1.85 0.83 0.02 1.15 1.90 0.18 1.24 1.2.08 1.95 1.97 1.91 0.20 1. info@sabs.06 1. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.92 0. can be ignored.73 0.94 0.04 1.23 C 0.71 0. Small areas.2.

which takes this effect into account.2 The effects of topography may be neglected when the average slope of the upwind terrain is less than 3°. then the structure under consideration could be subject to accelerated wind speeds.7 The smoother terrain category in the upwind direction shall be adopted if a structure is situated near a change of terrain roughness at distances and categories as follows: a) less than 2 km from the smoother category A. qp ( z ) = where 1 × ρ × v2 ( z ) 2 (6) 15 .co. 6. should be determined from equation (6).3.2 may be used.4.3 Terrain topography 6. 6. email. It may not be resold. NOTE: In a rough terrain with closely spaced buildings the mean wind flow near the ground is modified as if the ground level was raised to a height called a displacement height hdis.2.3. 6.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only.5. 6.1 Where the terrain topography (for example hills. 6. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.3.3.4 Peak wind speed pressure The peak wind speed pressure qp(z) at height z. NOTE: A recommended conservative approximation.6 When there is a choice between adopting two or more terrain categories for a given area then the terrain category with a lower roughness should be used. alternatively wind-tunnel modelling can be used.2.3. 6.4 Large and considerably higher neighbouring structures If a structure under consideration is to be located within a close proximity of another. c0(z). which protrudes at least twice as high as the average heights of neighbouring structures. A recommended approximate procedure in this respect is given in annex A.3. these effects should be taken into account by using the topography factor. is given in annex A.3. which includes the mean and short duration wind speed fluctuations.za) for more information on their copyright rules.3. cliffs) increases wind speeds by more than 5%. 6. NOTE The recommended procedure is given in annex A. 012 428-6666. or b) less than 1 km from smoother categories B and C In other cases the procedure described in annex A. Such cases should be taken into account in the design process. The upwind terrain may be considered up to a distance of 10 times the height of the isolated topographical feature. info@sabs.3.3.5 Closely spaced buildings and obstacles The effect of closely spaced buildings and other obstacles should be taken into account.

5.00 0.12 1. under strong wind conditions. 6.e Ffr 3 Reference Figure 1 Equation (1) Table 2 Section 7 Clause 6. Table 5—Calculation procedure 1 Description Fundamental basic wind speed Basic wind speed Terrain category Reference height Topography coefficient Roughness / height coefficient Peak wind speed Peak wind speed pressure Internal pressure coefficient External pressure coefficient Internal wind pressure External wind pressure Wind force calculated from force coefficient Internal forces External forces Frictional forces 2 Symbol νb.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only.3.5 Wind actions 6. NOTE 2 : intermediate values of ρ may be obtained from linear interpolation.5. which depends on the altitude.1 Calculation procedure A summary of calculation procedures for determination of wind actions is given in table 5.co.0 νb A. B.20 1. The recommended values of density as a function of altitude above sea level are given in table 4.2 Equations (3) and (4) Equation (6) Clause 7.9 Section 7 Equation (7) Equation (8) Equations (9) and (10) Equation (11) Equation (12) Equation (13) 6. 012 428-6666. C.06 1.2.5.i Fw. NOTE The fluctuating internal pressures are generated by wind penetrating the outer skin of a structure via passages. which may include: 16 . ρ is the air density (in kg/m3).3 Clause 6. temperature and barometric pressure to be expected in the region.94 ρ NOTE 1 : A temperature of 20° has been selected as appropriate for South Africa and the variation of mean atmospheric pressure with altitude is allowed for in the above table. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.1 Wind action on structures and structural elements shall be determined taking into account simultaneous action of external and internal wind pressures. It may not be resold. D ze c0(z) cr(z) νp(z) qp(z) cpl cpe wi we Fw Fw.3.3. email. Table 4 — Air density as a function of site altitude 1 Site altitude above sea level m 0 500 1 000 1 500 2 000 2 Air density kg/m3 1. info@sabs.2 Wind pressure on surfaces 6.za) for more information on their copyright rules.

This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. b) temporary openings (windows and doors). info@sabs.5. displaced sheeting). roof or other element is the difference between the pressures on the opposite surfaces taking due account of their signs. windows and cladding).2. 6. we.4 The net pressure acting on a wall. Pressure directed towards the surface is taken as positive. c) leakages (via. In figure 3 various cases of build-up of positive and negative pressures are demonstrated.3 The wind pressure acting on the external surfaces.za) for more information on their copyright rules. shall be obtained from equation (7) wi = qp ( ze ) × cpi where qp(ze) ze cpi is the peak wind speed pressure is the reference height relevant to the internal pressure is the pressure coefficient for the internal pressure (7) 6. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel. 012 428-6666. Figure 3 — Pressure on surfaces 17 . a) permanent openings (vents. louvers).2 The wind pressure wi acting on internal surfaces of a structure.2.co. and suction.5. directed away from the surface as negative. email. shall be obtained from equation (8) we = qp ( ze ) × cpe where qp(ze) ze cpe is the peak wind speed pressure is the reference height relevant to the external pressure is the pressure coefficient for the external pressure (8) 6.5.2. and d) accidental openings (broken windows. It may not be resold.

roofs. 6.3.5) is the force coefficient for a structure or structural element (see clause 7) (10) is the peak wind speed pressure (see 6. lattice structures etc.5. calculated by equation (13). plates. info@sabs.3.1 Wind force for the whole structure or a structural component should be determined: a) by using force coefficients in the equations as described in 6.0 (see clauses 6. for structures or structural elements such as prisms.i and Ffr) calculated from the external and internal pressures (equations (11) and (12)) and the frictional forces resulting from the friction of the wind generated along the surfaces which are parallel to the flow.3. Fw. signboards.3.5.e = cs × cd × Friction forces: surfaces ∑ we × Aref (12) Ffr = cfr × qp ( ze ) × Afr where cscd (13) is the structural factor equal to 1. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.4 and 6. Internal forces: F w .2.3 The wind force Fw.5.5) 18 .5.5.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. Fw = cs × cd × cf × qp ( ze ) × Aref or by vector summation over individual structural elements by using equation (10). 012 428-6666.3 Wind forces 6.3.za) for more information on their copyright rules.3.0 (see 6.3.co. cylinders.5. include the effects of friction. or b) by integrating surface pressures as described in 6.3 6.4) at a reference height ze (see clause 7) is the reference area of the structure or structural element (see clause 7) NOTE : Clause 7 gives values of force coefficients.5.5. 6.2 The wind force Fw acting on a structure or a structural component may be determined from equation (9).4 and 6.i = surfaces ∑ wi × Aref (11) External forces: F w .5.3. It may not be resold. email. (9) Fw = cs × cd × Σ cf × qp ( ze ) × Aref where cscd cf qp(ze) Aref is the structural factor equal to 1. which are given.5. cf.e. The values. acting on a structure or a structural element may be determined by vectorial summation of the forces (Fw.3.

and b) the dynamic effects due to resonance between the turbulence of the flow and vibrations of the structure. NOTE 1 : Structures falling outside the scope of this standard can be designed in accordance with EN 1991-1-4.3.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only.1.5.6 The effects of the wind friction can be ignored when the total area of all surfaces parallel (or at a small angle) to the wind direction is equal to or less than 4 times the total area of all external surfaces perpendicular to the wind (including windward and leeward surfaces). They may be used for loaded areas larger than 10 m2. i. 7.0. NOTE 2: The external pressure coefficients are divided into overall coefficients and local coefficients.1 Aerodynamic coefficient 7. non-simultaneous occurrence of peak pressures over the external surfaces of buildings and structures. NOTE 2 : Alternatively. 6.4 The structural factor cscd takes into account and combines the effects of: a) the disorganized distribution.3.5.5. NOTE 1: External pressure coefficients give the effect of the wind on the external surfaces of buildings.za) for more information on their copyright rules.7 In the summation of wind forces acting on building structures. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.They may be used for the design of small elements and fixings. 19 .1.co.6. 7 Pressure and force coefficients 7.9.e.10. 6. the lack of correlation of wind pressures between the windward and leeward sides may be taken into account. Overall coefficients give the pressure coefficients for loaded areas of 10 m2. The external pressure circular cylinders are determined in accordance with 7.3.1.1.3. email. info@sabs. wi we Aref cfr Afr is the internal pressure on the individual surface at height ze given in equation (7) is the external pressure on the individual surface at height ze given in equation (8) is the reference area of an individual surface is the friction coefficient derived from clause 7 is the area of external surface parallel to wind direction 6.5. Local coefficients give the pressure coefficients for loaded areas of 1 m2 .1. considering the guidelines included in annex B.5 For structures falling within the scope of this Standard the factor cscd shall be taken as 1. It may not be resold.2 Circular cylinders The internal pressure circular cylinders are determined in accordance with 7. 012 428-6666.1 Pressure coefficients 7. wind tunnel modelling may be used (see annex C).3. 6.1 Buildings The internal and external pressures for buildings are determined in accordance with 7.3. internal pressure coefficients give the effect of the wind on the internal surfaces of buildings.

