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Labour regulations in the UAE are governed by the UAE Labour Law - Federal Law No. 8 of 1980. Amendments include Federal Laws No. 24 of 1981, No. 15 of 1985 and No. 12 of 1986

Nothing on this page (or website for that matter) should be taken as proper, improper, or any other sort of legal advice or interpretation of UAE law. It is only our opinion or understanding of rules, regulations, and procedures in the UAE. You should consult a lawyer and/or the UAE labour department for professional and/or official information. Or at least read the UAE Labour Law yourself, and ignore anything we say, especially if you don't think it agrees with the law. It is against the labour law in the UAE for recruitment agents and companies to charge job candidates and employees any fees for any part of the recruitment process or residence visa and work permit application. Many still try, and that should set off warning bells regarding the nature of the employer. Within the UAE, they can be reported to the UAE Ministry of Labour who may or may not do anything about it. Either way, job applicants are likely to be better off moving on to another recruitment agent and/or employer who respects the law. Treat all information on this page as unconfirmed unless directly obtained from an official source (UAE Ministry of Labour for example) as there are media reports with conflicting information. As is common in the UAE, when there are significant changes in the law, there is usually a period of confusion while:     the authorities try to figure out if what they were reported to have said is what they thought they meant to say, if the result is really what they wanted, the media, citizens, and expat residents try to figure out what is really going on, and targeted groups and organisations try to figure out how to get away with what they were doing before any shakeup, or how much wasta they need to get around any new rules.

Federal Labour Law Number 8 covers most of the essential rules and regulations you need to know with respect to salaries, termination, gratuity etc. It is (or was) available in English online at the UAE Ministry of Labour (MOL) website and in bookshops, and is worth familiarising yourself with. You will probably hear many people complain that the employment contract is not worth the paper it's written on. Certainly there are people who've had an unpleasant job experience somewhere where things did not seem to go according to what they understood from their contract. Or worse. To minimise the risk of problems, keep in mind the following points.    Legally, only the Arabic version of a contract is valid in the UAE. Having a written contract is at least something. A verbal contract is worth much less. You should read your contract carefully before accepting a position and resolve any questions or issues before signing it. Make sure you have a written copy of

Your embassy might be able to help by providing you a list of lawyers to contact. It is possible that you end up in a situation where it is difficult to resolve things even if the law is apparently on your side.    .     any changes negotiated. New UAE labour law changes from January 2011 Retirement age in UAE  Maximum age that foreign workers can be employed in UAE increased from 60 to 65 years old. Students need to apply for a part-time work permit from the UAE Ministry of Labour (MOL). Not clear if expat husbands under wife sponsorship can also obtain a part-time work permit. If an issue is unresolved before signing a contract. The part-time employment permit is also available to expat residents working fulltime who have a valid labour card. or if the new labour law decree also applies to part-time students. If you do have a problem with your employer and want a legal opinion. See a list of possible lawyers in UAE to try. Not clear if students must be studying full-time. but people have successfully resigned from their jobs at short notice during probation. You can expect that the one with the most wasta (influence. Alarm bells should go off if a company will not send you a copy of the contract before you arrive. During this time you can be dismissed without notice and are not entitled to any end of service benefits. Implying that UAE National students also need a part-time work permit to be legally employed. The part-time employment permit allows the holder to be employed in more than one part-time job. power) will win. Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi and Deputy Supreme Commander of the UAE Armed Forces. was denied the right to take up a part-time job in a company because there was no law regulationg [sic] these work permits. there are many lawyers available (who charge a fee of course). put your tail between your legs and hope the door doesn't hit you on your way out. You should be given an English version. or they ask you to sign what appears to be a different contract when you do arrive. you can resign without notice. It is not clear if this works both ways i. That's important. in which case. A report in Gulf News 08 February 2010 said Gobash recalled an incident when the son of General Shaikh Mohammad Bin Zayed Al Nahyan. or a revised contract. Part time work permits for students and other expat residents  From January 2011. and to expat wives sponsored by their husband. university and college students sponsored by the institute in the UAE at which they are enrolled can legally work part-time under certain conditions. Some say the law says no. expect it to stay that way no matter what you are told. Consider carefully the implications of what you are doing if you sign a contract in Arabic without understanding it. Most jobs in Dubai have a probationary period of between one month and one year.e.

