To Struggle for an Idea

An Advocacy Training Manual for Cambodians

Prepared by Ana Maria O. Clamor

Table of Contents
Chapter 1. Introductory Activities
Leveling of Expectations Introducing the Concept of Advocacy Word Association Demystifying Advocacy Advocacy and Community Development The Context in Which We are Working “Tao P’sar!”—A Game of Socio-Political and Economic Analysis 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 4

Chapter 2. Lecture Topics
Definitions of Advocacy Khmer Definition of Advocacy Advocacy versus Lobbying Community Development and Advocacy Advocacy Approaches Factors that Make Advocacy Possible Elements of Advocacy Duration of Advocacy Ingredients of Successful Campaigning Advocacy Process and Strategy Development

7 7 8 9 9 16 16 17 18 18 21

Chapter 3. Special Topics
Policy Advocacy Political Mapping Measures of Policy Success Running Effective Meetings Using Media for Advocacy What is News?

24 24 25 26 31 39 44

Chapter 4. Preparing for Advocacy
Problem Selection and Analysis Web Chart Problem Tree Problem Definition and Issue Framing

48 48 51 52 53

Goal Setting and Planning SWOT Analysis Making an Initial Advocacy Plan

54 55 56 59 59 60

Chapter 5. Evaluating the Advocacy Workshop
General Questions Detailed Questions





Introductory Activities
Starting the Workshop Right
Leveling of Expectations
Despite prior training needs assessment (TNA), some participants may still have different ideas about the objectives of the workshop. To prevent misunderstanding and address unrealistic expectations, it is best to ask what they expect to gain from the workshop. This will indicate if there is a need to modify the design you have prepared.

1) Below are several variations depending on the available time:

Directly ask the guide question(s) below to the participants and write their responses on the board or flip chart paper. Divide the participants into pairs or small groups. The dyads or small groups will write their responses to the guide question(s) below on flip chart paper and report to the big group. Ask the participants to write down their responses to the guide question(s) below on multi-colored meta cards that will be posted on the board for everyone to see.
2) Summarize the responses and clarify which among the expectations can and cannot

be met in the workshop.
3) Present the objectives of the workshop and the schedule. 4) (Optional) Set workshop ground rules with the participants.

Guide Questions

What do you expect to gain from this workshop?
Additional questions:

2) 3)

What do you think will make this workshop successful? What can you contribute to make this workshop successful?

Introducing the Concept of Advocacy
The appropriate approach in orienting participants to the concept and practice of advocacy will depend on their previous experiences, understanding, and knowledge, and also the time available. Below are five possible ways:

I. Word Association
1) Directly ask participants the question,

What comes to your mind when you hear the word, "advocacy"?
This is a simple approach to introduce the concept of advocacy. It will also indicate the participants' current level of understanding and knowledge of advocacy.
2) Cluster the responses into broad headings (e.g., advocacy methods, goals and

objectives, advocacy targets, etc.). Explain the concept of advocacy with a brief lecture (Refer to lecture topics in Chapter 2).

II. Demystifying Advocacy
1) Randomly pair participants.

Ask partners in every dyad to share a personal experience when they were able to bring about change:

What kind of change did I want to achieve? What did I do to achieve that change? What was the result?
2) Obtain a sampling of responses from the floor to give participants a sense that

effecting change is something all of us can do. Write them on the board.
3) Randomly divide participants into small groups to share professional/organizational

experiences of effecting change. Refer to the guide questions in the next page.
4) Ask each group to write their responses on flip chart paper and report to the big group. 5) Synthesize the responses and expound on the meaning of advocacy (Refer to lecture

topics in Chapter 2).


Guide Questions
1) 2) 3) 4)

What changes did you want to happen? (change objective) What did you do to achieve that objective? (strategies) What was the result? What factors helped / did not help in achieving your objective?

III. Advocacy and Community Development
Most Cambodians working in non-government organizations (NGOs) are familiar with community development (CD) work. As such, comparing CD with advocacy is an appropriate way to introduce the concept to this particular type of participants. It starts off on a point of reference that they can easily understand.

Option 1
1) Give a lecture on Regular CD and Advocacy (Refer to the Community Development and

Advocacy in Chapter 2, pages 9-15).

2) Illustrate your point by drawing the contrast between CD and Advocacy (Refer to page


Option 2
1) Divide the participants into small groups. Group them either by organization or mix

them randomly.
2) Ask them to discuss the guide questions below, write their responses on flip chart

paper, and report to the big group.
3) Synthesize their responses and give a lecture on Regular CD and Advocacy (Refer to

the Community Development and Advocacy in Chapter 2, pages 9-15).

Guide Questions
1) 2)

What specific problems is your organization addressing? What actions have you taken to address these problems?


IV. The Context in Which We Are Working
This approach enables participants to take a broad societal perspective and to situate their work within this context. This activity is also appropriate for Cambodians working in NGOs or government ministries.
1) Divide the participants into small groups. They can either be grouped by organization

or randomly mixed.
2) Ask them to discuss the guide questions below, write their responses on flip chart

paper, and report to the big group.
3) Synthesize their responses with emphasis on the broad context in which they are

4) Give a lecture on Regular CD and Advocacy (Refer to the Community Development and

Advocacy in Chapter 2, pages 9-15).

Guide Questions

Describe the socio-cultural, economic, and political environment in their country. Provide relevant historical information. What specific problems is your organization addressing? What actions have you taken to address these problems?

2) 3)

V. “Tao P’sar!” – a Game of Socio-Political and Economic Analysis
While this can be an introductory activity to advocacy, this session can be a rich source of insights into development issues in general and problems currently affecting society. This activity simulates the power dynamics among different social classes and enables participants to experience the workings of an inequitable society.

Materials Needed
Commodity cards, about the size of playing cards, containing pictures and captions of the following: Bananas Vegetables Fish Chicken Pork Beef

You will need hard paper for this, hard paper (e.g., cardboard, old folders) to keep the cards upright. The number of commodity cards will depend on the number of participants:

Bananas Vegetables Fish Chicken Pork Beef

– – – – – –

three times the number of participants two times the number of participants exactly the number of participants one-fourth the number of participants one-eight the number of participants ten to 15 cards

Put these items randomly into letter envelopes.

1) Before starting the game, distribute envelopes with commodity cards among the

participants. Make sure that these envelopes are distributed to participants in random order.
2) Ask the participants to open their envelopes and examine the commodity cards that

they have received. Each commodity card will be worth a certain number of points: Bananas Vegetables Fish Chicken Pork Beef – – – – – – 5 points 10 points 15 points 25 points 35 points 75 points

Ask each participant to compute the number of points they received based on the commodity cards they have in the envelope. In addition, if a participant receives three or more of the same kind of card, s/he should add the following points: 3 of a kind 4 of a kind 5 of a kind 6 of a kind – – – – plus 5 points plus 10 points plus 15 points plus 25 points

On the board, list the names of participants and the number of points that they have received. Arrange them according to the number of points received and divide them into three smaller groups. The top 3 to 5 participants should belong to the first subgroup – Neak Tikrong (City Dweller). The next 5 to 8 participants will comprise the second sub-group – Neak Chunobot (Rural Resident). The remaining participants will form the third sub-group – Neak Srok Leu (Highlander). These sub-groups should be seated separately at different corners of the workshop room.
3) Once the three groups are formed, announce that the aim of the game is to

accumulate the highest possible number of points. There will be trading sessions when each participant can get a chance to accumulate more points. These sessions will be conducted under the following rules: a) Each trading session will be held for only 3 to 5 minutes. Trading session begins when the facilitator yells “Tao P’sar!” (“Let’s go to the market”) b) Each participant should keep his/her trading cards secret and should not disclose the contents to other participants. c) If a participant wishes to trade, s/he announces what type of cards s/he is willing to trade in exchange for certain types of cards. d) Once a participant has found another person willing to trade, they should lock their arms together to signify that they would exchange cards.


e) If a participant is unwilling to trade, s/he can signify this by folding his/her arms. f) Once the facilitator has announced that time has ended, all participants should stop all trading under the threat of confiscation of cards.
4) At the end of each trading session, compute the changes in the number of points of

each participant, and redistribute them to the different sub-groups. After each session, three beef cards should be distributed to the Neak Tikrong as a ‘reward’ for good performance. Two or three additional trading sessions can be held, with recalculations of the number of points of each participant after each session.
5) After one or two sessions, announce to the group that the Neak Tikrong can now add,

remove, or modify any trading rule that they wish.
6) Let the Neak Tikrong lead one or two sessions with new rules and then end the game.

Guide Questions
1) 2)

How did you feel during the game? What are your insights regarding the following: Initial distribution of commodity cards Trading rules and actual trading of cards Distribution of participants among sub-groups Decision-making during the game


What similarities can you find between the game and Cambodian society regarding the following: Distribution of goods and services Distribution of the population along socio-economic classes Decision making in the country



Lecture Topics
Basic Information for the Participants
These brief lecture topics are meant to build on the experiences of participants and complement their existing knowledge and understanding.

Definitions of Advocacy
In the past, the word "advocate" referred to a person who pleads on behalf of another, especially a lawyer who represents a client in court. Advocacy was narrowly used in the legal arena. Advocates as we know it today used to be called activists, people who take or support vigorous action for a political cause. However, the meaning of advocacy has evolved and broadened to include activism and other forms of political action. The following are some definitions of advocacy:

Advocacy is the process of influencing decision-making (Oxfam America). Advocacy is working with other people and organizations to make a difference (CEDPA, 1995). Advocacy consists of actions designed to draw a community’s attention to an issue and to direct policy makers to a solution. It consists of legal and political activities that influence the shape and practice of laws. Advocacy initiatives require organization, strategic thinking, information, communication, outreach, and mobilization
(Human Rights Manual by Marge Schuler).

Advocacy is putting a problem on the agenda, providing a solution to that problem and building support for action on both the problem and solution (An Introduction to Advocacy, Training Guide by Ritu R. Sharma, Academy for
Education Development, 1997).

Advocacy involves different strategies aimed at influencing decisionmaking at the local, provincial, national, and international levels.