NOTE 1 It is recommended that for rectangular structures that are susceptible to torsional effects the pressure distribution given in Figure 4 should be applied to represent the torsional effects due to an inclined wind or due to lack of correlation between wind forces acting at different places on the structure and NOTE 2 It is recommended that for other cases an allowance for asymmetry of loading should be made by completely removing the design wind action from those parts of the structure where its action will produce a beneficial effect. 7. structural element or component per unit area. d) structural elements with polygonal section – see 7.1 The net pressure coefficient for canopy roofs is determines in accordance with 7. 7.13. 20 .4 and 7. 7.2 For free-standing canopies and signboards. email.co. 7.7. NOTE An example of a asymmetric loading is the torsion in nominally symmetric single core buildings 7. info@sabs.2 Net pressure coefficients 7.10.1. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.4. 7.1. b) for structural elements with rectangular cross section – see 7. It may not be resold. c) for structural element with sharp edged section – see 7.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only.5.za) for more information on their copyright rules.see 7. 012 428-6666.2 The net pressure coefficient for free-standing walls.2 and 7.12.see 7.4 Force coefficients The force coefficients the applicable structures are determined in accordance with: a) for signboards .11.10.1.2. f) for spheres – see 7.2.9. NOTE Net pressure coefficients give the resulting effect of the wind on a structure.8.2 Asymmetric and counteracting pressures and forces 7. e) for circular cylinders .1. then their effect shall be taken into account.1.1 If instantaneous fluctuations of wind over surfaces can give rise to significant asymmetry of loading and the structural form is likely to be sensitive to such loading. parapets and fences is determines in accordance with 7.1.5 shall be applied.6.2. the reduction factor is determined in accordance with 7.5. and g) for lattice structures and scaffoldings – see 7. 7.5 Reduction Factor Depending on effective slenderness of the structure.3.2. clauses 7.3 Friction coefficients The friction coefficients for walls and surfaces are determined in accordance with different 7.2.

and cpe.1 − ( c pe.1 General 7. 7.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. info@sabs.10 may be used for the design of the overall load bearing structure of buildings. 012 428-6666.co.za) for more information on their copyright rules. The external pressure coefficients are given for loaded areas A of 1 m2 and 10 m2 in the tables for the appropriate building configurations as cpe.3. Values for cpe.3 Pressure coefficients for buildings 7.3.1 − c pe. for overall coefficients.1.10 ) log10 A Figure 5 — Recommended procedure for determining the external pressure coefficient cpe for buildings with a loaded area A between 1 m2 and 10 m2 21 . NOTE 1 Values for cpe. email.10.1. for local coefficients. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel. The zones and values for cpe are given in table 6 and figure 8.1 The external pressure coefficients cpe for buildings and parts of buildings depend on the size of the loaded area A .1 are intended for the design of small elements and fixings with an area per element of 1 m2 or less such as cladding elements and roofing elements. which is the area of the structure that produces the wind action in the section to be calculated. It may not be resold. NOTE 2 For loaded areas between 1 m2 and 10 m2 the recommended procedure is given in figure 5 The figure is based on the following: for 1 m2 < A < 10 m2 c pe = c pe. Figure 4 — Pressure distribution used to take torsional effects into account. respectively.

22 .2. 7. b) a building.3. whose height h is less than the breadth b should be considered to be loaded with one zone. walls facing the wind) depend on the aspect ratio h/b and are always the upper heights of the different parts of the walls. It may not be resold. whose height h is greater than 2b may be considered to have multiple zones : a lower zone extending upwards from the ground by a height equal to b.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. an upper zone extending downwards from the top by a height equal to b and a middle region. These values represent the most unfavourable values obtained in a range of wind direction θ = ± 45° either side of the relevant orthogonal direction.10and cpe. whose height h is greater than breadth b.e. email.3.3 For protruding roof overhangs the pressure on the underside of the overhang is equal to the pressure for the zone of the vertical wall directly connected to the protruding roof. 012 428-6666.3. 7.1.3. They are given in figure 7 for the following three cases: a) a building. Figure 6 — Illustration of relevant pressures for protruding roofs 7. info@sabs. the pressure at the top side of the roof overhang is equal to the pressure of the zone. for the determination of loading zones on windward walls of rectangular plan buildings (i. 90°.1in tables 6 to 12 should be used for the orthogonal wind directions 0°.2 Vertical walls of rectangular plan buildings 7. may be considered to have two zones : a lower zone extending upwards from the ground by a height equal to b and an upper zone consisting of the remainder and c) a building. between the upper and lower zones.1 The reference heights ze. which may be divided into horizontal strips with a height hstrip as shown in figure 7.1.2 The values cpe.za) for more information on their copyright rules. but less than 2b. 180°. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.co. defined for the roof.

B. 23 .2 For leeward wall and sidewalls (zones A.2. It may not be resold. email.1for zone A. such as mono. For intermediate values of h/d. NOTE : The recommended values of cpe. Figure 7 — Reference height ze.10 and cpe. 7. linear interpolation may be applied. NOTE : The wind speed pressure shall be assumed to be uniform over each horizontal strip considered.10 and cpe. C and E. C.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. info@sabs.co. depending on the ratio h/d.2. and corresponding wind pressure profiles 7.3 The external pressure coefficients cpe. B. D and E are defined in table 6.1 are given in table 6. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.3.za) for more information on their copyright rules.3. 012 428-6666. see figure 8) the reference height shall be taken as the height of the building. The values from table 6 also apply to walls of buildings with inclined roofs. depending on h and b.and duopitch.

It may not be resold.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.za) for more information on their copyright rules. Figure 8 — Key for interpretation of zones for vertical walls 24 .co. info@sabs. email. 012 428-6666.

4 − 0. NOTE : The lack of correlation of wind pressures between the windward and leeward side may be considered as follows. the total wind loading may be based on the provisions given in 7.1 − 0.0 10 E 11 cpe.2 The roof should be divided into zones as shown in Figure 9. For intermediate values of h / d .9 and 7.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. It may not be resold. 1 h/ d 5 1 ≤ 0.3. linear interpolation may be applied. 7.za) for more information on their copyright rules.5 +0.2.2 − 1.10 cpe.10 cpe.3.3. For buildings with h / d ≥ 5 the resulting force is to be multiplied by 1.4 Pressure coefficients for each zone are given in table 7.1 − 0.3 NOTE: For buildings with h / d > 5 with rectangular.3. 7.1 cpe.co.7 − 0. and for flat roofs with parapets as h + hp .1 Flat roofs are defined as having a slope (α ) of –5°< α < 5°. email.10.3.3. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel. the resulting force is to be multiplied by 0.4 In cases where the wind force on building structures is determined by application of the pressure coefficients c pe on windward and leeward side (zones D and E) of the building simultaneously. see figure 9.8 − 1.1 − 0. polygonal or circular cross-section.3 The reference height for flat roof and roofs with curved or mansard eaves shall be taken as h . 7.5 The resulting pressure coefficient on the parapet shall be determined in accordance with 7.5 +0.3.5 − 0. the lack of correlation of wind pressures between the windward and leeward side may be taken into account. 7.3. 012 428-6666.3 Flat roofs 7.1 cpe.25 Table 6 — Values of external pressure coefficients for vertical walls of rectangular plan buildings 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Zone A B C D External pressure coefficients cpe.85. info@sabs.5.7 to 7.10 cpe.3.8 − 1. 25 .4 − 0.10 cpe.8 +1.0 − 1. 7.3.3.2.3.1 cpe. 7. For buildings with h / d ≤ 1 .2 − 1.10 cpe.8 − 1.0 − 1.4 − 0.2 − 1.7 +1.8 +1.1 − 1.5 +0.1 − 0.

info@sabs. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel. It may not be resold. 012 428-6666. Figure 9 — Key for interpretation of zones for flat roofs 26 .co. email.za) for more information on their copyright rules.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only.

1 G H External pressure coefficients cpe.2 0.1 −1.8 −1.0 −1.9 0.8 −1. NOTE 5 For the curved eave itself.2 −1.05 Curved eaves r/h = 0. the external pressure coefficients are given in table 10: External pressure coefficients for duo-pitch roofs.3 −0.8 −1.5 −1.co.10 r/h = 0.2 0. It may not be resold.2 −0.6 −1.2 −1.10 r/h = 0.5 −1.2 −0.2 −0.4 −0.2 With parapets hp/h =0. 012 428-6666.10 10 cpe.2 0.2 −0.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only.05 hp/h =0.2 −0.2 −2.2 −1.4 −1.8 −1.6 −1.2 0. email. 27 .2 −1.3 −0.1 −0.8 −0.5 −1.1 Sharp eaves hp/h =0. Table 7 — External pressure coefficients for flat roofs 1 Roof type cpe.10 cpe.0 −0.7 −1.2 −0.8 −1.8 −1.3 −2.4 −1.10 2 3 F 4 5 6 Zone 7 8 9 I cpe. linear interpolation between α = 30°.2 −0. NOTE 3 In zone I.9 −0.0 −1.2 0.7 −0.2 −0.2 0.0 −1. the external pressure coefficients are given by linear interpolation along the curve.2 0.9 −1.2 0.7 −0.3 −1. wind direction 0°.9 −0. where positive and negative values are given.8 −1.3 −2.7 0. both values shall be considered.2 −0.20 α = 30° Mansard eaves α = 45° α = 60° NOTE 1 For roofs with parapets or curved eaves.4 −0.1 cpe.2 −1. info@sabs.2 −0.za) for more information on their copyright rules. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.4 −0. between values on the wall and on the roof. NOTE 2 For roofs with mansard eaves. linear interpolation may be used for intermediate values of hp/h and r/h. 45° and α = 60° may be used. NOTE 4 For the mansard eave itself.3 −0.2 −0.5 −1.10 cpe.5 cpe. depending on the pitch angle of the mansard eave.2 −1.5 −1.5 −2.8 −1.2 0.2 −0. For α > 60° linear interpolation between the values for α = 60° and the values for flat roofs with sharp eaves may be used.0 −1.2 −0.025 −1.7 −0. zone F and G.

3. It may not be resold.3 The pressure coefficients for each zone that shall be used are given in tables 8 and 9. shall be divided into zones as shown in figure 10.4 Monopitch roofs 7. including protruding parts (figure 6).4. Figure 10 — Key for interpretation of zones for mono-pitch roofs 28 .This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only.za) for more information on their copyright rules. 7.4. 012 428-6666.3. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.co.4.2 The reference height ze shall be taken equal to h. info@sabs.1 The roof. 7. 7. email.3.3.