unpaid salaries for more than 2 months.Juvenile or teenage work permits   From January 2011. Expatriate male dependants (husbands and sons) of Emirati women do not need a  . or within 60 days after expiry of the permit. The 60-day work permits can be renewed up to 5 times (6 times reported but later information said maximum total period of one year). since they don't need work permits for the UAE as far as we know.   Short term and temporary labour permit in UAE  Expat and foreign workers over the age of 18 (and less than 65 years of age) who have not previously worked in the UAE can now apply for short-term work permits valid for 60 days at a time according to UAE Ministry of Labour (MOL) information reported by the Al Khaleej newspaper 26 January 2011. workers can obtain a temporary work permit even if their current employer objects. including underground jobs in mines. furnaces of melting metals. Applications to be made at Tasheel center by employer or company representative. Workers cannot apply for a temporary permit themselves. oil refining. Fine of AED 500 will apply for every 10 day period past the expiry date. In some circumstances. Not clear if this means within the validity period. e. bakeries. and other work related to mining. at least not UAE citizens). quarries. Permit will automatically be cancelled if fees and bank guarantee not paid within 60 days. Ministerial decree 1189 for 2010 specifies 31 categories of work in which juveniles are not permitted to work. asphalt industry. renewal must be made before expiry date of the permit or last renewed period. Work permit renewal fees and bank guarantee amount not reported. There are restrictions on the type of work and hours of employment. but female dependents and students with UAE residence visas will not need a work permit. Part-time work permits will be available for one year at a time (fee AED 500).         Changes to laws about part-time work in the UAE . priority will be given to Emiratis and GCC nationals who can take up the required job" making it sound like those nationalities need to apply for a short term permit. Some reports refer to the work permit as part-time only but it appears that fulltime work is permitted.g. who must have electronic signature authority. teenagers from 15-18 years of age can find jobs in the UAE after obtaining a teenage work permit from the MOL. Short term work permits not available to UAE and GCC nationals (not that they need a work permit anyway. however it is more likely that the intention is that permits should only be issued to foreigners if the company cannot find an Emirati or GCC citizen to do the same job. A report in Emirates Business 24-7 on 05 February 2011 said "Also. Validity period of juvenile work permit is one year maximum. Unclear if expat husbands sponsored by expat wives can work part-time without a permit.January 2011   Students and housewives can work part-time in the UAE according to changes in the UAE Labour Law from January 2011. Work permit initial fee AED 500.

the two contracting parties must have ended their work relationship cordially and secondly. The WAM report said The resolution says that the new employment permit will only be granted to the worker after the end of his work relationship with his employer without consideration of the legitimate six month period which is usually calculated after the cancellation of the worker's labour card. and labour ban in Dubai and UAE January 2011 Tel 800-6655 (toll-free in UAE) MOL helpline for questions. For those working less than 1 year.the duration of the new labour card which will be issued by early January. Second. Saqr Gobash). New law for NOC and ban period in UAE On 16 December 2010. issued by the UAE Minister of Labour. This information to be updated as the new law becomes more clear. Transfer without NOC or ban is only possible if the employee has worked at least 2 years with the employer. the worker should have worked with his employer for two years at least. An NOC is still required for employees who have completed between 1 and 2 years of an unlimited contract. published news about the new UAE labour law regarding ban periods (Cabinet Resolution No 25 of 2010 regarding internal work permit at the Ministry of Labour.   As of Saturday 01 January 2011. As far as we know. new rules in the UAE reduce the employment period for which an NOC is no longer required when changing sponsors from 3 years to 2 years. an employee can obtain a new work permit without the agreement of the sponsor at the end of the contractual period (2 years minimum?) in 2 cases: First : when the employer fails to honour his legally or contractual obligations. 2. the official UAE news agency. New rules for NOC. unless a contract specifically allows this or the employer agrees to an early departure. Which was not actually that clear. a 1 year ban is still possible. Acting Director-General of the Ministry of Labour? Not confirmed). in the condition of expiry of work relationship where the worker takes no responsibility such a complaint filed by the worker against his firm. or breaking a limited period contract. employment permit.work permit to work part-time. However. and the employee and employer have terminated their relationship "cordially".  NOC no longer needed in UAE?  A Gulf News report 20 December 2010 said a government official clarified that the new law completely scraps the "no objection certificate" (NOC) (the official might have been Humaid Bin Deemas. but stipulates two must-do conditions : firstly. The NOC is no longer needed only for workers who have completed 2 years of employment. 1. WAM. . this does not apply to employees on fixed term contracts who leave before the end of their contract (which. means the employee has broken the terms of their contract and might still be subject to a 1 year labour ban instead of the automatic 6 month labour ban that usually applies when leaving a job in the UAE).