Khmer Definition of Advocacy
On May 19, 1998, members of the NGO Forum on Cambodia met and discussed the appropriate Khmer translation of the English word, "advocacy." Below are excerpts from that meeting.

There is no single word in Khmer that fully explains the meaning of the English word “advocacy.” It is often translated simply as koem-tror (“support”), and this can give the wrong impression as to the purpose of the NGO Forum and create confusion. So we should discuss together which word would be more suitable. There are five translations that are sometimes used: 1. kaa chor-chaa nung tor-waa meaning “negotiation and protest” 2. kaa koem-tror mete meaning “supporting an idea” 3. kaa teq-terng mete 4. kaa tor-soo mete meaning “struggling for an idea” 5. kaapie mete meaning “defending an idea” There are various definitions of advocacy. Advocacy entails various strategies for influencing grassroots, provincial, national, and international levels. Advocacy is action taken to draw attention to ideas about certain issues in order to influence decision-makers or law- makers to come up with appropriate solutions. Advocacy is to speak out in public to support something or want something or to support a cause by joining a movement. A long discussion followed. When we do advocacy, first, we help the community brainstorm and come up with an idea. Then we take the idea, support it, struggle for it, and defend it. However, the word “advocacy” also means to raise concern. The words koem-tror mete, terng mete, tor-soo mete, and kaapie mete all express the meaning of advocacy to some degree. Each word has its basis. It is like the word “gender.” We need to use a long sentence in Khmer to explain the meaning, but we nevertheless understand the word. During the French time, we took many French words; now we take many English words. But we should decide which Khmer word to use consistently. So we choose to use kaa tor-soo mete. When we struggle for an idea, we naturally support it, draw attention to it, and defend it as well. This word encompasses all.

karcrcar nig tv:a karKa¿RTmti karTak;Tajmti

meaning “drawing attention to an idea”

kartsÚ‘mti karBarmti


Advocacy versus Lobbying
Advocacy and lobbying are sometimes used interchangeably. Lobbying, however, is a more specific form of advocacy. Lobbying is the practice of attempting to influence legislation. Advocacy is a broad term that refers to the practice of influencing decisionmaking. In the United States, lobbying is performed by agents called lobbyists. These lobbyists belong to a particular interested group, known as the lobby. The lobbyist may request votes either for or against pending legislation. The term lobbying is derived from the way in which these agents formerly confronted legislators in the lobby or hallways directly outside a legislative chamber. They stayed in the lobby of the legislature as they waited for the targeted legislators. They also waited in the lobby of hotels where the lawmakers stayed.

Community Development and Advocacy
Ideally, advocacy is an integral part of community development (CD) work because people empowerment and total human development are the ultimate goals of CD. However, CD as generally practiced in Cambodia at present, often does not include advocacy. This situation, however, is changing as more and more local NGOs realize their crucial role in advocacy. The comparative table below shows the similarity (Point No. 1) and differences between a regular community development project and advocacy (Points Nos. 2 and 3):

1. Work for change 2. Beneficiaries 3. Characteristics of beneficiaries: Usually has less power, authority, influence, or resources than the CD implementers. Beneficiaries are often grassroots communities or vulnerable groups.

1. Work for change 2. Advocacy targets 3. Characteristics of advocacy targets: Usually has more power, authority, influence, or resources than the ones doing advocacy. S/He can decide on the issue advocates are working on. Advocacy targets are often from the government/state because they assume positions of authority and policy-making.

In doing a regular CD project, there is no need to appeal or make demands from somebody who is usually higher and in a position to decide on our cause. Advocacy targets are the ones in a position to decide on the cause, goal, or objective that advocates are working on. They are often from the government/state.


The following illustration makes the distinction between regular CD and advocacy clearer.

Advocacy Target Advocate or CD Worker Beneficiaries

Anybody can be an advocate -- whether one is an NGO worker, villager, or even from the government/state -- as long as s/he has a cause.

NGOs can advocate on their causes. They can also advocate on behalf of the grassroots or in partnership with the grassroots.

Advocacy Target Grassroots NGO


The grassroots, however, can advocate on their own behalf. They can prove to be a potent force if they are organized.

Advocacy Target Grassroots

Whether an issue or problem can be addressed through a regular community development approach or advocacy will depend upon our change objective. If the change objective is achievable within our means and does not require appealing or making demands from relevant decision-makers, probably a regular CD approach will suffice. On the other hand, if the change objective necessitates influencing someone who can decide on the outcome, advocacy is probably the correct approach.

REGULAR CD PROJECT EXAMPLES Work for Change 1. Problem/Issue: The village lacks water especially during the dry season. Objective: To put in a well that will benefit the entire community. 2.. Problem/Issue: Women in the community, especially widows and divorcees, cannot find other sources of livelihood because they lack education and skills Objective: To provide the women with skills in functional literacy, numeracy, and income-generation. Poor, illiterate, and jobless women in the community. Beneficiaries Villagers Characteristics of Beneficiaries Villagers are poor and lack resources.

These women are among the most vulnerable in the community because they are poor and powerless.


3. Problem/Issue: Villagers are suffering from various health problems. Objective: To address the problem of health in the community by regularly sending a mobile team of health practitioners or by giving people training on health and sanitation. 4. Problem/Issue: Farmers’ low agricultural productivity. Objective: To increase the agricultural outputs of farmers through the provision of training, inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides, and infrastructure.

Sick villagers

These villagers cannot afford to buy medicines when they get sick.

Poor farmers

These poor farmers do not have the resources (i.e., knowledge or skills) to increase their agricultural outputs.

CD Implementer




ADVOCACY EXAMPLES Work for Change Advocacy Targets Village chief or Commune chief Characteristics of Advocacy Targets Village chief has more authority than the villagers. Commune chief has more authority than the village chief. Husbands who beat their wives and children, village chief or police authorities. Husbands are often physically and economically stronger than their victims are. Village chief has the power, authority, and influence to settle conflicts and impose order in the community. Police authorities have the power, authority, and influence to enforce the law against domestic violence.

1. Problem/Issue: The village lacks water but the village chief claims personal ownership of the community well donated by an international NGO. Objective: For the village chief to stop claiming personal ownership of the communal well and share it with the community. 2. Problem/Issue: Incidence of domestic violence (i.e., wife and child battering) is high in Phum Viay K’niya. Objective: To eliminate or decrease incidence of domestic violence.


3. Problem/Issue: Villagers suffer from various health problems. Objective: To address the problem of health in the community by setting up health clinics and services all over the country.

Ministry of Health and/or National Assembly

Ministry of Health has the authority to propose draft legislation on setting up health clinics and services all over the country. National Assembly has the power and authority to pass legislation on health. Ministries of Agriculture and Ministry of Environment have the authority to propose draft legislation to increase agricultural productivity. National Assembly has the power and authority to pass legislation to increase agricultural productivity.

4. Problem/Issue: Farmers’ low agricultural productivity. Objective: To increase the agricultural outputs of farmers through the provision of training, inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides, and infrastructure.

Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Environment, and/or National Assembly

5. Problem/Issue: The Draft NGO Law restricts the freedom and autonomy of Cambodian NGOs. Objective: Non-passage of the restrictive NGO Draft Law or passage of another law that will preserve the freedom from interference and autonomy of Cambodian NGOs.

National Assembly or Ministry of Interior

National Assembly has the power and authority to pass laws. Ministry of Interior can propose a draft law.


Advocacy Target Advocate

Take note that in Example Numbers 3 and 4 in the Regular CD and Advocacy Tables, the problems/issues are exactly the same. However, the differences lie in the level of action. In the Regular CD examples, objectives and actions to be taken are at the local level; while in the Advocacy examples, they are at the national level. Some problems/issues can be addressed either through a regular CD approach or through advocacy. Others require only a regular CD approach; while some problems/issues can only be effectively addressed through advocacy particularly when the required action is at the national level.


Advocacy Approaches
Contrary to what many people think, advocacy is not always against the government or policy makers. There is actually a wide range of advocacy approaches – from the confrontational to the diplomatic (see illustration below).

Confrontation Oppose

Negotiation Compromise

Persuasion / Diplomacy Support / Collaborate

One's repertoire of advocacy actions is shaped by the context in which one is operating. In repressive political environments, advocacy initiatives are severely limited. The risks are great and the consequences can be fatal. Advocates – or activists – can suffer from harassment and intimidation, bodily harm, and even death. In democratic environments, advocates have a larger space in which to initiate action. Nevertheless, advocacy still poses some risks but the consequences are often not fatal.

Factors that Make Advocacy Possible
The meaning and practice of advocacy differs from country to country and from one historical context to another. Two factors make advocacy possible. They also shape the kind of advocacy actions that can be taken in a particular country:
1) Democratic Space - refers to an

arena in the political and social environment in which basic human rights can be exercised. 2) Civil Society - can be defined as the massive array of self-governing private organizations, not dedicated to distributing profits to shareholders or directors, but pursuing public purposes outside the formal apparatus of the state.

These two factors mutually reinforce each other: Democratic space can bring about the emergence of a vibrant Civil Society. Civil society, on the other hand, can widen democratic space. The converse, however, is also true. If Civil Society is not vigilant, democratic space can shrink. Or a small democratic space can prevent Civil Society from flourishing

Suggested approach
Prior to your lecture, ask participants if advocacy was practiced in Cambodia during the different political regimes (i.e., Sangkum Reas Niyum, Khmer Republic, Democratic Kampuchea, People's Republic of Kampuchea, State of Cambodia, UNTAC, Kingdom of Cambodia). Then ask them if Civil Society existed or if there were local NGOs during those different regimes.