6 +0.10 cpe.2 −0.1 −2.0 −1.2 30° +0.1 5° −2.0 −0.0 +0.9 External pressure coefficients cpe.8 +0.8 −1.5 −0.7 −0.0 +0.7 +0. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.0 −0.5 NOTE At wind direction of θ = 0° the pressure changes rapidly between positive and negative values around a pitch angle of α = +5° to +45°.10 5 6 7 8 9 10 Zone 11 12 13 H F G Wind direction θ = 180º H α degrees −1.2 +0.10 cpe.0 −1.2 15° −2. info@sabs.1 cpe.1 cpe.9 −1.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. so both positive and negative values are given.5 −0.10 cpe. and one with all negative values.5 −2.5 −0. It may not be resold.3 −2. Table 8 — External pressure coefficients for mono-pitch roofs 1 Pitch angle 2 3 4 Zone F G Wind direction θ = 0º External pressure coefficients cpe.8 −1.2 −0.4 0.8 +0. two cases should be considered: one with all positive values.0 −0.8 −1.7 +0.6 0.5 −2.8 −1.3 + 0.5 −0.0 +0.1 cpe.5 +0.5 −1.2 0.7 +0.7 0.5 −1.0 −0.2 −0.10 cpe.7 0.3 −2.5 −1.za) for more information on their copyright rules.5 −0.1 cpe. email.5 −1. 012 428-6666.co.7 0. 29 .7 +0.0 −0.5 −0.5 −1. For such roofs.0 −0.3 −1.1 cpe.3 −2.3 −0.0 −2.10 cpe.7 +0.2 −2.5 −0.8 45° 60° 75° −0.8 −1.6 −0. Positive and negative values cannot act in combination on the same face.

shall be divided in zones as shown in figure 11.3 The pressure coefficients for each zone that shall be used are given in tables 10 and 11.10 cpe.za) for more information on their copyright rules.1 −1.0 −2.5 −1. 7. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.co.4 −2.2 −1.5 Duo-pitch roofs 7.0 −1.0 −1.2 −2.2 −1.3. Table 9 — External pressure coefficients for mono-pitch roofs and with wind direction θ = 90° 1 Pitch angle 2 3 4 5 6 Zone Fup Flow G External pressure coefficients cpe.1 The roof.2 NOTE For intermediate pitch angles linear interpolation may be used between values with the same sign.0 −1.9 −1.2 −1.3 −1.2 −1.2 The reference height ze shall be taken as h.1 −2.10 cpe. 7.1 −1.3 −1.9 −0.2 −1.6 −0.2 −1.5 −1.3. The values equal to 0.. including protruding parts.1 cpe.0 −0.5.0 −2.1 cpe.1 cpe. 30 .10 cpe.9 −2.0 −1.8 −1.1 cpe. 012 428-6666.6 −1.0 −2.0 are given for interpolation purposes.8 −0.0 −2.0 −2.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only.10 cpe. It may not be resold.2 −1.7 −0.5 −0.3 −1. info@sabs.0 −1.5.1 7 8 9 10 11 α H I degrees 5° 15° 30° 45° 60° 75° −2.3 −0.5 −2.7 −0.2 −1.6 −2.3 −1. 7.4 −2.5 −1.3.2 −2.4 −2.10 cpe.3 −1.3.0 −2.4 −1.9 −2.8 −1.2 −2.0 −2.0 −2.4 −2.0 −2. email.5.

Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. 012 428-6666.za) for more information on their copyright rules. info@sabs. email. It may not be resold.co. Figure 11 — Key for interpretation of loading zones for duo-pitch roofs 31 .

2 −1.0 0.co.5 0.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only.10 cpe.6 +0.2 -0.8 −0.0 −0.1 cpe.1 −2.0 -1. four loading cases shall be considered.0 −0.6 −1.7 +0.6 −1.2 −1.10 cpe. The values equal to 0.3 0.5 +0.0 −0.2 -1. Positive and negative values cannot act in combination on the same face.8 −0.0 −1. where the largest or smallest values of all areas F.6 -0.7 +0. linear interpolation may be used between values of the same sign.2 −0.5 −2.2 −0.0 −2.0 +0.6 0.2 0. so both positive and negative values are given.5 +0.3 −0.4 0. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.10 3 4 G cpe.10 5 6 Zone H External pressure coefficients cpe.3 −1.7 0.6 -0.5 0.8 +0.0 are given for interpolation purposes. It may not be resold.2 +0.3 +0.6 −0.7 0.2 −0. 012 428-6666.8 −1.7 +0.0 −0.3 NOTE 1 : For θ = 0˚ pressure changes rapidly between positive and negative values on the windward roof section between angles of α = −5˚and α = +45˚.6 −2.2 −0.8 −1.3.8 −2. info@sabs.4 0.4 −1.0 −0.3).2 −1.0 −0.4 0.0 +0.7 0.2 −1.5 −0.9 −0.2 −0.1 I J 7 8 9 10 11 α degrees −45˚ −30˚ −15˚ −5˚ 5˚ 15˚ 30˚ 45˚ 60˚ 75˚ −0.8 −0.8 -0.0 −0.5 −2. Table 10 External pressure coefficients for duo-pitch roofs with the wind direction θ = 0° 1 Pitch angle 2 F cpe.7 +0.5 −0.5 −2.1 cpe.7 −0.5 +0. (Do not interpolate between α = +5˚ and α = −5˚.7 +0.0 −2. 32 .0 −0.3 −1.2 −0. For such roofs. G and H are combined with the largest or smallest values in areas I and J.2 −1.5 −0.7 +0. email.0 −0.6 +0.0 +0.9 +0.8 −1.5 −1.1 cpe.0 −2.8 −1. NOTE 2 : For intermediate pitch angles of the same sign.10 cpe.0 −0.5 −2.1 cpe. but use the data for flat roofs in 7.2 0.0 −0.za) for more information on their copyright rules.

2 −1.9 −1.2 33 .0 −2.2 −1. It may not be resold.10 cpe.8 −0.0 −2.5 −1.1 −1.4 −1.2 −2.5 −2.za) for more information on their copyright rules.1 cpe.2 −1. email.5 −1.10 3 4 G cpe.1 cpe.5 −1.0 −2.1 External pressure coefficients 6 7 8 9 α degrees −45˚ −30˚ −15˚ −5˚ 5˚ 15˚ 30˚ 45˚ 60˚ 75˚ −1.1 −1.0 −0.0 −2. info@sabs.7 −0.1 −1.5 −1.8 −1.8 −0.2 −1.2 −1.4 −1.2 −1.10 5 Zone H cpe.2 −1.5 −0.co.10 I cpe. 012 428-6666.5 −0. Table 11 — External pressure coefficients for duo-pitch roofs with the wind direction θ = 90˚ 1 Pitch angle 2 F cpe.8 −0.5 −1.3 −1.8 −0.0 −0.3 −1.2 −1.2 −1.6 −1.0 −1.2 −1.0 −1.5 −0.3 −1.2 −1.5 −2. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.1 −2.2 −2.0 −2.2 −1.5 −1.2 −1.8 −1.6 −0.0 −2.0 −2.0 −1.1 −2.3 −1.4 −1.0 −2.2 −1.0 −1.0 −2.1 cpe.6 −0.0 −2.9 −0.9 −0.6 −0.9 −0.3 −1.7 −0.5 −0.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only.

2 The reference height ze should be taken as h. 7. including its protrusions. info@sabs. 7.3.1 The roof. email. It may not be resold.6 External pressure coefficients for hipped roofs 7. 012 428-6666.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only.6. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.co.3. shall be divided into zones as shown in figure 12. 7.za) for more information on their copyright rules.6. Figure 12 — Key for interpretation of loading zones for hipped roofs 34 .3.6.3.3 The pressure coefficients that shall be used are given in table 12.

0 −0.6 −1.4 −0.4 0.5 −1.8 −1.6 −0.3.10 cpe.6 −0.0 −0.7 +0.4 30° −1.3 −2.7 +0.10 cpe.5 −1.7.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only.2 −0.5 −0.2 −2.7 +0. email.8 −1.2 −0. so both positive and negative values are given.10 cpe.3 −0. The values equal to 0. b) from 7. G and J shall be considered for the upwind face only and zones H and I for each span of multi-span roof.1 cpe.7 −1.1 External pressure coefficients cpe.2 −0.2 −0.0 −2.9 −0.3.7.10 cpe.0 0.6 −1.co.5 −0.3 +0.2 −1.4 −0.1 cpe.3 −0. 90° and 180° for each span of a multi-pan roof may be derived from the pressure coefficient for each individual span. and one with all negative values. modified for their position according to figure 13a and 13b.0 −0.1 5° −1.3 −0.7 +0.3 −0.0 −0.5 −0.8 −0. 7.1 cpe.10 cpe. linear interpolation may be used between values of the same sign.7 +0.4 for mono-pitch roofs.0 −1.7 Multi-span roofs 7. 012 428-6666.1 cpe.10 cpe.3.1 Pressure coefficients for wind directions 0°.2 +0.8 −1.0 +0.5 +0. For such roofs.5 for duo-pitch roofs for α < 0 modified for their position according to figures 13c and 13d. Positive and negative values cannot be combined in one loading case.10 cpe.6 +0.8 NOTE 1 : For θ = 0˚ the pressure changes rapidly between positive and negative values on the windward roof section between angles of α = +5˚ and α = +45˚ α = +45° .2 0. 7.6 −1.0 −1. NOTE 3 : The pitch angle of the windward section will always govern the pressure coefficients.0 are given for interpolation purposes.5 45° 60° 75° +0.2 −2. info@sabs.5 +0.2 −0.0 −2.3.2 +0.10 cpe.0 −0.4 −0.2 −2.0 −0.2 −2.2 −2.3. 35 . Table 12 — External pressure coefficients for hipped roofs of buildings for wind direction θ = 0˚ and θ = 90˚ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Zone for wind direction θ = 0˚ and θ = 90˚ Pitch angle α0 for θ = 0˚ F G H I J K L M N α90 for θ=90˚ cpe. two cases shall be considered: one with all positive values.1 cpe.7 0. Modifying factors for the pressures (local and global) for wind directions 0° and 180° on each span shall be derived: a) from 7.2 −1. It may not be resold.8 +0.0 −1.6 −1.1 cpe.3 −0.4 −2.5 −1. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.2 −0.4 −2.6 −0.2 15° −0.10 cpe.6 −0.3 −1.0 −0.1 cpe.5 0.za) for more information on their copyright rules.2 −1.2 Zones F.2 −0.0 +0.0 −0.3 −0. NOTE 2 : For intermediate pitch angles.3 −0.7 0.