or agreed on their renewal." Which is probably just what the MOL hopes will happen .000.000   Automatic 6 month employment ban to be lifted for skilled and professional workers. MOL Under-secretary. second or third professional class and that his new salary should not be less than Dh 12. was reported as saying (29 December 2010) "We did a study and found that 70% of employees end their contracts before completing the three years." .000 and Dh 5000 if he is in the first. and being paid a minimum salary as in the table below (system introduced mid-December 2010) (unclear if minimum salary requirement is for Emiratis only. Partial college level study completed (diplomas. Clarifying the question of whether or not workers on fixed contracts can leave at any time during their contract period. and 15% Emirati nationals.the loss of control that is. was reported on 27 December 2010 to have said on UAE radio stations that "They cannot unless the contract has ended . there are 3 situations in which a worker can get a new work permit even if s/he has been employed less than 2 years. Humaid Bin Deemas Al Suwaidi. MOL Undersecretary.Humaid Bin Deemas Al Suwaidi. etc beyond secondary education) 3. Changes in the law prompted by a UAE Ministry of Labour (MOL) study .3. now we will lose this control. Other points to note about the new Labour Law regulations (all unconfirmed as of December 2010)  Labour card fee to be reduced to AED 300 (should be payable by employer) for companies at the top level of 5 categories . labour obligations towards the worker or in the case where the worker has no role in terminating the work relationship. Other companies will pay AED 600 to AED 5. of whom 15% are Emiratis. Or. They have to respect their contracts. First: When joining his new job. the worker should be classified in the first.000 per employee for labour cards? Skilled workers divided into 3 categories: 1." Employer attitudes in the UAE summed up nicely by a comment reported in The National 28 December 2010 .those employing at least 20% skilled workers. Dh 7.a company administrator said about their employees "We used to have control over them.000 AED 5. Second:Non-compliance of the employer with legal. University degree holders 2. certificates. They are the ones who agreed to them.legally. or all nationalities): Level 1 2 3 4 5   Skilled Skilled Skilled Unskilled Unskilled Education Post secondary Secondary Minimum Salary Labour Card Fees AED 300 AED 7. Secondary school education completed Cheaper labour card costs for companies employing minimum 20% skilled workers. Third: Shifting of the worker to another firm the employer owns it or has stakes in it. and we knew it wasn't easy from them to go.000   University degree AED 12. second and third class respectively.