Elements of Advocacy
Oxfam UK and Ireland have had many years of doing advocacy as part of their mandate to work for social justice by working against poverty. Below are excerpts from the booklet, Advocacy Works! Lessons Learned by Oxfam UK and Ireland by Dianna Melrose:

1. Clear Aims, SMART Objectives One of our major problems is that we try and work hard on far too many issues at the same time. This dissipates our energy and we are less effective simply because we are trying to do too much. The danger is that we skimp on our analysis because we lack resources to do solid research into how the micro links with the macro. We need to identify clear aims and SMART objectives that are Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, and Time bound. Goals that are too ambitious are dispiriting and disempowering because you never really feel you are getting anywhere. 2. Research After selecting and specifying the issue, we need to do very systematic research into the issue, existing policies, and come up with policy change proposals. We must also research the decision-making process that the government, international finance institutions and multilateral agencies go through and identify the key actors who can actually make a difference. We need to know which ministry or department in the government we should lobby, and which individuals in these ministries or departments we should talk to. Make a list of all these advocacy targets in institutions, in government, in multilateral agencies. 3. Coalitions Coalitions and networks can be vital to maximizing impact as lobbyists. These can be issue-specific or formed around particular advocacy targets -- for example, the Asian Development Bank -- or influencing opportunities such as the ASEAN. These networks work best where groups are able to come together to plan a longer term proactive strategy, agree on common advocacy positions, and on a clear division of labor.


4. Effective Media Strategy The media is critical to successful advocacy. Effective media work is essential because politicians and even international organizations and multilateral agencies like the UN and the World Bank are very receptive of what the media has to say. Through selective use of various media, an issue that is not an issue at the moment can become a political debate.

Duration of Advocacy
In some organizations, advocacy is integrated in their work. For instance, Jesuit Service Cambodia is a member of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL). It is at the forefront of the mine ban campaign in Cambodia and is also actively lobbying at the international level in collaboration with like-minded organizations. It is advocating on a sustained manner through the conduct of various campaigns. Guiding its actions is its long-term agenda -- a total ban of landmines in all countries. In other organizations, advocacy is done only as a response to an issue or problem. For instance, members of the NGO Forum's Women Working Group and Civil Society Working initiated the writing of a statement on violence against women and impunity of murderers to the Prime Minister (See page 20). This was made in response to the increasing incidence of homicides victimizing women and the lack of law enforcement ensuring public safety and security. Advocacy in this case was done as a one-shot affair.

Ingredients of Successful Campaigning
It is best for advocates who are keen in pursuing a sustained campaign to be proactive – to act upon anticipated events rather than be overtaken by it; to seize opportunities when they arise instead of simply reacting. Successful campaigning by an organization, however, is a product of four important ingredients. The book, Managing Without Profit by Mike Hudson, enumerate these ingredients. Below are excerpts:

1. Leadership Successful campaigns depend on individuals who passionately believe in the cause and can argue the case for change, both within the organization and externally to the press and media. Campaigning organizations need people who can present a cogent case and can simultaneously champion the cause and sound eminently reasonable.


2. Creative skills Campaigning also depends on people with creative skills to mount campaigns that capture the public imagination. It needs the skills that are found in advertising and public relations agencies. These people have to have the ability to think in images and to create new ways of communicating complex messages to the public. Only when the messages are clear can the organization build a strong constituency of people who support the cause both politically and financially. 3. Political acumen This activity (i.e. campaigning) depends on having the political acumen to identify campaigns that can be fought and won. Campaigning organizations need managers who can make judgements about changes that are achievable and who can then galvanize people into action around that change. Campaigns with unrealistic goals soon lose steam. Greenpeace has short-term objectives and calls them ‘small wins’ – the essential steps in the political process that lead to desired long-term changes. 4. Management These organizations also require management. Fired up by the day-to-day tensions of running campaigns, people often put insufficient energy into looking after the organization themselves. They do not run on idealism alone. Responsibilities need to be divided and individuals made accountable. Teams need to work both in and across the line-management structure. People need to be managed. Campaign managers must work within budgets and have the information they need to control costs. Fundraisers need to be able to compare the cost-effectiveness of different fundraising methods. In short, tight management practices are needed to enable people to do the all-important campaigning work.


STATEMENT of NGO FORUM ON CAMBODIA on VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN AND IMPUNITY OF MURDERERS Prepared by the Women Working Group and Civil Society Working Group of the NGO Forum on Cambodia To Samdech HUN SEN Prime Minister of the Royal Government of Cambodia We, the member organisations of the NGO Forum on Cambodia,
• • • • • • • •

Having considered the widespread concern for the present high level of violence and murder in Cambodian society; Having considered the many and increasing number of violent acts against and murder of women in the provinces and in Phnom Penh (see attached list); Having known that, in many circumstances, suspects have not been taken to court and offenders have not been punished for their crimes, contrary to the Cambodian people's expectation that true justice must be done in Cambodia; Having known that all people, especially women, are very concerned about the security and safety of their families, spouses and children as well as their own safety; Having understood that progress and a peaceful life depends on social security, non-violence and absence of abuses of personal rights to freedom; Having known of specific cases where clearly identified suspects go free despite the presence of witnesses; Having seen that the victims include both poor and rich, unknown and famous, proving that no one is safe from violence, thereby increasing the fear of all women and their families; Having understood that these violent actions ruin the reputation and dignity of Cambodia and seriously damage the interests of the country, including especially the name of the Royal Government of Cambodia;

We, the member organisations of the NGO Forum on Cambodia, humbly request that Samdech use your authority to achieve speedy and effective action from the relevant ministries and institutions to achieve the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. To effectively strengthen enforcement of the existing laws; To strengthen the capacity, public conscience and morality of authorities at different levels, in order to achieve safety and security, and to increase the confidence and peace of mind of the people; To increase activities to protect public security; To ensure that concerned ministries promptly investigate homicides, including all those mentioned on the attached list, in order to find and bring the offenders to trial in accordance with the law, so that people can see that justice is being done and not simply delayed until people forget.

We trust in the ability of Samdech to solve these problems, so that we and all Cambodian people can feel safer and have no concerns about public security and personal safety, as well as to protect the honour of the Royal Government of Cambodia and development of the country as a whole. We would like to wish Samdech and Lok-Chum-Tiev longevity so as to lead Cambodia towards peace and development. Prepared in Phnom Penh, on Wednesday, 1 September 1999 Koy Veth Convenor Women Working Group Approved by: Russell Peterson Representative NGO Forum on Cambodia Khoun Bunny Convenor Civil Society Working Group


Advocacy Process and Strategy Development
A sustained advocacy campaign can be seen as a circle or spiral that includes several interrelated and often overlapping stages. The Institute for Development Research envisions this process to include the following:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9)

Visioning Macro Analysis, and Problem Selection and Analysis Problem Definition and Issue Framing Goal-Setting Identification and Analysis of Advocacy Stakeholders and Targets Development of Strategies, Tactics, and Timeline Implementation of those Strategies and Tactics Evaluation of Impact Application of Evaluation Lessons for Future Advocacy Efforts

These nine stages are presented in the illustration below:

Societal Vision

Application of Advocacy Lessons Macro Analysis Problem Analysis and Selection

Evaluation of Advocacy Impact vis-a-vis Changes in - Policy - Civil Society - Democracy

Implementation of Strategies and Tactics

Problem Definition and Issue Framing Goal-Setting - Long-term (transformational goals) - Immediate - Short-term

Development of Strategies, Tactics and Timeline

Identification and Analysis of Stakeholders and Targets - Opportunities and Threats - Power Analysis

Advocacy Process and Strategy Development

Below are excerpts from the Advocacy Sourcebook prepared by the Institute for Development Research. They describe some of the steps in the advocacy process.

Visioning This is the process of establishing one’s ideal vision of the world. Effective advocacy campaigns rest on an organization’s clear understanding of what they want their society to be. This vision can assist groups in selecting problems and issues that will help lead to transformational change and to set longer-term advocacy goals building towards that change. Analysis of Macro Social Context After establishing a long-term vision of the ideal society, advocacy groups find it important to ground themselves in the current social context in which they will be operating. This allows organizations to assess the macro forces and power relations that will be affecting their advocacy efforts. There are a variety of ways to do this type of assessment. Problem Selection and Analysis People get involved in advocacy because they, or others whose concerns they share, are facing problems that they think can be resolved or ameliorated by the actions or decisions of governments or other powerful institutions like multinational corporations and multilateral development banks. In order to design effective advocacy strategies, it is important to have a way to link or choose among these competing problems, analyze them, and decide which are most appropriate for advocacy (Refer to section on Problem Selection and Analysis, Chapter 4, pages 48-52). Problem Definition and Issue Framing Well-conceived definitions and descriptions help groups present their concerns to a wider audience more effectively. Clear definitions are also crucial for designing strong and appropriate advocacy strategies and for keeping efforts well focused. Different people concerned about a problem often will have different explanations as to its causes and solutions. Some may not even recognize it or want to give it legitimacy as a problem. Since there will be multiple explanations about the problem’s causes and multiple ideas about its solutions, your argument and position need to be well thought out, documented and articulated to counter opposing positions. In cases where the problem is relatively invisible, your argument needs to help make the problem a legitimate concern capable of being placed on the public agenda.


Goal Setting While framing the issue, groups can set overall goals and specific objectives for their advocacy effort. Advocacy groups should be able to incorporate their longterm visions for a better society with the more narrow policy goals that they hope to achieve within a shorter time frame. Power Analysis of Advocacy Stakeholders In developing strategies, we need a process to identify and analyze the relative power of the different individuals and groups who are concerned about our specific problem and the related policy solution being proposed to address it. This analysis, along with clear goal setting, provides the basis for designing strategies and their accompanying tactics and activities. Development of Strategy, Activities and Tactics Tactics are often defined as steps for carrying out your overall strategy – the specific things that you and your allies can do to put pressure on your targets. Sometimes people refer to tactics as activities. To develop effective strategies, we need to design specific activities or tactics that will be aimed at influencing our different advocacy targets – 1) the decision makers and power holders who have the ability to grant us what we want, and 2) those who have power to influence the decision makers. As part of this design process, we also need to assess tactics that each member organization or constituency can best use to make its power felt and reach its advocacy goals. In the case of opposition targets, tactics need to be selected that will diminish the opponent’s ability to prevent the group from achieving its objectives. As part of strategy development, groups also need to identify appropriate tactics and activities that will involve, strengthen, and mobilize their constituents and allies so their power and energy can grow and be sustained.