email. Figure 13 — Key to multi-span roofs 36 . see Figure 13. info@sabs. 7. the second and all following cpe are the cpe of the troughed duo-pitch roof.7.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. 012 428-6666.3 The reference height ze shall be taken as the height of the structure. NOTE 2 In configuration c the first cpe is the cpe of the mono-pitch roof. It may not be resold.co. h . Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.3.za) for more information on their copyright rules. NOTE 1 In configuration b two cases should be considered depending on the sign of pressure coefficient cpe on the first roof.

2 Pressure coefficients for the walls of rectangular buildings with vaulted roofs should be taken from 7. email. NOTE 3 : the diagram is not applicable to flat roofs.1 is not given and if relevant the designer is encouraged to seek specialist advice or literature. (The information on cpe. NOTE 2 : for 0.8.5. cpe.2 ≤ f/d ≤ 0.10 for vaulted roofs with rectangular base 37 .5.co. two values of cpe. NOTE The recommended values of cpe.10 is obtained by linear interpolation. 012 428-6666.8. Figure 14 — Recommended values of external pressure coefficients cpe. It may not be resold. The reference height should be taken as ze = h + f. info@sabs.3.) NOTE 1 : for 0 < h/d < 0.2. 7. 7.3.10 have to be considered.3.10 are given in figures 14 and 15 for different zones. .This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only.3.3 and h/d ≥ 0.1 This section applies to circular cylindrical roofs and domes.8 Vaulted roofs and domes 7. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.za) for more information on their copyright rules.

012 428-6666.5 shall be used.3.9 Internal pressure 7. cpi . NOTE: The openings of a building include small openings such as: open windows.1 Internal and external pressures shall be considered to act simultaneously. windows. it can be determined as a first approximation by linear interpolation between the values in A. depends on the size and distribution of openings in building envelope. It may not be resold.za) for more information on their copyright rules. intersections of the sphere and of planes perpendicular to the wind direction. The worst combination of external and internal pressures shall be considered for every combination of possible openings and other leakage paths.3.2 The internal pressure coefficient.3. the actions on the structure shall not be calculated from the rules given in this section but the rules of 7.9. 38 . If in at least two sides of the buildings (walls or roof) the total area of openings in each side is more than 30 % of the area of that side. B and C along the arcs of circles parallel to the wind.10 in A if 0 < h/d < 1 and in B or C if 0 < h/d < 0. email.01 % to 0.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only.5 can be obtained by linear interpolation in the figure above. as well as background permeability such as air leakage around doors.10 for domes with circular base 7.4 and 7. chimneys. info@sabs.1 % of the wall area. NOTE: cpe. ventilators.co. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel. In the same way the values of cpe.10 is constant along arcs of circles.9. service ducts and walls. Figure 15 — Recommended values of external pressure coefficients cpe. 7. etc. The background permeability is typically within the range 0.

90 cpe (15) where cpe is the value of the external pressure coefficient at the openings in the dominant face. info@sabs. during severe windstorms.9. NOTE: For values between h d = 0.3 If an external opening.4 A building wall shall be regarded as dominant if the area of its openings is at least twice the area of openings and leakages in the remaining surfaces of the building under consideration.za) for more information on their copyright rules. NOTE: This can also be applied to individual internal volumes within the building. and the opening ratio μ. The values given by equations (14) and (15) shall be used.9. as a function of the ratio of the height and depth of the building h/d.3.75 cpe (14) If the area of openings in the dominant wall is at least three times the area of the openings in the remaining facades. 012 428-6666.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. 7.3. If the area of openings in the dominant face is between 2 and 3 times the area of the openings in the remaining walls linear interpolation may be used for calculating cpi.6 For buildings without a dominant wall. email. would be dominant while open. for each wind direction. 7. It may not be resold. Figure 16 — Internal pressure coefficients for uniformly distributed openings 39 . If these openings are located in zones with different values of external pressures.25 and h d = 1. θ.0 linear interpolation may be used. 7.5 In a building with a dominant wall the internal pressure shall be taken as a fraction of the external pressure at the openings of the dominant wall.9.3. the internal pressure coefficient cpi shall be determined from figure 16. NOTE: A design check of accidental situation is important for high internal walls when a wall has to carry the full external wind action due to openings in the building envelope. cpi = 0 . an area weighted average value of cpe should be used. If the area of openings in the dominant wall is twice the area of the openings in the remaining facades. but is assumed to be closed in the ultimate limit state. 7. cpi = 0 . such as a door or a window.9. the situation in which the door or window is open shall be considered as an accidental design situation in accordance with SANS 10160-1. which shall be determined from equation (16).co. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.3.

2) on the facades in which the openings. It may not be resold.60 (17) The internal pressure coefficient of vented tanks with small openings shall be based on equation (18): c pi = −0 .2. 7.3. If there are several openings the largest value of ze shall be used to determine zi. d) The permeability of the skins and e) The openings at the extremities of the layer between the skins.3 If only one skin is permeable. the following rules may be applied: ● For walls and roofs with an impermeable internal skin and a permeable external skin and uniformly distributed openings.9. c) The distance between the skins. then the wind force on the impermeable skin should be determined from the difference between the internal and the external wind pressure as described in 6. NOTE 2 Where it is not possible. the wind pressure on the most rigid skin may be taken as the difference between the internal and external pressures. with no airflow within the insulation).3.67 cpe for over- 40 . NOTE 1 As a first approximation. 7. are positioned.5.9.1 The wind force is to be calculated separately for each skin.3.net = 0. 7.za) for more information on their copyright rules. which contribute to the generation of internal pressure.10.3.10 Pressure on walls and roofs with more than one skin 7. email. (18) 7.7 The reference height zi for the internal pressures shall be equal to the reference height ze for the external pressures (see 6.10.0 ∑ area of all openings pe (16) NOTE 1 This calculation applies to walls and roofs of buildings with and without internal partitions.co.5.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. b) The external and internal pressures.3. 7.3. 40 The reference height zi is equal to the height of the structure. or not deemed to be justified.4.2 The permeability μ of a skin is defined as the ratio of the total area of the opening divided by the total area of the skin. to estimate μ for a particular case then cpishould be taken as the more onerous of: + 0. 012 428-6666. the wind force on the external skin may be calculated from cp. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel. A skin is defined as impermeable if the value μ is less than 0. If more than one skin is permeable then the wind force on each skin depends on: a) The relative rigidity of the skins. info@sabs.3.10. NOTE 2 In cases where the extremities of the layer between the skins are air tight (Figure 17(a)) and where the free distance between the skins is less than 100 mm (the thermal insulation material being included in one skin.2 and − 0. μ= ∑ area of openings where c is negative or 0.8 The internal pressure coefficient of open silos and chimneys shall be based on equation (17): c pi = −0 .1 %.

the above rules are not applicable. such as petrol stations. .net = cpe and the wind force on the internal skin from cp.net = 0. .co.4 Canopy roofs 7. 7.net = cpe − cpi. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.net = cpe − cpi pressure and cp. info@sabs. the wind force on the external skin may be calculated from cp. the wind force on the outside skin may be calculated from cp. which is a ratio of the area of actual obstructions under the canopy divided by the cross sectional area under the canopy. If openings in the skin enable the air exchange with other walls or with the external air flow (figure 17(b)).za) for more information on their copyright rules.4.2 The degree of blockage under a canopy roof (as shown in figure 18) is defined in terms of the blockage φ. Figure 17 — Corner details for external walls with more than one skin. external skin.1 A canopy roof is defined as the roof of a structure that does not have permanent walls.33cpi . both areas being normal to the wind direction. dutch barns. The wind force on the internal skin may be calculated from cp. It may not be resold. ● For walls and roofs with an impermeable external skin and an impermeable. 012 428-6666. 7.net = cpe − cpi ● For walls and roofs with a permeable internal skin with approximately uniformly distributed openings and an impermeable external skin. and the wind force on the internal skin from cp. more rigid internal skin. ● For walls and roofs with an impermeable internal skin and an impermeable more rigid. 41 . etc.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. email.4. the wind force on the external skin may be calculated from cp.net = cpe − cpi.33 cpe for under-pressure.net = 0.