or AED 5m (C). The National reported on 27 December 2010 that the MOL Undersecretary said only 0.5 million (level A).about 16. 2.000 AED 7..000 Minimum Emiratisation staff minimum 15% minimum 15% minimum 15% minimum 15% minimum 75% minimum 15% 50%-75% minimum 15% below 50% 20% 20% Cross-cultural compliance   Category Level Qualification First First First Second Second Second Third 1 (A) Degree 2 (B) Diploma 3 (C) Unskilled 1 (A) 2 (B) 3 (C) AED 12... o Companies upgraded to Category I may not reduce employee salaries below the minimums specified.000 AED 12. A company is sorted in group A if it does not commit itself to this policy by at least 25 per cent. Article 10 covers the introduction of practical and real mechanisms for voluntary Emiratisation. UAE Labour Ministry clarifies that amendment applies to only Category I firms under the new system). wages and housing" according to comments from UAE Minister of Labour. AED 3m (B).05 December 2010 (WAM)  Companies in the UAE classified into 3 categories according to Resolution Number 1187 of 2010 on Regulations and Criteria of Classification of Firms in implementation of Cabinet Resolution Number 26 of 2010. Minimum Salary AED 7. the resolution arranged firms to A. A non-compliance of . o Category I companies will be exempted from paying a bank guarantee for workers. New categories replace previous classification system in operation since 2005. Second group of companies is subdivided "based on their commitment to certain standards like emiratisation.000 bank deposit per worker. New company categories in UAE . o Minimum staffing levels given as 20% in various reports but not clear if for each classification. otherwise they are at risk of being downgraded again. appears to conflict with or revise previous information giving similar requirements for Category II companies. o Category II companies must pay AED 3.000 20% 1. Implementation not until July 2011? Emirates Business 24-7 reported on 11 January 2011 that The UAE Ministry of Labour has clarified that new labour law amendments due to be implemented in July this year . o Category I companies exempted from paying visa deposit fees.000 AED 5. issue date 11 August 2010 by UAE Minister of Labour..B and C according to cross-cultural policy.000 out of 4 million registered workers in the UAE. Saqr Gobash (05 December 2010 WAM report). up to a maximum of AED 1. or total for all 3 classifications.4% of the private sector workforce are Emirati nationals . Saqr Gobash. First group of companies information in italics based on Emirates 24-7 report 11 January 2011 (Dh12. o Cross-cultural compliance policy based on WAM report 05 December 2010 that said "For the second group.000 AED 5.000 minimum salary for degree holders part of new company classification policy .

costs and fees effective from January 2011:  Companies are exempted from paying the following fees for Emirati employees. 3. cooperative associations.  Exemptions from paying bank guarantees irrespective of company category apply to: o Industrial projects licensed by the UAE Ministry of Economy. Third group of companies is those with 100 or more black points for labour law related offences and convictions such as recruiting infiltrators. o Category III companies required to pay AED 3. or something similar . or failing to observe emiratisation policy. and national associations under the supervision of the UAE Ministry of Social Affairs. human trafficking. and no. we're not sure if we understood it correctly either.000." No. Companies can be fined from AED 15. including minimum salary.000.000 2 yearly 300 2 yearly 600 2 yearly 1.000 once 250 once 2. Such claims should be taken with a pinch of salt. several reports emerged with headlines or articles claiming that the minimum salary paid in the UAE had increased to AED 5. New labour permit fees UAE .000 2 yearly 200 2.February 2011   As a result of UAE Labour Law changes at the start of 2011. The labour law changes specified the requirements for a company to be classified as a second category company (or 2nd level. o Non-profit organisations.500 2 yearly 2. Minimum salary in UAE . we don't know how it's measured anyway.December 2010 New Ministry of Labour (MOL) fees reported in Al Khaleej newspaper 20 & 29 December 2010 (as per Article 2 of Ministerial Decree No 26 of 2010).000 2 yearly .a variety of terms are being used). AED 7.25 to 50 will place the company in grade B and C if the percentage crosses the 50 mark.000-20. o Federal or Local Government companies and organisations. or AED 12.000 for such offences. Fee category MOL registration fee for new companies Digital signature processing for new companies Companies employing non-Emirati PROs Lost or damaged PRO card Labour card for employees under family sponsorship Labour card for category 1 workers Labour card for category 2 level A workers Labour card for category 2 level B workers Labour card for category 2 level C workers Amount (AED) Frequency Notes 2.000 bank deposit per worker up to a maximum of AED 10 million. providing wrong information regarding the wages protection system (WPS).000. This does not mean there is a blanket minimum salary requirement in the UAE.