The next logical step after visioning, analysis, and planning is to implement the advocacy plan. Afterwards do an evaluation after the period of implementation to determine what worked and what did not work. The evaluation can be made on three levels – impact on policy, civil society, and democracy (Refer to Measures of Policy Success in Chapter 3, pages 26-27). From the evaluation, lessons drawn from the advocacy experience can be used to improve future advocacy efforts.




Special Topics
Some Tools and Skills
Whether you are involved in a sustained campaign or a one-shot advocacy activity, the tools and skills presented in this chapter may be useful or even necessary.

Policy Advocacy
It is the direct advocacy of a single policy or a group of related policies considered valuable by individuals or groups embracing a cause. The policy can be a piece of legislation or a decree. Policy advocacy can influence the direction of policy reform in Cambodian society.
When you are doing policy advocacy, it is important that your advocated policy has the following contents: Policy Goals What are your policy goals? How important is each policy goal? Policy Mechanism How do you plan to achieve each policy goal? Policy Indicator How can you measure success in achieving each policy goal?

Political analysis is necessary for successful reform
It can help organizations understand the politics of reform, manage the process of reform, identify problems and opportunities, organize political information, design effective strategies, and improve political sense.

What are the characteristics of the Cambodian policy environment?


Political Mapping
A technique for identifying the different political players in a given issue. Help groups design effective advocacy strategies. Help groups manage the politics of policy reform.
In an advocacy campaign, the political map will indicate threats and opportunities, strategic areas, and areas to avoid in the political terrain.

Six steps in political mapping

Policy consequences
What are the implications and possible consequences of the policy agenda? Who are the losers and winners? What is the size or extent of the consequences? How important are the consequences to those who will be affected?


Position map
Who are the key players (individuals and institutions)?

Key players are those who have the authority or power to make decisions on the concerned policy agenda. They have the direct power to provide advocates with what they want. As such, they are usually the advocacy targets. Look at the example below.
What is the position of the players in relation to the policy agenda?

Positions can either be to agree with the policy agenda, disagree, or to be undecided.
What is the strength of their position?

Strength of position can be given a numerical value. For instance, a range of 1 to 5 points can be used – with 1 as the weakest and 5 as the strongest.
1 2 3 4 Very Weak Weak Moderate Strong


Very Strong

Example: Issue – Prosecution of illegal loggers

Key Players King Norodom Sihanouk Prime Minister Hun Sen National Assembly President Norodom Ranariddh Senate Chairman Chea Sim Minister of Environment Mok Mareth RCAF Commander World Bank Asia Development Bank Provincial Governor Minister of Interior TOTAL

Agree 5 5 4 4 5 5 5



5 4 34 3 8 4

Even if the relative power or influence of each of the key players varies, the total number of points per column will indicate if the policy agenda being advocated has a chance of succeeding.
What are the bases of influence and power of the key players?

3) Stakeholder Analysis

What are the objectives, interests, and motivations of the identified key players or stakeholders?

Stakeholders are parties who have a stake or interest in the outcome of an advocacy effort. Sometimes the terms “stakeholders” and “key players” are used interchangeably. However, stakeholders would generally encompass a broader scope of people and groups.
How do the stakeholders prioritize their objectives?

Provides two important kinds of information: Identification of a common ground or basis of unity. Clear directions in alliance and coalition- building.

Policy Networks Analysis
What is the process and system of policy formulation? What government institutions are involved in the process of policy formulation? What is the nature of their interrelationships? What are the “critical paths” in the process that present “points of intervention” or “windows of opportunity”?

When doing policy networks analysis, take note of the following: Influence, cooperation or conflict Intensity and formality of the relationship Form of influence

Transitions Assessment
What are the transitions in the implementing organizations? What are the transitions in the inter-organizational environment? What are the transitions in the political environment? What are the “windows of opportunity”?


Strategies for Change - targets to alter the balance of power There are many definitions of the term “strategy.” The Institute for Development Research defines it as an action plan designed to influence public policies, programs, behaviors, and practices.
Positive: efforts/actions to strengthen one’s position and allies. Negative: efforts/actions to block or weaken the power of opposing organizations. Symbolic: efforts/actions to change perception of social realities of the major players and audiences involved in the issue.

Measures of Policy Success
Success in policy work is often defined very narrowly and is focused on one set of short-term goals: winning legislative or policy victories. Long-term measures to sustain these gains – such as strengthening and consolidating grassroots organizations – tend to get excluded or lost in the rush of everyday demands that such advocacy efforts generate.


Policy success needs to be viewed as multi-dimensional. Success involves wining advantages on three levels: policy, civil society, and democracy. The book Policy Influence, NGO Experiences explains these three different levels of success. Excerpts from the book are presented in the box below and in pages 28 to 30:

Different levels of success 1. Policy gains – refer to legislative and policy victories or achievement of favorable policy or legislative change. To undertake successful formal policy initiatives, NGOs and people’s organizations (POs) should work in different policy arenas and target a variety of players for advocacy and influence. The government arena involves such players and targets as the executive, legislature/parliament, judiciary, government ministries and agencies, local officials, and in some cases, even the police or military. The arena outside government involves such actors as NGOs, POs, influential citizens or powerbrokers, church authorities, the public at large, the media, business and academia. The international arena involves another set of players such as international NGOs and federation of POs, donor, governments, and world bodies such as the UN, World Bank and IMF, as well as multinational business interests. 2. Civil society gains – refer to the strengthening, consolidation, and expansion of the scope, function, accountability, and effectiveness of NGOs and other organizations representing and supporting the poor. When groups do not succeed in getting desired legislation passed or policies changed, their advocacy efforts may still help consolidate or strengthen NGOs and grassroots institutions, and establish important new links between groups or by raising levels of awareness about issues. However, some research on US NGOs indicate that as groups professionalize and specialize more on policy work and depend on experts, there is a danger of losing touch with grassroots concerns – a situation which may actually result in lower levels of participation and a weakening of civil institutions representing the poor. 3. Political and democratic gains – refer to increasing the legitimacy and political space in which NGOs and other civil society organizations can operate and function, as well as improving the attitudes and behaviors of powerbrokers and elites, especially of government, regarding NGOs and grassroots groups. It involves expanding the ability of groups to gain and exercise power so they can hold government accountable and influence the norms and practices of the state.


Factors for Success in Policy Advocacy
In order to evaluate policy campaigns fully both on the basis of their short- and longterm accomplishments, success needs to be measured by gains achieved across three different dimensions – policy, civil society, and democracy. In the book Policy Influence, NGO Experiences, five cases in the Philippines were studied. These cases touched on various issues that concerned the urban poor, fisherfolk, peasants, logging, and ancestral domain. From their experiences in policy advocacy, it was found that factors that help determined success varied according to the outcome – whether high policy gains, high civil society gains, or high democracy gains. Presented in the table below are factors for success according to different outcomes and dimensions:



FACTORS FOR SUCCESS Speedy agile decision-making process Willingness and ability to negotiate Change perception of state Alliances with power elites and other sectors Coalition, structure, full time secretariat with professional expertise Grassroots empowerment goal Campaign as organizational tool Popular education component Formal structures for accountability and decision-making Narrow and comprehensive policy goals Political context Campaign Changed perception of state Alliances with power elites and other sectors Multiple advocacy targets Willingness and ability to negotiate Narrow and comprehensive policy goals

Lessons from Philippine NGO Experiences
The lessons and success factors presented in the table on above and in the next page are derived from a particular moment in Filipino history. As such, they may not be directly applicable to different political and social contexts. However, these insights can be useful in raising important questions and issues for other NGOs and grassroots organizations working on policy influence inside and outside the Philippines. Learning about these experiences can challenge advocates to understand their own work in new ways and stimulate the development of even more effective campaigns and policy-related activities.


1. Nature and Structure of Coalition The composition and structure of coalitions shape what a campaign is able to accomplish. A coordinating body with professional Coordinating body with professional expertise and staff expertise and staff exclusively dedicated to the campaign enables a coalition to exclusively dedicated to plan, coordinate, and operate effectively. campaign. Speedy, clear decision-making process. Formal democratic structures of coalition decision-making and accountability. 2. Framing the Issue The nature and definition of the policy issue chosen by a group affects the process and outcomes of an influence campaign Policy issues framed compellingly in ways Taps urgent grassroots that tap urgent concerns generate strong concerns. grassroots constituency support. Defined in terms of both narrow Issues framed in ways that combine and comprehensive policy goals. narrow objectives with more transformational goals provide opportunities for winning modest but strategic policy gains while creating the space and vision necessary for avoiding co-optation, for educating constituencies, and building toward long-term fundamental change. 3. Strategies and Tactics Building allies and getting sponsorship - Government - Other power brokers - Other sectors - Multiple advocacy targets Strategy to counter opposition Building allies among influential policy makers and power brokers and getting their support and sponsorship provides groups with strength for gaining policy influence and organizational legitimacy. A concrete effective strategy aimed at opposition players can counter their potential impact on a campaign. The willingness and capacity of groups to negotiate with government and to accept the validity of incremental reform affects their ability to obtain policy gains and political legitimacy.

Willingness and strategy for negotiation


NGOs can strengthen civil society and good government through institutional and coalitional efforts to influence economic and social development policies. Direct NGO policy work can affect civil society and government accountability by: Educating citizens on important civic issues and ways to access the political system. Building a stronger institutional base of civil society. Providing mechanisms for participation and policy change especially for disenfranchised sectors.

Transformational Goals Groups seeking transformational objectives – basic changes in power relations – need an overall strategic vision that shapes and guides both long-term policy goals and short-term local actions. Since success in the policy or legislative arena is invariably partial and always filled with loopholes, winning sweeping comprehensive reforms or major shifts in power is highly unlikely. Accepting the legitimacy of achieving partial success, groups need to identify and pursue strategic short-term goals that build toward long-term structural change. When designing an effective long-term policy program, NGOs and grassroots organizations also need to be willing to make trade-offs and strategic decisions on when to maximize different gains.