4. email. Figure 18 — Airflow over canopy roofs 42 . the other pitch being unloaded.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. cf. 7.8 The reference height zc shall be taken as h as shown in figures 19 and 20.7 Friction forces shall be considered (see 7. and net pressure coefficients cp.co.6 The loads shall be applied as follows: a) for a mono-pitch canopy (Table 13) the centre of pressure shall be taken at d/4 from the windward edge (d = along-wind dimension. 7.6).4. 012 428-6666.4 Downwind of the position of maximum blockage.3 The overall force coefficients. It may not be resold. a duo-pitch canopy should be able to support one pitch with the maximum or minimum load. info@sabs.33 cp. given in tables 13 to 15 for φ= 0 and φ = 1 take account of the combined effect of wind acting on both the upper and lower surfaces of the canopies for all wind directions. The net pressure coefficient represents the maximum local pressure for all wind directions and shall be used in the design of roofing elements and fixings only.net and the permeable skin and its fixings with 0. and φ = 1 represents the canopy fully blocked with contents up to the down wind eaves only (note that this situation does not correspond to a closed building). figure 19). Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel. 7. 7. In addition.5 The overall force coefficient represents the resultant force and shall be used in the design of the structure.net. c) for a multi-bay duo-pitch canopy each load on a bay may be calculated by applying the reduction factors ψmc given in table 15 to the cp. 7. 7.4.net values given in table 14 and d) for canopies with double skin. b) for a duo-pitch canopy (table 14) the centre of pressure shall be taken at the centre of each slope (figure 20).4.4.net. φ= 0 values for φ= 0 shall be used. Intermediate values may be found by linear interpolation. the impermeable skin and its fixings should be calculated with cp.za) for more information on their copyright rules.4. NOTE  φ = 0 represents an empty canopy.

5 − 0.0 − 2.1 − 3.2 + 1.6 − 2.8 + 2.3 − 1.0 − 1.9 − 2.1 − 1.9 + 3.8 − 1.6 − 2.4 − 0.5 − 1.4 + 1.1 − 1.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only.6 − 1.6 + 1. email.4 − 2.2 + 2.2 − 1.8 − 1.2 − 1.3 − 1.4 + 0.5 + 0.4 cp.4 − 2.2 − 3.0 + 2.5 cp.1 − 2.7 − 2.3 − 3.7 + 1.6 + 2.8 − 2.1 − 1.net + 1.5 + 3.5 − 3. Table 13 — cp.3 + 0. 012 428-6666.4 − 3.2 cp.0 + 2. It may not be resold.8 − 1.7 − 2.8 − 2.4 + 1.9 + 2.8 + 2.6 − 1.3 − 1.6 − 1.4 − 2. info@sabs.net + 0.5 − 2.9 − 3.za) for more information on their copyright rules.2 − 0.1 + 1.4 + 0.2 − 3.7 − 1.8 − 1.6 + 2.7 5° 10° 15° 20° 25° 30° NOTE a “+” values indicate a net downward wind action “−” values represent a net upward wind action Max all φ implies Maximum positive value for all φ Min φ = 0 implies Minimum φ = 0 Min φ = 1 implies Minimum φ = 1 43 .8 − 2.2 − 2.0 − 1.7 − 1.4 − 1.9 − 1.net and cf values for monopitch canopies 1 2 3 4 5 6 Section Plan Roof angle α degrees 0° Blockage a φ Max all φ Min φ = 0 Min φ = 1 Max all φ Min φ = 0 Min φ = 1 Max all φ Min φ = 0 Min φ = 1 Max all φ Min φ = 0 Min φ = 1 Max all φ Min φ = 0 Min φ = 1 Max all φ Min φ = 0 Min φ = 1 Max all φ Min φ = 0 Min φ = 1 Overall force Coefficients A Zone B Net pressure coefficients C cf + 0.2 − 1. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.co.8 − 2.5 + 1.1 − 2.4 + 0.8 − 1.7 − 2.0 − 2.net + 1.1 − 1.5 − 0.5 + 2.2 − 2.6 + 1.

It may not be resold. 012 428-6666. info@sabs. Figure 19 — Location of the centre of force for mono-pitch canopies 44 . Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. email.za) for more information on their copyright rules.co.

5 − 0.5 − 2.6 − 2.3 + 0.9 − 1.4 B + 1.3 + 0.4 + 0.8 − 2.6 − 2.5 + 0.5 − 1.3 Net pressure coefficients cp.4 − 1.4 + 0.0 − 1.9 − 1.5 − 1.co. email.8 − 1.2 − 1.4 − 2.8 + 1.4 − 1.7 − 1.7 − 2.2 − 1.3 + 0.8 − 1.0 − 2.6 − 0.4 + 1.3 − 2.7 − 0.6 − 0.4 . 012 428-6666.7 − 1. It may not be resold.1 − 1.4 − 1.3 + 1.6 + 1. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.7 + 1.6 − 0.6 − 0.6 + 0.4 − 1.8 − 1.4 + 0.6 + 1.6 − 0.6 + 0.4 + 1.5 + 0.3 + 0.7 − 1.3 + 0.9 − 1.9 − 1.5 − 0.net for zones A + 0.6 − 1.5 − 1.6 − 0.6 − 1.2 + 1.3 − 0.4 − 0.5 − 2.0 2.8 − 0.9 − 2.4 − 1.6 + 0.8 + 1.9 − 1.3 + 0.1 − 0.8 − 1.6 − 0.6 − 1.7 − 1.1 + 0.4 D + 1.0 + 1.7 − 2.3 − 2.6 + 1.7 − 1.za) for more information on their copyright rules.4 − 1.9 − 0.1 − 1.4 + 1.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only.0 − 1.9 − 1.4 + 1.8 − 1.0 + 1.1 + 0.7 − 0.4 − 0.4 − 0.0 + 0.15 .3 + 0.3 − 0.4 − 0.8 − 1.1.8 C + 0.4 − 1.6 + 0.9 − 1.9 − 1.4 − 1.8 + 0.3 + 0.5 − 2.4 − 1. n e t and cf values for duo-pitch canopies 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Section Plan Roof angle Blockage Overall force coefficient cf − 0.6 − 2.4 − 1.10 -5 +5 + 10 + 15 + 20 + 25 + 30 NOTE a φ Max all φ Min φ = 0 Min φ = 1 Max all φ Min φ = 0 Min φ = 1 Max all φ Min φ = 0 Min φ = 1 Max all φ Min φ = 0 Min φ = 1 Max all φ Min φ = 0 Min φ = 1 Max all φ Min φ = 0 Min φ = 1 Max all φ Min φ = 0 Min φ = 1 Max all φ Min φ = 0 Min φ = 1 Max all φ Min φ = 0 Min φ = 1 Max all φ Min φ = 0 Min φ = 1 “+” values indicate a net downward wind action “−” values represent a net upward wind action Max all φ implies Maximum positive value for all φ Min φ = 0 implies Minimum φ = 0 Min φ = 1 implies Minimum φ = 1 45 .8 − 0.6 − 1.7 0.2 + 1.6 − 0.0 α degrees -20 . info@sabs.3 − 2.4 − 1.7 + 1.6 − 1.6 − 1.5 − 1.1.3 + 0.8 − 1.8 − 2.4 − 1.7 − 1.3 − 1.4 − 1.5 + 0.4 − 2.9 − 1.6 + 0.6 + 0.6 − 1.3 − 1.6 − 1.3 − 2.0 + 1.6 + 1.4 . Table 14 — c p .0 − 2.5 + 1.4 + 1.

co.7 0. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel. 012 428-6666.7 For minimum (upward) force and pressure coefficients 0.8 0.za) for more information on their copyright rules. a) Pitch angle positive b) Pitch angle negative Figure 20 — Arrangements of loads obtained from force coefficients for duopitch canopies 7. as shown in figure 21. info@sabs.4.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. email. It may not be resold.7 46 .9 Loads on each slope of multi-bay canopies. and net pressure coefficients for isolated duo-pitch canopies. Table 15 — Reduction factors ψmc for multi-bay canopies 1 Bay 1 2 3 2 Location End bay Second bay Third and subsequent bays 3 4 ψmc factors for all is φ For maximum (downward) force and pressure coefficients 1.0 0. are determined by applying the reduction factors ψmc given in table 15 to the overall force.9 0.

5.2 1. NOTE: Recommended values of the resulting pressure coefficients cp.8.2 1.5 Free-standing walls.5. and for walls which are 80 % solid (i. The reference height for parapets in buildings should be taken as ze = (h + hp).2 6 7 φ=1 L/h = 5 L/h ≥ 10 φ = 0.4 1.2 Free-standing walls and parapets 7. a) Reduction factors for maximum downward force and pressure coefficients b) Reduction factors for largest upward force and pressure coefficients Figure 21 — Multi-bay canopies 7.4 2.12. The wind actions should be applied to either side of wall and perpendicular to the wall. The reference area in both cases is the gross area.8 and 1.2 D 1.net for free-standing walls and parapets 1 Solidity ratio 2 Return corners Without length ≥ h 1 3 Aspect ratio L/h ≤ 3 4 A 2.2 1. Linear interpolation may be used for solidity ratio between 0.9 3.8 1. see figure 22.4 1.2.8 shall be treated as plane lattices in accordance with 7. It may not be resold. 47 .e.3 2. parapets. fences and signboards 7. For solid walls the solidity φ shall be taken as 1. Porous walls and fences with a solidity ratio φ ≤ 0.2 1.1 For free-standing walls and parapets the resulting pressure coefficients cp.2 1.7 1.8 1 Linear interpolation may be used for return corner lengths between 0 and h 7.net shall be specified for the zones A.net are given in Table 16 for two different solidity ratios.1 1.4 1. 012 428-6666.2 C 1.net for free-standing walls and parapets depend on the solidity ratio φ. have 20 % openings) φ = 0.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only.1 General The values of the resulting pressure coefficients cp. see figure 9. Table 16 — Recommended net pressure coefficients cp.co.1 1. 7. email.5.8 2. B. info@sabs.2. C and D as shown in Figure 22.za) for more information on their copyright rules.2 The reference height for free standing walls should be taken as ze = h.5.2 5 Zone B 1. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.

012 428-6666. email. Figure 22 — Key for interpretation of zones for free-standing walls and parapets 48 . It may not be resold.za) for more information on their copyright rules.co. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. info@sabs.

