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php3 Bus: sistema digital que transfiere datos entre los componentes de una computadora o entre computadoras.Cables o pistas en circuito impreso, resistencias y condensadores. Primeros: Paralelos con una funcion fija. Requiriendo solo 1 punto de entrada y 1 de salida por dispositivo. Recientemente: Comunicacion con perifericos utilizando USB, Firewire. La conexion entre componentes es directa, necesitando varias para conectar 1 componente con otros. El bus resuelve el problema uniendo todos los componentes en uno solo, esto se puede entender como una autopista y una red de carreteras. Si solo se conectan 2 componentes no se llama Bus, en ese caso seria un Puerto, como el paralelo o el serial. Caracteristicas de los buses: Se caracterizan por la cantidad de informacion que pueden transferir al mismo tiempo. Se expresa en bits, numero fisico de lineas por las cuales se envia informacion simultaneamente. Un cable de 32 hilos transmite 32 bits en paralelo. A esto se le llama ancho. Frecuencia (Hertz) es el numero de paquetes que se pueden transferir por segundo, cada que se envia un paquete se llama ciclo. Velocidad = Ancho por Frecuencia Constituido por: Bus de direcciones: Unidireccional: Direcciones de memoria. Bus de datos: Bidireccional: instrucciones del o para el procesador. Bus de control: Bidireccional: Senales de sincronizacion viniendo de la UCP hacia otros componentes de HW o viceversa. Internal Bus: Front-Side Bus Expansion Bus: Permite la comunicacion entre los distintos elementos de Hardware, se utiliza principalmente para agregar dispositivos adicionales por medio de expansion slots. Chipset: Dirige la info entre los buses de la compu para que todos se puedan comunicar entre si. Northbridge (Graphics and Memory Controller Hub): Se encarga de la comunicacion entre el procesador y la RAM, por eso se encuentra cerca del procesador. Southbridge (I/I Controller Hub) Maneja la comunicacion entre los distintos perifericos. Bridge normalmente se utiliza para nombrar al componente que conecta dos buses. Los buses deben tener el mismo ancho para poder comunicarse. .

Additionally. expressed in bits.http://en. etc. A 32-wire ribbon cable can transmit 32 bits in parallel.php3 Introduction to the concept of a bus A bus. is a set of physical connections (cables. divided into three subassemblies: ● The address bus (sometimes called the memory bus) transports memory addresses which the processor wants to access in order to read or write data. This is why the metaphor of a "data highway" is sometimes used. by multiplying its width by its frequency. therefore.106 = 2128*106 bit/s. it is possible to find the maximum transfer speed of the bus. It is a unidirectional bus. Characteristics of a bus A bus is characterised by the amount of information that can be transmitted at once. ● The control bus (or command bus) transports orders and synchonisation signals coming from . or 2128*106/8 = 266*106 bytes/s or 266*106 /1000 = 266*103 KB/s or 259. The term "width" is used to refer to the number of bits that a bus can transmit at once.kioskea. Each time that data is sent or received is called a cycle. the bus speed is also defined by its frequency (expressed in Hertz). printed circuits. The purpose of buses is to reduce the number of "pathways" needed for communication between the in computing.) which can be shared by multiple hardware components in order to communicate with one another. the number of data packets sent or received per second. each bus is generally constituted of 50 to 100 distinct physical lines. has a transfer speed equal to: 16 * 133. This amount. A bus with a width of 16 bits and a frequency of 133 MHz. This way. the amount of data which it can transport per unit of time. by carrying out all communications over a single data channel.7*103 /1000 = 266 MB/s Bus subassembly In reality. It is a bidirectional bus. If only two hardware components communicate over the line. corresponds to the number of physical lines over which data is sent simultaneously. it is called a hardware port (such as aserial port or parallel port). ● The data bus transfers instructions coming from or going to the processor.

kioskea. cards inserted in PCI connectors. ● the expansion bus (sometimes called the input/output bus) allows various motherboard components (USB. which is way it is located physically near the processor. ● The SouthBridge (also called the input/output controller or expansion controller) handles communications between peripheral devices.http://en. It is sometimes called the GMCH. etc. It generally has two components: ● The NorthBridge (also called the memory controller) is in charge of controlling transfers between the processor and the RAM. It is a bidirectional bus. or FSB for short). The internal bus allows the processor to communicate with the system's central memory (the RAM). hence the name. The chipset originally was made up of a large number of electronic chips. forr Graphic and Memory Controller Hub. and parallel ports. so that all the components which make up the computer can communicate with each other. .php3 the control unit and travelling to all other hardware components. hard drives. It is also called the ICH (I/O Controller Hub). it is mainly used to add new devices using what are called expansion slots connected to the input/outpur The tembridge is generally used to designate a component which connects two buses. serial. The primary buses There are generally two buses within a computer: ● the internal bus (sometimes called the front-side bus. However.) to communicate with one another. The chipset A chipset is the component which routes data between the computer's buses. as it also transmits response signals from the hardware. CDROM and CD-RW drives.

php3 It is interesting to note that.6 . two buses must have the same width. The explains why RAM modules sometimes have to be installed in pairs (for example.3 33 33 66 Bandwidth (MB/sec) 7.9 15. in order to communicate. whose processor buses were 64-bit.2 508.kioskea.9 31.http://en. Here is a table which gives the specifications for the most commonly used buses: Standard ISA 8-bit ISA 16-bit EISA VLB PCI 32-bit PCI 64-bit 2. early Pentium chips.1 Bus width (bits) 8 16 32 32 32 64 Bus speed (MHz) 8.3 127. required two memory modules each 32 bits wide).3 8.2 127.

php3 AGP AGP (x2 Mode) AGP (x4 Mode) AGP (x8 Mode) ATA33 ATA100 ATA133 Serial ATA (S-ATA) Serial ATA II (S-ATA2) USB USB 2.http://en.Ultra 160 (Ultra 3) SCSI-3 .kioskea.0 FireWire FireWire 2 SCSI-1 SCSI-2 .Ultra 2 Wide SCSI-3 .77 10 10 10 20 20 40 40 80 80 DDR 80 QDR 66 66x2 66x4 66x8 33 50 66 254.Ultra 2 SCSI-3 .Fast Wide 32 bits SCSI-3 .Ultra 640 (Ultra 5) 32 32 32 32 16 16 16 1 2 1 1 1 1 8 8 16 32 8 16 8 16 16 16 16 4.Ultra SCSI-3 .3 528 1056 2112 33 100 133 180 380 1.Ultra Wide SCSI-3 .Fast SCSI-2 .Wide SCSI-2 .net/contents/pc/bus.5 60 100 200 5 10 20 40 20 40 40 80 160 320 640 .Ultra 320 (Ultra 4) SCSI-3 .