Political and Social Context A country’s political and social context shapes the attitudes and influences the strategies of NGOs and grassroots organizations, and affects the kinds of success they are able to achieve. The strategies and campaigns developed in one context may vary considerably from those developed in another.


Running Effective Meetings
1) Ask participants to answer the Evaluate a Meeting checklist (see page 32). 2) Get their average score. The range of individual scores will indicate if most of them

are attending effective meetings or not.
3) Ask them to do the following:

Identify three disturbing experiences in attending meetings. Come up with a definition of an effective meeting (The definition below can
be used as reference).
4) Present the two types of meetings. 5) Discuss the steps in planning a meeting:

Do we need to meet? Developing an agenda Selecting participants Choosing a meeting time Arranging facilities
6) Discuss and role play the process of conducting a meeting. 7) Summarize the session and present the necessary steps to an effective meeting (see

page 38).

Definition of an Effective Meeting

An effective meeting is one that achieves its objectives in a minimum amount of time to the satisfaction of participants.
Types of Meetings

Task-Oriented Meetings are aimed toward achieving specific work objectives.

These kinds of meetings are for: Information: To give advice, update, or sell when a decision is already made Decision-making: To set goals and solve problems

Interpersonal (Maintenance) Meetings are aimed toward maintaining and increasing healthy relationships among members of the group so that they may achieve their tasks effectively and efficiently.


Instructions: Consider the typical meeting you attend whether at work, in the community, etc. Compare your meeting to the following characteristics of an effective meeting. Check those statements that apply to meetings you normally conduct or attend: 1. An agenda is prepared prior to the meeting. 2. Meeting participants have an opportunity to contribute to the agenda. 3. Advance notice of meeting time and place is provided to those invited. 4. Meeting facilities are comfortable and adequate for the number of participants. 5. The meeting begins on time. 6. The meeting has a scheduled ending time. 7. The use of time is monitored throughout the meeting. 8. Everyone has an opportunity to present his or her point of view. 9. Participants listen attentively to each other. 10. There are summaries as the meeting progresses. 11. No one tends to dominate the discussion. 12. Everyone has a voice in decisions made at the meeting. 13. The meeting typically ends with a summary of accomplishments. 14. Participants periodically evaluate the meeting. 15. People can be depended upon to carry out any action agreed upon during the meeting. 16. A memorandum of discussion or minutes of the meeting is provided to each participant following the meeting. 17. The facilitator or meeting leader follows up with participants on action agreed upon during the meeting. 18. The appropriate and necessary people can be counted on to attend each meeting. 19. The decision process used is appropriate for the size of the group. 20. When used, audiovisual equipment is in good working condition and does not detract from the meeting. Number of Statements Checked ____ x 5 = ____ Meeting Score A score of 80 or more indicates that you attend or conduct a high percentage of quality meetings A score below 60 suggests that work is required to improve the quality of meetings you attend or conduct.


Planning the meetings
1) The first thing that you need to do when you are thinking of calling for a meeting is to

ask if it is needed.

Do we need to meet? What are the usual reasons for meetings?
Give participants the Checklists to Determine if a Meeting is Required (see box below). If most of the answers to the questions are “yes,” probably a meeting is necessary. Sometimes, however, a memo, email message, bulletin board posting, or phone call is a better means of disseminating information.

Consideration Is time of the essence? Is the group geographically dispersed? Does the size of the group make a meeting feasible, say 10 to 100? Is it imperative that everyone fully understands the information? Is the information being presented needed later as reference material? YES ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ NO ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

Consideration Is the knowledge required for any problem solving dispersed among several people? Is the commitment of several people required for successful implementation of the results? Can the synergy of group interaction contribute to a quality decision? Are there likely to be conflicting points of view which need to be reconciled?

YES ____ ____ ____ ____

NO ____ ____ ____ ____

Are there questions of fairness that need to be resolved?




2) Developing an agenda: An agenda is a list of things to be done.

Ask two or three participants to write a sample agenda on the board. Let the others comment on the samples.

Things that should be included in the agenda: Items to be discussed listed in proper sequence Beginning and ending time Time of scheduled breaks, if any
3) Selecting participants: When selecting participants, the best guideline is to have the

smallest number of appropriate people.

A feasible way of selecting participants is to consider the type of meeting: Information meeting: Select the attendees who need to know the information. Problem solving meeting: Choose participants who have knowledge to contribute, authority over the area affected by the decision, and commitment to carry out decisions. Maintenance meeting: Invite all members of the group. In general, the following characteristics should be considered when selecting participants: Knowledge of subject area involved in problem Commitment to solving the problem Time to participate Diversity of view point Expressiveness Open-mindedness

4) Choosing a meeting time: Should be acceptable to all. 5) Arranging facilities:

The required facilities, equipment, and documents should be prepared before the meeting.


Conducting Meetings
1) Ask participants to evaluate themselves as meeting leader/facilitator and participant

(Use the checklists on pages 36 and 37).

2) Get their average score as meeting leaders/facilitators and participants. Their scores

will indicate their present level of effectiveness as meeting leaders/facilitators and participants.
3) Get participants to discuss briefly the question,

What is the meeting leader/facilitator’s role? A meeting leader/facilitator’s role is to focus the energy and attention of participants and keep them moving towards the meeting’s objectives. Three major components of a meeting: Content: The information, knowledge, experience, opinions, ideas, myths, attitudes and expectations that participants bring to the meeting. Interaction: The way participants work together while processing the meeting’s content. Includes feelings, attitudes, and expectations that bear on cooperation, listening, participation, trust, and openness. Structure: The way in which both information and participants are organized to achieve the meeting’s purpose.
4) Ask participants to role play an actual meeting. Do it in several rounds to give each

one a chance to be a meeting leader/facilitator. Secretly ask some people to play “problem personalities” to add to the dynamics of the role play. Give feedback to the participants after each round. Generate suggestions on how to make meetings more effective. Optional
5) Give a brief input on the steps in structuring decision-making meetings (see box below):

Structuring Decision-making Meetings 1. Study/discuss/analyze the situation. 2. Define the problem. 3. Set objectives. 4. State imperatives and desirables. 5. Generate alternatives. 6. Establish evaluation criteria. 7. Evaluate alternatives. 8. Choose among alternatives.


Instructions: On a scale of 1 to 5, rate yourself as a meeting leader/facilitator. Be honest. 0 = Never; 1 = Seldom; 2 = Sometimes; 3 = Frequently, 4 = Most of the Time; 5 = Always. 1. Do I have clear objectives for the meeting? 2. Do I carefully select the invited participants? 3. Do I prepare an agenda and distribute it in advance of the meeting? 4. Do I arrive early enough to check the arrangements? 5. Do I start the meeting promptly regardless of who is present? 6. Do I follow the agenda? 7. Do I manage time and conclude the meeting as scheduled? 8. Do I encourage everyone to participate? 9. Do I help in the resolution of conflict? 10. Do I maintain proper control of the discussion? 11. Do I summarize accomplishment at the end of the meeting and clarify any action to be taken? 12. Do I prepare and distribute an agenda or minutes of the meeting? 13. Do I request evaluative feedback from participants? 14. Do I take agreed upon action? 15. Do I follow up on action to be taken by others? TOTAL ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

A score of 60 or more that you are an effective meeting leader/facilitator. A score of 45 and below suggests that you need to work harder to be
more effective as a meeting leader/facilitator.


Instructions: On a scale of 1 to 5, rate yourself as a meeting participant. Be honest. 0 = Never; 1 = Seldom; 2 = Sometimes; 3 = Frequently, 4 = Most of the Time; 5 = Always. 1. Do I, as a rule, know the purpose of the meetings I attend? 2. Do I have a clear understanding of my role in meetings I attended? 3. Do I confirm my attendance in advance of the meeting? 4. Do I complete required tasks such as looking up information or studying proposals? 5. Do I arrive at meetings before they are scheduled to begin? 6. Do I refrain from engaging in side conversations while the meeting is in progress? 7. Do I keep possible interruptions away, such as non-emergency telephone calls, while in the meeting? 8. Do I ask questions when I am not sure about something? 9. Do I, as a rule, open my mind to the ideas of others, even if these come from those who are different from my gender, social status, position, etc.? 10. Do I listen well? 11. Do I actively participate in discussions when there is something worthwhile to contribute? 12. Do I help others stay on the subject? 13. Do I take agreed upon action after the meeting? 14. Do I contribute to improving meetings by giving feedback to the people who conduct them either by a note, phone call, or a visit? 15. After the meeting, do I inform the concerned people who did not attend about what was discussed and the outcome? TOTAL A score of 60 or more that you are an effective meeting participant. A score of 45 and below suggests that you need to work harder to be more effective as a meeting participant. ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____


Necessary Steps to an Effective Meeting
The tables below present a summary of steps essential in running effective meetings:

Before the Meeting
Leader / Facilitator 1. Define objective. 2. Select participants. 3. Make preliminary contact with participants to confirm availability. 4. Schedule meeting room and arrange for equipment and refreshment. 5. Prepare agenda. 6. Prepare the necessary reference materials. 7. Invite participants and distribute agenda. 8. Touch base with non-participants. 9. Make final check of meeting room. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Participant Block time on schedule. Confirm attendance. Define your role. Determine what is needed from you in the meeting. Suggest other participants. Know the objective. Know when and where to meet. Do any required task.

During the Meeting
Leader / Facilitator 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Start promptly. Solicit additions to the agenda. Follow the agenda. Manage the use of time. Elicit participation. Limit/control discussion. Help resolve conflict. Clarify action to be taken. Summarize results. 1. 2. 3. 4. Participant Listen and participate. Be open-minded/receptive. Stay on the agenda and subject. Limit or avoid side conversations and distractions. 5. When necessary, ask questions to assure understanding. 6. Take notes on your action items.

After the Meeting
Leader / Facilitator 1. Make sure that room is restored and equipment is returned. 2. Evaluate effectiveness as meeting leader. 3. (Optional) Send out meeting evaluation. 4. Distribute minutes of meeting. 5. Take any action agreed upon. 6. Follow up on action items. Participant 1. Evaluate the meeting & give feedback to meeting leader. 2. Review the minutes of the meeting. 3. Brief others as appropriate. 4. Take any action agreed upon. 5. Follow up on action items.