49 .5. NOTE 1 reference height: ze = zg + h/2. It may not be resold.za) for more information on their copyright rules. email. see figure 24.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. e = ± 0.80 Equation (19) is also applicable where zg < h/4 and b/h < 1.6 Friction forces 7.3. see 7.5.5. For buildings. equal to the smallest value of 2b or 4h.6.3.5. 7.2 The resultant force normal to the signboard shall be taken as acting at a height of the centre of the signboard with a horizontal eccentricity e as given in equation (20).1 Friction shall be considered for the cases defined in 6. the force coefficients are given by equation (19): c f = 1. 25b (20) 7. (19) 7.3 Signboards 7. cfr for walls and roof surfaces as given in table 17.1 For signboards separated from the ground by a height zg > h/4 (see figure 23). 7. shall be used.6.5. reference area: Aref = b×h.3. friction forces should be applied on the part of the external surfaces parallel to the wind.1.6. info@sabs.6. NOTE Possibilities for development of flutter and divergence instabilities should be considered. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.3. NOTE 2 Figure 23 — Key interpretation of signboards 7.5.2 The friction coefficients. 012 428-6666.3 The reference area Afris given in figure 24.3 Signboards separated from the ground by a height zg < h/4 and with b/h > 1 shall be treated as boundary walls. 7. 7.4 The reference height ze shall be taken as equal to the structure height above ground or building height h.co. located beyond a distance from the upwind eaves or corners.

e. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel. steel.za) for more information on their copyright rules. rough concrete.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. folds) 2 Friction coefficient cfr 0. info@sabs.co. It may not be resold. ripples. parapets and roof surfaces 1 Surface Smooth (i. tar-boards) very rough (i. smooth concrete) Rough (i.02 0.7.e.7 Structural elements with rectangular sections 7. email. 012 428-6666.1 The force coefficient cf of structural elements of rectangular section with the wind blowing normally to a face shall be determined by equation (21): cf = cf .0 ×ψ r ×ψ λ where (21) 50 .01 0.04 Figure 24 — Reference area for friction 7. Table 17 — Frictional coefficients cfr for walls.e. ribs.

co. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel. is the end-effect factor for elements with free-end flow as defined in 7. Figure 26 — Reduction factor Ψr for a square cross-section with rounded corners 7.0 is the force coefficient of rectangular sections with sharp corners and without freeend flow as given by figure 25.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. cf. is the reduction factor for square sections with rounded corners. email.0 of rectangular sections with sharp corners and without free end flow NOTE 1 The recommended approximate upper bound values of Ψr are given in figure 26.0.13. info@sabs.2 The reference area Aref should be determined by equation (22) 51 . Ψr depends on Reynolds number. which are assumed to be conservative. (see Note 1).7. NOTE 2 Figure 26 may also be used for buildings with h/d > 5. Ψr Ψλ Figure 25 — Force coefficients cf. These values are based on measurements in low-turbulence conditions. It may not be resold. 012 428-6666.za) for more information on their copyright rules.

9 Structural elements with regular polygonal section 7. 7.3 For plate-like sections (d/b < 0. the recommended value of cf.sections such as those shown in figure 27) should be determined using equation (23). unrestricted) end. 52 . The reference height ze is equal to the maximum height above ground of the section being considered.7. 7.1 The force coefficient cf of structural elements with sharp edged section (for example elements with cross. email. This value is based on measurements in low-turbulence conditions. which is assumed to be conservative.8.2 The reference areas (see figure 27). 7.1 The force coefficient cf of structural elements with regular polygonal section with 5 or more sides shall be determined using equation (25). 7.x = L×b in y -direction: Aref.za) for more information on their copyright rules.3 In all cases the reference height ze shall be taken as equal to the maximum height above ground of the section being considered. shall be taken as follows: in x -direction: Aref.8. cf = cf.2) and at certain wind angles of attack.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only.0 ×ψ λ where ψλ is the end-effect factor (see 7. info@sabs. 012 428-6666.co.13) (23) Figure 27 Structural sections with sharp edges NOTE For all elements without free (i.e.0 = 2. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.0. It may not be resold. lift forces may give rise to an increase of 25 % in values of cf. Aref = L × b Where (22) L is the length of the structural element being considered.8 Structural elements with sharp edged section 7. 7.8.9.y = L×d where L (24) is the length of the structural element being considered.

cf = cf. 53 . info@sabs.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. email. 012 428-6666.13.0 based on measurements under low-turbulent conditions are given in table 18.co.0 ×ψ λ where ψλ cf. (25) is the force coefficient of structural elements without free-end flow.za) for more information on their copyright rules. It may not be resold. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel. NOTE The recommended conservative values of cf.0 is the end-effect factor as defined in 7.

This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. see (7.30 1.0 may be determined from equation (25) and the information contained in table 18. email.9.80 1.10 treat as a circular cylinder. cf.30 6 Re ≤ 2.2 For buildings where h / d > 5 .4×105 Re ≥ 3×10 Re ≤ 2×10 All 2×10 < Re < 1.2×10 5 5 5 Re ≥ 7×105 0. r is the corner radius. 012 428-6666.45 1. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.2×106 16-18 a Hexagon Reynolds number with ν = νp(z) is defined in 7. 54 . Figure 28 — Regular polygonal section 7.10 1. Aref = L × b where L (26) is the length of the structural element being considered.90 1.3 The reference area Aref is should be obtained from equation (26).3 m and corner radius of 0.co.9.30 1.za) for more information on their copyright rules.075b 10 Decagon All surface smooth (3) corners rounded all others surface smoothc corners rounded 4 Reynolds number Rea All All 5 cf.60 1.0 for regular polygonal sections 1 Number of sides 5 6 2 Sections Pentagon Hexagon 3 Finish of surface and of corners All All surface smooth r/b < 0. It may not be resold.30 1.075b 8 Octagon surface smooth r/b ≥ 0.10.06 b b c 7. b is the diameter of circumscribed circumference.0 1. Table 18 — Force coefficient cf.10) 0.70 12 Dodecagon Re < 4×105 Re > 4×105 Re < 2x105 2×105 ≤ Re < 1. see figure 28 Derived from wind tunnel tests on sectional models with galvanised steel surface and a section with b = 0. info@sabs.

9. 7. see figure 28. It may not be resold.10.co.1.10 Circular cylinders 7. 7. b is the diameter of circumscribed circumference. cpe = cp.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. defined by equation (27).1 Pressure coefficients of sections depend upon the Reynolds numbers Re . Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.1.0 is given in figure 29 for various Reynolds numbers as a function of angle α.1. ψ λα = 1 for 0° ≤ α ≤ α min ψ λα = ψ λ + (1 − ψ λ ) cos ⎢ ⎜ ψ λα = ψ λ where ⎡ π ⎛ α − α min ⎞ ⎤ ⎟⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎝ α A − α min ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ for for α min < α < α A α A ≤ α ≤ 180° (29) αA ψλ is the position of the flow separation (see figure 29) is the end-effect factor (see 7.za) for more information on their copyright rules.4 The reference height ze is equal to the maximum height above ground of the section being considered. email.2 The external pressure coefficients cpe of circular cylinders shall be determined from equation (28).10. 7. info@sabs.10.4 The end-effect factor ψ λα is given by equation (29).10.10.4) (28) ψλα 7.1.13) 55 . 012 428-6666. Re = where b ν ν(ze) b × v ( ze ) ν (27) is the diameter is the kinematic viscosity of the air (ν = 15×10-6 m2/s) is the peak wind speed defined in Note 2 of figure 31 at height ze 7.3) is the end-effect factor (see 7.0 is the external pressure coefficient without free-end flow (see 7.0 ×ψ λα where cp.3 The external pressure coefficient cp.10.1.10.1 External pressure coefficients 7.1.

hd − 0. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.co.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. email.5 4 αAc 135 120 105 5 cp0.10. It may not be resold. Typical values of roughness height k are given in table 20. info@sabs.za) for more information on their copyright rules.min is the value of the minimum pressure coefficient αA is the position of the flow separation in degrees d cp0. Figure 29 — Pressure distribution for circular cylinders for different Reynolds number ranges and without end-effects NOTE 1 Intermediate values may be obtained from linear interpolation NOTE 2 Typical values in the above Figure are shown in table 19.8 αmin is the position of the minimum pressure in degrees b c cp0. and (30) 56 .9 − 1.5.7 − 0.3. 012 428-6666.1. Figure and table are based on the Reynolds 2qp number with vp ( z ) = and qp given in 6.h is the base pressure coefficient 7.4 − 0. Table 19 — Typical values for the pressure distribution around circular cylinders for different Reynolds number ranges and without end-effects 1 Re 5×105 2×106 10 a 7 2 αmina 85 80 75 3 cp0. should be determined from equation (30): Aref = L × b where L is the length of the structural element.minb − 2.2 − 1.5 The reference area Aref for the calculation of resultant forces according to 6.4 ρ NOTE 3 The above figure is based on an equivalent roughness k/b less than 5×10-4.

co.13) (31) Figure 30 — Force coefficient cf.0 for circular cylinders without free-end flow and for different equivalent roughness k/b NOTE 1 : Figure 30 may also be used for building with h / d > 5.2 Force coefficients 7. 7. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.2.1.0 ×ψ λ where cf.2 for all values of the Reynolds number Re .3 For stranded cables cf.2. b is the breadth of the cylinder (see figure 29).2 Values of equivalent surface roughness k are given in table 20.10.10.4. cf = cf.10. info@sabs. email.0 is equal to 1.za) for more information on their copyright rules.10. 7.2.0 NOTE 2 : Figure 30 is based on the Reynolds number with vp ( z ) = 2qp ρ (m/s) and qp given in 6.6 The reference height ze is equal to the maximum height above ground of the section being considered.10. 7.0 ψλ is the force coefficient of cylinders without free-end flow (see figure 30) is the end-effect factor (see 7. 7.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only.1 The force coefficient cf for a finite circular cylinder should be determined from equation (31). It may not be resold. 012 428-6666. 57 .