 Employers keeping expat workers' passports in UAE   See more information about sponsor passport retention in UAE. ." The report seemed to imply that the change only applied to skilled workers but that was not clearly stated.000 2 yearly 100 500 annual 300 once 10. They raised the retirement age. He also said "After 65 you’re considered post-retirement. Companies must open bank accounts for their workers WEF January 2008.Labour card for category 2 workers Labour card for employees over 65 years old Temporary work permits for minors (15-18 yrs old) initial fee Temporary work permit up to one year for minors Transfer fee to new company Labourer importing fee per company (initial) Labourer importing fee per company renewal Fine for delayed labour card application (after 60 days) 5.000 2 yearly 5. and it’s a different rate.000 5.000 monthly Maximum retirement age in UAE .. The Khaleej Times 27 July 2010 reported that Saleh Al Jabri. now it’s 65.change reported 30 December 2010    An unnamed UAE Ministry of Labour official said "The retirement age before was 60. Housemaids over 30 are exempt.. Indian government restriction. said "It is illegal for a company to cut workers' pay as the employment contract is a binding agreement attested by the Ministry and all parties must comply with its clauses. Salary cuts for workers in the UAE   Some companies in the UAE attempt to reduce employee salaries for various reasons. Not because . or the Ministry of Labour will not issue work permits. Employers keeping the passports of their expat employees is illegal. (Khaleej Times 17 September 2007). You’re also on a one-year visa instead of a two-year.000 annual 1. particularly during the economic downturn that started in 2008-2009. Other UAE Labor Law information Updates to the Labor Law in Dubai and the UAE   Indian housemaids less than 30 years old must have at least a high school education. not a UAE restriction (Khaleej Times 17 September 2007)." Mr Al Jabri also reportedly advised workers threatened with pay cuts to report their employer to the UAE Ministry of Labour so that the case could be investigated. Director of the Establishments Department at the Ministry. The violating company will be prosecuted as manipulating workers' salary is considered a crime." according to an Arabian Business report 30 December 2010.

but not more unless the contract says otherwise (Article 115). Financial compensation for arbitrary dismissal or breaking contract in the UAE     An employer is expected to pay up to 3 months salary to an employee on a fixed term contract if s/he is fired without good reason. That means the person who was issued the passport has the right to decide who gets to see their passport and who doesn't... This. unless the contract specifies otherwise. a number of people who sound more professional than us have often said (in newspaper articles. online forums. but because employers don't have any legal right to keep the passport of an employee (or any other property belonging to their workers) in the first place. unless the contract says otherwise (Article 115). In which case. Links to UAE Labour Law documents and PDF downloads . An employee who does not complete a contract owes the employer 1. various authorities around the world are entitled to view or retain someone's passport for a period of time. immigration departments etc. An employee on an unlimited contract who quits without notice owes the employer the salary payable for the notice period (Article 119). as far as we know. etc) that your labour contract takes precedence over the law. and then try to renegotiate the contract terms and/or seek professional advice to clear up any disagreements before signing the contract. whether in the UAE or anywhere els. We would therefore strongly suggest you read your contract carefully before signing. Obviously. applies in the UAE also. This doesn't make sense to us but we're not lawyers or the UAE authorities. Employees on indefinite contracts are due compensation equivalent to the salary payable for the notice period (Article 119). especially if there are contractual areas you are not happy about. and the holder is responsible for its safekeeping. for example border control. However.5 months salary or less. Common UAE Labour Law questions Precedence of contract over UAE Labour Law     Usually most legal systems declare as invalid any contractual agreements that take away rights provided by law .whether to do with labour or other areas of society (warranty agreements for services and products for example). Gratuity and severence pay in the UAE  See separate page about Gratuity in UAE. Note that some articles in the UAE Labour Law which specify rights due to the employer. A passport is usually the property of the government that issued it. irrespective of what it says. police. do contain an escape clause for the employer with words to the effect of . read the UAE Labour Law carefully before signing. But that list does not include your employer.  the UAE Labour Law specifically says it is. it would make sense to assume that your contract does override whatever rights you have as stated in the labour law.

gulftalent.    www. answers. it's their wording.ac. Related pages      Gratuity calculation UAE . Page development 3D 4L 5C.pdf .angelfire.copy of the Al Tamimi & Co version of the UAE Labor Law. and discussions .not the actual text of the UAE Labor Law but a useful summary. Last update Sunday 06-Mar-2011.forum with UAE work permit and residence visa questions. which is more readable but does contain some apparent inconsistencies.pdf . not the official document. answers.com/nv/sabu/UAE%20Labour%20Law.com/repository/ext/UAE_Labour_Law.might require name and email address for access. www.zu. www.guide to working in Dubai Ministry of Labour UAE Working in the UAE .scribd. and discussions Visas in UAE .ae/library/html/UAEInfo/documents/UAELabourLaw.forum with UAE employment questions.how to calculate severance pay due on termination of employment Jobs in Dubai . Be careful.com/doc/2910325/UAELabourLaw www.html .

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