Using Media for Advocacy
Media refers to all means of mass communication, with wide reach and influence. As such, it can be a powerful tool for advocacy. Its different forms are illustrated below:


Broadcast Print Cyberspace

Radio Television Newspaper Magazine Email Internet

Broadcast and print are traditional forms of media while cyberspace is a new realm of electronic communication. Each of these forms would have varying audiences and different scope of influence and reach.

Establishing Effective Relations with Media
Since media can be a powerful tool for advocacy, it is important that advocates establish effective relations with media practitioners such as journalists and reporters. The Urban Land Reform-Task Force, a coalition of urban poor groups in the Philippines, gives some pointers in their advocacy manual, Pagsulong. Below are some translated excerpts:

When writing a letter to the editor, or to a particular reporter, make sure that you have the addressee’s correct name and spelling, position or title. Be formal in your writing. The sender should put his/her name, organization, address, telephone, fax, and email address or any number where s/he can be contacted immediately. Inform the newspaper, television or radio station if there are events or issues related to your concerns that are worth reporting. If there is a need to issue a statement, have it ready. Have a list of media persons who can be contacted at short notice. Write down their telephone numbers (resident and office) and address. Also list down the names of news sources, experts or persons in authority, researchers, and other important contact persons. Be aware of what is being reported in the media. Read the newspapers, listen to the radio, and watch the news to monitor that developments and public opinion.


Holding a Press Conference
A press conference is a meeting called to disseminate information to the media. Advocates call for a press conference for greater impact. They also organize one if the news cannot be publicized through a simple press release or meeting with reporters. For instance, when the issue of toxic waste dumping in Sihanoukville was exposed, the Basel Action Network and Greenpeace together with the NGO Forum and Legal Aid of Cambodia organized a press conference to raise broader public awareness of the issue and pressure concerned authorities to take action. If there is time, send invitations one week before the press conference. In the invitation, write the objective of the press conference, the speakers, the date, time and place. Make follow up phone calls to confirm attendance. If you want the issue to be reported the following day, hold the press conference before noon or at noontime. It is not advisable to hold a press conference at night because it could be the busiest time of newspapers. The press conference should be held in a place that is accessible to media persons. That place need not be expensive. It is good to include a map in the invitation. Whether or not to serve food will depend on what is practiced. Speakers should have sufficient knowledge about the objectives of the press conference so s/he can answer the questions. They should practice answering probable questions before the press conference, especially controversial or sensitive concerns. Speakers should answer all the questions clearly. They should also be prepared to answer other questions that may be outside the main issue. Provide media with a press kit, which should contain different kinds of related information. Usually, a press kit contains the following (see box on the right):

Press release or news feature or both about the topic of the press conference and other related information. Relevant photographs. Brochure, annual report, newsletter, and other materials about your organization.
(Optional) T-shirts, stickers, buttons, or other promotional items.

Give the media a chance to take pictures. It is better if the topic of the press conference centers on a hot issue or an activity, for instance the presentation of evidence, etc. Activities like these that show action would have a greater chance of being published or broadcast on television.


Writing a Press Release
A press release is an important tool in relating to the public (See page 42). It is a short article given to media to encourage it to join in disseminating the news. A press release is said to be successful if it is able to relate its explicit objective with its real objective. It not only helps journalists and editors, but it also obtains public sympathy and media exposure for the organization and the issue it is advocating. It is true that a press release can call attention to your organization or group and the work that you do. However, it is also true that if the press release does not contain any important information and only proves to be a burden to journalists or editors, it will not be used. You must remember that sending a press release is a way of giving information to the media even if they have the option not to use it. A press release is a tool of public information that advocates can use to develop basic information for the readers. Advocates should know the right time to send a press release. It should have a connection to current events. Advocates should be alert to the latest news that supports their concerns so that media will readily accept their press release. Writing style If an event is important, write it as a news item. Make sure that the most important information is in the first paragraph or “lead.” The questions Who? What? When? Where? Why? and How? should be answered. Write the press release according to the style of the reporter or of the newspaper. Even if the press release is seldom printed in its entirety, make sure that it is written well – clear, easy to understand, and direct to the point. If necessary, repeat key words and information. Length As much as possible, a press release should only be one page. Put [END] or [END OF PRESS RELEASE] at the end. If it is more than two pages, write “more” or “continued” at the bottom of the first page. In the second page, put the topic of the press release on the top portion of the paper. Presentation The press release should be printed on a clean and short paper, double-spaced or single-spaced and error-free. You can also use the letterhead of your organization. Put a title to help the writer or editor decide if they will use the press release. It will also be helpful if the title summarizes the main point of the press release. However, this is optional especially if you want to limit the press release to one page. Contact Person On the lower left-hand corner, put the name of the contact person, his/her title or position in the organization, telephone, and address. In the example on page 42, there are three signatories. If you know the writer or editor, write a short note on a separate piece of paper or on a corner of the first page.



Sending the press release Make sure that the press release gets into the right hands. For every addressee, send a separate press release. If you are going to fax it, identify the specific recipient to prevent it from being thrown away. Write the name of the addressee in capital:

Attention: KHOM REAN.
Avoid sending the press release to the publisher or editor in chief even if you know them. This by passes those who should receive it and may cause ill feelings. Send the press release to those involved in writing or editing the news. A press release that is personally delivered has a greater chance of being used than one that is faxed, mailed, or delivered by a messenger. By being there personally, the writer or editor has a chance to ask more questions or information. Do not give a press release when the deadline is near. Give enough time for the newspaper staff to analyze the importance of the press release. Giving Pictures Some pictures used in newspapers are in black and white glossy paper; others are in color. Paste the picture on a separate sheet of paper and explain what it is showing – put a caption. Follow Up It is not enough to send a press release and expect that it will be used. It will help to call the newspaper or television station after a few hours or a day to check if the right person received the press release. This will also give the reporter or editor to ask further questions. But do not overdo the follow up to the point of irritating the one answering the phone. Monitor the newspaper, radio or television to check if they used the press release. Thank the reporter or editor if the press release was used. Do not call the reporter or editor if they used the press release because it shows the lack of competence to check and monitor on your own. It is also good to record discussions on television.

Sending a press release to media does not guarantee that it will be used. That is why some advocates issue a statement instead. (See example on page 20). A statement is a written or verbal declaration of an idea or sentiment. To ensure that the statement is published or broadcast in its entirety, they buy space in a newspaper or magazine, or airtime in a radio or television program.


What Is News?
What is considered news contains the essential information and answers the questions: Who? What? Where? When? Why? How?
It is important to know the elements of news to enable us to write effectively for media (See box below).

Elements of News
Timeliness. Whatever is happening, what is the latest, what has changed, etc. Proximity. Whatever the reader can identify with. Prominence. Whoever/whatever is known, famous, newsmakers. Dramatization. Whatever has theatrical value, concrete rather than abstract, emotional rather than rational. Personalization. Personalities are emphasized more than ideas. The human factor in stories. Titillation and Novelty. Whatever is interesting, compelling, extraordinary, scandalous, sensational, etc. Conventionalism. What is familiar, expected or stereotypical. Conflict. Clash of personalities, ideas. During “heavy” days when there are a lot of important news, those that have national significance are put on the front page.

Writing News Items
When writing news, use the structure of an inverted triangle (see illustration on page 45). Put the most important information up front and write less important in descending order. Why inverted? For people in a hurry who have no time to read, they will already have an idea about the main point of the article just be scanning the first part. They do not need to read the whole story. Newspapers also have limited space. If a news item needs to be cut, the important points will not be sacrificed.


Parts of a News Item
Lead. Sums up the most important elements of the news. This part should be able to catch attention. If possible, put the essential information such as who, what, where, when, why, and how. It is also important that this not exceed 25 to 30 words. If you cannot put all, choose only those that can call attention. Lead Support. Here you put the information that had not been included in the lead. Here, more details are given. Details. The details give color and shape to the news. The details to be included

should add more emotion to the story. Here, the other “how” of the news can be written.

This contains the events or information related to the main news. Events mentioned here have already happened. Usually the background is written at the end of the article but sometimes it is included in the main news.

Lead Lead Support



Inverted Triangle


Effective Writing for Media
Below are some guidelines on effective writing for media based on the manual, Pagsulong prepared by the Urban Land Reform Task Force:
1) In the first paragraph, write the most important details that answer the questions, who?

what? when? where? why? and how? Example: A thousand urban poor dwellers demonstrated in front of the Ministry of National Defense yesterday to condemn the violent demolition of their shanties along the railway station.
2) Start with the most important item towards the least important.

rWrong: Yesterday, the Cambodian team departed for Chiang Mai, Thailand for the Southeast Asian Games. Prime Minister Hun Sen flew with them to give moral support. Right: Prime Minister Hun Sen left yesterday for Chiang Mai, Thailand to give moral support to the Cambodian team who will participate in the Southeast Asian Games. The Prime Minister’s flight is more important than the Cambodian team because he is the head of the country.
3) Do not cram all the details in the first paragraph.

Example: The NGO Statement to the Consultative Group Meeting in Tokyo, done by three major NGO networks composed of almost two hundred local and international organizations, raised the three issues of human resource development, poverty alleviation and respect for rule of law because Cambodia’s problems revolved around them. The paragraph above can be broken down into two or paragraphs. In a newspaper, the shorter the paragraph, the better. However, the main idea must not be sacrificed in cutting a paragraph short.
4) In a paragraph, write only one idea per sentence.

Example: Three major NGO networks come up with an NGO statement to the Consultative Group Meeting in Tokyo. The statement raised the three themes that cut across Cambodia’s major problems: human resource development, poverty alleviation and respect for rule of law. The NGO networks comprise over four hundred local and international organizations.
5) Write the names of the persons involved or the authority that was the source of the

news. Example: Two men perished in a three-hour fire yesterday in Toul Kork district. Patrolman Khong Pouv of the police detachment in the area identified the fatalities as Kim Sonleeng, 18 and Phit Prakat, 20, both residents of the affected district. In news that involve many fatalities, the names are usually written at the end of the story.