05 0.02 0.0015 0.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only.2. (32) 7.0 2.4 The reference area Aref for the calculation of resultant forces according to 6.2 0. Aref = L × b where L is the length of the structural element being considered.0 3. Table 20 — Equivalent surface roughness k 1 2 Equivalent roughness k mm 0.0 Type of surface glass polished metal fine paint spray paint bright steel cast iron galvanised steel smooth concrete planed wood rough concrete rough sawn wood rust brickwork 7.5 (see figure 31) expert advice is necessary.za) for more information on their copyright rules.5 The reference height ze is equal to the maximum height above ground of the section being considered. It may not be resold.002 0.5 1.3. 7.0 2.2 0.co.006 0. Figure 31 — Cylinder near a plane surface 58 . info@sabs.2. 012 428-6666.2.10.10.2 0. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.10. should be obtained by equation (32).6 For cylinders within a proximity of a plane surface with a distance ratio zg / b < 1.5. email.

13) is the factor given in table 21(for most unfavourable wind direction) (33) 59 .0 ψλ k is the force coefficient of cylinders without free-end flow.0 depends on the wind direction in relation to the row axis and the ratio of distance a and the diameter b as defined in table 21. the force coefficient cf.2) is the end-effect factor (see 7.10. 012 428-6666. email.3 Force coefficients for vertical cylinders in a row arrangement For vertical circular cylinders in a row arrangement. (see 7.0 ×ψ λ × k where cf. cf for each cylinder may be obtained from equation (33): cf = cf.10. It may not be resold.za) for more information on their copyright rules. info@sabs. The force coefficient.co.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. 7. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.

It may not be resold.0 a is the distance between the vertical cylinders is the diameter b 7. email.11 Spheres 7. For zg < b / 2 the force coefficient cf. where zg is the distance of the sphere from a plain surface.co. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.b is the diameter (see figure 33).x based on measurements in low turbulent flow given in Figure 32 are based on the Reynolds number with vp ( z ) = NOTE 2 2qp ρ and qp given in 6.4 The values in figure 32 are limited to values zg > b / 2 .1) and the equivalent roughness k/b (see table 20).6. info@sabs.15 210 − a / b 180 1.1 The along-wind force coefficient cf. NOTE 1 Recommended values of cf. 60 .x of spheres shall be determined as a function of the Reynolds number Re (see 7.10.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only.5 < a / b < 30 a / b > 30 where k 1. 012 428-6666.5 3. Table 21 — Factor k for vertical cylinders in a row arrangement 1 2 a/b a / b < 3.x to be multiplied by a factor 1.11.za) for more information on their copyright rules.

11.2 The vertical force coefficient cf.z = 0 cf. 012 428-6666.z for spheres is given by equation (34).3 In both cases the reference area Aref shall be obtained by Equation (35). Figure 32 — Along wind force coefficient for a sphere 7. email.11. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.za) for more information on their copyright rules. cf.z = +0. It may not be resold.11.4 The reference height shall be taken as: ze = zg + b 2 (36) 61 .60 for for zg > b / 2 zg < b / 2 (34) 7. info@sabs.co. Aref = π × b2 4 (35) 7.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only.

12. Re Note.12 Lattice structures and scaffoldings 7. info@sabs. email. calculated with L and width b = d . see ψλ is the end-effect factor (see 7.za) for more information on their copyright rules. λ . see figure 34. cf = cf.1) using the average member diameter bi.13) as a function of the slenderness of the structure. Figure 34 — Lattice structure or scaffolding 62 . It may not be resold.co.4. is the Reynolds number (see 7.2) and Reynolds number Re (figure 37). Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.12.0 is the force coefficient of lattice structures and scaffoldings without end-effects.0 ×ψ λ where (37) cf. It is given by figures 35 and 36 as a function of solidity ratio φ (7. Figure 33 — Sphere near a plain surface 7. 012 428-6666.1 The force coefficient. cf of lattice structures and scaffoldings with parallel chords shall be obtained by equation (37). NOTE: Figure is based on the Reynolds number with vp ( z ) = 2qp ρ and qp given in 6.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only.10.

Figure 35 — Force coefficient cf. It may not be resold.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. info@sabs.co.0 for a plane lattice structure with members of non-circular cross-section as a function of solidity ratio φ Figure 36 — Force coefficient cf.za) for more information on their copyright rules. 012 428-6666.0 for a spatial lattice structure with members of non-circular cross-section as a function of solidity ratio ϕ 63 . Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel. email.

co. Figure 37 — Force coefficient cf.3 The reference height ze is equal to the maximum height of the element above ground. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel. is defined by equation (38). 012 428-6666.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. 64 .0 for plane and spatial lattice structure with members of circular cross-section 7.Li Agk 7. φ. email. info@sabs. projected normal to the face is the area of the gusset plate k L d bi.12.za) for more information on their copyright rules. It may not be resold.12.2 The solidity ratio. ϕ= where A is the sum of the projected areas of the members and gusset plates normal to the plane : A = ∑ bi × Li + ∑ Agk i k A Ac (38) Ac is the area enclosed by the boundaries of the face projected normal to the plane with Ac = d × L is the length of the lattice is the width of the lattice is the width and length of the individual member i (see Figure 34).

13 Effective slenderness λ and end-effect factor ψλ 7. The end-effect factor takes into account the reduced resistance of the structure due to the wind flow around the end (end-effect).1 Where relevant.2 The effective slenderness λ should be defined depending on the dimensions of the structure and its position. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel. 7.13. 012 428-6666. 7. the end-effect factor ψ should be determined as a function of slenderness λ λ.12 are based on measurements of structures without free-end flow. NOTE Recommended values for λ are given in table 22 and indicative values for ψ are given in figure 38 for different λ solidity ratio φ. away from the ground. cf. given in 7. info@sabs.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only.0.7 to 7.13. email. Figure 38 and table 22 are based on measurements in low turbulent flow. NOTE The force coefficients.za) for more information on their copyright rules. 65 .co. It may not be resold.

4 L / b or λ = 70 . Table 22 — Recommended values of λ for cylinders.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. whichever is larger for L < 15 . whichever is larger For intermediate values of L . info@sabs. sharp edged structural sections and lattice structures 1 2 Position of the structure. λ = L / b or λ = 70 . λ = 1.7 L / b or λ = 70 .za) for more information on their copyright rules. rectangular sections. email. wind normal to the plane of the page 3 Effective slenderness λ For polygonal. whichever is smaller 3 For intermediate values of L. whichever is smaller No. 012 428-6666. λ = L / b or λ = 70 . whichever is smaller for L < 15 m. rectangular and sharp edged sections and lattice structures: for L ≥ 50 m. whichever is smaller for L < 15 m. λ = 0. 1 2 For circular cylinders: for L ≥ 50 m. polygonal sections.co. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel. λ = 0. It may not be resold.7 L / b or λ = 70 . λ = 2L / b or λ = 70 . linear interpolation shall be used for L ≥ 50 m. linear interpolation shall be used 4 66 .

It may not be resold. info@sabs.3 The solidity ratio ϕ (see figure 39) is given by equation (40). email.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only.za) for more information on their copyright rules. ϕ= where A A Ac (40) is the sum of the projected areas of the members is the overall envelope area.13. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel. with Ac = l × b Ac Figure 39 — Definition of solidity ratio ϕ 67 . Figure 38 — Indicative values of the end-effect factor ψ λ as a function of solidity ratio ϕ versus slenderness λ 7.co. 012 428-6666.

2 Transition between roughness categories The transition between different roughness categories has to be considered when calculating q p . permanent forest) Terrain category D Area in which at least 15 % of the surface is covered with buildings and their average height exceeds 15 m A.1 Roughness of each terrain category Illustrations of the upper roughness of each terrain category is given in table A.1 — Illustrations of the upper roughness of each terrain category Terrain category A Flat horizontal terrain with negligible vegetation and without any obstacles (e. email. Annex A (informative) Effects of the terrain on wind speed A. suburban terrain. info@sabs. coastal areas exposed to open sea or large lakes) Terrain category B Area with low vegetation such as grass and isolated obstacles (trees.co.1. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel. 012 428-6666.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. NOTE: Recommended procedures are:. Table A.g. Procedure 1 68 . It may not be resold.za) for more information on their copyright rules. buildings) with separations of at least 20 obstacle heights Terrain category C Area with regular cover of vegetation or buildings or with isolated obstacles with separations of maximum 20 obstacle heights (such as villages.

x . 69 . If this distance x is larger than the value in table A. If the structure is situated near a change of terrain roughness at a distance: a) less than 2 km from the smoother category A and b) less than 1 km from the smoother categories B to D the smoother terrain category in the upwind direction should be used.2.co.za) for more information on their copyright rules. If the distance. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel. the rougher terrain should be used. Procedure 2 a) Determine the roughness categories for the upstream terrain. Small areas (less than 10 % of the area under consideration) with deviating roughness may be ignored. b) Determine the distance x from the building to the upstream roughness changes. For intermediate values of height z .2 or for heights exceeding 50 m. Small areas (less than 10 % of the area under consideration) with deviating roughness may be ignored. 012 428-6666. then this terrain profile should be used for the angular sector considered. info@sabs. the lower roughness length should be used. linear interpolation may be used.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. It may not be resold. Where no distance x is given in table A.1. email. from the structure to a smoother terrain is smaller than the values given in table A.