6) Introduce the persons concerned. When introducing them, write the whole name and

title/position. If possible, explain what this person does. paragraphs, the first name can be used.

In the succeeding

Example: Striking teachers condemned H.E. Tol Lah, Minister of Education, for saying that an agreement has been made with the teachers. These protesters denied that negotiations have taken place, insisting that they have not even met with the Minister. They said that H.E. Tol’s statement is a feeble attempt to make sway public sentiment against them.
7) Explain technical terms. Avoid them if possible. Use more familiar and simpler words

to help readers understand. Example: rigor mortis – dead
8) Limit quotes to those involved in the issue. Make sure that the quote supports the

story. Example 1: ''The majority of the people of Cambodia... are of the opinion that such an incompetent and mean person should be forced from his present position,'' wrote Ieng Thirith, the wife of former Khmer Rouge foreign minister Ieng Sary. She was referring to the director of the private Documentation Centre of Cambodia, Youk Chhang, who has spearheaded efforts to track down war-crime evidence against Khmer Rouge leaders. Example 2: Ieng Thirith, the wife of former Khmer Rouge foreign minister Ieng Sary, lambasted the director of the Documentation Centre of Cambodia Youk Chhang. Youk has spearheaded efforts to track down war crime evidence against Khmer Rouge leaders. The second example is shorter, direct to the point, and has more force than the first example.
9) Avoid using many words.

Use concrete and specific words. There was inclement weather yesterday. – She had an accident. – It rained hard yesterday. A truck hit her.

Use the active voice instead of the passive voice. It was decided in parliament that demonstrations will not be allowed. (passive) The parliament decided not to allow any more demonstrations. (active)
10) Use conjunctives to link up words, phrases or sentences.

Example: There is a law allowing women to vote but until now, it has not been enforced.




Preparing for Advocacy
Translating Knowledge and Skills into Practice
There are several things that groups or organizations can do to prepare for actual advocacy work. An important first step is to choose the problem or issue you want to work on.

Problem Selection and Analysis
Below is a chart containing a set of criteria adapted from the Midwest Academy, an education and training institute working with disenfranchised and marginalized communities in the United States. The checklist allows problems and issues to be compared across a range of sixteen criteria that are presented as questions that are answerable by “yes” or “no”. Those receiving higher scores or more affirmative answers presumably will be more likely subjects of effective advocacy.

Checklist for Choosing a Problem / Issue
Will resolving the problem / Will the issue: Result in a real improvement in people's lives? Give people a sense of their own power? Build strong and lasting organizations and alter the relations of power? Raise awareness about power relations and democratic rights? Be winnable? Be widely felt? Be deeply felt? Be easy to communicate and understand? Provide opportunities for people to learn about and be involved in politics? Have clear advocacy targets? Have a clear time frame? Be non-divisive among your potential constituency? Build accountable leadership? Be consistent with your values and vision? Provide potential for raising funds? Link local concerns to global issues and macro policy context?
Problem/Issue Problem/Issue Problem/Issue 1 2 3

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.


After problems and issues have been identified and strategies developed, this same chart can be used to compare and help select advocacy strategies for addressing these problems. The term strategy can be substituted for the term problem on the chart and some of the questions modified accordingly. The subsequent checklist can help groups do an initial analysis or assessment of the different strategies they are considering.

Problem vs. Issue In carrying out an analysis, it sometimes helps to make a distinction between the terms problem and issue. Some advocacy groups define a problem as a broad area of social concern such as hunger, health care, poverty, or pollution, while they define an issue as one aspect of a problem. For example, if poverty is the overarching problem, expanding access to land might be the issue a group chooses as its advocacy focus. In this sense, they define an issue as a solution to a problem that can be addressed by the public policy process. For instance, under overall problems of health and the environment, national health insurance and pollution standards would be considered issues. However, since many people use the two terms interchangeably, it is sometimes difficult to be precise.

Another way of choosing a problem or issue for advocacy is to use the Problem Analysis Framework below. This framework and the excerpts below and in the next page are taken from the Advocacy Sourcebook of the Institute for Development Research:

Problem Analysis Framework Problems Consequences Causes Solutions

(Who benefits? Who loses?)

(Change in policy, practice, behavior, or program)

1. 2. 3.

This framework provides a way for organizations to analyze and prioritize their concerns. Guided by a simple chart, groups can discuss problems and their possible causes, consequence, and solutions. Using this framework, groups can list several major problems that their organizations and members have identified and prioritized. They can brainstorm some of the consequences and principal causes of those problems. They can provide ideas for solutions that would involve advocacy –

possible changes in public policies, behaviors, or programs – that could help address the causes and solve or lessen the problem. A good problem analysis is crucial for deciding what your advocacy focus, goals and targets will be. The following table summarizes the analysis of some women’s groups in Brazil. They identified domestic violence as the overall problem they wanted to address. It was an issue they felt would contribute to their long-term vision of changing inequitable and violent relations in the family. In their analysis, they examined a range of consequences and then identified certain causes of domestic violence as being susceptible to advocacy, causes that sprang from public policies, programs, or practices or lack of them.

Example of a Problem Analysis Problems Consequences
(Who benefits? Who loses?)


(Change in policy, practice, behavior, or program)

Domestic Violence




Abuse of spouses and children Murder of victim Victims fear the abuser Children do poorly in school Children repeat pattern as adults Abusers feel powerful Etc.





Violent spouses Machismo Low self-esteem Poor economy Laws not enforced No protection to victims Women are afraid to report abuse to police Women don't know their rights, blame themselves Inadequate laws Family issues are viewed as private matters Etc.






Grants to women's groups for education on rights Government job training programs Women's police stations Government-run women's shelters Stricter laws punishing abusers Men's education programs Etc.

After careful analysis, the women’s groups concluded that the provisions in laws on domestic violence were adequate but certain official structures and attitudes prevented women from using the laws. They decided to focus their advocacy efforts on getting special women’s police stations established to handle domestic abuses cases since male police officers intimidated and denigrated most women seeking help. Because police were key in taking women’s statements and initiating the legal process, these women’s groups set as their goal the creation of police stations staffed entirely by women officers to deal with abuse cases. As a result of this analysis, they concluded that their main advocacy target would be the Secretary of Public Safety who had the authority to establish the stations.


Web Chart
The web chart is a method of analyzing a problem by identifying its causes, the causes of the immediate causes, and the interrelationships among the causes and effects. You start making a web chart by writing the main problem in the middle of a flip chart paper and encircling it. Then you write the immediate causes around the main problem and encircle them. Connect the immediate causes to the main problem with arrows. The cause should point to the effect. Afterwards you proceed by writing the causes of the immediate causes and connecting them with arrows until you exhaust all the possible causes and effects, forming a virtual spider’s web. Below is an example of a web chart made by the Environment Working Group of the NGO Forum on Cambodia. Deforestation was the main problem they analyzed. They did not put arrows in some of the connecting lines because they were unsure which ones were the causes and which ones were the effects.


Soil erosion

Loss of biodiversity

Reduced watershed protection
Natural disasters

Climate change

International market demands Population

Increased poverty/loss of livelihood Anarchy – Lack of rules

Involvement of military Fire Privatization of concessions Mining/Quarrying

Resettlement/ relocation Unjust logging practices Corruption


Swidden agriculture

Profit motive of political parties (elections) Need foreign currency for government Lack of rule of law

Lack of land security

War Poor education Lack of awareness of forest degradation

Lack of long-term forest management policy

Web Chart

Problem Tree
Doing a problem tree is another option in analyzing a problem. In this approach, the causes and effects of the main problem are clearly delineated. The example below is the result of the analysis of the Working Group for Weapons Reductions (WGWR), a coalition of concerned Cambodian and international organizations and individuals working for peace. As its name implies, the WGWR aims to decrease the number and use of small arms and light weapons in Cambodia and transform the desire to use own and use weapons into a commitment for nonviolent problem solving.

Armed robbery and banditry Stray bullets/ Incidents with children

Other criminal activities


Intentional/ Criminal

Political interference

Suicide Accidental Obstacle to Rule of Law

Tribunal officials threatened

Under influence of alcohol or anger

Abuse of authority and law enforcement

Guns are Harmful

Main Problem


Easy access

Overwhelming presence of weapons Legal impunity


Political conflict/ Lack of trust

Lack of rule of law Culture of violence

Desire for selfdefense/Sense of insecurity

Problem Tree

Problem Definition and Issue Framing
Once advocates identify and select an issue or problem, another level of questions arises related to how groups defined the problem and the political solution to it. Questions that helped one make an analysis of the problem/issue can help guide the development of arguments. Excerpts below and in the next page are from the Advocacy Sourcebook prepared by the Institute for Development Research:

How do you define the problem and its solution? Who benefits and who loses from it? What are the principal causes of the problem? What are the political solutions that can best address the problem? Does the problem require new or changed laws, enforcement of existing laws, or changes in behaviors, practices or culture? How do other important players define the problem, its causes, and solutions? How do the opposition define the problem, its causes, and solutions? How can you counter their arguments? What is the scope of their power?
This definition process can assist a group in framing its issue for the public, an important step for creating effective strategies. The way in which a group defines and presents a problem and an issue affects their ability to garner support and ultimately to succeed in their advocacy efforts. Policy problems framed compellingly in ways that tap urgent concerns can generate strong grassroots constituency support. Issues that are defined unclearly can confuse supporters as well as potential allies and lead to failure. For example in the Philippines, a coalition of Manila-based environmental groups concerned about the rapid depletion of forests framed their issue around the need for a total ban on all logging operations, whether large commercial enterprises or small community-based ventures. This alienated important local groups. Although the coalition changes its message to a call for a total commercial log ban later, it was never fully able to overcome the initial perception of a total ban on all logging. Issues that are framed in the most inclusive way possible can extend the potential for widespread support. For example, in Zimbabwe a coalition of groups representing the disabled framed their concern around the need for the country to involve all citizens in rebuilding and developing the nation after long years of a liberation war. Government policies and programs needed to be inclusive of people. Disability, they emphasized, did not mean inability. It should be noted, however, that care needs to be taken in framing your issue not to dilute its power and appeal by softening or compromising its message to the point where its core constituencies and supporters no longer recognize or identify with it. Issues can be framed in terms of achieving a) narrow policy objectives, b) comprehensive policy goals aimed at transforming the structures and consciousness of society, and c) they can be framed in ways that incorporate both. A coalition representing groups of Filipino fisherfolk incorporated both sets of goals and won some important policy gains while strengthening their membership. The coalition framed its issue in terms of the need for establishing national fishing rights to protect community fishing grounds. Coalition members first developed their own comprehensive fisheries code which called for basic changes in control over fishing resources, putting that power in the hands of communities. The code was their ideal vision of what they wanted and set the standard for the later compromises the coalition was willing to accept in negotiations with legislators. Designing the code with

members helped them identify grassroots concerns, educate communities, and draw on their knowledge. By framing the issue comprehensively, they set the parameters for discussion with the government and opened negotiating room for themselves when they later narrowed their goals. Because of its broader long-term vision, the coalition kept members committed and got approval at the municipal level for several community-run councils to oversee local fishing areas. The following checklist can help advocates frame their issue:

Checklist for Issue Framing The issue and problem -1. are presented in clear compelling and engaging language,
Creative and amusing ways of framing issues can also serve to mobilize people.

2. reflect immediate urgent concern of members or constituents, 3. are stated in as inclusive language as possible to draw in broad support without compromising the group's major concerns, and 4. are defined in ways that combine narrow short-term policy objectives with more long-term transformational goals.

Goal Setting and Planning

While framing the issue, advocates can set overall goals and specific objectives for their advocacy effort. As in issue framing, some basic questions can help clarity your goals. These include the following:

What are the transformational goals we want to accomplish – goals aimed at transforming the inequitable structures and power relationships of society related to the problem or issue? What specific actions, decisions, or changes do we want in the long-term – what will best address the basic cause of our problem and how will we be able to maintain our gains if successful? On a policy or political dimension, what specific changes do we want in a policy, law, program, or behavior? On a civil society dimension, how do we want to strengthen NGOs and grassroots groups as a result of our advocacy so we can sustain and expand our gains? On a democracy dimension, how do we plan to increase the political space, participation, and legitimacy of civil society with our advocacy effort?

What are our intermediate goals? What constitutes victory? To what extent will the campaign or advocacy effort: -Win concrete improvements in people’s lives? Alter the relations of power? Give people a sense of their own power and confidence? Build strong organizations that can make relations of power more equitable and democratic? Improve alliances between colleague organizations? Incorporate political awareness and citizen advocacy skills? Increase citizen/NGO access to policy making? What short-term or partial victories can we win as steps toward our longer-term and transformational goals?

SWOT Analysis
After setting our goals and objectives and before a comprehensive planning, it is good to assess our own strengths and weaknesses and the environment where we are operating. A simple tool to do this is the SWOT Analysis – acronym for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (See illustration below). This column refers to positive or favorable factors about the advocacy group and the environment This column refers to negative or unfavorable factors about the advocacy group and the environment



This row refers to the advocacy group or factors internal to it.



This row refers to the situation (i.e., can be people, groups, events, etc.) external to the advocacy group

The SWOT Analysis Table can indicate if our group is ready for advocacy work and also if the environment is favorable to the achievement of our goals and objectives. It can also point out what needs to be improved in our advocacy group or modified in our objectives.


Below is the result of a SWOT Analysis of participants of a Basic Advocacy Training Workshop in Kompong Chhnang province:

Example of a SWOT Analysis Issue / problem to be addressed: High cost of electricity in Kompong Chhnang province. Objective: To demand a decrease in the cost of electricity. Strengths Group knows how to do research. Members support advocacy objective. Has capability to do advocacy. Has information about the cost of electricity in other provinces. Is a partner of an international NGO that is supportive of advocacy. Opportunities Changes in the provincial leadership. There is more freedom and democracy. Relatively independent media. Presence of other NGOs in the provinces that share our sentiments. People want a decrease in the cost of electricity. Weaknesses Does not belong to an NGO network. Does not have close relationship with local authorities. Members are afraid of the risks involved. Does not have enough documents and other related information. Lacks logistics and funds. Threats Does not have the support of the local authorities and powerful people. People might be hesitant to join the advocacy effort. Pressure from other groups.

Making an Initial Advocacy Plan
Making an advocacy plan, albeit a simple and tentative one, is a good way to end an advocacy training workshop. For participants who have not experienced doing any advocacy, the process of planning will prime them for future activities. For those currently involved in an issue, making a plan will help focus their efforts on realistic objectives and doable activities. For first time advocates, a simple planning table, like the one presented on page 57, would suffice. In this planning guide, it is possible to incorporate objectives that are SMART — Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, and Time bound (Refer to Elements of Advocacy, Chapter 2, page 17).

Goal: Should be long-term Objectives: Should be SMART and short-term Activities Tasks Persons /Groups Responsible Date

The following is an initial attempt of an NGO – Krom Akphiwat Phum (KAWP) – in Battambang province to make an advocacy plan:

Sample Advocacy Plan Goal: For people to have their grabbed land back. Objective: To demand the local authorities in the village and commune level and powerful people involved to return the appropriated land to the people. Activity 1: Investigate cases of land grabbing affecting poor people in the province. Analyze information gathered and make a list of names of victims. Contact the Land Title Department about existing laws on land ownership. Activity 2: Meet with the victims and agree on a course of action with them. Prepare the list of the victims, the witness, supporters, complaint, and land ownership documents. Choose the leaders who will negotiate or demand the return of the lands. Collect the money for transportation and other logistical costs. Activity 3: Coach the victims in filing complaints and negotiating with the authorities. The selected representatives or leaders will present their case to the district and provincial authorities. Activities Activity 1: - Investigate cases of land grabbing affecting poor people in the province. - Analyze information gathered and make a list of names of victims. - Contact the Land Title Department about existing Tasks - Meet with the victims in the villages and communes. - Meet and discuss with people to decide on what they want to do. - Discuss and clarify pertinent provisions of the


When 1-14 June 15-17 June 20 June

- KAWP and victims - KAWP and Chief of

laws on land ownership. Activity 2: - Meet with the victims and agree on a course of action with them.

law on land ownership and use.

Land Titles Office - Villagers and KAWP - Villagers and KAWP - Villagers and KAWP - Villagers and KAWP - Human rights groups and KAWP. 27-29 June

- Prepare the list of victims, supporters, and witnesses with their corresponding thumbprints, - Prepare documents on - Prepare the list of the land ownership and victims, the witness, supporters, complaint, and land complaint.. ownership documents. - Choose the leaders who - Decide on method of will negotiate or demand the selecting leaders or representatives. return of the lands. - Seek help from sup- Collect the money for porters. transportation and other logistical costs. Activity 3: - Contact human rights - Coach the victims in organizations such as filing complaints and negotiating with the authorities. Adhoc, Legal Aid of Cambodia, Licadho for pointers on how to negotiate with authorities and pertinent laws. - Representatives meet - The selected reprethe persons in charge in the sentatives or leaders will district and provincial offices present their case to the and the court. district and provincial authorities. - Do follow ups and wait - Go to see the targeted persons two or three times for the result. until some results are obtained.

29-30 June

15 July 16-31 July

1-10 Aug

- Representatives

12 Aug

- Representatives

15 Aug-30 Sept

A column that would specify expected outputs per activity can still be added to further improve this initial advocacy plan. If participants are serious about doing advocacy, they can add other details after the workshop.




Evaluating the Advocacy Workshop
Knowing What Went Right and What Went Wrong
General Questions
At the end of the workshop, ask your participants to do an evaluation so you will know if the training objectives were achieved or if the participants’ expectations were met. Evaluation questions need not be too detailed and complicated. They can be put in a form that participants can easily understand and answer. Below are two options: Option 1

Things I found HELPFUL and IMPORTANT in the workshop

Things that were NOT HELPFUL in the workshop

My RECOMMENDATIONS to improve the workshop

Other comments:


Option 2

Not Helpful



Other comments:

Detailed Questions
You can also ask more specific evaluation questions that correspond to your training objectives. You can also ask about specific topics and the process or workshop methodology. Below is an example of an evaluation form that Pact-Cambodia used during its advocacy workshop:

Did the workshop help you to (Please check answer ) : 1. Understand the basic skills of advocacy as part of community development? 2. Identify community development issues in which you can use advocacy skills? 3. Use knowledge and skills of advocacy in planning and implementing your program activities? 4. Develop your capacity and skills as a development worker?



Not sure

Take note that each of the evaluation questions above checks whether the training objectives were achieved (See Pact Cambodia Advocacy Training Objectives on page 61).

Pact Cambodia Advocacy Training Objectives At the end of the 4 days workshop the NGO participants will be able: 1. To understand the basic concept of advocacy as it is related to community development and community organizing processes. 2. To learn and practice some practical and basic advocacy skills that the NGO participants can use in their organization. 3. To identify advocacy issues in their community that have a higher probability of success and are linked to their existing programs. 4. To appreciate the value of advocacy work in promoting common interests in the community.

Results of the evaluation help improve the design of your future workshops. Make use of them.


Ateneo Center for Social Policy & Public Affairs, Institute for Development Research, Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, Policy Influence, NGO Experiences. Philippines: 1997. Hudson, Mike. Managing Without Profit. Penguin Books, UK: 1995. Institute for Development Research. Advocacy Sourcebook. Boston. 1997. Melrose, Dianna. Advocacy Works! Lessons Learned by Oxfam U.K. and Ireland. Oxfam: n.d. Oxfam America. Influencing Decision-Making in the Mekong (Workshop Proceedings). Phnom Penh: 4-6 August 1999. Urban Land Reform Task Force. Pagsulong. Quezon City: 1996.


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