7 2 5 7 20 70 .2 0.4 0.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only.5 5 1 10 2 20 5 12 20 50 0.co. It may not be resold.3 2 0. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.5 4 1 7 3 20 7 10 30 0. info@sabs. Table A. 012 428-6666.za) for more information on their copyright rules.2 — Distance from structure 1 Height z m 2 Influencing terrain category 5 7 10 15 20 30 50 5 7 10 15 20 30 50 5 7 10 15 20 30 50 A B C 3 4 5 Distance from structure to the influencing terrain category x km Upstream terrain category B C D 0. email.

It may not be resold.za) for more information on their copyright rules.3 and x < 1. email. cliffs and escarpments depends on the upstream slope φ = H / Lu in the wind direction. NOTE: The turbulence intensity will decrease with increasing wind speed and also the value of the standard deviation.3 and x < Ld / 2 or ii) φ ≥ 0. 1. 012 428-6666. co ( z ) = vm / vmf accounts for the increase of mean wind speed over isolated hills and escarpments only (not undulating and mountainous regions).5Le or 71 .3. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.1 — Illustration of increase of wind speed over topography A. info@sabs.3 and x < 1. It is related to the wind speed at the base of the hill or escarpment.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. where the height H and the length Lu Lu is defined in figure A. ridges.1 The distribution of wind speeds over isolated hills. A. The slope has no significant effect on the standard deviation of the turbulence.6 H c) For sites on upwind slopes of cliffs and escarpments where: 0.1) and is determined from the topography factor c0.3.3. νm νmf is the mean wind speed at height above terrain is the mean wind speed above flat terrain Figure A. A.3 and x ≤ Lu / 2 (for definition of x see figures A.3 and x ≤ Lu / 2 d) For sites on downwind slopes of cliffs and escarpments where: i) φ < 0.3) b) For sites on downwind slopes of hills and ridges where: i) φ < 0.2 A largest increase in the wind speed occurs near the top of the slope (see figure A.2 and A. The effects of topography should be taken into account in the following situations: a) For sites on upwind slopes of hills and ridges where: 0.3 Numerical calculation of topography coefficients A.05 < φ ≤ 0.co. 05 < φ ≤ 0.3 The topography factor.

This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. It may not be resold. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel. 012 428-6666, email. info@sabs.co.za) for more information on their copyright rules.

ii) φ ≥ 0,3 and x < 5H The topography factor is defined by:

co = 1

for φ ≤ 0, 05 for 0, 05 < φ ≤ 0,3 for φ > 0,3

(A.1) (A.2) (A.3)

co = 1 + 2s
co = 1 + 0,6s
where

s

is the orographic location factor, to be obtained from figure A.2 or figure A.3 scaled to the length of the effective upwind slope length, Le is the upwind slope H / Lu in the wind direction (see figure A.2 and figure A.3) is the effective length of the upwind slope, defined in table A.3 is the actual length of the upwind slope in the wind direction is the actual length of the downwind slope in the wind direction is the effective height of the feature is the horizontal distance of the site from the top of the crest is the vertical distance from the ground level of the site

φ
Le

Lu
Ld
H

x
z

Table A.3 — Effective length Le
1 Slope H / Lu Shallow 0,05 < φ ≤ 0,3 Steep φ > 0,3 2 Effective length Le

Le = Lu Le = H / 0,3

NOTE The graphs in figures A.2 and A.3 exceed the area of application as defined above. The consideration of orographic effects beyond these boundaries is optional.

A.3.4 In valleys, co ( z ) may be set to 1,0 if no increase in wind speed due to funnelling effects is to be expected. For structures situated within steep-sided valleys the increase of wind speed caused by funnelling should be accounted for. A.3.5 The procedure described in A.3 covers only the idealized cases of isolated topographical features. Icase of structures being designed in a topographically complex terrain, expert advice should be obtained or relevant full-scale or wind tunnel measurements could be undertaken (see annex C).

72

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Figure A.2 — Factor s for cliffs and escarpments

Figure A.3 — Factor s for hills and ridges

73

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A.4 Neighbouring structures
A.4.1 Tall buildings positioned within clusters of low-rise buildings can introduce an increase in wind loading on the low-rise buildings, and this should be taken into account A.4.2 If a building is more than twice as high as the average height have of the neighbouring structures then, as a first approximation, the design of any of those nearby structures may be based on the peak wind pressure at height zn ( ze = zn ) above ground (equation A. 4), see figure A.4.
x≤r

r < x < 2r x ≥ 2r
in which the radius r is:
r = hhigh r = 2d large

r 2 ⎤ 1 ⎡ ⎛ 2h ⎞ if zn = ⎢ r − ⎜1 − low ⎟ ( x − r ) ⎥ r ⎠ 2⎣ ⎝ ⎦ if zn = hlow

if zn =

(A. 4)

if if

hhigh ≤ 2d large hhigh > 2 d large

The structural height hlow , the radius r , the distance x and the dimensions d small and d large are illustrated in figure A.4.

A.4.3 The increase in wind speed can be disregarded when hlow is more than half the height hhigh of
the high building, i.e. zn = hlow .

Figure A.4 — Influence of a high rise building, on two different nearby structures (1 and 2)

A.5 Displacement height
Buildings in terrain category D, closely spaced buildings and other obstructions cause the wind to behave as if the ground level was raised to a displacement height, hdis . The displacement height hdis may be determined by equation (A.5), see Figure A.5. The profile of peak wind speed over height (see figure 2) may be lifted by a height hdis .

74

012 428-6666. 75 . 6have x 2have z=0 have hdis h Figure A. email.co.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only.6h where hdis is the lesser of 1.5) x > 6have In the absence of accurate information the average obstruction height might be taken as have = 15 m for terrain category D.8have or 0 .za) for more information on their copyright rules.5 — Obstruction height and upwind spacing x ≤ 2have 2have < x ≤ 6have where hdis is the lesser of 0. info@sabs. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel. It may not be resold. The values of have and x should be established for each 30° sector.2 x or 0 . since these effects are directionally dependent.2have − 0.6h where hdis = 0 (A.

stiffness (flexibility) and damping. info@sabs. Under natural winds. such structures can develop significant dynamic response.e. B. wind loading becomes typically the most significant type of loading and it is assumed that the design process will involve a comprehensive investigation (including the influence of local effects) and access to specialist literature / inputs.2 Wind induced vibrations depend to a large extent on the characteristics of structures.4.5 The across-wind excitations are due to shedding of vortices into the wake behind the structure.1.1 Buildings and structures falling outside the specifications of Clause 1.This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only.2.3 There are several mechanisms of aerodynamic excitations of structures. mainly the alongand across wind vibrations. NOTE 1 The trend towards designing and constructing higher and more economic (i.1 Buildings and structures falling outside the specifications of 1. NOTE 2 For buildings and structures of such a nature.co. which will magnify the static loading. Although vortex shedding is most noticeable for circular cylinders. The frequency of vortex shedding is governed by a dimensionless parameter referred to as Strouhal number. it can also develop behind cylinders of other geometries. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.2 Design in accordance to EN 1991-1-4. B. but also buffeting. which tends to develop into periodic lateral forces. with three most relevant being: shape. the climatic information relevant to South Africa has to be used in combination with the procedures specified in EN 1991-1.1. B. The relevant analytical methods are typically referred to as Gust Factor or Gust Energy methods. galloping.1 Dynamic effects B.1.4 The along-wind response of buildings and structures is caused by resonance between the atmospheric wind turbulence and their structural vibrations. It may not be resold.6. which are sensitive to wind induced vibrations. lighter) buildings and structures has contributed to a new generation of structures. in which due consideration is given to dynamic effects.2 In such a design process.2 can be designed in accordance to EN 1991-1-4. 012 428-6666. email.1.3 In this process the complexity of the South African wind climate regarding the dominance of frontal winds in coastal areas and southern portion of the country and intense thunderstorms in northern inland need to be taken into account. Annex B (informative) Design of buildings and structures which fall outside the scope of the code B.1.2.2 can be designed in accordance with a recognised analytical method.6 B.2.za) for more information on their copyright rules. B. 76 . B.6. B. B. torsional divergence etc.

This standard is a draft South African National Standard and is made available for commenting purposes only. NOTE: Large buildings and structures. not covered in the code of practice b) of unusual dynamic response characteristics.2 Tests for determining the dynamic response of structure may be considered properly conducted only if the above listed requirements are met and if. 77 . b) the atmospheric intensity of turbulence and its length scales of longitudinal component are modelled to approximately the same scale as that used to model the buildings and other structures. are also known to produce profound negative effects on the pedestrian level wind environment within their vicinity. and d) having severe consequence of failure. due consideration is given to the effects of Reynolds numbers. only if all the following conditions are satisfied: a) the natural atmospheric boundary-layer has been modelled to account for the variation of wind speed with height.2. d) due considerations are given to the effects of blockage and the response characteristics of the wind-tunnel instrumentation. c) placed in a terrain / environment with significant up-wind obstructions influencing the wind flow. especially those placed within the built-up environment. Annex C (informative) Wind tunnel as a design tool C. surrounding structures and dominant topography are geometrically similar to the full-scale situation.2 Minimum wind-tunnel testing requirements C. c) the modelled structure.co. C.za) for more information on their copyright rules. 012 428-6666.1 Tests for the determination of mean and fluctuating forces and pressures shall be considered to be properly conducted. e) for curved surfaces.1 Recommendations Wind-tunnel tests are recommended for building and structures: a) of unusual geometric form. email. Formatted: Bullets and Numbering C. in addition. the model is scaled with due regard to mass. Contact the South African Bureau of Standards (tel.2. length. info@sabs. stiffness and damping. Wind-tunnel environmental impact studies can be undertaken prior to the construction of such developments in order to identify the possible problematic areas and investigate the optimal ways of reducing the negative effects and risks. It may not be resold.